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Application note

TURBISCAN

Stability analysis with


Turbiscan (special cases)
SMALL PARTICLES
Application
All domains

1.

Definition

When particles are smaller than the wavelength of the incident light (880 nm in the

Turbiscan ), the Rayleigh diffusion is taking place. In this case diffusion is isotropic.

Objective
Analyse Turbiscan data in special
complex cases

2.

What does that mean for the Turbiscan analyses?

With small particles (d< 0.6 m), the backscattering flux increases, with the increase
of diameter (Figure 1).

Device
TURBISCAN LAB and
TURBISCAN Classic

Figure 1. Evolution of the backscattering flux with the diameter


It means that a particle size increase (flocculation or coalescence) of small particles
will lead to an increase of the backscattering level (Figure 2) until the particles get
bigger than 1m and we get the decrease of backscattering.

Particle size increase

Figure 2. Backscattering profile during a flocculation phenomenon (left).


Variation of the backscattering level in the middle of the sample (right).
The same calculation, as for bigger particles (d>0.6m) can be applied (see
Stability analyses with Turbiscan (general cases)).

Formulaction 2009 - 10 impasse borde basse 31240 L'Union France - Application Note - www.formulaction.com

Application note

TURBISCAN

DEPENDENT DIFFUSION
1.

Definition

When the analysed dispersion (emulsion, suspension) is highly concentrated


( > s), neighbouring particles scatter light with destructive interferences. This
phenomenon decreases the scattering efficiency.
2.

What does that mean for the Turbiscan analyses?

When dependence diffusion occurs, the behavior of the backscattering flux is


opposite to what could be expected, when no dependence exists, i.e. decrease of
the backscattering flux with increase of the concentration (Figure 3). The bigger the
particles, the more concentrated the system needs to be before dependence
diffusion occurs (Figure 4).

Independent
diffusion

Dependent
diffusion

Figure 4. Variation of s with the


diameter

Figure 3. Example of the backscattering flux evolution with the volume fraction
It means that for a creaming phenomenon, there will be a decrease of the
backscattering flux at the bottom (normal clarification phenomenon) and at the top
(dependence phenomenon in the cream phase) (Figure 5) and vice-versa for
sedimentation.

clarification

creaming

Figure 5. Backscattering profiles in raw data (left) and reference mode (right)
In this case, the elucidation of the destabilisation is accessible by knowing the
densities of the dispersed and continuous phases, hence the type of migration.
Exactly the same parameters can be calculated as when no dependence occurs
(see Stability analyses with Turbiscan (general cases)).

Formulaction 2009 - 10 impasse borde basse 31240 L'Union France - Application Note - www.formulaction.com