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INTRODUCTION:

A tri-axial test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of


many deformable solids, especially soil and rock, and other granular materials or
powders. There are several variations on the test.
In a tri-axial shear test, stress is applied to a sample of the material being tested
in a way which results in stresses along one axis being different from the stresses
in perpendicular directions. This is typically achieved by placing the sample
between two parallels platens which apply stress in one (usually vertical)
direction, and applying fluid pressure to the specimen to apply stress in the
perpendicular directions.
In an unconsolidated undrained test the load are applied quickly, and the sample
is not allowed to consolidate during test. The sample is compressed at a constant
rate (strain-controlled).

OBJECTIVE:
To determined the shear strength parameter of soil which are angle

of internal friction ( )

and cohesion ()

of soil with shape

changes of cohesive soil.

APPLICABLE STANDARD:

D2850 - 03a Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial


Compression Test on Cohesive Soils.

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT:
Undrained triaxial shear test is one of the indirectly shear test that
carried out by imposing a cell pressure to the cylindrical shape soil
sample and then increasing the axial load that resulting the shear failure
that happen to the soil sample. When the test is conducted, maintain the
undrained conditions without allowing any pore water dissipation.
At least three samples are needed. Make sure all sample will be
imposed with different cell pressure and imposed by axial pressure until
the entire sample is fail. From the value of axial pressure at failure and cell
pressure for every sample, Mohr circle can be drawn and the value of
cohesion () and angle of internal friction ( ) can be determined.

Graph 9.1 Mohr Circle

APPARATUS:
Sampling tubes

Rubber liming/membranes

Membrane stretcher

Rubber binder

Tri axial cell/chamber

PROCEDURE:
1. Three cylinder shaped soil samples, measuring 76 mm long and 38
mm in diameter are prepared.
2. The samples are inserted into a rubber membrane and sealed on
the top and bottom part using O-ring to prevent penetration of
water into the samples.
3. A soil sample that is wrapped in rubber membrane is placed into the
tri axle cell. Make sure that the sample is standing upright and
steady on the centre of compression plate.
4. Water is inserted into the tri axle cell through intake valve until the
whole cell is filled with water. Air outlet valve is opened to release
the trapped air.
5. All the valves on the tri axle is closed and sample is imposed by 50
kN/m2 of cell pressure.
6. The reading on the deformation dail gauge and load dial gauge are
set to zero. The test is started with loading rate of 1.52 mm/min.
Axial load is added onto the sample until it fails. At the same time,
the proving ring reading that represents the axial load is recorded
for every 20x0.01 mm standard dial reading that gives the value of
vertical transparency.
1. Record gauge readings for every 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and so on until
one of the following instances occur.
i. Reduction of load gauge reading is clearly seen.
ii. Next three reading of load gauge is constants.
iii. Shift more than 20% strain.
7. The form of the fail soil sample is sketched and moisture content for
every tested sample is determined.
8. The same procedure as the above is repeated for the other samples
for cell pressure 100 kN/m2 and 200 kN/m2.
9. The used proving ring number is noted and calibration data is
obtained.
Stress and strain calculated for each reading. A graph of stress
versus strain is plotted
and maximum shear strength of each sample is shown. Mohr
circle is drawn to
determine cohesion (C) and friction angle ().

DATA/RESULT:
Sample 1;
Weight = 137.84 g
Dimension : Diameter = 3.81 cm
Height = 7.62 cm
Luas penampang = 11.39514 cm
Tegangan sel = 0.5 kg/cm
Kalibrasi Alat Terhadap Load = 0.179881 kg/mm
Time
in
Minut
e
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22

Deforma
tion
On Dial

Strain
Rate(
%)

0.0000
1.5240
3.0480
4.5720
6.0960
7.6200
9.1440
10.6680
12.1920
13.7160
15.2400
16.7640

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22

Correct
ed
Area(c
m)
11.401
11.634
11.876
12.129
12.392
12.668
12.956
13.257
13.573
13.904
14.251
14.617

Dial
Readi
ng

Load
(kg)

1-2=
(P/A)
(kg/cm)

0.0
15.0
19.0
22.0
24.0
25.0
25.5
26.0
26.2
26.2
26.2
26.2

0.0000
2.6982
3.4177
3.9574
4.3171
4.4970
4.5870
4.6759
4.7129
4.7129
4.7668
4.7668

0.0000
0.2319
0.2878
0.3263
0.3484
0.3550
0.3541
0.3528
0.3472
0.3390
0.3345
0.3261

Sample 2;
Weight = 135.78 g
Dimension : Diameter = 3.81 cm
Height =7.62 cm
Luas penampang = 11.39514 cm
Tegangan sel = 1.0 kg/cm
Kalibrasi Alat Terhadap Beban = 0.183784 kg/mm

Cell
(3)
(kg/cm
)
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Time
in
Minut
e
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22

Deforma
tion
On Dial

Strain
Rate(
%)

0.0000
1.5240
3.0480
4.5720
6.0960
7.6200
9.1440
10.6680
12.1920
13.7160
15.2400
16.7640

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22

Correct
ed
Area(c
m)
11.401
11.634
11.876
12.129
12.392
12.668
12.956
13.257
13.573
13.904
14.251
14.617

Dial
Readi
ng

Load
(kg)

1-2=
(P/A)
(kg/cm)

0.0
18.0
25.0
29.0
32.0
34.0
36.0
38.0
40.0
41.0
41.0
41.0

0.0000
3.3081
4.5946
5.3297
5.8811
6.2487
6.6162
6.9838
7.3514
7.5351
7.5351
7.5351

0.0000
0.2844
0.3869
0.4394
0.4746
0.4933
0.5107
0.5268
0.5416
0.5420
0.5287
0.5155

Dial
Readi
ng

Load
(kg)

1-2=
(P/A)
(kg/cm)

0.0
22.0
32.5
38.0
42.0
42.5
48.0
50.0
52.0
53.0
53.0

0.0000
3.9759
5.8735
6.8675
7.5904
7.6808
8.6748
9.0362
9.3976
9.5784
9.5784

0.0000
0.3418
0.4946
0.5662
0.6125
0.6063
0.6696
0.6816
0.6924
0.6889
0.6721

Cell
(3)
(kg/cm
)
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

Sample 3;
Weight = 137.84 g
Dimension : Diameter = 3.81 cm
Height = 7.62 cm
Luas penampang = 11.39514 cm
Tegangan Sel = 1.5 kg/cm
Kalibrasi Alat Terhadap Beban = 0.180724 kg/mm
Time
in
Minut
e
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Deforma
tion
On Dial

Strain
Rate(
%)

0.0000
1.5240
3.0480
4.5720
6.0960
7.6200
9.1440
10.6680
12.1920
13.7160
15.2400

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Correct
ed
Area(c
m)
11.401
11.634
11.876
12.129
12.392
12.668
12.956
13.257
13.573
13.904
14.251

Cell
(3)
(kg/cm
)
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

22

16.7640

22

14.617

54.5

9.8495

0.6739

1.5

DISCUSSION:
1. The advantage and disadvantage of Tri-axial test
Advantage:

Accuracy of the test results is mostly reliable.


Exact field conditions of the soil can be simulated in a tri-axial shear test.
Controlling factors are many and reliable. As clinger valves are used for
drainage, volume change and pore pressure measurement is possible. No
leaking is possible.
A perfect undrained test can be successfully performed.
Result obtained from the tri-axial shear test is reliable and highly accurate.
Disadvantage:

Not as easy implement as the direct shear test.


More complicated in every respect and the one has to be very
conscientious in strictly observing the steps given in the earlier test
procedure.
More complicated and time consuming test.
Leak proofing the whole system is difficult.
Ram friction cannot be totally avoided.

2. Determined the two types of analysis from this test.


Error Analysis
An error with the actual machine could have occurred thus giving
inadequate readings, that is, the machine calibration error.
The recording of the actual readings.
Calculation error.
Miss-interpretation of the results
The test could have failed from the start
Graph Analysis

Deviator stress against strain is calculated.


The data is then used to plot the curve of deviator stress against
strain.

CONCLUSION:
In the tri axial test this, ideally mohr circle produced a collapse of the horizontal
or f = 0 (the result of experiment is not the case).
This happens because the water content in the samples was not 100%, so that
the sample is not fully saturated specimens still exist that cause friction between
soil particles. Apart from that, the offense or careless in carrying out tests, in
which the probability of occurrence of this error is spread because of increased
water flow in and out of the specimen.

REFERENCE:

Lab sheet C3003, JKA,PMU, 2009


Lab sheet C4003, JKA,PMU, 2009
Das, B.M. ,Fundamental Geotechnical Engineering, Brooks/Cole
Thomson Learning, 1999
Huat, B.B.K; Ali, F.; Maail, S.,Kejuruteraan Geoteknik, Penerbit
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2002
Ramamurthy, T.N; Sitharam, T.G., Geotechnical Engineering, 2005