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Volume 1 , Issue 4 , July 2016

International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology


ISSN No: - 2456- 2165

A Survey on Various Approaches for Computer


Assisted Diagnosis of Skin Cancer
Priya Sharma
M.Tech Student,
Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
Mewar College of Engineering & Technology,
Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Rajasthan)
priya.sharma729@gmail.com

B.L. Pal
Head of Department
Deptt. of Computer Science & Engineering,
Mewar College of Engineering & Technology,
Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Rajasthan)
contact2bl@rediffmail.com

Abstract Cancer has a time period for ailments where


irregular cells divide without control and are ready to invade
other tissues. Cancer recognized medically as a malignant
neoplasm, irregular cell progress has a vast period of illnesses.
When cells of the body at a specified site begin to grow out of
control, they are going to emerge as cancerous. Cancer often dealt
with radiation treatment, chemotherapy, and surgical procedure.
The various symptoms and signs simplest show up because the
mass continues to grow or accelerates. This article discusses a
detailed survey on the melanoma and image processing.
Keywordscancer; threshold; image processing; entropy;
median filtering.

I.

II.

Benign tumors: - Benign tumors are not cancerous. In most


of the cases, they can often be removed and do not come
back. A cell in benign tumors does not spread to other parts
of the body.

Malignant tumors:- Malignant tumors are cancerous. The


nearby tissues can be invaded by cells in these tumors and
spread to other parts of the body.

INTRODUCTION

Cancer is the new "fine imitator". Consequently isn't exclusive


for humans diagnosed with melanoma to have been treated for
other diseases to which it used to be assumed their symptoms have
been due [1]. There are over 200 exceptional known cancers that
impact humans. Six characteristics of malignancies had been
proposed:, proliferative signaling, evading retaining development
suppression, withstand cell dying, replicative immortality enabling,
angiogenesis inducing and activating invasion and metastasis can form
an instantaneous mass-time melanoma cells from typical cells progress
that includes many steps. Cancers are named for the organ or type of
cell wherein they begin, for example, cancer that starts off evolving
in the colon is known as colon melanoma; melanoma that begins in
melanocytes of the dermis is referred to as melanoma. Roughly 5
10% of cancers can also be traced directly to inherited genetic defects.
More than a few form of cancers might be averted by smoking, eating
more fruits, avoiding vegetables, and whole grains, consuming much
less subtle carbohydrates and meat, preserving a healthful weight,
exercising, minimizing exposure to daylight, and vaccination against
some infectious diseases.

CANCER CELLS

Cells are the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues


make up the epidermis and different organ of the body. Cancer cell
growth is one-of-a-kind from usual cell growth. Rather of demise,
melanoma cells continue to grow new type, irregular cells. In every
cell there may be DNA which directs the entire cells movements
such as growth, dying and protein synthesis.

A. Melanoma
Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes.
Melanocytes produce the dark pigment called melanin which is
responsible for the color of skin. The dermis is the most important
organ in the physique. It protects physique from warmness, injury,
infection and harm caused with the aid of ultraviolet radiation (UV).
The skin has 3 layers. From the outside in, they are:

Epidermis

Dermis

Sub cutis

In [1], awarded asymmetry, border irregularity, color variation,


and diameter (ABCD) function extraction of dermatoscopic image for
melanoma epidermis cancer diagnosis. In [5], proposed a procedure to
classify skin lesions as malignant or benign from color photographic
slides of the lesions. He makes use of color portraits of epidermis
lesions, snapshot processing techniques and synthetic neural
community classifier to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented
lesions.
General symptoms arise as a result of far away effects of the
melanoma that aren't regarding direct or metastatic unfold. These
could incorporate: unintentional fever, weight loss, excessively
worn out, and alterations to the epidermis [3]. Hodgkin sickness,
leukaemia, and cancers of the liver or kidney can motive a
continual fever of unknown origin.

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Figure 1:- Layers of the skin

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Volume 1 , Issue 4 , July 2016

International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology


ISSN No: - 2456- 2165

B. Melanoma Skin Cancer


Cancers are named for the organ or type of cell wherein they
begin, for example, cancer that starts off evolving in the colon is
known as colon melanoma; melanoma that begins in melanocytes
of the dermis is referred to as melanoma. Melanoma is a form of
skin melanoma that starts off evolving in melanocytes. Melanocytes
produce the dark pigment referred to as melanin which is in charge
for the color of the skin [6]. Melanoma cells is a mole (skin
melanoma), but they are able to additionally begin in some other
pigmented tissues, corresponding to within the eye or in the
intestines. Melanoma can originate in any part of the body that
include melanocytes and extra fashioned in young ladies.

III.

VARIOUS THRESHOLDING METHODS

The major thresholding methods genraly used in image processing


domains are listed below:-

Sort the neighboring pixels into order based upon their


intensities

Replace the original value of the pixel with the median


value from the list.

Image processing operations aims at better recognition of


objects, i.e. finding suitable features that can be distinguished from
other objects and from the background.

V.

MALIGNANT MELANOMA

After the evaluation of the entire features, we will be able to


characterize the lesion as malignant or non-malignant. The features
used for the diagnostic method for the detection of melanoma are
Asymmetry (A), Border (B), Color (C), Diameter (D) and Evolving
(E).

(a) Basic Global Thresholding.

Asymmetry (A): About 1/2 the time, a melanoma develops


in a present mole; in other cases it arises as a new lesion
that may resemble a traditional mole. A noncancerous mole
is commonly symmetric and circular in form, at the same
time melanoma traditionally grows in an irregular,
asymmetric manner.

Border Irregularity (B): benign lesions generally have clear


defined borders. A melanoma in contrast, often shows
notched or indistinct borders that may signal ongoing growth
and spreading of the cancer.

Color Variation (C): One of the earliest signals of melanoma


could also be the appearance of more than a few colors within
the lesion. In view that melanoma arises within pigment
forming cells, there by large varicolored lesion of tan, dark
brown, or black reflecting the construction of melanin
pigment at one-of-a-kind depths inside the epidermis.

Diameter (D): early melanoma tends to grow larger than


common moles and show typically at least a diameter of about
6 mm.

Evolving (E): The mole is changing in shape, size and color.

(b) Clustering methods


(c) Histogram-based method
(d) Region growing method

a)

Basic Global Thresholding

This method is relatively simple, and does not require much


specific knowledge of the image, and is robust against image noise.
An initial threshold (T) is chosen; this can be done randomly or
according to any other method desired.

b) Clustering methods
The K-means algorithm is an iterative technique that is used to
partition of an image into K clusters.

c)

Region growing methods

Region developing is a system that crew pixels or sub-region into


greater areas headquartered on predefined criteria for growth.
Quantitative analysis of the quality of the improved pictures can be the
most important problem.

IV.

Median filtering is a nonlinear procedure used to dispose of noise


from snap shots. It's broadly used as it is vitally robust at taking out
noise at the same time retaining edges. It is above all mighty at
disposing of salt and pepper type noise. The median filter works by
means of relocating through the picture pixel by means of pixel,
replacing every worth with the median value of neighboring pixels
[16].
A median filter is an example of a non-linear filter and, if
appropriately designed, is superb at keeping photograph element.
To run a median filter:
Consider each pixel in the image

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VI.

CONCLUSION

In this article we have focused on some relevant study in the


direction of biological analysis and its inference for designing
computer based algorithms fro melanoma analysis. The pertinent
works concluded from surveyed literature includes ABCD feature,
Menzies Scale, Seven point Checklist, Texture and Geometry
based approaches etc. This article can be a milestone study for the
researches in this direction.

REFERENCES
Franz Nachbar, The ABCD rule of Dermatoscopy, Journal of
the American Academy of Dermatology, Volume 30, Number 4,
April 1994
[2] L. Xu, M. Jackowski, A. Goshtasby, D. Rosyman, S. Bines, C.
Yu, A. Dhawan, A. Huntley, Segmentation of skin cancer
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(1999) 6574
[3] HaraldGanster,
Axel
Pinz,
ReinhardRhrer,
Ernst
Wildling,Michael Binder, and Harald Kitttler, Automated
Melanoma Recognition, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL
IMAGING, VOL. 20, NO. 3, MARCH 2001
[4] Alvin Rinng, MD, Melanoma Claims,CAP Today, August
2002
[1]

A. Median filtering

These features can helps to distinguish between a normal mole


and an abnormal mole.

IMAGE PROCESSING

First step is Hair and Noise elimination from the photograph


utilizing Median Filtering Median filtering is used to minimize
presence of small buildings like hair. In image processing, it's quite
often fascinating to be able to participate in some form of noise
reduction on an image. The median filter is a nonlinear digital
procedure, almost always used to take away noise. Median filtering
may be very greatly used in digital picture processing considering
the fact that, beneath unique stipulations, it preserves edge at the
same time casting off noise. It's exceptionally used to take away
salt pepper noise and speckle noise.

DEFINATION OF FEATURES FOR DETECTION OF

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Volume 1 , Issue 4 , July 2016

International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology


ISSN No: - 2456- 2165

[5]

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