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GLIMPSES

Of International conference on New Trends in Fitness Health and Sports science 2014
at Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.

Dr.Kaukab Azeem
Editor-in-Chief, IJFPHIG
Faculty, Physical Education Department
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
Saudi Arabia
Email : drakbodybuilding@gmail.com

CHIEFPATRON
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FormerfirstprincipalPGCollegeofPhysicalEducation,OsmaniaUniversity,
Hyderabad,India,andGoodwillAmbassadorforUSA.

PATRON
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ViceChancellor,TamilNaduPhysicalEducationandSportsUniversity,Chennai,India

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Table of Content
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Titles

Pagenos

The push-ups
Kaukab AZEEM*
Approach distance, speed, and jumping power in relation to running long jump
performance.
Gil M. Ebardo*
Strengthening exercises for lower back in middle aged women with low back pain.
Rajalakshmi* G, Dany Rajan**
Comparison of Body composition among different Level of Students
Bhavani* Ahilan**
Physical Activity Induced Changes on Membarane MDA and Superoxide
Dismutase among Middle Aged Men
K. Sreedhar
Analysis of Selected Bio-motor variables among Professional and Non
R.Ramya*, S. Indira**
Professional Women Volleyball Players.
Comparative Study on Flexibility and Cardio Vascular Endurance of Elite KhoKho and Kabaddi Players in Kerala.
Mettilda Thomas*
Effect of aerobic exercise on muscular endurance and flexibility of university
women.
Rupendra Farswan*K.Tirumourougane**

1
5

Effects of Different Modes of Yoga Practice on Percentage of Body Fat and


Biochemical Variables .
S. Ananth*, S. Chidambara Raja**
Effect of Yogic Practices on Selected Physical Fitness Parameters among
University Male Students.

38

10
13
18
25
31
35

44

P. Lakshman Naik* Aditya Kumar Das** P.K.Subramaniam***


11
12

13

14
15
16
17
18

Influence of Varied Intensity of Walking on Selected Physical Variables among


Middle Aged Men.
J. Karthikeyan*
Relationship of Physical Fitness, Anthropometric Variables and Body
Composition Factors of Parallel Bars Performance in Men Artistic Gymnastics
Arif Ali Khan*, Srinivasa. R**
Influence of Sports Participation on Physical, Psychological and SocioPsychological Aspects of Sports in India.
S Muniraju1 R Nagesha2
Impact of Different Modes of Circuit Training on Anaerobic Power of Adolescent
Boys.
Martin Babu Panackal1 George Abraham2

48

A Study on Movement Speed of Male Basketball Players.


M.A.Bari, FerojSayyed
Effect of Aerobic Exercises on Vital Capacity and Body Mass Index of Adults.
Rajkumar.P.Malipatil* Savitri.S.Patil**
Plyometric helps Jump further and Run Faster: Theoretical Consideration and
Application.Abdul latif Shaikh* Arun F Shinde**
Effect of play therapy on kinesthetic perception and coordinative abilities of
mentally retarded students.
Abdul Rafeeque T.C*

71

53

58

66

75
83
86

19

Human values through sports: a review and its implications for school children

20

Construction of Electronic Digital Equipment to Assess the Performance of


Selected Standard Track Events.
V.Ravi kumar*
Effect of Stationary and Moving Circuit Training on Selected Bio-Motor
Variables among Women Sprinters.
R. Selvarani* S. Indira**
Evaluation of physical fitness and energy balance among selected sportspersons of
Coimbatore District.
K Mahalakshmi Sangeetha*, Lalitha Ramaswamy** Jisna* PK
Analysis of the changes in selected motor fitness components with concurrent
R.S Varma* M.Kavitha
strength and plyometric training.

21
22

23

90

Varghese C Antony1 V. Lawrence Graykumar2 Jossen C Antony3


Deependra Yadav4 Vivek Kumar Jaiswal5
100
108
115

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ISSN 2349 722X

International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
CHIEF EDITOR COLOUM

Exercise Technique
This column of exercise and Technique Facilitates about proper Exercise
method to Optimize Performance and safety

The Push up
Kaukab AZEEM,
M.com, M.Ped, MPhil, Ph.D
Faculty, Physical Education Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT
Push-ups are a basic exercise used in athletic training or during physical education classes or
commonly in military physical training. The push-up is a multi joint upper body exercise that can
increase the upper body muscular push strength, shoulder strength, and performance of activities
demanding high level of relative strength. Pushups are one of the basic and most common
exercises for the human body. Pushups are great exercise for the chest, and also help
tremendously for shaping and defining abs, triceps, shoulders and torso. Push-ups exercise and
its variations can be progressed, regressed, and performed throughout a training year. This
column provides a detailed description and figures of the proper technique for a push-up
exercise.
Key words: Strength, Joint, Push-up, Technique
TYPE OF EXERCISE

A push-up is a common calisthenics exercise performed in a prone position by extending and


lowering the arms alternatively. Push-ups are a basic exercise used in athletic training or during
physical education classes or commonly in military physical training. Push-ups is a multi joint
upper body exercise that can improve an athletes overall upper body performance especially
anterior shoulder strength, stability and ability to produce high forces during pushing activities,
such as gymnastics,
MUSCLES USED
The pectoral muscles, triceps, and anterior deltoids, with ancillary benefits to the rest of the
deltoids, serratus, anterior , coracobrachialis and the midsection as a whole.

ISSN 2349 722X

International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
BENEFITS OF PUSH UPS
Pushups can be performed at home without the expensive exercise equipment, which can save
your money on a gym membership.
Pushups exercise on a regular basis will strengthen, tone up the muscles and build major
muscles, which can make daily activities easier and also improves sports performance.
Pushups also strengthen your core muscles, specifically ones rectus abdominus and transversus
abdominis.
Pushups exercise stimulates the metabolism and blood circulation, allowing you to burn more
calories throughout the rest of your workout.
Pushups provide better results than many similar exercises. Athletes who include pushups in
their workout routine find that they are able to reach their fitness goals more easily than those
following workouts that rely on other methods.
Research studies had shown that performing pushups can help increase testosterone levels,
reducing risk of developing osteoporosis.
Pushups increased metabolic rate. Pushups use a large number of muscles at the same time; also
your legs get into the action. A muscular activity means that your heart must work hard to pump
blood to your working muscles, which also causes by increasing your breathing rate.
A set of pushups will raise your metabolic rate while you are doing them and as you recover
afterward, all of which intern contribute to healthy weight loss

PROPER EXECUTION
Proper way of performing pushups is by placing yourself in a horizontal position
balancing on both the hands and toes while facing down, with arms extended, hands shoulder,
width or more apart, and feet touching or slightly apart. This movement is excellent for the
pictorials major and the triceps brachii.

Inhale and bend the elbows to bring the rib cage close to the ground without arching the
low back excessively.
Push back up to complete arm extension and exhale at the end of the each movement.
PUSH UP TYPES

There are two versions of the pushup mainly; the normal base (wide pushup) and the
narrow pushup.
The normal base push-up requires you to place your hands on the floor, a little wider
than shoulder-width apart.
The narrow pushup will have you placing your hands on the floor forming a diamond
shape with your fingers, in line with your head.
Each version of push-up produces related movements in shoulders and elbows, but the
wide pushup gives you a greater range of motion.

ISSN 2349 722X

International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

PUSH UP PHASES
There are two phases of the pushup movement:

Pushing Phase
Lowering Phase

PUSHING PHASE
During the pushing stage, motions are occurring at the elbow, shoulder and scapular
joints. In the elbow, extension occurs, powered mainly by the triceps brachia muscle. In the
shoulder joint, horizontal adduction occurs. This motion occurs when the upper arms move
horizontally toward the midline of the body. The pectoralis major, deltoids, biceps and
coracobrachialis muscles contract during horizontal adduction. At the scapular joint, scapular
abduction occurs during the pushing phase. In this fashion that your scapulae move forward as
they round the back of the ribcage, a motion also known as protraction. The serratus anterior and
pectoral minor muscles power protraction
LOWERING PHASE
During the lowering phase, the same muscles that work in the pushing phase are active,
but this time eccentrically. For an example, in the elbow, flexion occurs as you lower your
body, but with the triceps eccentrically allowing this motion. In the shoulder joint, horizontal
abduction occurs, eccentrically controlled by the pectoral major, deltoid, biceps and
coracobrachialis muscles. At the scapula, scapular adduction, or retraction, occurs, which the
serratus anterior and pectoral minor eccentrically control.
EXPLORING ELBOW JOINT
There are number of complex muscles and tendons that allow your elbow to move,
and these are connected to three bones. The humerus bone of the upper arm joins with the
radius laterally and the ulna medially bones of the forearm to form an elbow joint. The
troclea of the humerus attaches to the ulna, and the capitulum of the humerus attached to the
head of the radius. The joints are lubricated by a large bursa sack that allows the muscle to
interact with the joint so that it doesnt lead to damage or cause any pain.
EXPLORING SHOULDER JOINT
Shoulder joint is consisted of two separate joints. The first joint is called the
glenohumeral, where the upper arm bone fits into the shoulder blade and second is called
acromioclavicular and is formed by the meeting of the collarbone with the shoulder blade. The
joints are held together by ligaments and muscles, but it is susceptible to dislocation due to
sudden twist or movements of the arm.

ISSN 2349 722X

International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
Ratings for Men (Full Push Ups), based on Age
SCORING: Here are the age-adjusted standards based on guidelines published by the
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM):
20-29 30-39 40-49
Excellent
> 54
> 44
> 39
Good
45-54 35-44 30-39
Average
35-44 24-34 20-29
Poor
20-34 15-24 12-19
Very Poor
< 20
< 15
< 12
Try to retest yourself every 4-8 weeks.

50-59
> 34
25-34
15-24
8-14
<8

60+
> 29
20-29
10-19
5-9
<5

RECCOMENDATION for children by National Strength & Conditioning Association


(NSCA)
Exercise
Push ups

Sets X reps
1-3 sets x 10- 20 reps

Acknowledgement
The Author thanks the authorities of King Fahd University of Petroleum &
Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, and the subjects for the help in completion of this study.
References

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM).

Ellenbecker TS and Davies GT. Closed kinetic chain Exercise: A comprehensive guide to
multiple joint Exercise Champaign IL Human kinetics 2001, 1-5: 27-31.

Frederic Delavier. Strength Training Anatomy Third Edition, pg:76

LaChance PF and Hortobagyi T. Influence of cadence on muscular performance during


push-up and pull-up exercise J Strength Cond Res 8: 78-80, 1994.

MensHealth.com

Steven J. Fleck, William J. Kraemer (2013), Designing resistance training program,


fourth edition .pg 367.

http://www.joint-pain-expert.net/elbow-anatomy.html

http://www.orthopedicsurgerybook.com/shoulder-surgery-pain-treatment.php
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International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Approach Distance, Speed, and Jumping Power in Relation


to Running Long Jump Performance
GIL M. EBARDO
College of Sports Physical Education and Recreation, Mindanao State University,
Marawi City Philippines
ABSTRACT
Different kinematic parameters such as approach distance, speed, and jumping power are the
selected factors to improve running long jump performance. The main objective of this study was to
determine the corresponding effects of approach distance, speed, and jumping power [the independent
variables] on the overall running long jump performance [the dependent variable] and could the height
and the weight[the moderating variables (MV)] influence both the independent variables [IVs] and the
dependent variable [DV] in male senior high school students. This study included 55 males from
Mindanao State University-Integrated Laboratory School [MSU-ILS], Marawi City. The samples were
selected from the senior Physical Education classes [Athletics] composed of 3 sections. For 1 semester
duration [almost 5 months] of attendance, the students participated in the training for conditioning, the
acquisition of skills, and the practical exams of the different events prescribed for the subject including
running long jump. At a critical value of 0.27 [CV = 0.27], the results reveal that weighthas significantly
relationship to speed [r = 0.27] and jumping power [r = 0.31] while height showed no significant
relationship to both the IVs and DV [rs< 0.27]. Further analyses disposed significant relationship between
approach distance [r = 0.73], speed [r = 0.70], and jumping power [r = 0.66] and the running long jump
performance.
Keywords: Approach distance, speed, jumping power, running long jump performance

INTRODUCTION
The running long jump had developed over the years. It is the oldest jumping event practiced
at the ancient Olympic games as part of the pentathlon and identified as one of the most natural
and simple events in track and field (Burrett,1974). Despite its simplicity which is to run down a
runway, consistently hit the board, takeoff and land, there are still questions on:
1. What is the ideal distance of approach to be considered as run-up?
2. What is the right speed to be developed in the runway?
3. And what is the most appropriate vertical speed that should be executed at the takeoff
board so that running long jump performance could be maximized?
The approach is between 30 to 40 meters and is progressively accelerated [Ballesteros,
1984]. The approach run is the most important part in long jump technique [Burrett, 1974].It may
begin with a gradual acceleration rather than from an explosive start. Explosive start may cause
an excessive force in the run way that may weaken the jumper during takeoff. Similarly, Weltzer
[1958] stressed that one of the primary laws of long jump is to gain as much speed on the runway
as possibly controlled for a proper takeoff. Whether the start is gradually accelerated or an
explosive one, the main object of the run is to gain maximum speed if possible. Casady [1973]
emphasized that successful long jump must develop speed for takeoff.

ISSN 2349 722X

International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
Speed therefore, is a prerequisite to successful long jumping. Bowerman and Freeman
[1991] revealed that long jumpers are sprinters first and jumpers second as it is the belief that
slow runners will be slow on the runway. Though long jumpers may not as fast as the best
sprinters, they will not be likely to be for behind, because long jumper has to be a sprinter too.
To run down a runway requires speed that will influence the horizontal push on the
jumper at takeoff. To maximize the horizontal push, the jumper must develop the speed max on
the runway prior to takeoff [Wetzler, 1958]. At the instant of takeoff, the momentum is
responsible in pushing the jumper forward to cover a distance [long jump performance].
Momentum is the product of mass and velocity [horizontal speed] of the body [Sears, et. al.,
1987]. According to Gambetta [1981], the horizontal speed contributed more or less two parts,
while lifting [vertical speed] contributed more or less one part to long jump performance.
Hay [1993] believed that the flight of the jumper is determined by the ideal combination
of the horizontal speed in the run-up and the vertical speed gained at takeoff. According to
Northrip, Logan, and McKinney [1983], in running long jump the jumper must compromise
between achieving a high trajectory and which will give him a long time in the air and
maintaining an accelerated horizontal speed and will carry him as far as possible linearly during
the flight time. Howsoever, lifting [jumping power] at takeoff pushes the jumper upward so as to
have vertical speed and will determine the span of time the jumper stays on air during flight
before landing [Gambetta, 1981]. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the
relationship between the selected kinematic factors of approach distance, speed (horizontal), and
jumping power (vertical speed) and the running long performance.
METHOD
Samples
The research was conducted on the sample of 55 PE athletics class students, all males and
composed of 3 sections [section A = 15, section B = 20, and section C = 20]. The range and the
corresponding mean were: body height154-182 [167.91cm], body mass36.8-65.5 [51.34kg],
approach distance 20-45 [27.91m], speed 5.29-7.71 [6.10 m/s], jumping power 40-73 [56.39
cm , and running long jump performance 2.53-5.00 [3.81 m].The principal of the high school
department of the MSU-ILS approved the conduct of the study likewise with teacher-in-charge
and the samples involved. The tests were part of their practical exam, so all the samples
cooperated and participated in the different tests with all their abilities. All measurements and
tests were conducted within the confines of the university and during physical education classes
by the researcher himself with the aid of the trained research assistants.
Procedures
The body height was measured with a wall meter and the body mass was measured with a
calibrated weighing scale.
The samples took part in a standardized protocol consisting of a vertical jump test and a
sprint test that were only a fraction of the fitness test and part of the course requirements.
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International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
The jump test was conducted using the Sargent Jump Test. The test monitors the
development of the samples leg power. The sample then chalks the end of his fingertips. He
stands side onto the wall, keeping both feet remaining in contact with the ground, reaches up as
high as possible with one hand and marks the wall with the tips of the fingers [M1]. From a static
position, the sample jumps as high as possible and marks the wall with the chalk on his fingers
[M2]. Oneassistant measures the distance between M1 and M2and another one records the jump.
The sample repeats the test 3 times [Catapang, 2000].
The sprint tests were performed on a standard 8 lanes track oval with line-marks on the
starting and the finish of the 50 meter distance and 8 samples were to run at a time because 1
exclusive timekeeper was assigned per sample. The time keeping was synchronized with the
smoke of the starting gun when fired. However, before the start of the test, some assistants were
assigned to take charge of the warm-up and dynamic stretching exercises [Catapang, 2000].
The running long jump performance [1 of the practical exams of the course] was
performed in the long jump area located inside the oval. Where samples established their
respective distance of approach took series of trials and then fixed the final approach distance
[that the assistants measured using the measuring tape]. Every sample was given 3 jumps and the
longest jump was included for statistical analyses. The running long jump performance was the
measured distance from the nearest break of the jumper on the landing pit to the inside edge of
the takeoff board [Ballesteros, 1984].
Statistical Analyses
The samples were described in according to included variables of the study. They were
described using frequency and percentage distribution and the mean.
The Pearson r was utilized in identifying the relationship existed between the correlated
variables. The coefficient of determination [r2] was reinforced to provide the percentage
contribution of a certain variable to the correlated one. The level of significance was set to
=0.05 at SD=0.01, the computed critical value (CV) was 0.27 [de Jesus, 1993].
RESULTS
The deliberation concerning the samples profile was sequenced according to: range,
greatest percentage distribution (with the corresponding class interval), mean and cumulative
percentage distribution above the mean. The demographic profiles of the samples were: Height
154-182 cm, 36.36% (163.34-168.00 cm), 58.18%, and 167.91 cm;Weight 36.8-65.5 kg, 32.73%
(46.37-51.15), 50.91%, and 51.34 kg;Approach distance 20- 45 m, 43.64% (28.34-32.50),
56.37%, and 27.91m;Speed 5.29-7.71 m/s, 38.18% (6.1-6.5), 50.90%, and 6.1 m/s; Jumping
power 40-73 cm, 40.00% (51.00-56.50 cm), 38.18%, and 56.39 cm; and Running long jump
performance 2.53-5.00, 41.82% (3.77-4.17), 54.53%, and 3.81 m.
The relationships between variables were segregated into three:Relationships between the
moderating variables and the independent variables; Relationships between the moderating

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International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
variables and the dependent variable; andRelationships between the independent variables and
the dependent variable. At n=55 and =0.05, the CV=0.27 [de Jesus, 1993].
Relationships between the moderating variables and the independent variables
The moderating variable of height was not significantly related to approach distance
(r=0.26), speed (r=0.19) and jumping power (r=0.18). But the moderating variable of weight
(mass) was significantly correlated to speed (r=0.27) and jumping power (r=0.31) but not to
approach distance (r=0.23)
Relationships between the moderating variables and the dependent variable
The moderating variables of height (r=0.22) and weight (r=0.22) were not significantly
related to the dependent variable of running long jump performance.
Relationships between the independent variables the dependent variable
The independent variables of approach distance (r=0.73), speed (r=0.70), and jumping
power (r=0.66) were all significantly related to running long jump performance.
DISCUSSION

The shortest sample was 154 cm and the highest was 182 cm. The highest percentage
distribution was 36.36% and contained within the interval 163.34-168.00 cm. 58.18% were
above the mean height of 167.91 cm which connotes that more samples were considered tall.
The lightest sample weighed 36.8 kg while the heaviest was 65.5 kg. The highest
percentage distribution of the samplesweights was 32.73% enclosed by the class interval 46.3751.15 kg. 50.91% were above the average weight of 51.34 kg. This is just an indication that the
samples were more likely equal in terms short and tall distribution.
The shortest approach being exercised was 20m with the longest of 45m. More samples
(43.64%) were using distances between 28.34m-32.50m but 56.37% or more used approach
distances greater than 27.91m (mean).5.29m/s was the slowest speed demonstrated but the fastest
was 7.71 m/s. However many of the samples speeds range from 6.1-6.5 m/s. But generally, the
distribution of the speeds were nearly the same (50.90% were above the mean speed of 6.1 m/s.
The shortest vertical jump was 40cm and the highest was 73cm. From 51.00-56.50 cm
jumps, 40% of the samples were enclosed. Howsoever, only 38.18% jumped high so many
jumped poorly.
The performances of the samples in long jump ranges from 2.53m (the shortest) up to
5.00m (the longest0. Where 41.82% were grouped in the interval 3.77-4.17. But more (54.53%)
of the samples jumped above the average long jump performance (3.81m).
The paired moderating variables (MV) versus independent variables (IV), only weight
(mass) was significantly related to speed (r=0.27) and jumping power (r=0.31). Since r values
were all positive, the relationships were linear and meant that heavier samples ran faster and
8

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International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
jumped higher. Reinforcing statistical tool of r2, weight contributed 7.29% to speed (r2=0.0729)
and 9.61% to jumping power (r2=0.0961).
Height (r=0.22) and weight (0.22) were both not significantly correlated to the running
long jump performance. Meaning, similar running long jump performances were shown by the
short and tall or by the light and heavy samples.
Approach distance (r=0.73), speed (r=0.70), and jumping power (r=0.66) are linearly
related to the running long jump performance. Those samples using longer approach distances,
ran faster, and jumped higher demonstrated better running long jump performances.
Furthermore; approach distance (r2=o.5329) shared 53.29%, speed (r2=0.49) contributed 49%,
and jumping power (r2=0.4356) influenced 43.56% of the running long jump performance.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Special thanks to my adviser, panel members, brods and sis, mama, family, and to
numerous individuals who in many ways contributed for the realization of this paper.
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9. Hay, James G. (1993). The Biomechanics of Sports Techniques. 4th ed. USA: Prentice Hall, Inc.
10. Jensen, Clayne R. and G.H. Schultz (1977).Applied Kinesiology. 2nded. New York: McGraw-Hill.
11. Johnson, Barry I. and J.K. Nelson (1979). Practical for Measurement for Evaluation in Physical
Education. 3rd ed. Minnesota: Burgess Publishing Co.
12. Kreighbaum, Ellen and K. Barthels (1985). Biomechanics:A Qualitative Approach for Studying
Human Movement. 2nd ed. USA: Burgess Publishing Company
13. Northrip, John et al (1985). Analysis of Sports Motion. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm C. Brown Co.
14. Reyes,Flordeliza C(1996). Applied Basic Statistics. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.
15. Runyon, R.P. and A. Haber (1998). Fundamentals of Behavior Statistics. 6thed. New York:
Newberry Award Records, Inc.
16. Sears, Zemansky and Young (1987). University Physics. 7thed.
17. Weltzer,Frank (1958). Coaching High School Track and Field. 3rded. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
18. Websters Dictionary (2000). International Edition. New York: J.G. Ferguson Publishing Co.

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Strengthening Exercises for Lower Back in Middle Aged


Women with Low Back Pain
*Rajalakshmi. G, ** DanyRajan
*Sports Officer, Alliance University, Bangalore, **GEMS, OOW, Dubai
ABSTRACT
Physical exercise is one of the most widely used methods for the rehabilitation of individuals with low
back pain. The primary goals of treating chronic pain with physical exercise are to improve muscle
strength, to maintain or improve flexibility, to heal tissue lesions and to promote spinal segment stability.
80% of the population will experience some form of back pain at some point during their lifetime. The
objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for lower back in middle
aged women with low back pain. All person aged 30 through 55 years (N=30) were involved in a six
week of strengthening exercises after the physiotherapy session. Before and after the investigation period
few strengthening exercises were assessed by few tests and they were asked to grade their pain level. The
result of the control group unchanged whereas the experimental group were shown significant
improvement in their back strength. It is concluded that middle aged women can improve their general
strength as well they can take care of their back by doing the selected strengthening exercises for as short
a period as 6 weeks. This might prove to be of great value in improving back strength and thereby
preventing back pain in middle aged and old age people. Strengthening should become the part of regular
training regimen for the middle aged women for their healthy life.
Key Words: physical activity, strengthening exercises, lower back.

INTRODUCTION
WOMEN AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Physical activity is defined by the World Health Organisation as any bodily movement
produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Physical activity is a gendered
issue because the context of womens lives can impact on their ability to participate in regular
physical activity. Many women find it hard to find the time to exercise due to the demands of parenting
and lack of time, money or motivation. However, there are lots of ways one can incorporate exercise into
their weekly schedule. A few minor changes to the daily lifestyle can also increase ones physical activity
level.

BACK PAIN
Back pain is a very common complaint. Back pain is the most common cause of inactivity in the
45 and older age group.Backache is second only to headache as a common medical
complaint.Even though back pain can affect people of any age, it is significantly more common
among adults aged between 35 and 55 years. Experts say that back pain is associated with the
way our bones, muscles and ligaments in our backs work together. Pain in the lower back may be
linked to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and
discs, spinal cord and nerves, lower back muscles, abdomen and pelvic internal organs, and the
skin around the lumbar area. Back pain can also be the result of some everyday activity or poor
posture. Exercise - regular exercise helps build strength as well as keeping your body
weight down. Experts say that low-impact aerobic activities are best.
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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
The purpose of the study was to find out the effects back strengthening exercisesamong
middle aged women with low back pain.
OBJECTIVE:
1. This study will help to identify the proper exercises for a healthy living of middle aged
women by doing the strengthening exercises regularly.
2. This study will also be help to recover from lower back pain complaint.
3. This study may throw light on developing the fitness level for the health concern and also
for the physically active life.
DELIMITATION
1. The study was delimited to 30 women who are at mostly sedentary women.
2. The age of the subjects selected for this study ranged between 30-55 years.
The study was confined to the following parameters.
1.
2.
3.
4.

DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Lateral musculature test
Core stability test
Flexor Endurance test
Back extensors test

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
1. Experimental group- Back strengthening exercises
2. Control group- No training
3.
METHODOLOGY
The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of back strengthening exercises
among middle aged women with low back pain. To achieve the purpose of the study 30 middle
aged women were selected. They were selected based on their previous history of their health
conditions. They are also asked to fill up the questionnaire which contains questions which
measures their severity of their back pain in percentage.
SELECTION OF THE VARIABLES
The investigator reviewed a number of research journals, magazines and books on the
strengthening exercises for this study.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
The subjects were selected for this study through the random group design consisting of
pre and post test 30 middle aged women having slight low back pain were selected. The group
was assigned as an Experimental group and control group.
1. Experimental group back strengthening exercises
2. Control group No training
Prior to the experiment, core strength were tested through using few strengthening
exercises. After the experimental period of six weeks post test were conducted and the data were
collected. Statistical technique: The collected data were analyzed using t ratio to find out the
effects of back strengthening exercises among middle aged women with low back pain.
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CONCLUSION
Within the limitations of the study, the following conclusions were drawn.
i. There was a significant improvement on core stability due to selected strengthening
exercises.
ii. There was a significant improvement in the strength of hip flexors and extensors
muscle strength due to back strengthening exercises.
iii. There was a significant change on their back pain.
Overall the back strengthening exercises was more effective on the significant changes on
back strength among middle aged women with low back pain.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The findings of this study proved that there was significant improvement due to back
strengthening on muscular strength among middle aged women with low back pain. It is
recommended that including strengthening exercises into regular training regimen will help the
middle aged women to improve their physical fitness for their healthy life.
REFERENCES
1. Bentsen H, Lindgrde F, Manthorpe R. The effect of dynamic strength back exercise
and/or a home training program in 57-year-old women with chronic low back pain:
results of a prospective randomized study with a 3-year follow up
period. Spine.1997 ;22:14941500.
2. Klaber Moffett J, Torgerson D, Bell-Syer S, et al. Randomised controlled trial of exercise
for low back pain: clinical outcomes, costs, and preferences.BMJ.1999 ;319:279283.
3. Rainville J, Hartigan C, Martinez E, et al. Exercise as a treatment for chronic low back
pain. Spine J.2004 ;4:106115
4. Goldby L. Exercise for low back pain. Br J TherRehabil.1996 ;3:612616.
5. The Physician and sportsmedicine (Impact Factor: 1.34). 09/1997; 25(9):126-33.
DOI: 10.3810/psm.1997.09.1516
6. http://www.who.int/en/
7. http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/getactive/barriers.html
8. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/172943.php
9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3164419/
10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135712
11. https://www.mylifestages.org/health/back/back_pain_prevention.page

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Comparison of Body composition among different Level of


Students
Bhavani Ahilan
Sr.Lecturer, Sports Science Unit,University of Jaffna, SRILANKA
Abstract
Body composition is defined as the proportion of fat, muscle, and bone in the body. It is usually
given as a ratio of lean mass to fatty mass. Body composition will normally be expressed as either a
percentage of fat or as a percentage of lean body mass.The study was designed to compare the body
composition of different level of students (School, College, and University). To achieve the purpose of
the study 1500 subjects were selected in this study (School-500, College-500, and University-500). The
age of the subjects ranged for school students between 14-17 years, College 18-21 years, and University
22-25 years. In this study one of health related physical fitness variablenamely body composition (Percent
Body Fat) is selected as criterion variable. Selected variable is tested by following standardized test of
sum of skin fold site. One way analysis of variance was applied to find out whether there was any
significant difference on body composition among different level of Students. The level of significance
was fixed at 0.05, if the obtained F ratio is significant, Scheffes post hoc test was applied to find out the
means difference. The results of the study show that there was a significant difference among the students
on body composition. Further it reveals that, between the different levels of students body composition
shows significant difference. It is concluded that school boys were having significantly more per cent
body fat than the College and University Students. Prior to adolescence per cent body fat was increases
because of to meet out the bio-logical needs.

Key Words: - Health related physical fitness, Body Composition, Percent Body Fat, Skin Fold
thickness,
INTRODUCTION
Growth and maturation are biologic processes, while development is a behavioral
process. These processes interact to influence the individuals self-esteem, body image, and
perceived competence.
An excess of fat in the body is unhealthy because, it requires more energy for movement
and may reflect a diet high in saturated fat. Furthermore, it is believed that obesity contributes to
degenerative diseases such as high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. Obesity can also in
psychological maladjustments, and it also may shorten life. A balance between calorie intake and
calorie expenditure is necessary to maintain proper body fat content. Exercise is effective as one
way to control body fat. Increase in fat deposition is the result of increased lipoprotein lipase
activity in these areas. This enzyme is considered the gatekeeper for storing fat in adipose tissue.
Lipoprotein lipase is produced in the fat cells (adipocytes) but is bound to the walls of the
capillaries where it exerts its influence on the chylomicrons, which are the major transporters of
triglycerides in the blood. When lipoprotein lipase activity in any area of the body is high,
chylomicrons are trapped and their triglycerides are hydrolyzed and transported in to the
adipocytes in that area for storage.
Health practitioners universally agree that too much body fat is a serious health risk. Problems
such as hypertension, elevated blood lipids (fats and cholesterol), diabetes mellitus,
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cardiovascular disease, respiratory dysfunction, gall bladder disease, and some joint diseases are
all related to obesity. Also, some research suggests that excessive accumulation of fat at specific
body sites may be an important health risk factor (Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo, & Lohman,
1986). For instance, it appears that extra fat around the abdomen and waist is associated with
higher risk of diabetes, heart disease, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals who accumulate a lot of fat
around the waist (apple-shaped) are worse off than those who tend to accumulate fat in the thighs
and buttocks (pear-shaped). The apple-shaped pattern of fat deposition is more commonly seen
in men; whereas women tend to be pear-shaped.
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has defined health related physical
fitness as a state characterized by an ability to perform daily activities with vigor and a
demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with low risk of premature development
of the hypo kinetic diseases (i.e, those associated with physical inactivity) (Nieman 1998).
Health related physical fitness is concerned with the development of those qualities that offer
protection against disease and frequently are associated with physical activity (Bucher, 1987).
Health-related physical fitness is typically defined as including cardio respiratory endurance,
body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility (American College of
Sports Medicine 1995).
Body Composition: Body composition refers to the relative percentage of muscle, fat, bone and
other tissue of which the body is composed (Corbin, 1994).
The following variables were also included.
Fat Free Mass: Fat free mass refers to the weight of the nonfat tissues of the body (Howly,
1997).
Percent Body Fat: Percentage of the total weight composed of fat tissue, calculated by dividing
fat mass by total weight (Howly, 1997).
Lean Body Mass: Lean body mass refers to weight of fat free tissues and essential, lifesustaining lipids (Howly, 1997).
Body Mass Index:Measure of the relationship between height and weight; calculated by
dividing the weight in kilogram by height in meters squared (Howly, 1997).
AIM OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition (percent body fat) among
different level of students.
METHOD
Sampling Technique: -The sampling procedure used in this study is large distribution of random
population.Selection of Subjects: -The study was designed to compare the body composition
(Percent body fat) of different level of Students (School, College, and University). To achieve
the purpose of the study 1500 subjects were selected in this study (School-500, College-500, and
University-500). The age of the subjects ranged for school students between 14-17 years, college
18-21 years, and University 22-25 years. Selection of variable: In this study one of health related
physical fitness variable namely body composition (Percent Body Fat) is selected as criterion
variable. Selected variable is tested by standardized test of sum of three skin fold site with Skin
fold Caliper. Statistical technique: -One way analysis of variance was applied to find out
whether there was any significant difference on body composition (percent body fat) among
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different level of Students. The level of significance was fixed at 0.05, if the obtained F ratio is
significant, Scheffes post hoc test was applied to find out the means difference.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
TABLE I, ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON BODY COMPOSITION
(PERCENT BODY FAT) AMONG DIFFERENT LEVEL OF STUDENTS
Source of
variation

Degree of
freedom

Sum of
Scores

Mean sum of
scores

Between
group

543.27

234.23

Within group

1447

18305.64 1.25

F ratio

43.22*

*Significant at 0.05 level (Table value 2.99)

2.18
Means

2.16

CI

Mean
difference

University

College

School

TABLE II, SCHEFFES POST HOC TEST FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE AMONG
DIFFERENT LEVEL OF STUDENTS ON BODY COMPOSITION (PERCENT BODY
FAT).

0.02

2.18
2.16

1.97

0.21

1.97

0.29

0.0011

The result of the study shows that there was a significant difference among the students
on body composition. Further it reveals that, between the different levels of students body
composition shows significant difference.
DISCUSSION
The result of the investigation shows that school boys were having significantly more per
cent body fat than the College and University Students. Prior to adolescence per cent body fat
was increases because of to meet out the bio-logical needs.
This health related physical fitness component is selected to the make-up of the body in
terms of muscle, bone, fat and other elements. In respect to physical fitness, it particularly refers
to the percentage of fat in the body as it relates to the fat force content. Skinfold thickness
provides regional information on subcutaneous fat accumulation at specific body sites. Advances
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in technology have provided noninvasive methods for estimating bone mineral, skeletal muscle
and adipose tissue (Garrett, 2000).
Body fat plays a key role in energy storage and metabolic homeostasis along with
thermoregulation. The range of total body fat associated with optimum health is 8-24 per cent in
males and 21-35 per cent in females (Gallagher,et al 2000 , Laquatra,2004).However, levels
may be in lower range for active individuals and elite athletes (Laquatra, 2004).
An excess of fat in the body is unhealthy because, it requires more energy for movement
and may reflect a diet high in saturated fat. Furthermore, it is believed that obesity contributes to
degenerative diseases such as high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. Obesity can also in
psychological maladjustments, and it also may shorten life. A balance between calorie intake and
calorie expenditure is necessary to maintain proper body fat content. Exercise is effective as one
way to control body fat.
Increase in fat deposition is the result of increased lipoprotein lipase activity in these
areas. This enzyme is considered the gatekeeper for storing fat in adipose tissue. Lipoprotein
lipase is produced in the fat cells (adipocytes) but is bound to the walls of the capillaries where it
exerts its influence on the chylomicrons, which are the major transporters of triglycerides in the
blood. When lipoprotein lipase activity in any area of the body is high, chylomicrons are trapped
and their triglycerides are hydrolyzed and transported in to the adipocytes in that area for storage.
The reduction in lean body mass parallels the reductions in plasma proteins, particularly
the rapid-turnover proteins that have been used to assess protein nutritional status. Retinol
binding protein and prealbumin have been observed to decrease after 7 and 12 weeks,
respectively, of the competitive season in high-school wrestlers who reduced their body weight
by 6.6% repeatedly over the season (Horswill and Parks,1990).These observations were
confirmed in another study that reported a 22% reduction in prealbumin in high school
wrestlers who had repeatedly reduced body weight by 7.4% over the competitive season and
were measured at a time when their body weight was 3.8% lower than in the early season .These
findings support that the protein nutritional status of these athletes is diminished if not
compromised with weight reduction, even when the average protein meets the RDA during the
period of weight loss (Roemmich& Sinning,1996).
Implication
1. Body composition of the school boys (pre-adolescent) would be reduced by encouraging
them to participate in regular physical education classes.
2. Scientifically designed exercises will be introduced to these people and regular home
based or regional wise physical fitness program will be organized.
3. Physical education will be introduced as one of the curriculum subject in all levels of
education.

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References
1. American College of Sports Medicine, (1995). ACSM'sguidelines to exercise testing and
prescription, 5thedn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 49-85, 110-150.
2. Bucher, Charles.A and Wuest, Deborah. A. (1987). Foundation of Physical and Sports.
(10thed), Saints Louis. Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing, 8.
3. Corbin, C.B. (1994). Concepts of physical fitness with laboratories. United States of
America, WCB Brown & benchmark, 148.
4. Gallagher, D., Heymsfield, S B., Heo, M.,et al .(2000).Healthy percentage body fat ranges:
an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. Am J ClinNutr ,72, 694701.
5. Garrett, E. Williams &Kirkendall, Donald.T. (2000). Exercise and Sport Science,
Lippincott Williams &Wilkins-a Wolterskluwer company, U.S.A., 330.
6. Horswill C., parks. Roemmich J. (1990).Changes in the protein nutritional status of
adolescent wrestlers Med Sci Sports Exerc.599-604
7. Howly, Edward T., and Franks, B.Dan. (1997), Health Fitness Instructors Hand book.
(3rd edition), United States of America: Human Kinetics. 23 and 167.
8. LaquatraI.(2004).Nutrition for weight management. In:Mahan LK,Escott-Stump S,
editors.Krauses food, nutrition & diet therapy. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders , 558-93.
9. LaquatraI.(2004). Nutrition for weight management. In: Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S,
editors.Krauses food, nutrition & diet therapy. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders , 558-93.
10. Nieman, David .C. (1998). The Exercise health Connection. United States of America,
Human Kinetics, 04, 06, 07, 08 and 10.
11. Roemmich, JN.(1996).Sport-Seasonal changes in body composition, growth, power
Med.17,92-99.
12. Wilmore, J. H., Buskirk, E. R., DiGirolamo, M., &Lohman, T. G. (1986). Body
composition: A round table. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 14(3), 144-162.
Nieman, David .C. (1998). The Exercise health Connection. United States of America,
Human Kinetics, 04, 06, 07, 08 and 10.

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Physical Activity Induced Changes on Membarane MDA


and Superoxide Dismutase among Middle Aged Men
K. Sreedhar
Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Annamalai
University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamil Nadu.
ABSTRACT
The balance between beneficial and potentially harmful effects of exercises is of much
importance especially when we age. Over the past few decades, free radicals, highly reactive and
thereby destructive molecules, are known increasingly for their importance to human health and
disease. Many common and life threatening human diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes,
and cancer, have free radical reactions as an underlying mechanism of injury. To find out the
relationship between physical activity and oxidative stress during aging, twenty middle aged
male subjects were selected and equally assigned to experimental (10) and control group (10)
after physical examination and medical checkup. Both the groups were tested before and after a
session of exercise (12 min run/walk) to assess the exercise induced changes on the selected
dependent variables of Membrane MDA (MMDA) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are
the markers of antioxidants on two occasions before the start of the training and after 12 weeks
of training. The experimental group underwent low intensity aerobic training for twelve weeks
and the control group was kept sedentary. The independent variables were classified into (1)
exercise (twelve minute run/walk) and (2) the regular aerobic training given by the investigator
for twelve weeks. The data were statistically analyzed by ANCOVA. Exercise induced level of
Membrane MDA (MMDA) has increased and no significant changes were observed in the case
of Superoxide dismutase (SOD). The resting levels of Membrane MDA (MMDA) and
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) show no significant variation and these shows that there is no
influence of training on Membrane MDA (MMDA) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).
Key words: Training, Membrane, Superoxide, Physical activity
INTRODUCTION

Physical activity on a regular basis confer significant protection against a number of chronic agerelated disease, including non insulin dependent diabetes (Hughes et al., 1995), hypertension
(Dengel et al., 1998), and osteoporosis (Evans, 1999). When prescribed appropriately, regular
training is effective in improving balance, strength, and flexibility thereby helping the prevention
of falls and rehabilitation of orthopedic injuries (McMurdo et al., 1997). Skeletal muscle, the
primary organ for locomotion, undergoes age-associated deterioration in size, structure, and
function. Recent research reveals that oxidative stress is an important etiology for sarcopenia.
The level of oxidative stress imposed on aging muscle is influenced by two fundamental
biological processes namely the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ageassociated changes in antioxidant defense. Over the past few decades, free radicals, highly
reactive and thereby destructive molecules, are known increasingly for their importance to
human health and disease. Many common and life threatening human diseases, including
atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and aging, have free radical reactions as an underlying
mechanism of injury. Because our body is continuously exposed to free radicals and other ROS,
from both external sources (sunlight, other forms of radiation, pollution) and generated
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endogenously, ROS-mediated tissue injury is a final common pathway for a number of disease
processes. Increased aerobic metabolism during exercise causes an imbalance between oxidants
and antioxidants in favour of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage, which is termed
'oxidative stress'. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the antioxidant (AOX) and prooxidant processes that occur in metabolism; an imbalance that causes excessive production of
free radicals and taxes the systemic AOX defenses (Elsayed, 2001). When free radical generation
exceeds antioxidant defense capacity of the body, it causes lipid peroxidation. Activity of
Creatine Kinase (CK), Malonedialdehyde (MDA) Membrane and Malonedialdehyde (MMDA)
are indiMMDAive of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant enzyme are present and active at an
intracellular level, and it has been shown that an acute bout of exercise increases their activities
in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver with a threshold and magnitude of activation that differs
among enzymes, tissues (Ji LL et al., 1998), and type of exercise in young and aging organisms
(Navarro and Sancez, 1998).There is a substantial lack of data regarding the effect of acute or
chronic exercise in aging animal or humans. Scientific evidence available, however, suggests
that an acute bout of eccentric exercise may cause more severe oxidative injury to muscles in
aged men (Meydani and Evans, 1993) than in young animals and human subjects. In order to
prevent oxidative stress, the body contains a large number of non enzymatic and enzymatic
antioxidants that either prevent ROS formation or scavenge radical species. The elderly who are
physically active benefit from exercise-induced adaptation in cellular antioxidant defense
systems. Improved muscle mechanics, strength, and endurance make them less vulnerable to
acute injury and chronic inflammation. Regular exercise seems to decrease the incidence of a
wide range of ROS-associated diseases, including heart disease, type II diabetes, rheumatic
arthritis, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and certain cancers. The preventive effect of regular
exercise, at least in part, is due to oxidative stress-induced adaptation. The oxidative challengerelated adaptive process of exercise is probably not just dependent upon the generated level of
ROS but primarily on the increase in antioxidant and housekeeping enzyme activities, which
involves the oxidative damage repair enzymes. The failure in adaptation is particularly notable in
older individuals. Our skeletal muscles become smaller and weaker as we age. This loss of
muscle bulk results in a reduced capacity to generate force and results the ability to undertake
everyday tasks.
METHOD
The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of aerobic training on changes in selected
markers of oxidative stress among middle aged men. The study was conducted on 20 middle
aged male subjects and the number of subjects in the control group and the experimental group
were limited to ten each. The study was confined to the following dependent variables;
Membrane MDA (MMDA) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) which were estimated before the
commencement and after completion of training for twelve weeks under two conditions; at rest
and immediately after exercise (twelve minute run). The independent variables were classified
into (1) exercise (twelve minute run/walk) and (2) the regular aerobic training given by the
investigator for twelve weeks. 10 ml of venous blood sample was collected from each individual
(first pre test). After blood collection the subjects were asked to run or walk for twelve minutes
and immediately after the run or walk 10 ml of venous blood was again drawn (first post test).
The same procedure was repeated after the twelve weeks of aerobic training (second pre and post
tests). Membrane MDA (MMDA) was estimated from plasma and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
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was estimated in Hemolysate. The training protocol was planned keeping in the mind the
subjects age, fitness level, the environmental and climatic conditions. The duration of the
training sessions varied with progress of the training program. At the start of the program it was
30 min and at end of the program it was 55 min per session. This includes a 5 min warm up and
flexibility routine and a 5 min warm down phase. So excluding this 10 min the duration of
training session ranged from 20 min through 45 min during the 12 weeks periods of
experimentation.
RESULT
TABLE-I; EXERCISE-INDUCED CHANGES AND THE EFFECT OF TRAINING ON MEMBRANE MDA

(MMDA) AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD)


(MMDA is measured in n mol of Malonedialdehyde/ml plasma and SOD is measured in Unit/mg of Hb)

MEAN
BEFORE
TRAINING
SD
t - RATIO
MEAN
MEAN
DIFFERENCE
SD
MEAN
AFTER
TRAINING
SD
t - RATIO
MEAN
MEAN
DIFFERENCE
SD
ADJ MEAN
DIFFERENCE

MEAN
BEFORE
TRAINING
SD
t - RATIO
MEAN
MEAN
DIFFERENCE
SD
MEAN
AFTER
TRAINING
SD
t - RATIO
MEAN
MEAN
DIFFERENCE
SD
ADJ MEAN
DIFFERENCE

MEMBRANE MDA (MMDA)


EXPERIMENTAL
CONTROL
GROUP
GROUP
BEFORE
AFTER
BEFORE
AFTER
EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE
2.70
2.83
2.69
2.82
0.22
0.23
0.22
0.21
11.27
20.13
0.14
0.14
0.04
0.02
2.68
2.79
2.70
2.84
0.19
0.19
0.22
0.23
13.47
16.20
0.15
0.14
0.01
0.03
0.16

0.12

SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD)


EXPERIMENTAL
CONTROL
GROUP
GROUP
BEFORE
AFTER
BEFORE
AFTER
EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE
2.29
2.48
2.29
2.45
0.15
0.17
0.15
0.16
24.86
61.50
0.19
0.16
0.02
0.01
2.34
2.59
2.31
2.48
0.17
0.23
0.05
0.16
5.31
41.31
0.25
0.17
0.14
0.01
0.18

0.17

* Significant at 0.05 level of confidence

20

0.00

84.22*
22.80*

7.70*

2.86
3.92

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TABLE-II
RESULT OF THE PAIRED T TEST FOR MEMBRANE MDA (MMDA) AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE
(SOD)

(Level of GSH is measured in mg/dl plasma)


MEMBRANE MDA (MMDA)
Before training After training
t
Experimental
group at rest

2.700.22

2.680.19

SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD)


Before training After training
Experimental
group at rest

2.290.15

2.340.17

0.516
t
0.913

*Significant at 0.5 level of confidence. Table value of t required for significance at df 9 is 2.26
DISCUSSION
MMDAALASE (MMDA)
The level of MMDA before commencement of training for the experimental group at rest
and immediately after exercise shows a significant difference (2.700.22 Vs 2.83 0.23: p>0.05)
with a mean difference of 0.14 0.04 which shows that in the case of the experimental group, the
level of MMDA had increased due to exercise. The level of MMDA before commencement of
training for the control group at rest and immediately after exercise shows a significant difference
(2.690.22 Vs 2.82 0.21: p>0.05) with a mean difference of 0.140.02 which shows that the
level of MMDA of the control group had increased due to exercise. The level of MMDA at the
end of training for the experimental group at rest and immediately after exercise shows a
significant difference (2.680.19 Vs 2.73 0.19: p>0.05) with a mean difference of
0.150.01which shows that the level of MMDA of the experimental group had increased due to
exercise. The level of MMDA at the end of training for the control group at rest and immediately
after exercise shows a significant difference (2.70 0.22 Vs 2.84 0.23: p>0.05) with a mean
difference of 0.140.03 which shows that the level of MMDA of the control group had increased
due to exercise.
The exercise induced change in the levels of MMDA of experimental group and control
group was analyzed further using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to know whether there
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was any significant difference between the two groups due to exercise from the mean difference
values of pre and post exercise MMDA values. The resultant F ratio for the mean difference of
experimental and control group before training was 0.00 which was not significant at 0.05 level
of confidence. This indicates that no significant difference existed between the control group and
the experimental group in the MMDA level before commencement of training. The exercise induced rise in the level of MMDA after training for the experimental group and the control
group resulted in a F ratio of 84.22 and it was significant at .05 level of confidence. In order to
understand the effect of training on exercise induced oxidative stress with regard to MMDA, the
initial mean differences (before commencement of training) between the control group and the
experimental group were nullified and the final changes in the level of MMDA after training were
adjusted using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). The adjusted mean for the experimental
group was 0.16 and control group was 0.12 with an F ratio of 22.80, which was significant at
.05 level of confidence.
In order to understand whether adaptation has occurred due to training data on MMDA of
the experimental group at resting state before and after training were analyzed using paired t
test. Level of MMDA of the experimental group at resting state before training was 2.70 0.22
and after twelve weeks of training was 2.680.19. The obtained t value of 0.52 was not
significant at .05 level of confidence. This indicates that the given twelve weeks of training has
not resulted in significantly altering the resting state blood level of MMDA of the experimental
group.
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD)
The level of SOD before commencement of training for the experimental group at rest and
immediately after exercise shows a significant difference (2.290.15 Vs 2.48 0.17: p>0.05)
with a mean difference of 0.19 0.02 which shows that in the case of the experimental group, the
level of SOD had increased due to exercise. The level of SOD before commencement of training
for the control group at rest and immediately after exercise shows a significant difference
(2.290.15 Vs 2.45 0.16: p>0.05) with a mean difference of 0.160.01 which shows that the
level of SOD of the control group had increased due to exercise. The level of SOD at the end of
training for the experimental group at rest and immediately after exercise shows a significant
difference (2.340.17 Vs 2.59 0.23: p>0.05) with a mean difference of 0.250.15 which shows
that the level of SOD of the experimental group had increased due to exercise. The level of SOD
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at the end of training for the control group at rest and immediately after exercise shows a
significant difference (2.31 0.15 Vs 2.48 0.16: p>0.05) with a mean difference of 0.170.01
which shows that the level of SOD of the control group had increased by due to exercise.
The exercise induced change in the levels of SOD of experimental group and control
group have been analyzed further using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to know whether
there was any significant difference between the two groups due to exercise from the mean
difference values of pre and post exercise SOD values. The resultant F ratio for the mean
difference of experimental and control group before training was 7.70 which was significant at
0.05 level of confidence. This indicates that significant difference existed between the control
group and the experimental group in the SOD level before commencement of training. The
exercise induced rise in the level of SOD after training for the experimental group and the control
group resulted in a F ratio of 2.86 and it was not significant at .05 level of confidence. In order
to understand the effect of training on exercise induced oxidative stress with regard to SOD, the
initial mean differences (before commencement of training) between the control group and the
experimental group were nullified and the final changes in the level of SOD after training were
adjusted using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). The adjusted mean for the experimental
group was 0.18 and control group was 0.17 with an F ratio of 3.92, which was not significant at
.05 level of confidence. In order to understand whether adaptation has occurred due to training
data on SOD of the experimental group at resting state before and after training were analyzed
using paired t test. Level of SOD of the experimental group at resting state before training was
2.29 0.15 and after twelve weeks of training was 2.340.17. The obtained t value of 0.913 was
not significant at .05 level of confidence. This indicates that the given twelve weeks of training
has not significantly altered the resting state blood level of SOD in the experimental group.

CONCLUSION
Based on the results of the study it was concluded that the exercise induced level of
Membrane MDA (MMDA) has increased and no significant changes were observed in the case
of Superoxide dismutase (SOD). The resting levels of Membrane MDA (MMDA) and
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) shows no significant variation and this shows that there is no
influence of training on Membrane MDA (MMDA) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).

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REFERENCE
1. Dengel, D.R., Hagberg, J.M., Pratley, R.E., Rogus, E.M., Goldberg, A.P. (1998).
Improvements in blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipoprotein lipids after aerobic
exercise plus weight loss in obese, hypertensive middle-aged men. Metabolism; 47:1075
- 1082.
2. Elsayed, NM. (2001). Antioxidant mobilization in response to oxidative stress: a dynamic
environmental-nutritional interaction. Nutrition 17,828-834.
3. Evans WJ. Exercise training guidelines for the elderly. Med Sci sports Exerc 1999;
31:12-17.
4. Ji LL. Leeuwenburgh C, Leichtweis S, Gore M, Fiebig R, Hollander J Bejma J. Oxidative
stress and aging. Role of exercise and its influence on antioxidants systems. Ann N Y
Acad Sci 1998; 854: 102-17.
5. Mc Murdo, M.E.T., Mole, P.A., Paterson, C.R. (1997). Controlled trial of weight bearing
exercise in older women in relation to bone density and falls. Br Med J; 314: 569.
6. Meydani M, Evans WJ. Free radicals, exercise, and aging, In: Yu Bp (ed). Free Radicals
in Aging. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1993: 183-204.
7. Navarro-Arevalo A, Sancez-del-Pino MJ. Age and exercise-related changes in lipid
peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity in liver and soleus muscle tissues of rats.
1998; 104: 91-102.
8. Navarro-Arevalo, A., Sancez-del-Pino, M.J.(1998). Age and exercise-related changes in
lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity in liver and soleus muscle tissues of
rats. Mech Ageing Dev; 104: 91-102.

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Analysis of Selected Bio-motor variables among Professional


and Non Professional Women Volleyball Players
R.Ramya
Physical Training Instructor, Bharathi Womens College, Chennai 600 108
S. Indira
Director of Physical Education, JBAS College for Women, Chennai 600 018
ABSTRACT
Volleyball is considered to be both a competitive and leisurely activity, it can be played by school
teams, professional athletes and families enjoying a day at the beach. A workout involving volleyball is
an effective way to burn calories. The aim of this study is to analysis the differences on selected biomotor
variables among professional and non professional women volleyball players. Professional women
volleyball players (N=30); university level non professional players (N=30) and collegiate level non
professional players (N=30) were randomly selected and measured of their biomotor abilities agility, leg
strength and flexibility. The results showed that the subjects mean differences on biomotor variables
agility and leg strength were significantly differed based on their level of competitions. The professional
players were stood at first followed by university level non professional players and then by collegiate
level non professional players. However, it was found that there was no significant difference between
professional and non professional volleyball players on flexibility even though the means values of
professional players stood first followed by university and collegiate level non professional volleyball
players. It was concluded that a well structured training programme can improve biomotor abilities
needed for optimum level of performance in volleyball and non professional players may also given well
structured training for improving their overall playing abilities in volleyball.
Key Words: Biomotor abilities, agility, leg strength, flexibility, professional volleyball players, non
professional volleyball players.

INTRODUCTION
Volleyball is a team sport that requires great skill.

The game is considered to be both a

competitive and leisurely activity, it can be played by school teams, professional athletes and
families enjoying a day at the beach. A workout involving volleyball is an effective way to burn
calories. Approximately 20 minutes of volleyball consumes up to 126 calories. Over a twelve
month period given 20 minutes of volleyball per day, that would add up to a total of 45,990
calories (or thirteen pounds of body fat) burned per year. Volleyball also develops key upper
body muscles (especially the arms), improves sprint speed and agility due to the quick changes
of pace and direction, and improves overall flexibility. Volleyball places a large number of
demands on the technical and physical skills of a player. During the course of play, players are
required to serve, pass, set, attack, block and dig the ball. Playing volleyball requires
flexibility, good balance, upper and lower body strength and speed in order to be played
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effectively. Volleyball serves and smashes result in very fast ball speed, so players also need to
be quick to get to the right position to return or pass the ball for this purpose speed is required.
In volleyball agility means getting into the right place at the right time to play a shot. Players
often have to dodge, duck and dive to make successful plays and the better their agility, the
better they will be able to do this. Power is the ability to generate strength at high speeds and is
very important in volleyball. Volleyball net is 10 feet high, so players need leg power to be able
to jump high enough to block and smash the ball during play. Hitting the ball with plenty of heat
requires upper body power. Squatting or lunging down low to return volleyball requires limber
limbs -- properly called flexibility. Tight muscles do not stretch readily and, if stretched too
quickly or too far, may become injured. Flexible muscles are more elastic and capable of greater
ranges of movement. Flexibility is developed by stretching, particularly developmental stretches
held for 30 seconds or longer. Volleyball matches are usually played to the best of 21 points,
and that can take some time if the teams are closely matched. To play continuously for an
extended period of time requires good muscular, aerobic and mental endurance.
A well-structured volleyball training program can increase explosive power, vertical
jump height, stamina and speed and agility around the court. Skill training alone, such as
practicing spikes, won't develop the physical traits necessary to play to the athlete's full
potential (Gabbett T, et al. (2006)) Volleyball players have exceptional lower body power and
perform well in the vertical jump test. Power in the legs is needed to jump explosively off the
ground in order to spike, block, set and dive.( Smith DJ, et al. (1992) The repetitive nature of
jumping movements makes power endurance an important outcome of training and the length
of games and sets places a significant demand on strength endurance (Bompa, TO (1999) .
Power and strength endurance are more important than aerobic endurance, although at elite
levels, volleyball players have moderate to high values for aerobic power (Fleck SJ, et al.
(1985) . Ikeda Mariko et.al (2004) reported that it is well known that athletes participating in
different sports vary in physique and physical fitness. They compared women handball,
basketball and volleyball players and found differences between these players because of the
differences in game they played. Angyn L, (2007) examined the relationship between body
balancing functions and body characteristics, motor abilities and reaction time concluded that
increase in BMI, back muscle strength and endurance capacity is associated with better postural
stability.. Sheppard et.al. (2008) examined the potential strength, power, and anthropometric
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contributors to vertical jump performances that are considered specific to volleyball success
and clearly demonstrated that in an elite population of volleyball players, stretch-shortening
cycle performance and the ability to tolerate high stretch loads, as in the depth jump, is critical
to performance in the jumps associated with volleyball performance.
The above theoretical foundations proved that biomotor abilities, agility, strength and
flexibility contribute for the optimum level of volleyball playing ability. However, because of
different levels of the players participating, their training schedules and time spent on training
are bound to differ among volleyball players. This study is devoted to compare selected bio
motor abilities of professional and non professional women volleyball players.
METHOD
For the purpose of the study women volleyball players who have been recruited by
leading state and private organizations because of their achievements in volleyball and being
retained by the organization mainly to participate in volleyball at national and international
level competitions are considered as professional volleyball players for this study. And 30
professional women volleyball players were selected from Kerala State Electricity Board
(KSEB), Central Railway and Southern Railway. The women volleyball players who have
been representing their University were considered as non professional university level
volleyball players. And 30 University level women volleyball players were selected from SRM
University, University of Madras and Vels Technological University, Chennai. Women
volleyball players who were represented their colleges at inter collegiate level competitions
were considered as non professional inter collegiate level volleyball players. And 30 inter
collegiate level players, were selected from JBAS College for Women and MOP Vaishnav
College for Women, Chennai. All the subjects selected were in the age group between 19 to 28
years. The subjects were tested of their bio-motor abilities agility, strength and flexibility using
standard tests as as listed in Table I.

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Table I, Showing the Variables, Tests and Unit of Measurements for the Study
S.No

Variables

Tests

Unit of Measurement

1 Agility

4 x 10 M Shuttle Run

In seconds

2 Leg Strength

Vertical Jump Test

In Centimeters

3 Flexibility

Sit & Reach Test

In Centimeters

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES
The collected data was subjected to statistical treatment using the following statistical
techniques.
1.
2.

Descriptive statistics was used to determine the normative status of the data collected.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of differences
among selected groups.

3.

When significant results were obtained, post hoc analysis (Scheffes test) was used to
determine the significance between paired means of the groups. In all cases 0.05 level
was fixed to test significance.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The collected data on selected bio motor abilities of professional, non professional university
(NPU) and non professional collegiate level (NPC) was tested for significance using ANOVA
for each variable separately. To test the hypothesis significant level of 0.05 level was fixed.
That is, if the obtained F value was lesser than the required value to be significant, the null
hypothesis was accepted. And if they obtained F value was greater than the required value to
be significant, the null hypothesis was rejected.
Table II shows the results of ANOVA on selected bio motor variables and Table III
shows the results of post hoc analysis for variables of significant results.
Tab II: ANOVA Results on Selected Bio Motor Variables among Professional and Non
Professional Women Volleyball players

Mean

Results on Bio Motor Variable AGILITY


PROFES- NPU
NPC
Source
Sum of
Df
Mean
F
SIONAL LEVEL LEVEL of
Squares
Square
Variance
16.82
17.12
17.58 Between
8.83
2
4.41
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Within
40.52
87
Results on Bio Motor Variable LEG STRENGTH
2179
2
48.13
40.70
36.20 Between
Mean
Within
2973
87
Results on Bio Motor Variable FLEXIBILITY
48.46
2
15.13
14.55
13.37 Between
Mean
Within
1501.88
87
NPU : Non Professional University NPC : Non Professional Collegiate
* Significant
Table Value Required df (2,87) F0.05 3.10

0.47

9.48

1090
34
31.89
24.23
17.26
1.40

Tab III: Showing Multiple Comparisons of Scheffes Post Hoc Analysis


Comparisons on Agility
MEANS OF
Mean
Difference
Professional
NPU Level
NPC Level
16.82
17.12
0.30
16.82
17.58
0.76*
17.12
17.58
0.46*
Comparisons on Leg Strength
48.13
40.70
7.43*
48.13
36.20
11.93*
40.70
36.20
4.50*
*Significant at 0.05 level.

Required C I
0.44
0.44
0.44
3.76
3.76
3.76

The results showed that the subjects mean differences on bio-motor variables agility
and leg strength were significantly differed based on their level of competitions. The
professional players were stood at first followed by university level non professional players
and then by collegiate level non professional players. However, it was found that there was no
significant difference between professional and non professional volleyball players on
flexibility even though the means values of professional players stood first followed by
university and collegiate level non professional volleyball players.
The findings of this study are in agreement with the findings of Sheppard et.al. (2008) who
found strength and power in elite volleyball players through their training improves leg power.
Ikeda Mariko et.al (2004) found differences between players because of the differences in game
they played. This may be because of the fact that a well-structured volleyball training program
can increase explosive power, vertical jump height, stamina and speed and agility around the
court (Gabbett T, et al. (2006). And the findings of this study that professional women
volleyball players were significantly better than non professional players (university and
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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
collegiate levels) as the professional players have well structured volleyball training program
than non professional players.
CONCLUSION
It was concluded that well structured training program can improve bio-motor abilities
needed for optimum level of performance in volleyball and non professional players may also
given well structured training for improving their overall playing abilities in volleyball.

References
1. Angyn L, et.al. (2007), Reproduction of reaching movements to memorized targets in
the lack of visual control., Acta Physiol Hung. 94(3):179-82
2. Bompa, TO (1999). Periodization training for sports. Champaign: IL, Human Kinetics
3. Fleck SJ, et al. (1985) Physical and physiological characteristics of elite women
volleyball players. Can J Appl Sport Sci. Sep;10(3):122-6
4. Gabbett T, et al. (2006). Changes in skill and physical fitness following training in
talent-identified volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. Feb;20(1):29-35
5. Ikeda, Mariko (2004), Physique and Motor Performance of College Women Handball
Players, https://qir.kyushu-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2324/10775/1/ p033.pdf
6. Sheppard et.al. (2008), Relative importance of strength, power, and anthropometric
measures to jump performance of elite volleyball players., J Strength Cond
Res. 22(3):758-65
7. Smith DJ, et al. (1992) Physical, physiological and performance differences between
Canadian national team and universiade volleyball players. J Sports Sci. Apr;10(2):131-8

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Comparative Study on Flexibility and Cardio Vascular


Endurance of Elite Kho-Kho and Kabaddi Players in Kerala
Mettilda Thomas
*PhD Research Scholar, Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education, Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala.

Abstract
The purpose of the study was to compare flexibility and cardio vascular endurance capacity of
elite Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players in Kerala. 50 Female elite Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players were
selected from Kerala state as subjects for this study. They all are either national medallist or national
participated players. The age groups of the subject were from 18- 25 years. For measuring flexibility and
cardio vascular endurance, sit and research and beep test was used respectively. The result shows that
there was no significant difference in flexibility of Kho-Kho and Kabaddi payers. But in cardio vascular
endurance capacity have shows significant difference. Compare to Kabaddi players, Kho-Kho players
shows high in cardio vascular capacity. The aim of the study is to enable the players, coaches, physical
educators and well wishers to know the capacities and weakness of the players and thereby help them to
improve further performance on related traits. And also for the notice of SAI, sports council and public
for encouraging these types of Indian traditional sports (like provide scientific training, hostels facilities,
provide more tournaments and motivation etc).

Key words: flexibility, cardio vascular endurance, Kho-Kho, Kabaddi

INTRODUCTION
Good health is the barometer of a persons well being. It comes from the inner balance of
the body, mind, and spirit. Physical education and sports sciences have always been for
promotion and improvement of health and physical fitness through muscular activities.
Enthusiasm for sports and physical fitness is growing in our country. The governments, and
some voluntary sports organizations, are adopting various measures to make people aware of the
importance of physical fitness. Fitness is a condition in which an individual has sufficient energy
to avoid fatigue and enjoy life. The game of Kabaddi and Kho-Kho are typical Indian major
games and played throughout the country especially in rural area. Both Kabaddi and Kho-Kho
can be played in a small area and practically no equipment is necessary. Kho-Kho is an outdoor
strenuous but healthy and interesting game. Kabaddi is an aggressive and heavy contact game.
Compare to Kabaddi, Kho-Kho is less aggressive and light contact game. Kho-Kho and Kabaddi
players are differing with each other in their skills, techniques and strategies.
Physical fitness is the ability perform daily task vigorously and alertly, with energy left
over for enjoying leisure time activities and meeting emergency demands. Cardiovascular
fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle

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tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movement. This type
of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained
physical activity. A persons ability to deliver oxygen to the working muscles is affected by
many physiological parameters, including heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and maximal
oxygen consumption. Flexibility is another physical fitness component. It is needed to perform
everyday activities with relative ease. Flexibility tends to deteriorate with age, often due to a
sedentary lifestyle. Without adequate flexibility, daily activities become more difficult to
perform. Over time, we create body movements and posture habits that can lead to reduced
mobility of joints and compromised body positions. Staying active and stretching regularly help
prevent this loss of mobility, which ensures independence as we age. Being flexible significantly
reduces the chance of experiencing occasional and chronic back pain. Flexibility is basically the
range of motion at a particular joint. One common rationale for increasing range of motion at a
joint is to prevent injury from overextension of the joint, such as a pulled muscle. Our body is
our valued possession and good health is our prime asset.
METHOD
To achieve the purpose of the study 25 Kabaddi and 25 Kho-Kho elite female players
were selected from Kerala. They all are either national medallist or national participated players,
their age ranged from 18 to25 years. Purpose of the study was to compare flexibility and cardio
vascular endurance between Kho-Kho and Kabaddi female players. Before conducting the test,
test procedure was explained to the subjects. Sit and reach test and beep test were used for
assessing the flexibility and cardio vascular endurance. The data analyzed by the t test.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of the data on flexibility between Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players
Table:1, Mean, Standard Deviation and t test on sit & reach test of Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players.
Group

Mean

S.D

T- Test

Kho-Kho

19.204

2.17

0.913 ns

Kabaddi

18.512

3.113

ns: not significant

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2
From Tablee 1, t test shhowed that there
t
do nott exist signifficant meann difference in the
flexibiliity of Kho-K
Kho and Kaabaddi playeers (t = 0.9113, P>0.05)). The infereence is that Kho-Kho
players shows littlee bit high inn mean scorre (mean=199.204, SD=2
2.17) as com
mpared to Kabaddi
K
players (mean=18.512, SD=3..113).
Figure 1: Comparaative bar diaagram of Khho-Kho andd Kabaddi pllayers basedd on flexibility

flexibillty

19.5
19
18.5

flexibilty

18

khoo-kho

kabadddi

Anaalysis of thee data on carrdio vasculaar endurancce between Kho-Kho


K
annd Kabaddii players
Table: 2, Mean , S.D
D and t testt on beep teest of Kho-K
Kho and Kaabaddi playeers.
Groupp

Meaan

S.D
D

T
T- Test

Kho-K
Kho

91.1
16

266.12

33.57**

Kabaddi

67.6
64

200.13

**significant at 1 % level (p<00.01)


T
2, t teest showed that there exist signifficant meann difference in the card
dio vascularr
From Table
endurannce of Kho-Kho and Kabaddi
K
plaayers (t=3.557, P<0.01)). The inferrence is thaat Kho-Khoo
players have signiificantly hiigher in carrdio vascullar endurannce (mean=91.16, SD=
= 26.12) ass
comparred to Kabadddi players (mean=67.664, SD=20.13).

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2

Figu
ure 2: Comp
parative ba
ar diagram
m of Kho-Kh
ho and Kab
baddi playeers based on
o cardio
vasscular endu
urance

c
cardio
vassular endu
urance

100
80
60
40

cardio vaasular

20
0
kho-kho

kaabaddi

C
CONCLUS
SION
The game of Kabad
ddi and Kh
ho-Kho aree typical In
ndian majoor games and
a
played
d
through
hout the couuntry especiially in ruraal area. Resuult of the stu
udy shows Kho-Kho players
p
havee
significcantly higheer level of cardio vasscular enduurance as compared
c
too Kabaddi players. In
n
flexibiliity Players have no sig
gnificant diifference. T
The aim of the
t study iss to enable the
t players,
coachess, physical eeducators an
nd well wisshers to knoow the capaccities and weakness
w
off the playerss
and thereby help thhem to imp
prove furtheer performaance on relaated traits. A
And also fo
or the noticee
of SAI,, sports couuncil and pu
ublic for en
ncouraging these typess of Indian traditional sports (likee
providee scientific ttraining, hosstels facilitiies, provide more tourn
naments andd motivation
n etc).
REFER
RENCES
1. Richard A Schmidt and Criaig A. Wrisberg.((2004) 3rd Edition
E
Motoor Learning
g and
K
Performancce, Human Kinetics.
2. Todd Hargrrove, CR an
nd CFP. (20
012) A guide to better movement
m
3. Singh Rasppal and Sing
gh Hoshiyarr , An evaluuation of sellected physiical fitness variables
v
off
Kabaddi, K
Kho-Kho an
nd Wrestlin
ng players from Haryana and Puunjab, Indiaa, Research
h
Journal of P
Physical Ed
ducation Sciiences , 232
20 9011,Vo
ol. 1(2), 1-44, June (2013)
4. http://www
w.humankineetics.com/ex
xcerpts/excerpts/the-im
mportance-aand-purposee-offlexibility
5. http://www
w.bettermoveement.org/2
2012/some-thoughts-on
n-flexibilityy/.
6. http://en.wiikipedia.org
g/wiki/Cardiiovascular__fitness

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Muscular Endurance and


Flexibility of University Women
RupendraFarswan*K.Tirumourougane**
Ph.D. Scholar, Pondicherry University.
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to assess the effect of aerobic exercise on flexibility and
muscular endurance of university women students after 12 weeks training program. Students
were selected as subjects from L.N.U.P.E Gwalior. The subject were divided randomly into two
groups namely one control and one experimental groups consisting of fifteen subjects in each
group. Experimental group were given 12 weeks aerobic training and control group were not
allowed to participate in the training program. The training program was given for three days in a
week from 4.00pm to 5.00pm. Pretest and post test was conducted and the data was computed
statistically by using (ANOVA) to find out the significant changes. The result revealed that the
experimental group has significant effect on muscular endurance and flexibility after 12 weeks
aerobic training when compared to the control group.
Keywords: Aerobic exercises, Flexibility, Muscular endurance, Physical exercise.
INTRODUCTION
Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and
overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles
cardiovascular system and enhancing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for
the purpose of enjoyment.
Endurance is the ability to perform repetitive, moderate to high intensity movement for a
prolonged period of time. Aerobic endurance improves the function of the heart, lungs and
blood vessels and is associated with a low risk of premature death from all causes, most
specifically cardiovascular disease. Functions of daily life that become easier include walking,
shopping, sightseeing, recreational & sport activities.
Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen the muscles of the body. Activities such as
stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber. The goal is to improve the
range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.
METHOD
The study was conducted on 30 university women students (15 in experimental and 15 in
control group) and their ages between 17 -23 years. Group A underwent aerobics exercise and
group B did not involve in the training program. Muscular endurance and flexibility were tested
and the data was analyzed by applying ANOVA to find out the significant difference at0.05 level
of significance.

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& Iron Ga
ames
Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 20
015- June 2015
2
Resultss of the Study
The results of the aanalysis are given below
w.
TABLE 1, ANALYSIS
A
S OF VARIIANCE FOR PRE-TE
EST AND P
POST-TEST
T ON
M
MUSCULA
AR ENDUR
RANCE OF
F EXPERIM
MENTAL GROUP
G
AN
ND CONTROL
E
Experiment
tal Contro
ol Sourcee Sum off DF M
Mean
F
group
group
p
of
squaree
squ
uare ratiio
variancce
13.4667 Betweeen 2.700
1
2.7700
14.0667
Pre
45
0.24
Test
Mean
3.45309
3.18179 Within
308.667
7 28 11.024
S.D
16.8000
13.2000 Betweeen 97.200 1
97.200
Post
9.90
04*
Test
Mean
3.14416
3.12116 Within
274.800
0 28 9.8814
S.D
*Significcant at 0.05 level
Requireed table at 00.05 level off significancce for 1 & 28
2 degrees of
o freedom =4.20
Table-1 shoows that theere is no sig
gnificant diffference bettweenthe tw
wo groups for
f the pre
test, sin
nce the calcuulated value 0.245 is less
l
than thee required table
t
value 44.20.For the post theree
is significant diffeerence betw
ween two groups since the calculaated value9..904 is high
her than thee
d value 4.2
20.Hence it is conclud
ded that theere is signiificant imprrovement on
o muscularr
required
enduran
nce due to th
he training effect.
Figurre 1, BAR DIAGRAM
D
M SHOWIN
NG THE MEAN
M
VAL
LUES OF C
CONTROL
L GROUP
AND EXPERIM
MENTAL GROUP
G
ON
N MUSCUL
LAR ENDU
URANCE

20
15

pretest

10

posttest

5
0
ccon

exxp

TABLE II, ANALYSIS


T
A
O VARIAN
OF
NCE FOR P
PRE-TEST AND POS-T
TEST DATA
A ON
FLEXIIBILITY OF
F EXPERIM
MENTAL GROUP
G
AND
D CONTRO
OL GROUP

Exp
group
Pre
P
M
Mean
S
S.D

Teest 20.9333
2.34419

Sum of DF M
Conttrol Sourcce
Mean F
F
grou
up
of
ssquare Ra
atio
square
variaance
21.66
667 betweeen 4.033
3
1
44.033
752
0.7
2.288
869 Withiin
150.3
300 28 55.367
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Internattional Jourrnal of Fitness, Health
h, Physical Education
E
& Iron Ga
ames
Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 20
015- June 2015
2
Post
P
M
Mean

Teest 23.4000

21.40
000 Between

30.00
00

330.000
4.5
585*

2.74643
2.354
433 Withiin
183.2
200 28 66.543
S.D
S
*Signifficant at 0.05
5 level
Requireed table at 0.05
0
level of
o significan
nce for 1 & 28 degree of freedom
m =4.20.Tab
ble-1 showss
that theere is no signnificant diff
fference amo
ong the twoo groups forr the pre teest, since thee calculated
d
value 0.752 is less than the req
quired tablee value 4.20
0
t post th
here is significant diffe
ference betw
ween two groups
g
since the calcu
ulated valuee
For the
4.585 iss higher thaan the requirred value 4.20
Hencce it is con
ncluded thaat there is significant
s
improvemeent on flexiibility in ex
xperimentall
group.
Figure II
I
AR DIAGRA
AM SHOW
WING THE
E MEAN VA
ALUES OF
F CONTRO
OL GROU
UP AND
BA
EXPER
RIMENTA
AL GROUP
P ON FLEX
XIBILITY

24
2
2
23
2
22
2
21
2
20
1
19

pretest
posttest

control

experimental

C
CONCLUSI
IONS
It is cconcluded that
t there is significantt improvemeent on musccular enduraance and
xibility for the experim
mental group
p when com
mpared to th
he control grroup.From the
t finding
flex
of the study it is concludeed that12 weeks of aeroobic exercisse training has
h induced
d significantt
chaanges in thee selected ph
hysical variiables nameely muscularr endurancee and flexibiility.
Reeferences
1. Uppal, A. K.
K (2001). Principles
P
off Sports traaining. New Delhi: Frieends publicaations.
2. Kansal,
K
K. D
D. (2012). Test
T Measurrementand Evaluation. New Delhhi: Sports an
nd Spirituall
S
Science.
3. Cottton, T., & Goldstein, L. (1993).Aerobics instructor
i
m
manual:
Thhe resourcee for fitnesss
p
professiona
als. Americaa: Amer Co
ouncil on Ex
xercise.

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Effects of Different Modes of Yoga Practice on Percentage of


Body Fat and Biochemical Variables
S. ANANTH, Ph.D., Scholar and S. CHIDAMBARA RAJA, Associate Professor, Department of
Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Annamalai University.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the present study was to find out the effect of different modes of yoga practice
on percentage of body fat and bio-chemical variables among middle aged men. For this purpose, forty
five middle aged men residing around Kumbakonam town, Thanjavur district, Tamilnadu, were selected
as subjects. The age of the subjects were ranged from 40 to 45 years. They were divided into three equal
groups, each group consisted of fifteen subjects, in which experimental group - I underwent Bihar School
of yoga practice, experimental group - II underwent B.K.S. Iyengar yoga practice and group - III acted as
control that did not participate in any special activities apart from their regular curricular activities. The
training period for the study was six days (Monday to Saturday) in a week for twelve weeks. Prior and
after the experimental period, the subjects were tested on percentage of body fat, high density lipoprotein
and total cholesterol. Percentage of body fat was assessed by applying the Deurenberg et al formula. High
density lipoprotein and total cholesterol were tested after taking 5 ml of blood samples by venous
puncture method, by using Boehringer Mannheim Kit Method. The Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
was applied to find out any significant difference between the experimental groups and control group on
selected criterion variables. The result of the study shows that the Bihar School of Yoga practice group
and B.K.S. Iyengar Yoga practice group were decreased the total cholesterol, percentage of body fat and
increased the high density lipoprotein significantly. It was concluded from the results of the study that
Bihar School of Yoga practice and B.K.S. Iyengar Yoga practice has bring positive changes in percentage
of body fat, high density lipoprotein and total cholesterol as compare to the control group. Moreover it
was also concluded that there was no significant difference was found between the experimental groups in
all criterion variables.

Key words: Bihar School of Yoga and B.K.S. Iyengar Yoga, Breath holding time, high density
lipoprotein, total cholesterol, Boehringer Mannheim kit method, ANCOVA.
INTRODUCTION
Yoga is one of the most ancient cultural heritages of India. The word yoga in
Sanskrit means to unite, and so yoga can be said to connote a unitive discipline. In this
sense, it is an exercise in moral and mental cultivation that generates good health (arogya),
contributes to longevity (chirayu), and the total intrinsic discipline culminates into positive
and perennial happiness and peace.[1] Yoga is one of the orthodox systems of Indian
philosophy. It was collated, coordinated and systematized by Patanjali in his classical
work, the Yoga Sutras, which consists of 185 terse aphorisms. Yoga is a complete science
of life that originated in India many thousands of years ago. It is the oldest system of
personal development in the world, encompassing body, mind and spirit. [2]
Bihar School of Yoga (Swami Satyananda Saraswati) is a type of yoga which
integrates intellect, emotion and action: the head, heart and hands. Known as Satyananda
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Yoga or Bihar Yoga (the School lies in Bihar in India), the system embraces many
different philosophies and encourages students to examine the very essence of their being
and make gradual changes to improve their awareness. Satyananda Yoga is considered
truly holistic and suitable for everyone.[3] Iyengar Yoga, named after and developed by
B.K.S. Iyengar, is a form of Hatha Yoga that has an emphasis on detail, precision and
alignment in the performance of posture (asana) and breath control (pranayama).[4]
Recent scientific studies of the effects of yoga and meditation on health validates
its ability to improve virtually every aspect of our functioningbrain function, hormonal
function, sleep, mood, balance, etc. More active practices followed by relaxing ones lead to
deeper relaxation than relaxing practices alone, documented by research from Swami
Vivekananda yoga research foundation near Bangalore city and possibility of
neuroplasticity bringing about changes in the hypo-pituitarypancreatic axis.[5] The
improvement in the lipid levels after yoga could be due to increased hepatic lipase and
lipoprotein lipase at cellular level, which affects the metabolism of lipoprotein and thus
increase uptake of triglycerides by adipose tissues.[6,7] Direct stimulation of the pancreas
by the postures can rejuvenate its capacity to produce insulin.[8] Regeneration of
pancreatic beta cells could occur by yoga exercises that promote blood circulation in the
region of the pancreas and yoga asanas that stimulate the meridian of pancreas also could
assist in some diabetic patients.[9] Pranayama practices, stretches the lung tissue producing
inhibitory signals from action of slowly adapting receptors and hyperpolarizing currents.
These inhibitory signals coming from cardio-respiratory region involving vagi are believed
to synchronize neural elements in the brain leading to changes in the autonomic nervous
system; and a resultant condition characterized by reduced metabolism and
parasympathetic dominance.[10]
METHOD
Thirty middle aged men residing around Kumbakonam town, Tanjavur district,
Tamilnadu were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects were ranged from 18 to 23
years. The selected subjects were divided into three equal groups, each group consisted of
ten subjects, in which group - I (n = 15) underwent Bihar School of Yoga practice,
experimental group - II (n = 15) underwent B.K.S. Iyengar Yoga practice and group - III (n
= 15) acted as control, which did not participate in any special activities apart from their
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regular curricular activities. Different modes of yoga practices were conducted six days
(Monday to Saturday) per week for twelve weeks. The researcher consulted with the yoga
experts and selected the following variables as criterion variables: 1. percentage of body
fat, 2. high density lipoprotein and 3.total cholesterol. Percentage of body fat was assessed
by applying the Deurenberg et al[11] formula, high density lipoprotein and total
cholesterol were assessed by using the Boehringer Mannheim Kit method. For the purpose
of collection of data the subjects were asked to report at early morning, one day prior and
one day after experimental period, in fasting condition. 5 ml of blood was collected from
each subject by venous puncture method and the blood thus collected was stored in small
bottles for pre and post-test for measuring the high density lipoprotein and cholesterol.
Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to find out the significant
difference if any, among the experimental groups and control group on selected criterion
variables separately.

In all the cases, .05 level of confidence was fixed to test the

significance, which was considered as appropriate.

After applying the analysis of

covariance, the result of this study shows that there was a significant increase in breath
holding time, decrease in total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels.
RESULTS
The data collected on percentage of body fat, high density lipoprotein and
cholesterol among experimental and control groups were analyses and the results were
presented in Table I.

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Table - I
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE ON SELECTED CRITERION VARIABLES
AMONG EXERCISE GROUPS AND CONTROL GROUP

Variable Name

Percentage of
body fat (in
percentage)

High Density
Lipoprotein
(mg/dl)

Total
Cholesterol
(mg/dl)

Bihar School of B.K.S. Iyengar


Group Name Yoga Practice Yoga Practice
Group
Group
Pre-test
Mean S.D
Post-test
Mean S.D.
Adj. Posttest Mean

Control
Group

F Ratio

26.66 3.12

25.98 2.414

26.0 2.48

0.313

25.90 2.96

25.13 2.53

26.58 2.42

1.126

25.467

25.358

26.795

65.691*

Pre-test
Mean S.D
Post-test
Mean S.D.
Adj. Posttest Mean

45.07 2.463

44.53 3.021

44.87 2.95

0.137

47.60 2.772

46.80 3.189

44.00 2.80

6.253*

47.357

47.088

43.956

77.42*

Pre-test
Mean S.D

191.53 6.39

192.27 6.029 192.47 5.04

0.106

Post-test
Mean S.D.

188.80 6.33

190.13 6.034 192.53 6.36

1.532

Adj. Posttest Mean

189.350

189.957

192.160

20.472*

*Significant .05 level of confidence. (The table values required for significance at .05 level of confidence with df 2
and 42 and 2 and 41 were 3.22 and 3.21 respectively).

Table I shows that pre and post test means f ratio of Bihar School of Yoga practice
group, B.KS Iyengar practice group and control group on percentage of body fat were 0.313 and
1.26, which is insignificant at 0.05 level of confidence. The adjusted post test mean f ratio
value of experimental groups and control group was 65.691, which was significant at 0.05 level
of confidence. The pre and post test means f ratio of Bihar School of Yoga practice group, B.KS
Iyengar practice group and control group on HDL were 0.137, which is insignificant and 6.253,
which is significant at 0.05 level of confidence. The adjusted post test mean f ratio value of
experimental groups and control group was 77.42, which was significant at 0.05 level of
confidence. The pre and post test means f ratio of yogasana practice group, aerobic exercise
group and control group on total cholesterol were 0.106 and 1.532 which is insignificant at 0.05
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level of confidence. The adjusted post test mean f ratio value of experimental groups and
control group was 20472, which was significant at 0.05 level of confidence.
Table II, Scheff S Test for the Difference Between the Adjusted Post-Test Mean of Selected
Criterion Variables
Adjusted Post-test Mean on Resting Pulse Rate
Yogasana
Practice Group

Aerobic Exercise
Group

25.467
25.467

Control
Group

Mean Difference

Confidence
interval at .05 level

26.795

1.328*

0.3540697

0.109

0.3540697

1.437*

0.3540697

Mean Difference

Confidence
interval at .05 level

0.269

0.7395837

43.956

3.401*

0.7395837

43.956

3.132*

0.7395837

Mean Difference

Confidence
interval at .05 level

0.607

1.16883531

192.160

2.81*

1.16883531

192.160

2.203*

1.16883531

25.358
25.358

26.795

Adjusted Post-test Mean on High Density Lipoproteins


Yogasana
Practice Group

Aerobic Exercise
Group

47.357

47.088

47.357
47.088

Control
Group

Adjusted Post-test Mean on Total Cholesterol


Yogasana
Practice Group

Aerobic Exercise
Group

189.350

189.957

189.350
189.957

Control
Group

* Significant at .05 level of confidence.


Table II shows that the Scheff S Test for the difference between adjusted post-test
mean on percentage of body fat of Bihar School of Yoga practice group and control group
(1.328) and BKS Inyengar Yoga Practice group and control group (1.437), which were
significant at .05 level of confidence.

There was a significant difference on high density

lipoproteins between Bihar School of Yoga practice group and control group (3.401) and BKS
Inyengar Yoga Practice group and control group (3.132) and also there was a significant
difference on total cholesterol between Bihar School of Yoga practice group and control group
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(2.81) and BKS Inyengar Yoga Practice group and control group (2.203) which was significant
at 0.05 level of confidence after the respective training program.
CONCLUSION
The experimental groups such as, Bihar School of Yoga practice group and B.K.S.
Iyengar Yoga practice group have achieved a significant improvement in selected criterion
variables such as percentage of body fat, high density lipoprotein and a significant reduction in
total cholesterol when compared with the control group. It was also found that there was no
significant difference was found between the Bihar School of Yoga practice group and B.K.S.
Iyengar Yoga practice group on selected criterion variables.
Reference
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.

Retrieved from http://hinduism.about.com/bl-yoga-define.htmon on 24-04-2012.)


Swami Vishnu Devananda, The Sivananda Companion to Yoga, (New York: Fireside
Book, Simon and Schuster, 2000), p. 10.
Retrieved from http://samsaramindandbody.com/different-types-yoga-classes-ultimateguide
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iyengar_Yoga on 22-7-2014.
McCall T. The Scientific Basis of Yoga Therapy. [Accessed Jun 16, 2012]. at
http://www.yogajournal.com/for_teachers/2016 .
Delmonte MM. Biochemical indices associated with meditation practice: A literature
review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1985;9:55761. [PubMed]
Tulpule TH, Shah HM, Shah SJ, Haveliwala HK. Yogic exercises in the management of
ischaemic heart disease. Indian Heart J. 1971;23:25964. [PubMed]
Ramaiah SA. Yoga Therapy for Diabetes: Washington, D.C. Study, International
Conference on Traditional Medicine, 1986, Madras. Madras, India: Published by Siddha
Medical Board, Govt. of Tamil Nadu;
Yogalink. A community service donated by samyama yoga. [Accessed Jul 9, 2012]. at
http://www.yogalink.com.au .
Jerath RJ, Edry VA, Barnes VA, Jerath V. Physiology of Long Pranayamic Breathing:
Neural Respiratory Elements May Provide A Mechanism that Explains How Slow
Breathing Shifts the Autonomic Nervous System, Med Hypotheses. 2006;67:56671.
[PubMed]
Retrieved from http://www.halls.md/bmi/fat.htm on 15-08-2012.

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Effect of Yogic Practices on Selected Physical Fitness


Parameters among University Male Students
P. Lakshman Naik1
Aditya Kumar Das2
P.K.Subramaniam3
1&2
Ph.D Scholars, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Pondicherry University
3
Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Pondicherry University
ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to analyze the effect of yogic practices on selected
physical fitness parameter among university male students. The investigator has selected 60
hostel students at random from Pondicherry University, their age ranged from 18-25 years. The
subjects chosen for the study were divided into three equal groups and designated as
experimental group A experimental group B and control group C. Asana alone were given
to group A Asana along with Pranayama and Meditation were given to group B. The control
group C was restricted to participate in any of the yogic practices. The yogic practices were
given for a period of ten weeks. The obtained datas were analyzed by Analysis of Covariance
and which was further subject of Scheffes Post hoc test, wherever the F-Ratio was found
significant, practicing Asanas and the combined practice of Asana, Pranayama and Meditation
has significantly increased the abdominal muscular endurance and
hip flexibility.
Keywords: Yogic Practices, Physical, Muscular endurance, Hip Flexibility
INTRODUCTION
Physical education concern with the anatomical aspect of the physique with its physiological
reactions for a given activity. The ultimate aim of which is to enjoy a good health and optimum
fitness. Yoga is harmonious and provides a multi dimensional development and it has now
become an adjunct to physical education.
In modern competition world, people are always
affiliated by physical, physiological and psychological problems which lead to several
complications. it is a known fact that a regular practice of physical exercise as well as yogic
exercise relaxes the body and the mind considerably and brings down the physical and mental
strain. Statement of the Problems: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of yogic
practices on selected physical fitness parameter among university male students.
Hypotheses: It was hypotheses that of yogic practice asanas and combined practice of asana,
pranayama and meditation would significantly improve the muscular strength and endurance
and flexibility.
METHOD
Investigator selected 60 hostel students at random from Pondicherry University, their age
ranged from 18-25 years. They were divided into three equal groups experimental group A,
experimental group B and control group C. Each group consisted of twenty boys. Asanas were
given to experimental group A. Asanas along with pranayama and meditation were given to

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group B, and control group C was not allowed to participate in any of the yogic practice. Yogic
practices were given 6 days for a week for a period of ten weeks. The subjects were tested on the
selected physical fitness parameters at the beginning (pre-test) and at the end of the experimental
period (Post-test). To measure the selected physical fitness parameters the following tests were
chosen abdominal muscular endurance (Sit- Ups) and hip flexibility (Sit and reach test) because
of their simplicity and availability of necessary facilities, instruments and equipments. The
collected data were analyzed by analysis of covariance. The obtained F ratio was found to be
significant Scheffes post hoc test was used to assess the significant difference between the
adjusted paired mean.
Table 1: Analysis of covariance on muscular endurance (Bent Knee sit-Ups) of
Scores of experimental group A, experimental group B and control group C
Experimental Experimental Control
Group A
Group B
group

Sources
of
variance

Sum of df
square

Mean
square

F
ratio

Pre-test
Mean

32.65

32.85

32.55

B
w

0.93
5308

2
57

0.47
93.12

0.00

Post-test
Mean

43.30

39.30

33.20

B
W

1034.80
5121.60

2
57

517.40
89.95

5.7*

Adjusted
Post-test 43.33
Mean.65

39.14

33.33

B
W

1009.51
227.64

2
56

504.76
4.07

124*

*significant at 0.05 level


(Table value required for significance at 0.05level with df 2 and 57 and 2 and 56 are 3.16)
It was observed from that table -1 that there is no significant difference in pre test
(F=0.00 < 3.16) at 0.05 level of confidence level. It also observed, however the training effects
are clearly evident in post test (F= 5.75 > 3.16) at 0.05 level and in adjusted post test (F=124.17
> 3.16) at 0.05 level respectively. It clearly indicated that the experimental groups showed
significantly higher improvement than the control group.
Table 2: Scheffes test for the difference between the adjusted post test paired means of
muscular endurance
Experimental Experimental Control
Group A
Group B
group

MD

43.33

39.14

4.19*

43.33

39.14
*Significant at 0.05 level.

33.33

10.00*

33.33

5.81*
45

CD

1.61

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The table shows that there is a significant difference among three groups in abdominal
muscular strength & endurance in favor of experimental groups. It was also observed that
asana alone group is better than the asana along with meditation and pranayama group.
50
40
30

Pretest

20

Posttest

10

Adjustedposttest

0
Experimental
group'A'

Experimental
group'B'

Controlgroup

Figure 1 : Mean score of pre test, post test and Adjusted post test of Experimental group
A, Experimental group B and control group (CG) on muscular endurance
Table 3: Analysis of covariance on hip flexibility (Sit and reach test) of
Scores of experimental group A, experimental group B and control group C
Experimental
Group A

Experimental
Group B

Control
group

Sources
of
variance

Pre-test
Mean

29.25

27.95

26.75

B
w

62.53
2632.45

Post-test
Mean

34.65

30.70

27.40

B
W

527.03
2471.55

30.73

28.58

Adjusted
33.43
Post-test
Mean.65
*significant at 0.05 level,

Sum of df
square

Mean
square

F ratio

2
57

31.27
46.18

0.67

2
57

263.52
43.36

6.0*

B
230.93
2 115.46
132.6*
W
48.75
56
0.87
(Table value required for significance at 0.05level with df 2 and 57 and 2
and 56 are 3.16)

Table 3 indicates that no significant differences existed between the pre-test means of the three
groups, but the obtained F ration for the post-test mean is found to be higher than the table
value 3.16 for 2 and 57 degrees of freedom. The adjusted post-test mean of the groups also
found to be is found to be higher than the table value 3.16 for 2 and 56 degrees of freedom
significant at 0.05 level of confidence.

Since the obtained F ratio is found significant,

Scheffes test is used a post-hoc test.

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Table 4: Scheffes test for the difference between the adjusted post tests paired means of flexibility

Experimental Experimental Control


Group A
Group B
group

MD

33.43

30.73

2.70*

33.43

30.73

28.53
28.53

4.85*

CD

0.74

2.15*

*Significant at 0.05 level.


The table shows that there is a significant difference among three groups in flexibility in
favor of experimental groups; it was also observed that asana group is better than the
asana along with meditation and pranayama group.
40
30
Pretest

20

Posttest
10

Adjustedposttest

0
Experimental
group'A'

Experimental
group'B'

Controlgroup

Figure 2: Mean score of pre test, post test and Adjusted post test of Experimental group
A, Experimental group B and control group (CG) on flexibility
CONCLUSION
From the study it was concluded that there was significant improvement on muscular
endurance and flexibility due to the experimental treatment, further it has been concluded that
asana alone group is better than the combined practice of asana, pranayama and meditation.

REFERENCES
1.

Clarke, Harrison H. (1967) Application of Measurement of Health and Physical


Education. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1967.
2. Gharote, M.L. (1970) Efffect of Yogic Exercises on the Strength and endurance of the
Abdominal Muscles of the Females,Vyayam Vidnyan 4(1):11-13.
3. Moorthy,A.M. (1982) Influence ofselected Yogic exercises on Minimum muscular
Fitness of the Elementary School childrenSNIPES Journal 15(2): 81.

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Influence of Varied Intensity of Walking on Selected


Physical Variables among Middle Aged Men
J. Karthikeyan
Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Health Education and Sports,
The M.D.T Hindu College, Tirunelveli -10 Tamilnadu.

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of varied intensity of walking on selected
physical variables among middle aged men. The subjects were restricted to a minimum number
of Sixty subjects consisting of Twenty men subjects would serve as control group and the
remaining Forty would undergo systematic walking training and among forty, twenty for Low
intensity walking group (LIWG) and remaining twenty for High intensity walking group
(HIWG) at The M.D.T Hindu College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu under the supervision of
researcher. The subjects were selected from Tirunelveli city, Tamilnadu and their age was from
35 to 45 years as per the school records. The study was formulated as a random group design.
The score were compared by using (ANCOVA) The level of significant chosen was 0.05 level. It
was found that the High intensity walking group (HIWG) showed better result on the variables
muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardio respiratory endurance for middle aged men.
Key Words: walking, muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardio respiratory endurance
INTRODUCTION
Various works might have been done about walking. Particularly this study expresses
about low intensity and high intensity walking so this study is need. In the modern world people
have no time to take care about their health thats why the study is need. Many theses have been
done only about walking, but my area focuses walking on selected physical variables among
middle aged men. I can state that middle aged men can never do hard exercise. They can do
simple exercise like jogging and walking. Middle aged men are affected by some disease like
diabetics they being middle aged men, it is difficult to them to undertake hard exercise so the
study is need.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY; Most of the people do not know the need of walking, walking is
the simplest exercise. Middle aged men are ready to run fast at the age of 37 even though they are
ready to run they dont know the benefits of walking. Without knowing the benefits of walking
they run so the study is need.
METHOD
The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of varied intensity of walking on
selected physical variables among middle aged men. To achieve this purpose, sixty men subjects
who were not involved in any vigorous physical training program at the age ranging from 35 to
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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
45 years were selected from in and around Tirunelveli city. The selected subjects were divided
into three groups at random with 20 each. In the experimental groups twenty men subjects would
serve as control group and the remaining Twenty would undergo systematic walking training,
under the supervision of researcher. The control group did not undergo any special training
program. The selected subjects were medically examined by a qualified medical person for
undergoing the training program. The training groups underwent 12weeks training programs
regularly from 6 a. m to 7 a.m. in the morning session Weekly 6 days.
ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS OF THE STUDY
TABLE I
Means, Standard Deviations and Adjusted Means among Experimental and Control
Groups on muscular strength, Muscular Endurance and cardio respiratory endurance
Criter
ion
High Intensity Walking
Low Intensity Walking
Control group
Varia Group
Group
ble

muscu
lar
streng
th
muscu
lar
endur
ance

Post
test

Adju
sted
post
test
mean
s

t test

Pre
test

Post
test

Adju
sted
post
test
mean
s

t test

Pre
test

Post
test

Adju
sted
post
test
mean
s

36.35

40.55

40.38

40.38

36.00

38.90

38.93

38.93

35.85

36.20

36.32

36.32

0.671

0.999

0.725

1.119

0.671

0.834

21.30

22.70

22.62

22.62

20.85

23.85

23.96

23.96

21.20

21.50

21.46

21.46

0.733

0.923

0.671

0.745

0.768

0.827

t test

Pre
test

cardio
respir 1350. 1637. 1637. 1637. 1357. 1494. 1488. 1488. 1343. 1350. 1355. 1355.
atory
000
500
622
622
500
000
631
631
000
500
747
747
endur
ance
*Significant at .05 level. The table value required for .05 level of significance with df 19 is 1.729.

The table I show that the obtained dependent t-ratio values between the pre and post test
means on muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardio respiratory endurance of High
Intensity Walking Group, Low Intensity Walking Group and control groups are 40.385,
22.624and 1637.622, 38.939, 23.960 and 1488.631,36.326,21.466,1355.747respectively. The
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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
table value required for significant difference with df 19 at .05 level is 1.729. Since, the obtained
t ratio value of experimental groups are greater than the table value, it is understood that
training programs had significantly improved the performance of muscular strength, muscular
endurance and cardio respiratory endurance. However, the control group has not improved
significantly as the obtained t value is less than the table value, because they were not subjected
to any specific training.
TABLE II
Analysis of Covariance of High Intensity Walking Group, Low Intensity Walking Group & control
groups on muscular strength, Muscular Endurance & cardio respiratory endurance

Criterion
Variable

Sum of
Squares

Df

Mean
Squares

F-Ratio

2.633

1.317

2.769

27.100

57

0.475

192.900

96.450

55.950

57

0.982

Adjusted Post Between

156.507

78.254

test

46.796

56

0.836

Between

2.233

1.117

Within

29.950

57

0.525

Between

55.233

27.617

Within

39.750

57

0.697

Adjusted Post Between

59.773

29.887

test

34.657

56

0.619

Between

2103.333

1051.667

Within

40795.000

57

715.702

Between

823690.000

411845.000

Within

385150.000

57

6757.018

Adjusted Post Between

787376.626

393688.313

test

363279.258

56

6487.130

Sources of
Variance
Pre test

muscular
strength

Post test

Pre test

muscular
endurance

Post test

Pre test
cardio
respiratory
endurance

Post test

Between
Within
Between
Within

Within

Within

Within

50

98.260*

93.644*

2.125

39.601*

48.291*

1.469

60.951*

60.688*

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
*significant at .05 level of confidence. (the table value required for significance at .05 level with
df 2 and 57 and 2 and 56 are 3.162 and 3.166, 3.162 and 3.166, 3.162 and 3.166 respectively
From the table II, the obtained F-ratio for pretest is 2.769, 2.125, 1.469which is greater than the
table value of 3.162 and 3.166 with df 1 and 56 required for significance at 0.05 level of
confidence. The result of the study indicates that there was significant difference among the pre
test means of High Intensity Walking Group, Low Intensity Walking Groupand control groups
on muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardio respiratory endurance.
Table II also shows that the obtained F-ratio value is 93.644*, 48.291*, 60.688*which is higher
than the table value 3.162 and 3.166 with df 2 and 56 required for significance at .05 level. Since
the value of F-ratio is higher than the table value, it indicates that there is significant difference
among the adjusted post-test means of High Intensity Walking Group, Low Intensity Walking
Group and control groups. To find out which of the three paired means had a significant
difference, the Scheffes post-hoc test was applied and the results are presented in Table III.
TABLE III, Scheffes Test for the Differences between the Adjusted Post Test Paired Means of
muscular strength, Muscular Endurance and cardio respiratory endurance
Adjusted Post Test Mean
Criterion
Variable

High Intensity
Walking Group
40.385

muscular
strength

Low Intensity
Walking
Group

38.939

muscular
endurance

22.624

1637.622

Group

Differences

C.I. Value

Result at
5% Level

1.447

0.727

Sig

36.326

4.059

0.727

Sig

36.326

2.613

0.727

Sig

1.336

0.626

Sig

21.466

1.159

0.626

Sig

21.466

2.494

0.626

Sig

148.991

64.091

Sig

1355.747

281.875

64.091

Sig

126.299

2.548

0.745

Sig

23.960

23.960
cardio
respiratory
endurance

Mean

38.939

40.385

22.624

Control

1488.631

1637.622
123.751

*Significant at .05 level.

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
Table III shows that the adjusted post test mean differences on muscular strengthbetween
the high intensity walking group, low intensity walking group; high intensitywalking group and
control group; low intensity walking group and control group were 4.059, 2.613and
1.447.respectively. The values are greater than the confidence interval value 0.727, which shows
significant difference at .05 level of confidence.
Muscular endurance between the high intensity walking group, low intensity walking
group; high intensity walking group and control group; low intensity walking group and control
group were 1.159, 2.494and1.336respectively. The values are not greater than the confidence
interval value 0.626, the value between high intensity walking group, low intensity walking
group and control group is only significant difference at .05 level of confidence.
This is clear that the F ratio for the adjusted post test mean for cardio respiratory
endurance was 60.688 which was significant at 0.05 level because the required table value
needed for significant was 3.166 for df 2 and 56 and the obtained values were greater than that of
required table value. So the scheffes post hoc test was applied.
CONCLUSION
It was found that the High intensity walking group (HIWG) showed better result on the
variables Muscular strength and Cardio respiratory endurance for middle aged men.
It also concluded that the Low intensity walking group (LIWG) marked better performance on
Muscular endurance among middle aged men.
REFERENCE
1. Franceschini M et al Cost of walking, exertionaldyspnoea and fatigue in individuals with
multiple sclerosis not requiring assistive devicesJRehabil Med. 2010 Sep;42(8):719-23.
2. Rampello A et al Effect of aerobic training on walking capacity and maximal exercise
tolerance in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized crossover controlled study
PhysTher. 2007 May;87(5):545-55.
3. Gremeaux V et al Does eccentric endurance training improve walking capacity in patients
with coronary artery disease? A randomized controlled pilot study ClinRehabil. 2010
Jul;24(7):590-9.
4. Morton RD, et al Heart rate prescribed walking training improves cardiorespiratory fitness but
not glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes J Sports Sci. 2010 Jan;28(1):93-9.
5. Starholm IM Energy expenditure of transfemoral amputees walking on a horizontal and tilted
treadmill simulating different outdoor walking conditions ProsthetOrthot Int. 2010
Jun;34(2):184-94

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Relationship of Physical Fitness, Anthropometric Variables


and Body Composition Factors of Parallel Bars Performance
in Men Artistic Gymnastics
By
Arif Ali Khan,
Director of Physical Education Ghousia College of Engineering, Ramanagaram, Affiliated to
Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. Karnataka, INDIA.
Srinivasa. R,
Professor, University College of Physical Education, Jnana Bharathi, Bangalore University,
Bangalore. Karnataka, INDIA.
ABSTRACT
Objectives: To investigate the relationship of physical fitness, anthropometric variables and
body composition to performance in men artistic gymnastics. Method: 60 male gymnasts
performance were assessed on all the six apparatus participated in 46th Junior National
gymnastics Championship held at Manipur, India. The article is presented to bring out the result
of Parallel bar performance of the gymnasts. The first and foremost variables to predict the
parallel bars compulsory of the gymnasts was hip Flexibility with correlation and co-efficient of
404 with contribution of 14.8%, followed by Arm span with correlation and co-efficient of .542
and contribution of 26.9%. Height with the correlation and co-efficient of .591 and contribution
31.4%, and contribution of endurance of arm strength 37.7%/. 21 variables entered for optional
exercises of the gymnasts, only 4 variables best predicted in parallel bars optional performance
of gymnasts. They are Arm girth, Hip flexibility, Abdominal strength, and Dynamic balance.
The foremost variable that predicts the Parallel bars optional performance was Arm girth with
the correlation coefficient of .588 with the contribution of 33.4%, followed by Hip flexibility
with the correlation coefficient of .683 and contribution of 44.7%, Abdominal Strength with the
correlation coefficient of .726 and contribution of 50.2%, and Dynamic balance with the
correlation coefficient of .756 and contribution of 54.0%. The statistical methods that employed to
analyze the data are: i) Descriptive statistics ii) Regression-Stepwise multiple. iii) SPSS statistical
package was used for analysis and interpretation of data.

Keywords: Relationship, Anthropometry, Parallel bars, Men Artistic Gymnastics.


INRTRODUTION
Gymnastics is a sport in which over 30 million people participate in over 80 countries.
These participants are either artistic gymnasts, sports acrobats or rhythmic gymnasts (Only
females participate in rhythmic gymnastics). The Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG),
the international governing body for the standardization of competitive gymnasts, reviews and
update their code of judging every four years. Hence, performance demands on gymnasts are
continually changing to meet the new code requirements. Thus, children begin gymnastics
training at younger and younger ages, as it takes about 6-10 years for a gymnast to pass through

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
the ranks to the elite level. Men artistic gymnastic consist of a variety of skills on six apparatus
i.e., floor exercise, pommel horse, roman rings, table vault, parallel bars and horizontal bar.
Indeed there is a diverse amount of literature on issues related to talent selection, training
and skill development in gymnastics. It is not possible within the scope of this review to discuss
the pertinent literature. By measurement of anthropometric, physical and psychological variables
attempts have been made to predict gymnastics talent in junior level. Novak and his colleagues
considered that gymnastic performance was most dependent upon agility, flexibility,
coordination, rhythm and timing as well as specific gymnastic skills.
Other research has suggested that the extra muscle on the chests, particularly of male
gymnasts, impinges upon a compliant thorax so reducing the gymnast's expiratory reserve volume
and vital capacity. Nevertheless, this decrease in lung efficiency does not appear to be a limiting
factor in their performance as aerobic endurance is not an important component of gymnastics.
Bale and Good way, in their review of performance variables associated with the
competitive gymnast, commented that male gymnasts generally reach their peak of performance
in their early twenties, whereas female gymnasts tend to reach their peak in their mid-to-late
teens. Moreover, female gymnasts are typically younger, lighter and shorter than gymnasts of
two decades ago, with this more slender physique reflective of the biomechanical advantage
gained while performing high risk acrobatic skills common to contemporary gymnastics.
Accordingly, the physique most advantageous to perform these tricks has resulted in a propensity
to the prepubertal female physique.
SELECTION OF SUBJECTS
To achieve the purpose of the study the investigator has selected male gymnastic players
participated from 16 States of India in Junior National Championship. Out of 124 gymnasts (total number
of gymnasts participated) only 60 Gymnasts was taken into consideration those who had qualified some
compulsory exercise to optional exercises. The data was collected during the 46th Junior National
Gymnastics championship held at Manipur. All the gymnasts shown great interest and well cooperated
during the course of conducting various tests related to the study. Also coaches and judges helped the
researcher while giving the required information and final score secured by the gymnasts.
STATISTICAL METHODS APPLIED
Following statistical methods were employed in the present study to analyze the data
1. Descriptive statistics
2. Regression-Stepwise multiple
3. SPSS statistical package was used for analysis and interpretation of data

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h, Physical Education
E
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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 20
015- June 2015
2

A:

RESUL
LT AND DISCUSSION
N
Parallel ba
ars Compullsory Exerccises

Variab
bles Entered
d and Removed in thee Stepwise Multiple
M
R
Regression
A
Analysis
Model

Variables
s Entered

R2

Adjuste
ed
R2

Std. Error of
the Estimate
E

Hip flexib
bility

.404

.163

.148

1..7023

Arm span
n

.542

.294

.269

1..5768

Height

.591

.349

.314

1..5277

Enduranc
ce of Arm
Strength

.647

.419

.377

1..4564

Out of 21 variablees entered, only for variables best predictedd performannce in paraallel bars off
m span, heigght and enduurance of aarm strength
h. The firstt
gymnassts. They arre hip Flexiibility, Arm
and forremost varriables to predict
p
the parallel bars
b
compuulsory of thhe gymnasts was hipp
Flexibillity with corrrelation annd co-efficieent of 404 w
with contribbution of 144.8%, follow
wed by Arm
m
span with
w
correlattion and coo-efficient of .542 annd contribuution of 266.9%. Heigh
ht with thee
correlattion and coo-efficient of
o .591 and contributioon 31.4%, and
a contribbution of en
ndurance off
arm strrength 37.77%/ Rest of
o the conntribution ffor the perrformance was
w unacco
ounted for.
Remainning 17 vaariables diid not preedict the performanc
p
ce of gym
mnasts. Thee graphicall
represen
ntation preddicts as follo
ows:

o Contributioon by Predicttor Variabless for Parallel Bars-Compu


ulsory
Extent of
HF = Hip
p Flexibility; AS = Arm Span,
S
HT = Height
H
and PU
U = Push Ups (Endurance
e of Arm strrength)

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 20
015- June 2015
2
B:

Parallel ba
ars Optiona
al Exercises

Variablees Entered an
nd Removed in
i the stepwisse multiple reegression ana
alysis
Va
ariables
E
Entered

Mo
odel

R2

Adjuste
ed
R2

Std
d. Error of
o
the
e Estimate

Arm
m girth

.588

.346

.334

.9027

Hip flexibility
y

.683

.466

.447

.8225

.726

.528

.502

.7806

.756

.571

.540

.7504

Abdominal
Stre
ength
Dyn
namic
bala
ance

3
4

e
onlly 4 variablles best preedicted perfformance off gymnasts.
All the 21 variables entered,
They arre Arm girrth, Hip flexxibility, abddominal strrength, andd Dynamic balance. Thhe first andd
foremosst variable to predict the
t Parallel bars optionnal of the gymnasts
g
w
was Arm girrth with thee
correlattion coefficient of .5888 with the contribution
c
n of 33.4%,, followed bby Hip flexxibility with
h
the corrrelation coefficient off .683 and contributioon of 44.7%
%, Abdomiinal Strengtth with thee
correlattion coefficcient of .7226 and conntribution oof 50.2%, and Dynam
mic balancce with thee
correlattion coefficcient of .7556 and conntribution of
o 54.0%. Rest
R
of thee contribution for thee
perform
mance was unaccounteed for rem
maining 17 variables did
d not preedict the performance
p
e
gymnassts. The grapphical repreesentation predicts
p
as follows:
fo

o Contributioon by Predicttor Variabless for Parallel Bars-Optional


Extent of
AG = Arrm Girth; HF
F = Hip Flexib
bility, SU = Sit
S Ups and DB
D = Dynamicc Balance
Pa
ar alle l Bar s
80.00
70.00
57.10

60.00
50.00
29.40

31.40

2. A r m Lengt h

3 Hei ght
3.

50.20

46.60

41.90

40.00

34.60

30.00
20.00

16.30

10.00
0.00
1. Hi p Fl ex i bi l i t y

4. Endur
n
anc e of
A r m S t r engt h

Compul sor
ry

1. A bdomi nal

L
P ower
2. Leg

3. Runni ng

4. Hi p

S peed

Fl ex i bi l i t y

S t r engt h
Opt i onal

Only foour variablees (Hip flexxibility, arm


m length, height
h
and Endurance of Arm Sttrength bestt
predicteed the com
mpulsory perrformance and 4 variaablesarm girth, Hip flexibility, Abdominall
strengthh and dynam
mic balance, are best prredicted thee optional peerformance..

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CONCLUSION
Purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of physical fitness, anthropometric
variables and body composition factors to performance in parallel bar performance in men
artistic gymnastics. All selected physical, anthropometric variables and body composition factors
almost equally predicted the Compulsory and optional performance is rejected, since only eight
(4+4) variables Hip flexibility, arm length, height and push-ups i.e Endurance of Arm strength
are best predicted compulsory and four variablesarm girth, Hip flexibility, Abdominal Strength
and dynamic balance, are best predicted the optional exercises performance in national level
gymnastics competition.
REFERENCES

1. Alfonso L. De Garay, Louis Levine, J.E. Lindsay Carter, Genetic and Anthropological
Studies of Olympic Athletes. (London: Academic Press Inc., 1979), p.73.
2. Bajin, B. Identification program for Canadian female gymnastics. In: World
Identification Systems For Gymnastics Talent, B. Petiot, J.H. Salmela, & T.B.
Hoshizaki (Eds.). Sport Psyche Editions: Montreal, Canada, 1987, pp. 34-44.
3. Bale, P. and J. Goodway. Performance variables associated with the competitive
gymnast. Sports Med. 10,3:139-145, 1990.
4. Bartlett, H.L., M.J. Maricem, And E.R. Buskirk. Body composition and
expiratory reserve volume
in female gymnasts and runners. Med.Sci. Sports
Exerc. 16,3: 31-315, 1984.
5. Lindner, K.J. And D.J. Caine. Physical and performance differences between
female gymnasts competing at high and low levels. J. Hum. Movement Studies.
23: 1-15, 1992.
6. Novak, L.P., W.A. Woodward, C. Bestit, And H. Mellerowicz. Working
capacity, body composition and anthropometry of Olympic female athletes. J
Sports Med. Phys. Fitness. 17: 275-284, 1977.
7. Salmela, J.H. And G. Regneir. A model of sport talent detection. Science
Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport. October, 1983.
8. Salmela, J.H., B. Petiot, And T.B. Hoshizaki (Eds.). Psychological Nurturing
And Guidance Of Gymnastics Talent. Montreal, Canada: Sport Psyche Editions,
1986.

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Influence of Sports Participation on Physical, Psychological


and Socio-Psychological Aspects of Sports in India
1

S Muniraju1 and R Nagesha2

Assistant Director, Department of Physical Education & Sports,


Govt. Sri Krishnarajendra Silver Jubilee Technological Institute, Bangalore
2
Physical Education Teacher, Govt. High School, Doddagolharahatti, Bangalore

ABSTRACT
Sports is more than a fashion, it is a new reality. Today sports have gained considerable, social,
economical
and
political
importance
It is not important to make an individual just a literate, but he should be made Socially, Physiologically &
Psychologically adaptable and resourceful through proper education. Experiences gained through
participation in sports like sympathy, co-operation, responsibility, abiding to rules & regulation helps not
only in gaining social values but also plays a very important role in behavioral changes of an individual.
Participation in sports activities removes the inferiority complex in an individual and makes him move
with the main stream of society. Through this type of involvement the social evils like untouchability,
discrimination of caste, creed, color, race & religion will be overlooked.
In the present
study an attempt is being made to know the physical, psychological and socio-psychological
considerations for sports developments in India through sports participation. For the study, the author
selected Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological Aspects as one of the variable for which a
sample of 500 respondents at different levels of sports were considered. The study was descriptive in
nature and the samples were randomly selected, with age group being below 20years to above 40 years.
More Physical, Psychological & Socio-psychological changes were observed from the study, which had a
huge influence on aspects viz, social values, tolerance, acceptance, behavior, habits & attitudes etc when
it was statistically analyzed using percentile technique.
Key Words: Social, Physical, Psychological, Socio-Psychological
INTRODUCTION

Sports is a reflection of society and in many respects, Society is a reflection of


sports
"Sports can keep you physically healthy"
Sport is a universally spoken language and can be a highly effective means of providing a sense of
structure in emergency situations which otherwise might appear chaotic. There is substantial evidence that
engagement in sport can have a tremendous healing power for those suffering from physical and
psychological trauma and stress-related anxiety. Through regular scheduled activity, children and adults
can begin to regain a sense of security and enjoy periods of respite from the often-overwhelming
challenge of reconstruction. The relationship between the mind and the body has been studied from a
dualistic perspective from the earliest of times in which the Greek and Hebrew philosophers viewing the
mind and body as two very distinct entities. However, since then, most philosophers and researchers have
taken a holistic perspective, considering the mind and the body to be interrelated, inseparable entities. The
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study throws a clear insight on the Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes through sports
participation in India.
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of participating in sports and games over the decade
in society as a whole and individual in particular. The study further reveals the changes/transformation
happened in the Indian society through sports participation and also the contribution of Physical,
Psychological & Socio-Psychological aspects in bringing about social transformation in Indian society.
Objectives of the Study:
To observe the Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes through

sports

participation
To eradicate Social inequality and to develop social habits and attitudes through participation in
sports
Limitations of the Study:
The study is limited to Physical, Psychological, and Socio-Psychological changes, occurred in the field of
sports in the past few years through sports participation.
Delimitations of the Study:
The study is delimited to the literature available through primary and secondary data including,
documentations, papers, journals, and media i.e., print & visual.
The study is delimited to the data obtained from the respondents through questionnaire
The study is also delimited to sportsmen, coaches, Physical directors, administrators and
academicians.
Hypothesis of the Study
It is hypothesized that:
1. Sports has influenced in bringing Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes of an
individual through sports participation in Indian society.
2. Sports has influenced in bringing about Social, Tolerance, Acceptance, Behavioral, & Attitudinal
changes through sports participation in India.
Methodology
In this section, the research design, selection of variables, selection of samples, construction of
questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, collection of data and statistical procedure adopted for
the analysis of data have been depicted.
Research Design
The researcher, after careful and critical study of the available literature and discussions with the experts
in the area of sports and physical education, decided to use a descriptive/survey method for the study.
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Selection of Samples
Samples were chosen from different communities belonging to various sports disciplines in consultation
with the experts in the field. The samples selected for the study were as below;
1. Sportsmen (Men & Women) of International, National, State, University repute etc. 2.Coaches from various
sports disciplines of International, National, State, University repute etc. 3.Physical Directors of various colleges.
4. Administrators and managers of various sports organizations & associations. 5. Academicians of various
sports and other institutes and 6. Student Community.
Distribution of Samples: It may be observed from the below table that, 925 questionnaires were distributed to
the respondents out of which 570 filled in responses were received but only 500 samples were considered for the
study.
Table 1: Sample Distribution

Questionnaire
Distributed to
Sportsman

Coaches

80

58

50

Physical Directors

95

55

50

Academicians

110

52

50

Administrators

90

60

50

Students

350

235

200

925

570

500

S.N

TOTAL

No. of Questionnaire
Distributed
200

No. of Filled in
No of Samples
Responses Received Considered for the Study
110
100

Table 2: Age Wise Distribution of Samples


S.N
1
2
3
4
5
6

Age-Wise Distribution of Respondents


Below 20years
21 to 25years
26 to 30 years
30 to 35 years
35 to 40 years
40 and above
Total

176
95
46
50
36
97
500

35.20
19.00
09.20
10.00
07.20
19.40
100.00

S.N = Serial Number, N = No of Respondents, P = Percentage

Age group to which the respondents belong has clearly been shown in the table 2. It is clear from the table
that most of the respondents are in the age group of below 20 years representing 35.20%. Nearly 95
respondents(19.00%) belong to 21-25years age group, a few respondents (46) are in the age group of 2630years representing 9.20%, while 50 respondents are between the age group of 30-35years representing
10.00%, just 36 respondents belong to 35-40 years category with 7.20% and 97 respondents fall under 40
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and above age group scoring 19.40% Thus, a majority of the respondents covered for the study belong to
the age group below 20years (35.20%), 21-25years (19.00%), and 40 and above (19.40%) representing an
overall percentage of 73.6%
Selection of Variables
For the purpose of the study survey method was employed and the variables used for the
study have been listed; 1. General Factors 2. Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological factors. Each
variable comprised of a required number of questions with options for the respondents to answer. Based
on which the tabulation and analysis were done using the percentile technique followed by interpretation
of the data. The Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological section contains 02 Questions (1-2). Q.N
1 and 2 are Y/N type with 2 sub questions 1a and 2a. Q.N. 1a.contains 6 statements and Q.N. 2a. contains
4 statements. The sub questions have varied no of answers. Against each statement 3 point scale has been
given. The respondents have marked () against the option they agree most to give their reply on a 3 point
scale.
Construction of the Questionnaire
To obtain data pertaining to the study, a questionnaire was constructed. The questionnaire consisted of 26
questions pertaining to the study to obtain relevant information. For the construction of questionnaire,
standardized procedure was adopted by using following steps:
Initial Framing of the Questionnaire, Trial Run, Tabulation of the Questionnaire, and Re-writing of the
Questionnaire.
Data Analysis and Interpretation:
The data received from 500 respondents were analyzed with percentile technique and each variable
observed were clearly depicted in the respondents table with, suitable graphical representation.
Table 3

S.N Do you agree that sports bring about changes in an individual?

Yes

499

99.80

No

0.20

No response

0.00

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, T = Total, P = Percentage

It is clearly observed from Table 3. Do you agree that sports bring about behavioral changes in an
individual, about 499 (99.80%) respondents answered YES and just 01 (0.20%) respondent replied
NO

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Table 3a
S.N

If yes, what are the changes brought about?

(i)

Physical changes

(ii)

Psychological changes

(iii)

Social changes

(iv)

Attitudinal changes

(v)

Changes in his visions and ideas towards the


democratic life

(vi)

Any Other Pls. Specify __________

NA

PA

FA

T/P

7
(1.40)
16
(3.20)
16
(3.20)
14
(2.80)
18
(3.60)
3.60

174
(34.80)
181
(3.20)
215
(43.00)
202
(40.40)
205
(41.00)
41.00

318
(63.60)
302
(60.40)
268
(53.60)
283
(56.60)
276
(55.20)
55.20

499
(99.80)
499
(99.80)
499
(99.80)
499
(99.80)
499
(99.80)
99.80

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage.


S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Not Accepted
Partially Accepted
Fully Accepted

Significant associations have been observed for Tables 1 and 1a. Do you agree that sports bring about
behavioral changes in an individual?
For the option Physical Changes, 318 (63.69%) of the respondents opined Fully Accepted followed by
174 (34.80%) who opted Partially Accepted and a meager 1.40% of them replied Not Accepted. From
the statement Psychological Changes it is clearly evident that, 60.40% of the respondents opted Fully
Accepted while 36.20% opined Partially Accepted whereas only 3.20% of the respondents chose Not
Accepted
Table 4

S.N

Do you agree that sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of


an individual?
Yes

462

92.40

No

38

7.60

No response

0.00

Total

500

S.N = Serial Number, T = Total, P = Percentage

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
It is clear from Table 2. Do you agree that sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual?
92.40% of the respondents answered YES while 7.60% of the respondents replied NO
Table 4a:

S.N If yes, is it by protecting an individual from?

NA

PA

FA

T/P

(i)

Anti social elements

46
(9.20)

254
(50.80)

162
(32.40)

462
(92.40)

(ii)

Unfair play

38
(7.60)

241
(48.20)

183
(36.60)

462
(92.40)

(iii)

Drug abuse

35
(7.00)

225
(45.00)

202
(40.40)

462
(92.40)

(vi)

Any Other Pls. Specify _________

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage.


S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage

300
Not Accepted

200

Partially Accepted

100

Fully Accepted

0
1

It is clearly shown in the table significant associations have been observed for Table 2. Do you agree that
sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual? and Table 2a, if yes, is it by protecting an
individual from?
For the statement, Anti-Social Elements, 50.80% of the respondents have opined Partially Accepted
followed by 32.40% who replied Fully Accepted while only 9.20% of the respondents marked Not
Accepted. The Table clearly depicts that, for the statement Unfair Play, 48.20% of the respondents
marked Partially Accepted while 36.60% of them answered Fully Accepted whereas 7.60% replied
Not Accepted
Significant differences have been observed for the statement Drug Abuse Nearly 45.00% of the
respondents opined Partially Accepted followed by 40.40% who answered Fully Accepted and few
respondents replied Not Accepted

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FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

1. It is observed from the present study that 99.80% of the respondents accepted the question Do you
agree that sports bring about changes in an individual? in Table No. 3. This statement correlates with
the statement of the writer, who points out that, like religion people turn to sports when they need
something to believe in if they are feeling down and hopeless. He also says, a perfect parallel can be
drawn from religion to the world of sports. Sports can lift the spirits of a fan or athlete. Which is why
there are so many people who participate in some kind of sport activity Hence, it is clearly evident
from the above statement that, the second hypothesis is accepted.

2. It is evident from the present study that 99.80% of the respondents accepted the question Do you agree
that sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual? in Table No. 4. The question
concurs with the opinion of Loy John Wed, The author accounting the range of questions that arises is
very broad in such a social field as physical culture and sport believes that Sports sociology will in
such a way with the help of socio-psychological knowledge be able to contribute substantially to the
discovery of social laws governing the behavior of individuals, teams and sports groups of various
branches. Hence, it is clearly evident from the above statement that, the first hypothesis is accepted.
Summary: Sport has emerged in the last half of the twentieth century to become one of the most
pervasive social institutions in contemporary Indian society. The study was conducted to analyze the
Physical, Psychological and Socio-Psychological changes occurred through participation in sports and
games over the decade in the society as a whole and individual in particular. To sum up, it is evident
from the study that, though sport has been instrumental in the transition of the Indian society to a
larger extent, a need to be focused into, modified and achieved in order to reach new heights and yield
better results.
Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study and on the basis of the results and findings
the following conclusions have been drawn:
1. The study brings out that a maximum number of respondents agreed that Sports bring about
behavioral changes in an individual It is quite evident that the sportsmen are bound to be very strong
not only physically but also socially, attitudinally and psychologically. For instance; Marian Jones,
the champion athlete returned her Olympic medals which she won accepting the truth that she had
doped which a common man would have disagreed in doing so. This incident clearly shows the
character and attitude which the sportsman is bound to possess.
2. The present study states that all the respondents agreed that Sports participation keeps an individual
healthy and fit. It is very much true that people have realized the importance of health and fitness as
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many diseases and disorders have been the talk of the generation. The major concern of the present
generation is not job nor money but it is Health & Fitness The anxiety and stress are two common
problems which the people of present generation are prone due to workload and sports is the only
medium to overcome such problems. Exercises stimulate various internal organs and develop
antibodies in the body. It also acts as therapy and helps in removing ailments of the body.
Recommendations: In the light of the conclusion and findings of the study following recommendations
have been made:
1. Physical Education should be made mandatory in the curriculum which will help generate both
interest and participation in sports through which healthy future citizens are produced.
2. The ethics, values & philosophy of sports should be taught from the elementary level including
the bibliography of great achievers in sports
3. Sporting activities must be made an essential tool for social integration. Social values, tolerance,
acceptance, behavior, habits & attitudes etc can be achieved mainly through sports where equal
opportunity is given to all without discrimination of caste, creed, color, race & religion etc which
will contribute for growth of sports in the country
REFERENCES

Books:
1. Dunning, Eric 'A Selection of Reading' in Sociology of Sports Taylor & Francis group (Rout
ledge), 2003
2. Eldon, Synder E and Elmer Spreitzor Social Aspects of Sports Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
USA, 1989
3. Freeman, H William Physical Education and Sport in a Changing Society New Delhi Reprint,
Surjeet Publications, 1988
4. John Wed Loy, Sports Culture and Society Mc Milan Company, London, Page 29, 1970
5. Natan Alex Sport and Politics in Sports Culture and Society Loy John Wed, Mc Milan,
Toronto, 1969
6. Roger C Rees and Andrew W. Miracle Hand book of Sports Studies 2000 Chapter 17
Education and Sports 2000

Papers and Website:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Advani, Pankaj, Times Sport - Times of India, Bangalore, 01.01.2008


Baby Cyriac Biju, Times Sport - Times of India, Bangalore, 31.12.2009
Bangalore Times, Times of India, Bangalore, 29.12.2007
Damania, Mehernaaz, Bangalore Times - Times of India, Bangalore, 29.12.2007
Dravid, Rahul , Times Sports - Times of India, Bangalore, 29.04.2010

6. europa.eu.int/comm/sport/ sport-and/social/social_overview
7. Figel, Jan - European Year of Education through Sport, Brussels, 2 December 2004
8. Millet,Nisha,If I had rupees 50 lakhs to spend, Times Sport, Times of India, 6.10.2007
9. sports.indiapress.org/development.php

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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015

Impact of Different Modes of Circuit Training on Anaerobic


Power of Adolescent Boys
1

Martin Babu Panackal1 & George Abraham2


Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala,
INDIA
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Annamalai
University, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to find out the impact of different modes of circuit training
on anaerobic power of adolescent boys. To achieve the purpose forty five adolescent boys (n =
45) were selected at random as subjects. Their age ranged between 14 and 17 years. They were
randomly divided into three different groups such as a stationary circuit training group (SCTG),
moving circuit training group (MCTG) and control group (CG) of fifteen (n= 15) subjects each.
The training groups were undergone stationary circuit training and the moving circuit training
programme for the respective duration. The third group was acted as a control, and they did not
involve any further activity apart from their regular routine. The criterion variable selected for
the present study was anaerobic power and it was measured by using the standard test of
Margaria-Kalamen test. The training duration was restricted for twelve weeks and three sessions
in the week. The data were collected on anaerobic power for the training groups and the control
group before and after the training duration. The collected data were analyzed statistically by
using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffes post-hoc test was used to test the paired
mean differences. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05 in all aspects. The result of the study
shows that the stationary circuit training and the moving circuit training have significant
differences (p 0.05) in anaerobic power as compared with the control group. However, there
was no significant difference (p 0.05) in anaerobic power between the training groups.
Key Words: Anaerobic power, repetition circuit training, running circuit training.
INTRODUCTION
Circuit training is a type of exercise program where one does a series of time exercises at a fairly
rapid pace, with a brief period of rest in between each exercise. Circuit training workouts may
target the entire body or just one specific area, such as the arms, legs, or chest. In addition,
circuit training workouts may focus on strength training, aerobics, or a combination of the two;
the possibilities are virtually limitless (Miller, 2014). Circuit training is several kinds and its
usage is differing according to the needs and situation.
The stationary circuit can be done individually, or in a group, and should take about 10 minutes
to finish. Beginners should take a 30 to 45 second rest after each exercise and a 3 to 5 minute rest
after each circuit. Intermediate exercisers should not rest after each exercise, but can rest 3
minutes after each circuit. While advanced exercisers should not rest until they have completed
at least 2 circuits (Simonson, 2010).
Moving circuit is done outdoors on flat ground or on a track, and can be done individually or in a
group. Mark out a distance of 200 metres, then complete 30 seconds of each exercise and walk or
run 200 metres between each exercise until the rotation is completed. Beginners can walk the
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Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
200 metres in between each exercise to catch their breath and prepare for the next exercise, while
advanced exercisers should run the 200 metres (Brad, 2013).
The Margaria-Kalamen test was developed specifically to assess aerobic power of subjects. It
involves the measurement of time required for a subjects movement through a fixed vertical
distance. In this test, it is the time required to run upstairs at maximal speed, taking two steps at
a time. The time is measured for two strides (from when one foot touches the second step until it
lands again four steps higher on the sixth step). This time is typically less than two seconds. And
the values are applied to a formula for the calculation (Van, 2007). The formula for the test is
Anaerobic Power (W) = mass (kg) x acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) x stair height (m) / time
(s). Where the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
For the purpose of the present study, forty five adolescence boys students (n = 45) were studied
in 9th to 12th standard in Chidhambaram city, Tamil Nadu State, were selected as subjects and
their age were ranged 14 to 17 years. They were divided into three equal groups of fifteen each
in strength of two training groups and one control group. The training groups were underwent
twelve week training package for three sessions per week. The moderate intensity was given to
the subjects. The criterion variable was used to measure anaerobic power and the test was used to
measure it, Margaria-Kalamen test. The test procedure involved the measurement of time
required for a subjects movement through a fixed vertical distance. In this test, it is the time
required to run upstairs at maximal speed, taking two steps at a time. The time is measured for
two strides (from when one foot touches the second step until it lands again four steps higher on
the sixth step). This time is typically less than two seconds. And the values are applied to a
formula for the calculation. The formula for the test is Anaerobic Power (W) = mass (kg) x
acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) x stair height (m) / time (s). Where the acceleration due to
gravity is 9.8 m/s2. The data were calculated by using the formula, and ANCOVA was applied as
a statistical tool for the study. Schefees test was used as a post-hoc test to find out the paired
mean difference. The level of significance was fixed at 0.05 in all cases.
CIRCUIT TRAINING STATIONS AND EXERCISES
Exercises
No.
Stationary Circuit Training Group
1

Squat Jumps

Walking Lunges

Standard pushups

Twist Crunches

Calf Raises

Jumping Jacks

Bench Dips

Push ups

Abdominal Crunches

High knee running

Jump Rope

Medicine ball catches

Bench Dips

Squat Jumps

Military Press

Crunches

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table -1
Analysis of Covariance of the Anaerobic Power of Training Groups and the Control Group
Test

SCTG

MCTG

CG

SOV

SS

df

MS

Mean

121

121.4

124.8

125.37 2

62.68

SD

5.73

7.56

5.90

1749.7 42 41.66

Mean

127.13

124.9

121.1

275.87 2

Pre test

1.50

137.9
3.36*

Post test
SD
Adjusted
Mean
Post test

5.73

7.56

5.73

128.1

125.6

119.4

1721.1 42 40.97

561.9

792.4

41 19.32

280.9

14.53*

*Significant F = (df 2, 42) (0.05) = 3.22; (P 0.05) F = (df 2, 41) (0.05) = 3.23; (P 0.05)

The analysis of covariance on anaerobic power of the pre, post and adjusted post test mean
scores of experimental groups and the control group have been analyzed and presented in Table
1. The above table indicates that the pre test F value on anaerobic power was 1.50 which was
lesser than the table value of 3.22 at 0.05 level of confidence. Hence there was no significant
difference in the pre test data of experimental and the control groups. The analysis of the post
and adjusted post test mean data reveals that F value of 3.36 and 14.53 respectively, which was
higher than the table F, hence there exist significant difference in anaerobic power between the
experimental and control groups. Further to determine which of the paired means has a
significant improvement, Scheffes test applied as a post - hoc test.
Table - II
Scheffes post hoc test for the mean difference of Adjusted post test of Anaerobic Power
Adjusted Post Test Mean
MD
SCTG

MCTG

CG

128.08

125.66

2.42

128.08

119.41

8.67*

125.66

119.41

6.25*

*Significant at 0.05 level of Confidence

68

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N 2349 72
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ISSN
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h, Physical Education
E
& Iron Ga
ames
Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 20
015- June 2015
2
Table II
I shows tthat, the addjusted posst-test meaan differencce in anaeerobic power betweenn
stationaary circuit trraining grouup and the control
c
grouup was 8.677; it was greeater than th
he confidentt
intervall value of 44.07. So there was a significant improvemeent betweenn the station
nary circuitt
trainingg group andd the controol group onn anaerobic power. Thhere was noo significantt differencee
betweenn the stationnary circuitt training grroup and thee moving circuit trainiing group onn anaerobicc
power. If the meann difference of moving circuit trainning group and the conntrol group was 6.25, itt
was greeater than the confideence intervval of 4.07. Hence thhere was a significantt differencee
betweenn these grouups on anaeerobic poweer.. The pree, post and adjusted poost test meaan values off
experim
mental grouups and thhe control group of cardiovascular endurance was graphicallyy
represen
nted in the Figure
F
1.

130
128
126
124
122
120
118
116
114

AdjustedPostTest
P
PostTest
PreTeest
SCTG

MCTG
PreTest

CG
PostTest

AdjustedPo
ostTest

Figure 1: The pre, post


p and adjjusted postt test mean values of experiment
e
tal groups
a the con
and
ntrol group
p on Anaero
obic Powerr
Regularr exercise hhelps indiviiduals manaage and expand their physical ennergy, prev
vent fatigue,
and susstain engaggement in those
t
thingss that reallyy matter too them (Litttle et al., 2010). Thee
present study aimeed to analyzze the differrent styles of
o circuit traaining on annaerobic poower among
g
the seleected subjeccts of adolescent boys. The result of the studdy indicates that, both the
t selectedd
circuits training meethods are provided
p
beetter result iin anaerobicc power as compare to
o the controll
group. The study of Selda et
e al. (2013) concluddes that thee involvement in circuit trainingg
improvees the qualiity of anaerrobic capaccity among the wheelchhair basketbball playerss. Jouaux ett
al. (201
10) stressedd out the im
mprovement of anaerobbic power due
d to circuuit training in
i his studyy
among the soccer players. Thhe studies of
o Zarzeczzny et al. (22013), Johnnson et al. (2014) alsoo
concludde that the aactive invollvement in circuit
c
trainning improvves the quality of anaerrobic powerr
of the selected
s
subbjects. The present study concludes that the different sttyles of circcuit trainingg
also im
mprove the quality of anaerobic power amoong the selected subjeects and thee repetition
n
circuit training
t
method is one of the bestt methods im
mprove the quality of aaerobic pow
wer than thee
runningg circuit traiining methoods.

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CONCLUSION
It was concluded that the stationary circuit training and the moving circuit training have
significant improvement as compared with the control group of anaerobic power of the selected
subjects. There was no significant difference of anaerobic power in between the training groups.
REFERENCES
1. Brad.
(2013). Circuit Training and Circuit Training Workouts, Sports injury
management.
2. Johnson, S., Sivakumar, M., & Rajendran, K. (2014). Influence of plyometric training
circuit training and weight training on leg strength back strength anaerobic power among
inter collegiate volleyball players. International journal of recent research and applied
studies, Vol.1 (3), pp 45-49.
3. Jouaux, T., Dierking, J., Murray T., Lamber,t C., & Swank, A. (2010). Aerobic and
Anaerobic Performance Changes following Three Different Soccer Training Phases.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
4. Little, J. P., Safdar, A., Wilkin, G. P., Ranopolsky, M. A., & Gibala, M. J. (2010). A
practical model of low-volume highintensity interval training induces mitochondrial
biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. J Physiol. Vol. 588, pp
101122.
5. Miller, B. (2014). Circuit Training, Edited By: Andrew Jones.
6. Selda Basar., Nevin Ergun., & Kezban Yigiter Bayramlar. (2013). A Comparative Study
of Muscle Strength and Anaerobic Power of the Young National and National Junior
Wheelchair Basketball Players. Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,
V. 59, pp. 325-9.
7. Simonson, S. (2010). Teaching the resistance training class: A circuit training course
designed for the strength and conditioning coach/Personal trainer. Strength and
Conditioning Journal, 332 (3), pp. 90-96.
8. Van Praagh, E. (2007). Anaerobic fitness tests: what are we measuring? Journal of
Medical Sport Science, V. 50, pp. 26- 45.
9. Zarzeczny, R., Podlesny, M., & Polak, A. (2013). Anaerobic capacity of amateur
mountain bikers during the first half of the competition season. Journal of Sports. V. 30,
pp. 189- 194.

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A Study on Movement Speed of Male Basketball Players


M.A.Bari

FerojSayyed

Head & Associate Professor,


MaulanaAzad College.
Aurangabad .Maharashtra (India)
Maharashtra, (India)

Head Dept. of Physical Education& Sports,


VinayakraoPatilMahavidyalaya,
Vaijapur.Dist.Aurangabad

Abstract
Basketball is a game of movements. Players should have running speed to move forward,
sideward and backward both for offence and defense. Successful performance and basketball
requires agility and coordinative abilities facilitate rapid changes in direction, sudden stops,
bends, twist, falls, and dives. It is essential for every player to play the match with various types
of movements for forty minutes, with two minutes quarter & five minute half time brake, with
varying pace from slow to fast, according to the situation of the ball, as well as opponent
movement, which requires endurance capacity. The movement speed the ability to execute a
movement with high speed and can be measured by the time taken to complete the movement.
The movement speed depends upon technique, explosive strength, flexibility and coordinative
abilities.
Key Words: Movement, Speed, Basketball, Division level.
INTRODUCTION
One of the important qualities required for a standard sports performance for any competition is
the movement speed. In other words of intensity or frequency in marking uninterrupted
movement result in the degree of achievement during the course of competition. This may also
be considered as one of the principal criteria of physical fitness a primary requirement.
Basketball has been developed into highly competitive sports which require a high level of
physical fitness and psychological fitness. The game itself, at a high level of competition,
requires quick and sudden movements in varied direction and fast reactions. Successful play
basketball is not the outcome of power alone but it is the sum of power, technical and tactical
abilities during the games. Modern game of basketball is characterized by accuracy and
differentiation which can be facilitated by absolute self-control; maximum concentration and
precision. The movement speed the ability to execute a movement with high speed and can be
measured by the time taken to complete the movement. The movement speed depends upon
technique, explosive strength, flexibility and coordinative abilities. An attempt has been made to
explore the potentiality of athletes already they have and to identify those qualities actually
required for a standard performer in Basketball.

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Purpose of the study The purpose of the study is to relate the variables, conducive to
movement speed, and to find out the differences of the same variables, ifany, between the
District and Division level Basketball players.
Methods 46 Basketball players were randomly selected from Aurangabad city basketball club
.out of forty six subjects twenty three players has participating in District level competition and
remaining twenty three players participating in division level competition .the age of the subjects
were 15 to 20 years.
All the subjects were administered Vertical Jump & Medicine Ball throw .the weight of medicine
ball 3 kg to measure leg and arm explosive strength, wells sit and reach test to measure hip
flexibility, modified sideward leap test to movement test to measure reaction time, Ashtons
Practical Rhythm test to measure rhythmical movement in response to selected musical the
technique in performing various skills of basketball by the subject, four qualified basketball
coaches were appointed to evaluate the techniques of the subject. The average score was
computed of the evaluated score of the judges.
FINDINGS
In order to compare the movement speed, techniques, explosive strength (vertical jump and
medicine ball throw) flexibility and coordinative abilities (balances, and reaction time) between
district and division level the t-ratio was computed. From the computed results (vide Table -1),It
was revealed that that there were no significant differences in hip flexibility and reaction time,
between the two groups, whereas in case of technique vertical jump, medicine ball throw
,balance and rhythm there were significant differences between the subjects of district and
division
Table-1
T- Ratio of movement speed variables between district and division level of basketball
players
Variables
Mean
Mean
SE
t-ratio
District level Division level
players
players
Technique ( score-100)
58.10
48.37
2.39
4.07**
Leg Explosive strength (Vertical Jump, cm)
54.89
49.43
2.58
2.12*
Arm explosive strength (Medicine ball
11.28
9.91
0.67
2.04*
throw-cm
Hip flexibility (Sit and Reach-cm)
38.78
39.16
1.75
0.22
Balance (Score)
45.60
40.83
2.18
2.19*
Rhythm (Score)
74.78
66.74
3.71
2.17*
Reaction time (cm)
28.53
30.99
2.11
1.17
t (51.12)
t ( 48.90)
Denotation: SE = Standard error of difference between two means
**Signification at .01 level of confidence,
*Signification at .05 levels
= inverse W score ,
Degree of freedom (N-2) =44
To maintain a relative distance between the observed scores, to combine and interpret the
observed scores the universal method of the norms of Z-score has been adopted.
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Table -2
The coefficient of correlation between the variables of movement speed
Variables

Technique

Technique
-------Explosive Strength
--------Flexibility
--------Coordinative abilities
---------**Significant at .01 level of confidence
Degrees of freedom (N -2) = 44.

Explosive
Strength
.076
----------------------

Flexibility
.085
-0.133
------------

Coordinative
abilities
.496**
.080
.055
----------

The coefficient of correlation has shown table-2 between the variables of movement speed i.e.
technique, explosive strength, flexibility and coordinative abilities. The coefficient of correlation
between technique and coordinative abilities was highly significant at .01 level of confidence.
The coefficient of correlation between other variables was not significant; only the coefficient of
correlation between flexibility and explosive strength was negative.
Table-3
The coefficient of partial correlation between the variables of movement speed
Variables

Technique
-1
And
Explosive
Strenght-2

Technique
-1
And
Coordinative
Abilities-4

Technique
-1
And
Coordinativ
e Abilities-4

Explosive
Strength-2
And
Flexibility3

Explosive
Strength-2
And
Coordinative
Abilities-4

Flexibility-3
And
Coordinativ
e Abilities-4

Technique-1
-----0.140
0.049
0.015
Explosive
--0.076
0.493**
--0.066
Strenght-2
Flexibility-3
0.088
-0.493**
-0.088
--Coordinativ
0.042
0.066
---0.138
------e Abilities-4
** Significant at .01 level of confidence.
Degree of freedom (N-2) = 44
The Coefficient of partial correlation shows on table -3 between the variables of movement
speed. From table -3it shows that the coefficients of partial correlation between the variables of
explosive strength upon technique and coordinative abilities, and flexibility upon technique and
coordinative abilities were highly significant of .01 levels of confidence .The coefficients of
partial correlation among the other variables were not significant. Negative coefficient of partial
correlation was found between the variables of technique upon explosive strength and flexibility
and coordinative abilities upon explosive strength and flexibility.

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Table-4, The coefficient of partial correlation between the variables of movement speed
Variables
Flexibility-3 And
Explosive Strength-2
Explosive Strength-2
Coordinative
And
And
Abilities-4
Coordinative Abilities-4
Flexibility-3
Technique-1 &
--------0.051
Explosive
strength-2
Technique-1 &
--------0.072
Flexibility-3
Technique-1 &
-------------0.489**
Coordinative
Abilities-4
**Significant at.01level of confidence.
Degrees of freedom (N-2) = 44.
The coefficients of partial correlation between both technique and coordinative abilities with
explosive strength and flexibility were highly positive significant i.e., significance at .01 level of
confidence. Partial correlation between other variables was positive but not significant (vide
table no-4)
DISCUSSION
From the result obtained from the data it appears that score of movement speed of district level
basketball players are better than the score of divisional level players, a highly significant
difference of means in technique, explosive strength of leg and arm , balance and arm rhythm
were evident at .05level and .01 level of confidence. This is envisaged as an indication speed of
the district level basketball players. A significant coefficient of correlation between technique
and coordinative abilities ( r = 496) has re-affirmed the interdependence of the variables in this
study.Despite certain apparent analogy no significant partial correlation of explosive strength and
flexibility, explosive strength and coordinative abilities, flexibility and coordinative abilities with
technique was found. In determining the coefficient of partial correlation a significant
relationship between technique and coordinative abilities with explosive strength and flexibility
was found (R14.23 = 489). A significant relationship between technique and coordinative
abilities (r =.496) has already been obtained (vide table-2).The partial coordinative abilities with
explosive strength (r = .493) was also significant (vide table -3).The same relationship was
obtained with flexibility (vide table-3).Thus, the relationship of technique and coordinative
abilities with explosive strength conforms and re-establishes the significant inter-dependence
among all these variables.
References
1) Nelson,J.K.(1982), Practical Measurement to Evaluation in Physical Education. Surjeet Publication,Delhi110 007.
2) Dick,W.F.(1978).Sports Training Principles.LepusBooks,London.
3) Singh,H.(1984).Sports Training : G.T.M.T.NIS,Patiala.
4) Matveyev, L. (1981). Fundamentals of Sports Training. (Moscow: Progress Publishers,).
5) Rothstein, R.L.(1985). Research design and statistics in phy education, (New York: McGraw Hill Co.).
6) Coleman,B. (1975). Basketball Techniques, Teaching & Training. London: Keye& Ward.
7) Marley, R., &Doust, J. (1997), Strength and Fitness Training for Basketball, A Sports Science Manual
Leeds, The National Coaching Foundation. 5, 23-26.
8) Ambler, V. (1979).Basketball the Basic for Coach and Player. London: Faber & Faber.
www.eou.edu/bsather
9) http:\\www.basketball-plays-and-tips.com

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Effect of Aerobic Exercises on Vital Capacity and Body


Mass Index of Adults
Rajkumar.P.Malipatil **Mrs.Savitri.S.Patil
*Asst.Prof, Dept of studies in Physical Education and Sports Science,
K.S.W.University, Bijapur.
*Research Scholar, Dept of Physical Education and sports Science
Abstract
The study was intended to assess the Effect of Aerobic Exercises training on Vital Capacity
and Body Mass Index of Adults. To fulfill the require data 30 adults students have been selected with
simple random method and dived into two group as experimental and control considering their pre test
score, after that 6 week systematic training was given to experiment group, data pertaining vital
capacity was measured with help of Dry Spiro meter and body mass was collected and calculated by the
formula of Wall scale and collected score of pre and post test of both variables was tested by using the
t test, Vital Capacity mean difference between the pre-test and post-test of Experimental group is
significant, because the calculated t-value of 3.369 is greater than the tabulated t-value of 2.144 at 0.05
level of confidence of 14 degree of freedom. And Body Mass Index mean difference between the pretest and post-test of Experimental group is not significant, because the calculated t-value of 0.248 is less
than the tabulated t-value of 2.144 at 0.05 level of confidence of 14 degree of freedom. The study
reveals that there is significant effect of six week aerobic training on vital capacity it was noticed by
experiment group comparing their control group, but whereas the there is no effect of training on the
body mass index of adults, it shows that the period of the training is not sufficient to produce changes in
the body mass index of the adults, because adults body nature and structure need high intensive training
program to produce their effect on the body

Keywords: Aerobic exercise, vital capacity and Body Mass Index of Adults
INTRODUCTION
Physical fitness is the natural outcome of rich program of physical education. It is the
sum of the condition of ones body judged in terms of age, height, weight and chest expansion in
term of freedom from diseases, constitutional affection or bodily in
firming full physical
development, vigor vitality and radiant health should be seen in one whom is physically fit. In
terms of usefulness physical fitness has been defined as total functional capacity of an
individual to perform a given task (Gatechell,1976). Since physical education has been
particularly concerned with the character development aspect of games and sports, no one would
doubt that sports are a special type of games. Which was defined by Lay as "Any form of playful
competition whose outcome is determined by physical skill, strategy or chance employed singly
or in combination" (Lay 1969).
Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise is physical exercise of relatively low intensity and long duration, which
depends primarily on the aerobic energy system. Aerobic means "with oxygen", and refers to the
use of oxygen in the body's metabolic or energy-generating process. Many types of exercise are
aerobic, and by definition are performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of
time.

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Physical Fitness
The concept of physical fitness has become a point of attention in our country. The Govt.
as well as the people is becoming aware of its importance in present day living because fitness is
essential to increase productivity power of labor in every respect of development. Various
schemes have been launched by the Govt. of India to improve physical fitness of its citizen and
to create interest among the people towards such activities which may ultimately improve their
fitness. Mans personality is the total picture of his organized behavior. For the development of
personality, the individual should be physically fit, mentally alert, emotionally matured and
socially adjusted.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The researcher is the student of physical education and is well aware that exercises plays
very important role in maintaining the physical fitness of an individual. Also the researcher has
a little bit knowledge about the aerobic exercise. The researcher used to check the effect of
aerobic exercise on physical fitness of adults. All these created interest in the researcher. Under
taken the problem title on "Effect of Aerobic Exercises on vital capacity and body mass index
of Adults".
1.2 objective of the Study
The objective of the study is as follows:
1. To assess the effect of aerobic training on vital capacity and body mass index
1.3 Significance of the Study
The study w would be significant in the following aspects-

i) The result of this study may help the adults to know the aerobic effect on physical fitness.
ii) To devise specific aerobic training programmed for adults.
1.4 Hypothesis
Researcher hypothesized that; there would be significant difference as a result of aerobic
exercise on vital capacity and Body mass index of adults
1.5 Delimitation

i. The study was delimited to the 30 adults of Yavatmal city.


ii. The age of subjects was ranging between 18 to 25 years.
iii. The study was confined only to the general aerobic exercises.
iv. The study was further delimited to physical fitness variables i.e. Vital capacity, Body
Mass Index (Height & Weight).

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1.6 Limitation

i. The daily routine life of the subjects was not considered.


ii. Other physical activities by the subject which was not taken under the control of
scholar.

iii. Control on diet of the subjects was not taken under the control of scholar.
iv. Medical treatment on the subjects was not considered.
METHODOLOGY
This chapter includes the information regarding selection of subjects; sources of data,
sampling procedures, selection of test, criterion measures, collection of data and administration
of test have been described.
2.1 Selection of Subjects
30 adults were selected as subjects from Yavatmal city and their age was ranging
between 18 to 25 years.
2.2 Sampling Procedure
Simple random sampling method was employed for the selection of subjects for the
study.
2.3 Formation of Groups
The researcher divided the 30 adults into two equal groups on the basis of the mean
performance of pre-test score. The groups were equated and distributed into two homogeneous
groups namely.
1) Experimental Group 2) Control Group
2.4 Criterion Measures
Following criterion measures was selected for testing the hypothesis on present study.
1.
Vital Capacity
2.
Body Mass Index
2.5 Administration of the Test
3) Vital Capacity:
Purpose: To measure the Vital Capacity.
Instrument: Dry spirometer
Procedure:
After a couple of normal breath the subject was asked to take a deep breath and exhale
into spirometer as forcefully as possible.
Scoring: The highest of the three consecutive trials with rest of one minute after each trail was
recorded in the unit of liter.

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4) Body Mass Index:
a) Weight - Total body weight was recorded in Kg by using standard weighing machine.
b) Height- Height was recorded in centimeters and converted into meters by using Wall Scale.
Body Mass Index (BMI) =
BodyWeight(Kg)

Purpose: To measure the Body Mass Index of the subjects.


Instruments: Calibrated weighing machine.
Procedure: The weight of the subject was taken by laboratory anthropometric weighing
machine. The subject wearing shorts and vest only stood at the center of the machine and the
weight was recorded from the indicator needle of the dial.
Scoring: The weight was recorded in kilograms.
2.6 Training Program
6 Week Training Program
Week
I
&
II
Week
III
&
IV
Week
V
&
VI
Week

Aerobic Exercise & Duration


Walking
10 min
Slow Running
5 min
Running
5 min
Cycling
5 min
Dancing
5 min
Walking
15 min
Slow Running
8 min
Running
8 min
Cycling
8 min
Dancing
8 min
Walking
20 min
Slow Running
10 min
Running
10 min
Cycling
10 min
Dancing
10 min

Recovery
In every
exercise
1 min
rest
In every
exercise
3 min
rest
In every
exercise
5 min
rest

Total Volume
Approx. 40 min

Approx. 1 Hr

Approx. 1 Hr
20 min

Warm up and cool down was 15 min and 10 min on every day. Training program was 6
days in a week and on Sunday total rest.
2.7 Collection of Data
For data collection two test was conducted 1) Pre-test: A Pre-test was conducted for
knowing the equal distribution of both the group ie. two Experimental groups and Control group.

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2
2) Post-test: After six weeks training prrogrammed final test was
w conducted for the final resultt
f
put for
f analysis..
collecteed pre-test aand post testt data was further
1. ANA
ALYSIS AND
A
INTER
RPRETAT
TION OF DATA
D
The ressearcher coonducted a study
s
on eff
ffect of Aeroobic exercisses on Physsical Fitnesss of Adults.
For the purpose off this study the
t researchher collectedd data on 30
0 adults of Y
Yavatmal ciity.
3.1 Ana
alysis of Da
ata
To determiine the signnificant diffe
ference in thhe means of Physical Fitness
F
adu
ults between
n
the twoo groups as well as bettween the pre-test
p
and post test means
m
of expperimental and controll
group t--test was em
mployed.
3.2 Lev
vel of Signifficance
To find ouut the significance diff
fference, levvel of signiificance waas set at 0.05 level off
b
shownn in the folloowing tablees,
confideence. Findinngs of the staatistical anaalysis have been
Table-1
1. Summarry of Mean
n, Standard
d Deviation
n and t-ratio
o for the Data on Vita
al Capacity
y
B
Between
thee Means off Pre and Po
ost-tests off Control G
Group
Standaard
Standard
Meean
Teest
Mean
t-ratio
Error
Deviaation
Diifference
Prre-test
968.133
28.6933
10.153
0.880@
8.9934
Poost-test
977.067
26.8900
@ Not significant at 0.05 leveel

Tabulatted t0.05 (14) = 2.144

fference betw
ween the pre-test andd
The above table 3 shoow that, Vittal Capacityy mean diff
n significaant, because the calcullated t-valuue of 0.880 is less than
n
post-tesst of control group is not
the tabu
ulated t-valuue of 2.144 at 0.05 leveel of confideence of 14 degree
d
of frreedom.
Graphical Representation on Prre-Test, Post Test of Vital
V
Capaccity of conttrol Group..

100%
Posttest
50%

Pretest

0%
Mean

StandardD
Deviation

Tablle-2, Summ
mary of Mea
an, SD and t-ratio forr the Data on
o Vital Caapacity Betw
ween the
Means of
o Pre and Post-tests
P
oof Experimental Grou
up
Teest

Mean

Prre-test
Poost-test

968.867
996.200

* Signifficant at 0.005 level

Standaard
Deviaation
22.0133
22.4255

Meean
Diifference

Standard
Error

t-ratio

277.333

8.114

3.369*
*

Tabbulated t0.05 (14) = 2.144

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The above Table 7 shhow that, Vital
V
Capacitty mean diffference beetween the pre-test
p
and
d
69 is greaterr
post-tesst of Experiimental grouup is signifficant, becauuse the calcculated t-vaalue of 3.36
than thee tabulated t-value
t
of 2.144 at 0.055 level of coonfidence of 14 degree of freedom
m.
Graphiical Repressentation on
n Pre & Po
ost Test of V
Vital Capacity of Ex
xperimental Group.

1
100%
50%

996.2

22.425

968.867

22.013

Posttest
Pretest

0%
Mean

StandardD
Deviation

Table-3
3, Summarry of Mean, SD and t--ratio for th
he Data on BMI Betw
ween the Meeans of Pree
and Post--tests of Co
ontrol Grou
up
Teest

Mean

Prre-test
Poost-test

20.689
20.620

Standaard
Deviaation
1.158
1.085

Meean
Diifference

Standard
Error

t-ratio

0.0069

0.410

0.167@

@ Not significant at 0.05 leveel

Tabulatted t0.05 (14) = 2.144

The above table 3 show that, Boddy Mass Inddex mean diifference beetween the pre-test
p
and
d
post-tesst of control group is not
n significaant, because the calcullated t-valuue of 0.167 is less than
n
the tabu
ulated t-valuue of 2.144 at 0.05 leveel of confideence of 14 degree
d
of frreedom.
Graphiccal Represeentation on
n Pre & Posst Test of BMI
B
of Con
ntrol Group
p.

100%
%
50%
%

20.62

1
1.085

20.689

1
1.158

Postteest
Pretest

0%
%
M
Mean

StandardD
Deviation

Tablee-4, Summ
mary of Mea
an, Standarrd Deviatio
on and t-ra
atio for the Data on Bo
ody Mass
Index B
Between thee Means off Pre and P
Post-tests off Experimental Group
p
Teest

Mean

Prre-test
Poost-test

20.446
20.310

Standaard
Deviaation
1.565
1.428

Meean
Diifference

Standard
Error

t-ratio

0.1136

0.547

0.248@

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@ Not significant at 0.05 level

Tabulated t0.05 (14) = 2.144

The above Table 8 show that, Body Mass Index mean difference between the pre-test and
post-test of Experimental group is not significant, because the calculated t-value of 0.248 is less
than the tabulated t-value of 2.144 at 0.05 level of confidence of 14 degree of freedom.
DISCUSSION ON FINDINGS
Insignificant difference found between pre test and post test of Control group in Vital
Capacity (t = 0.880) and Body Mass Index (t = 0.167) because all t values are less than
the tabulated t-value 2.144 at 0.05 level of confidence of 14 degree of freedom.
Significant difference found between pre test and post test of Experimental group in Vital
Capacity ( t = 3.369) because all t values are less than the tabulated t-value 2.144 at 0.05
level of confidence of 14 degree of freedom. But Insignificant difference observed in
Body Mass Index (tab t0.05 (14) = 2.144 > t = 0.248).
4.4 Justification of Hypothesis
Researcher hypothesis stated earlier that, there would be significant difference as a result
of aerobic exercise on vital capacity and body mass index of adults. From the above findings
significant difference observed in a variables of vital capacity but not in Body Mass Index in pre
and post test of Experimental group, . Hence the researcher stated hypothesis of vital capacity is
accepted and body mass index is rejected.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion
On the basis of findings the researcher concluded that,
Insignificant difference found between pre test and post test of Control group in Cardiovascular Endurance, Sit & Reach Test, Vital Capacity and Body Mass Index.
Significant difference found between pre test and post test of Experimental group in
Cardio-vascular Endurance, Sit & Reach Test and Vital Capacity, but insignificant
difference observed in Body Mass Index.
Significant difference examined between post test of Control and Experimental group in
Cardio-vascular Endurance, Sit & Reach Test and Vital Capacity, but insignificant
difference observed in Body Mass Index.
Recommendation
According to conclusion and findings the researcher gives some recommendations as1) Training of aerobic exercise is effective on the Body mass index, and Vital Capacity.
2) If we increase the duration of training program may gives significant difference in Body
Mass Index 3) similar study may conduct on the girls also. 4) Similar study may conduct on
the players also 5) similar study may conduct on different age groups, and 6) similar study
may conduct on different level of players.

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References
1. Deborah B. Dowdy Et. Al. Effect of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular
Function and Body Composition of Middle Aged Women, Research Quarterly, Vol.56, No.3,
March, 1985, p.127.
2. Miller Auderey, Effect of Endurance training on the cardiovascular system and body composition of
sown syndrome adolescents and young adults. Dissertation abstracts international. Vol. 46, No. 6,
December 1985, p.1554-A.
3. P. N. Ghodmare, Effect Of Certain Selected Exercises On The Physical Fitness Of Volleyball
Players, Unpublished Maters Dissertation, (Sant Gadge Baba, Amravati University, Amravati,
1988.)
4. Norris R. et.al., The Effects Of Aerobic And Anaerobic Training On Fitness, Blood Pressure, And
Psychological Stress And Well-Being, School Of Psychology, University Of Birmingham., Vol.34,
No. 4, 1990, pp.367-375.
5. De Geus EJ. Et. al., Regular exercise and aerobic fitness in relation to psychological make up and
physiological stress reactivity, psychosom Med., Vol. 55, No. 4, Jul.-Aug. 1993, pp.347-363.
6. Ashish R. Shah et.al, "Determinants of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Performance in Cystic
Fibrosis", University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, Volume
157, Number 4, April 1998, 1145-1150, http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cg/content/full
7. Trinidad Philomena, Effects Of Theraband Exercises Physiology Skills Training, And Peer
Leadership Program On Selected Measures Of Strength, Flexibility, Cognative Processes, Mood, And
Stress Among Racial Minority Elderly, Dissertation Abstracts International B , Vol. 58, No.10.
April-1998, p.5356.
8. M. Bobo et. al., The Effects Of Long Term Aerobic Dance On Agility And Flexibility, Journal Of
Sports Medicine And Physical Fitness, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1999, p. 108.
9. F. Pigozzi Et. Al., Effects Of Aerobic Exercise Training On 24 Hr Profile Of Heart Rate Variability
In Female Athletes, The Journal Of Sports Medicine And Physical Fitness, Vol. 41, No 1., 2001, p.
101.
10. Dr. V. S. SM. Rao, Rameshpal, Effect Of Breath Holding On Aerobic And Anaerobic Capacities,
Madras, 600 075, INDIA. Yogamimansa, Kavlyadham, Lonavala, (2002) Vol IV, No. 7, p.98
11. J.R. Heath, C.J. Irwin, "An increase in breath-hold time appearing after breath-holding". The Marine
Station, Millport, Scotland, Respiration Physiology, Volume 4, Issue 1, 10 January 2003., pp.73-77
www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/003456876898X
12. Haluk KELE, " Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on the Heart rate-Work rate Relationship and
Estimation of Anaerobic Threshold in Obese Females", Turk J Med Sci. 2006; 36 (3): 165-170
13. Jadho Kamal U., Comparative Study of Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic exercise on cardio-vascular
endurance of leaper school students of Tapowan, Unpublished Masters Dissertation, Sant Gadge
Baba Amravati University, Amravati. 2006.
14. Peter H Klijn, Olga H Vander, Baan Slootweg and Henk F Vanstel, "Aerobic exercise in adolescents
with obesity: preliminary evaluation of a modular training program and the modified shuttle test",
BMC Pediatrics 2007, Vol. 7, No. 19 doi:10.1186/1471-2431-7-19
15. A Shahana, Usha S Nair, S S Hasrani, "Effect of aerobic exercise programme on health related
physical fitness components of middle aged women", British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2010, Vol.
44, Supply 1, p.i19 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.078725.60
16. Butler, et. al., Effect of cardiorespiratory training on Aerobic fitness and carryover to activity in
children with cerebral palsy, International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, Vol. 33, No.2, June
2010, pp.79-103.

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Plyometric helps Jump further and Run Faster


: Theoretical Consideration and Application.
Abdul latif Shaikh,
Sr. Physical Education Teacher, International Indian School,
Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Ph.D research scholar, Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala
University, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India.
Supervision of : Arun F Shinde
Maharashtriya Mandals, Chandrashekhar Agashe
College of Physical Education and research center, Gultekadi, Pune.
INTRODUCTION
Every time a sprinting athlete puts a foot down, they generate an impact of around 2.5 times body weight.
Multiply that by up to 12 during jumps and it's an injury waiting to happen. Plyometrics can train you to
deflect impact from the muscles onto the tendons, which then act like a spring to help launch your next
stride. So you can always ensure that the force is with you! Plyometric training, also known as 'jump
training', has traditionally been reserved for athletes in jump-related or athletics-based sports. This is
mainly due to the similar movements involved in the drills for these two sports but they are also
comparable in terms of the forces impacting on the body.
For example, a sprinting athlete will load around
2.5 times bodyweight during each stride of the
race. During triple jumping this figure increases,
up to 12 times body weight sometimes more at
theelitelevel.Fora75kgathlete,thiscouldmean
around 900kg travelling through the ankle, knee
andhiponeachcontact.

Protect and enhance a dual benefit


To enable a triple jumper to condition their body and cope with the high loads when competing
as well as use them to their advantage they need appropriate plyometric training to
strengthen muscles, tendons and joints and help prevent injury. Achieving this successfully
means that whatever force you put into the ground is used to propel you forward (Newton's 3rd
Law of Motion) hence the incredible feats of athleticism.
Recent research from the University of Technology, Australia, has shown a very high crossover
of plyometric training with sprinting speed. So much so that top-flight clubs are now starting to
use plyometrics to improve speed or jump distance in other sports such as football, basketball
and even cricket.
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Plyometrics what you need to know
What can I expect?
Jump training requires exactly what it says on the jumping. However, it is important that this is
progressed slowly to avoid injury and increase strength over time exactly like your weights
programme in the gym. Typical recommendations suggest that you should be able to squat at
least 1.5 times your body weight. However, this is quite a high expectation for many, so an
added provison here would be to keep the drills low to the ground and short in distance to begin
with.
How do plyo's work?
This is great for athletes because it means that your tendons can literally fire you into your next
stride increasing your sprint speed or jump distance.
In a nutshell, they help to develop stiffness of
muscles during landing, which causes the tendons
to be loaded and stretched instead. Tendons, such
as the Achilles in the heel (illustrated), can deal
with very high loads. When they are stretched,
they will naturally return to their resting length as
quickly as possible just like an elastic band.

How does the energy saving happen?


Because it is the tendon that is mostly responsible for propulsion, the muscle expends less
energy, as all it has to do is stay the same length throughout the movement i.e., muscle
stiffness. It has been documented that, if conditioned correctly, the athlete may be able to
recover around 60% of energy expenditure by effectively using tendons such as the Achilles in
each stride. Thus good plyometric ability also means good resistance to fatigue.
Jump phases The Science
This is all possible because of what is known as the 'stretchshortening cycle'. This process
involves the muscles staying contracted under tension when the balls of the feet land on the
floor, allowing the Achilles to extend (eccentric phase), immediately followed by contraction
(concentric phase) to cause the recoil effect. If this happens fast enough under a quarter of a
second, it allows the tendon to absorb the force by stretching and then recoiling to its resting
length, thus firing you forward or upward. If it doesnt happen fast enough or if the heel
touches the ground, the stored energy in the tendon is simply lost as heat.
Exercises and progressions
These exercises and progressions will help develop your plyometric ability and thus sprint
speed and jump distance via muscle stiffness and improved tendon elasticity . Remember, low
and short is the key to begin with. Once you have mastered this, you can progress to higher and
longer jumps. I recommend that you perform two or three sets of 610 repetitions to begin
with. You can add more to your programme as you improve, but ensure no heel touches and
allow full recovery between sets.
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Contracted under tension when the balls of the feet land on the floor, allowing the Achilles to
extend in eccentric phase, immediately followed by contraction in concentric phase to cause the
recoil effect. If this happens fast enough under a quarter of a second it allows the tendon to
absorb the force by stretching and then recoiling to its resting length, thus firing you forward or
upward. If it doesnt happen fast enough or if the heel touches the ground, the stored energy in
the tendon is simply lost as heat.
Ankling : Knees slightly bent and directly under hips.
Drive up into the air, lifting toes up whilst in the air
and forcibly slapping down onto balls of the feet
during ground contact. Repeat in quick succession
with limited time on the ground.
Jumptobox:Chooseanappropriatelysizedbox.Froma
standing position, perform a countermovement and
explosively triple extend. Land on the centre of the box.
Land on the balls of the feet. As far as possible, do not
allowheelstomakecontactwiththebox.

Jump lunges : Start with split-feet position. Jump


upwards and switch leg position before landing.
Landing should be on balls of the feet.

REFERENCES
1.
Lockie RG, Murphy AJ, Schultz AB et al. The effects of different speed training protocols
on
sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field
sport athletes. J Strength Cond
Res, 2011 Sep 9 [epub ahead of print].
2.
Baechle TR, Earle RW. Essentials of strength training and conditioning (2nd Edition).
Human
Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois, 2008.
3.
Verkhoshansky YV. Quickness and velocity in sports movements. IAAF Quart: New
Stud
Athlet, 1996, 11, 2937.
4.
Bing Yu and James G. Hay. Angular Momentum and performance in the Triple Jump: A
Cross-Sectional Analysis, J. of APPLIED BIOMECHANICS, 1995, 11, 81-102
5.
Jarmo Perttunen et al. Biomechanical loading in the triple jump, Journal of Sports
Sciences, 2000, 18, 363 - 370.

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EFFECT OF PLAY THERAPY ON KINESTHETIC


PERCEPTION AND COORDINATIVE ABILITIES OF
MENTALLY RETARDED STUENTS
Mr. Abdul Rafeeque T.C
Ph.D. Scholar, Dept. of Physical Education, Pondicherry University

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of play therapy on kinesthetic perception and
coordinative abilities of mentally retarded students. The investigator selected Thirty subjects (N= 30) for
the present study from the mental age group of 10-15 years from the Fr. Tezzas training centre for
mentally retarded, Kuttiyamvayal, Wayanad. The subjects were equally (n= 15) divided in to two groups
namely, experimental group and control group. The experimental group underwent play therapy three days
in a week i.e. on Monday, Wednesday and Friday for a period of six weeks. The control group was not
involved in play therapy training. The play therapy training included Progressive walking, stair climbing,
skip rope, hop, throwing ball, walking over 5m beam and low organized game. The total duration of warm
up, play therapy training and cool down sessions was of 45 minutes approximately. The training load was
kept gradually increased by the use of more vigorous activities after every week. The session started with
stretching exercises, jogging and rotation of joints. The intensity was brought down with cool down
session. All the subjects were tested on the kinesthetic perception and coordinative abilities test before and
after six weeks play therapy training program. kinesthetic perception was tested by Distance perception
test and coordinative ability was measured by Catching Test item & Throwing a ball at the target. The data
pertaining to selected variables were analyzed by Independent t test to determine the difference between
initial and final mean for experimental control groups. The level of significant chosen was 0.05 levels. In
the post test group, significant difference was seen in both abilities test.

Keywords: Play therapy, Kinesthetic perception, Coordinative abilities


INTRODUCTION
The Play is the most complete educational process of the mind. Physical activity should
be increased by reducing sedentary time (e.g., watching television, playing computer video
games or talking on the phone). It should be fun for children and adolescents. Parents should try
to be role models for active lifestyles and provide children with opportunities for increased
physical activity.
Play therapy is generally employed with children aged 3 through 11 and provides a way
for them to express their experiences and feelings through a natural, self-guided, self-healing
process. As childrens experiences and knowledge are often communicated through play, it
becomes an important vehicle for them to know and accept themselves and others. Play Therapy
can also be used as a tool of diagnosis. A play therapist observes a client playing with toys (playhouses, pets, dolls, etc.) to determine the cause of the disturbed behavior. The objects and
patterns of play, as well as the willingness to interact with the therapist, can be used to
understand the underlying rationale for behavior both inside and outside the session.
When an individual learns physical movements, this leads to changes in the motor cortex.
The more practiced a movement is, the stronger the neural encoding becomes. Psychomotor
learning is not limited to the motor cortex, however. Behavioral examples include throwing a
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ball, and playing a musical instrument. In psychomotor learning research, attention is given to
the learning of coordinated activity involving the arms, hands, fingers, and feet, while verbal
processes are not emphasized.
A disability is any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits an individual
person in one or more of his/her major life activities (such as walking, talking, breathing or
working). Infants, children and youth with disabilities need opportunities to participate in
physical education as much as their non-disabled peer. Quality physical education programs
stimulates the central nervous system for optional growth and development, assist in bone
mineralization, promotes the maintenance of lean body tissues, reduces obesity, improves the
function of heart and develops movement skills that are necessary for an active lifestyle.
The term retardation means a slowing or a delay. In mental retardation a persons ability
to learn is slow and limited. However, the mentally retarded person thinks and feels emotions
and has the basis needs for love and self worth. Mental retardation is a term used when a person
has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of
him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more
slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak,
walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have
trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some
things they cannot learn.
Mental retardation begins in childhood or adolescence before the age of 18. In most
cases, it persists throughout adult life. A diagnosis of mental retardation is made if an individual
has an intellectual functioning level well below average, as well as significant limitations in two
or more adaptive skill areas. Intellectual functioning level is defined by standardized tests that
measure the ability to reason in terms of mental age (intelligence quotient or IQ). Mental
retardation is defined as an IQ score below 7075. Adaptive skills are a term that refers to skills
needed for daily life. Such skills include the ability to produce and understand language
(communication); home-living skills; use of community resources; health, safety, leisure, selfcare, and social skills; self-direction; functional academic skills (reading, writing, and
arithmetic); and job-related skills. There are many degrees of mentally retarded. Classifying
people only as mentally retarded tells about these individuals and the level of their ability to
function. Three common classifications used include: (a) Mild (b) Moderate (c) Severely/
profoundly.
METHOD
Subjects
The investigator selected 30 mildly and moderately mentally retarded boys and girls
between the mental age groups between 10-15 years from Fr. Tezzas training centre for mentally
retarded, Kuttiyamvayal, Wayanad. The subjects were equally divided into two groups. The
subjects were equally (n= 15) divided in to two groups namely, experimental group and control
group.
Variables
Play therapy was considered as the independent variable and the following dependent variables
were selected for the study (1) Kinaesthetic perception (2) Coordinative abilities.
Experimental design

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In this study single group design was used to determine the effect of play therapy on
kinesthetic perception and coordinative abilities of mentally retarded students.
Treatment
The group had to undergo training thrice in a week for a period of six weeks. Each
training session stretched from 1.30 p.m. to 3.00 p. m., which started with warm up, play therapy
activity and warm down session. The warming up session lasted for 15-20 minutes. It consisted
of target running, stretching, rotation of joints and jumping swinging action.
The work out series was for 30-45 minutes. This session consisted of different play
therapy activities performed with the soul purpose of developing their Kinesthetic Perception and
Coordinative abilities. The play therapy activities Progressive walking, stair climbing, skip
rope, hop, throwing ball, walking over 5m beam and low organized game such as musical
number, chain tag, squat out etc. After the work out session a few minutes was spend for
limbering down. This consisted of same activities as the warm up session but performing at a
decreased intensity for 10 minutes.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The pretest and posttest data pertaining to the study was collected by employing distance
perception test and upper-limb coordination test for moderately mentally retarded. The mean
difference between the initial and final scores of the group were compared by using dependent t
test. The level of significance chosen was at 0.05 level of confidence.
Result
It is evident from table-1there was no significant difference between the pre and post test
performance on kinesthetic perception, since the calculatedt value 2.17 is higher than tabulated
t value of 1.761 at 0.05 level of significance with 14 df as compared to control group. There
was significant difference between the pre and post test performance on catching test item, since
the calculatedt value 2.09 is higher than tabulated t value of 1.761 at 0.05 level of
significance with 14 df as compared to control group. And also significant difference between the
pre and post test performance on throwing test item, since the calculatedt value 3.21 is higher
than tabulated t value of 1.761 at 0.05 level of significance with 14 df as compared to control
group.
Table-1, Mean comparison of Exp group & controll group on dependent variables

Kinaesthetic
perception
Catching
Throwing

Experimental
group

Control group

t- ratio

Pre-test
mean

Post-test
mean

Pre-test
mean

Post-test
mean

Experimental Control
group
group

0.50

0.36

0.49

0.57

2.17*

1.25

3.2
2.0

3.9
3.5

3.2
2.1

3.2
2.5

2.09*
3.21*

0.20
1.33

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Pre and post test mean scores of experimental group and Control Group
5
4
EXP.Pre

Exp.Pst

Cnt.Pre

Cnt.Pst

0
KINESTHETIC
PERCEPTION

CATCHING

THROWING

DISCUSSION
The experimental group was underwent play therapy three days a week i.e. on Monday,
Wednesday and Friday, for a period of six weeks. The total duration of each work out session
including warm up, training & cooling down was of forty five minutes. The control group acted
as the control group and was not involved in any training. From the statistical analysis it is
evident that in the case of kinesthetic perception and coordinative abilities significant changes
were noticed after training. A similar finding was also found by the study conducted by Kanchan
(2009). The subjects involved in the study were very enthusiastic throughout the study simply
because they had not done anything of this nature ever before. The freshness of the training
created a genuine interest and they took up as an activity enjoying it the core.
The result shows that there was significant change in the kinesthetic perception in the
experimental group as compared to control group. In the coordinative abilities, two test items are
included. Catching test and throwing accuracy, the result shows that there was significant change
in both test in the experimental group as compared to control group.
CONCLUSION
Six weeks play therapy training program improved the kinesthetic perception and of
coordinative abilities of mentally retarded students.
REFERENCES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Suzann K. Camphell, Darl W. Vander Linden and Robert.J. Palisano, Physical Therapy for
Children, 3rd Edition, Eleseiver in USA, 2006.
Wilson Kete, Virginio Ryan,Play Therapy, Bailliere Trindall, Elsevier, 2005.
Roshan Meena and Kamal Narayan,Concise Exercise Therapy, Peepee Publication, 2003.
Dr.Devinder K Kansal, Test, Measuremen in Sports Sciences , Delhi, DVS Publication, 1996.
Millar, Pattritia D; Fitness Programming and Physical Disability, Publication for Disabled
Sport USA, 1995.
Gurprect singh, gagandeep randhawa, physical fitness programs for mild mentally retarded
children, scientic journal in sports and exercise, Vol: 3, No.1, New Delhi, 2007.
Mrs. Gunjan bhardwaj, Mr. vikas bhardwaj, effect of recreational programme on physically
disabled children,emerging trends in physical education, Patiala, 2006.
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HUMAN VALUES THROUGH SPORTS: A REVIEW AND


ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN
VARGHESE C ANTONY1 V. LAWRENCE GRAYKUMAR2 JOSSEN C ANTONY3
DEEPENDRA YADAV4 VIVEK KUMAR JAISWAL5
1

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERALS, DHAHRAN, SAUDI ARABIA


2
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYMADRAS, TAMIL NADU, INDIA
3
JAWAHAR NAVODAYA VIDYALAYA, KASARGOD, KERALA, INDIA
4
RANI DURGAVATI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, JABALPUR, INDIA
5
GOVT. RD COLLEGE, MANDLA, M.P. INDIA

Abstract
This paper reviews research on development of human values through sports and its implications
towards the character formation of school children. Sport is more than a physical activity. Sport
means all forms of physical activity which, through casual and organized participation, aim at
expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or
obtaining results in competition at all levels. Schools by their nature are value-bound, value
oriented institutions. Following the Arnolds (1997) notion of sport as a valued human
practice, we examined what are the values sports impart to the children. Taking part in any sport
or physical activity can improve the quality of life; improve physical health, mental health,
counter anti-social behavior. Sports cultivate important good moral values such as generosity,
magnanimity, courage, perseverance, cooperation, self discipline, self esteem, confidence,
loyalty, dedication, sacrifice, teamwork, honesty, fair play, justice, and responsibility. Playfield
is a laboratory to inculcate good human values.
Keywords: values, sports, physical health, mental health.

INTRODUCTION
We have always known that sport is more than a physical activity. The definition of sport is
the broad, inclusive one offered by the Council of Europe (2001): Sport means all forms of
physical activity which, through casual and organized participation, aim at expressing or
improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining
results in competition at all levels. Seefeldt (1987) has enumerated many benefits associated
with participation in any organized sports program. Specifically he proposed that through
participation of sports children (a) develop physical skills that can contribute to a life time of
physical involvement; (b) improve fitness; (c) learn social and emotional skills; (d) develop
moral values; and (e) acquire a better sense of self through increased perceived competence, self
esteem, and self confidence. However, the development of these competencies does not occur
automatically. Plato (1920, p46) said, The moral value of exercise and sports far outweigh the
physical value.
Sports are a reflection of life and most of the time sports are displayed on a public
forum and following good moral values allows you to represent yourself and your team with
honor. Often times in sports decisions are made in a split second and having a strong moral
background allows people to make good decisions even in tough situations. Participating in
sport can improve the quality of life of individuals and communities, promote social inclusion,

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improve health, counter anti-social behavior, raise individual self-esteem and confidence, and
widen horizons (sportscotland, 2003, p7).
Many feel that the sports culture is ideal for character development. Today thousands of
interscholastic and recreational programs viewed as instruments to foster character among
participants (Rudd & Mondello, 2006). Researchers believe the sports environment to be morally
fertile ground, vehicular in its character building capacity to develop socially desired values.
Since 25% of a youths time is comprised of time interacting with adults who are not their
parents, sport presents numerous opportunities to develop socially desired virtues like trust,
loyalty, compassion, integrity, team work, and responsibility (Kleiber & Roberts, 1981;
Masteralexis et al, 2005; Sipes, 1973; Taylor, 1999).
Sports can be a valuable training ground for its young participants because of its capacity
to instill important life lessons (e.g., how to win and lose gracefully, the value of upholding the
spirit of the game, and the benefits of team work) and teach valuable life skills such as taking
initiative, being responsible, solving problems, setting goals, processing feedback, working with
others, regulating ones emotions (e.g., Danish, Petipes & Hale, 1992; Kleiber & Kirshnit, 1991;
Smoll& Smith, 2002).
Sport may provide a context in which youth have opportunities to learn life skills and
other positive attributes that help them thrive away from the field of play (Danish & Nellen,
1997; Jones & Lavallee, 2009). The acquisition of such competencies, assets, values, and life
skills is the essence of Positive Youth Development(PYD). Positive Youth Development is a
strength-based conception of development that can be defined as "the engagement in pro-social
behaviors and avoidance of health compromising behaviors and future jeopardizing behaviors"
(Roth, Brooks- Gunn, Murray, & Foster, 1998, p. 426). There is a belief that through playing
sport youth can learn competencies, assets, values, and life skills that will have a positive
influence on their overall development.
The Surgeon Generals Report on Physical Activity and Health (1996) clearly documents
the benefits of regular physical activity to the health of adults and youth alike. Because sport is a
major type of activity in which youth are involved, it can be considered a viable method of
promoting good health. Sports that are considered to be lifetime in nature are especially
important in meeting national health objectives. In 1997 the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) published Guidelines for Schools and Communities for Promoting Lifelong
Physical Activity. The guidelines note the benefits of regular physical activity in childhood and
adolescence: improves strength and endurance, helps build healthy bones and muscles, helps
control weight, reduces anxiety and stress, increases self-esteem, and may improve blood
pressure and cholesterol levels.
Sport is a valued practice because it is a peculiarly human activity in which values
internal to that activity are discovered and realized in the course of trying to achieve the
standards of excellence that characterize it (Arnold, 1997, p. 14). When sport is pursued for its
own sake, players abide by the rules, and sportsmanship is shown, sports transcend a game and
become a morally just and honorable aspect of life. It is a human practice where individuals are
tested (Ibid, p135).
Historically, the reason educational institutions have adopted athletics as a program is
because, at their best, they promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in
their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation,
perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear (Marino, 2007). Schools by their nature are valuebound, value oriented institutions. Moral education occurs in every activity or educational
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process, consciously and unconsciously (Harris & Hoyle, 1990). The schools like government, is
an institution with basic function of maintaining and transmitting the consensus of values of
society (Power, 1989).
One of the most effective means of promoting physical activity is by integrating it into
universal public education systems. Schools have unique opportunities to provide adequate
physical activity for all young people through compulsory physical education programs, school
sport programs, and after-school leisure-time physical activity initiatives. There is conflicting
evidence as to whether physical activity levels in childhood and youth predict physical activity
throughout life. However, ample participation in play, games and other physical activities, in
school and during free time, is essential for the healthy development of every young person.
Access to safe places, opportunities and time, and positive examples set by teachers, parents and
friends are all part of ensuring that children and young people move for health (WHO, World
Health Report, 2003).
There is a significant amount of evidence to suggest that sport-based programs improve the
learning performance of children and youth, facilitating educational attainment and encouraging
them to stay in school, and those sport-based programs in schools aid in the social development
of young people. This relationship is thought of in different ways. In the most basic way, sport
participation at a young age helps children to learn physical skills that allow them to stay active
later in life (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004).
Research has demonstrated that when fairness, sportsmanship and character development
are systematically and consistently taught to children in sports settings, individual character can
be enhanced as an outgrowth of sports involvement (Beller & Stoll, 1992; Kavassanu & Roberts,
2001).
Following the Arnolds (1997) notion of sport as a valued human practice, we
examined what are the values sports impart to the children.
Physical Health
Sports unique and universal power to attract, motivate and inspire makes it a highly
effective tool for engaging and empowering individuals, communities and even countries to take
action to improve their health. Sport can also be a powerful means of mobilizing more resources
in the global fight against disease, but this potential is only just beginning to be realized.
According to the WHO (2006), experience and scientific evidence show that regular
participation in appropriate physical activity and sport provides people of both sexes and all ages
and conditions, including persons with disabilities, with a wide range of physical, social and
mental health benefits. Physical activity and sport support strategies to improve diet and
discourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs. As well, physical activity and sport help reduce
violence, enhance functional capacity, and promote social interaction and integration.
Because developing countries have relatively limited resources to devote to health care for
people with chronic disease, prevention is the most cost-effective and sustainable way to address
this health challenge. Physical inactivity is the most common of all cardiovascular risk factors
across countries. After tobacco use, inactivity is the greatest contributor to mortality and
morbidity from all causes (Borm & Oja, 2004). Physical activity is, therefore, increasingly
viewed as the least expensive and most effective preventive medicine for combating the
increasing worldwide problem of obesity and, with physical fitness, may represent the most
effective strategy to prevent chronic disease (Giannini, Mohn&Chiarelli, 2006). The benefits of
physical activity in relation to non-communicable disease are irrefutable. These include the
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primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes,
cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis, as well as individual and societal
economic benefits such as reduced health-care costs and increased productivity (Warburton,
Nicol & Bredin, 2006).
Regular participation in sports or physical activity is necessary to maintain an optimal
level of health, performance, and appearance. Researchers have shown that regular physical
exercise enhance the function of the joints, increases the sense of physical being, and promotes
sense of feeling good, increases physical working capacity by increasing cardio-respiratory
fitness, muscular strength and endurance; and decreases the risk of serious diseases that could
lead to an early disability and death. In addition, physical activity and sports provides an outlet
for dissipation of tension and mental fatigue, aids in weight reduction and control, improves
posture, contributes to a youthful appearance, enhances ones self image, and increases general
vitality.
(William, 1990) Because physical inactivity is a primary risk factor driving the global
increase in chronic disease, sport can play a critical role in slowing the spread of chronic
diseases, reducing their social and economic burden, and saving lives. While physical activity
includes a broader range of activities than sport alone (people can be physically active at work or
engaged in domestic tasks at home), direct participation in sport is one of the most enjoyable,
and therefore powerful, means of motivating and mobilizing people to become physically active.
In addition to enhancing overall physical fitness, regular physical activity, active play and sports
can have a positive impact on other major health risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high
cholesterol, obesity, tobacco use and stress. (WHO, 2006)
Physical Activity (PA) confers a positive benefit on health which includes updates in
all-cause mortality and in cardiovascular disease prevention, diabetes, stroke, mental health, falls
and injuries, and in obesity prevention. Recent studies have reinforced our understanding of the
cardiovascular protective effects of moderate PA, with new evidence that walking reduces the
risk of CVD. The evidence base for protective effects of activity for women, older adults and for
special populations has strengthened. Cancer prevention studies have proliferated during this
period but the best evidence remains for colon cancer, with better evidence accumulating for
breast cancer prevention, and uncertain or mixed evidence for the primary prevention of other
cancers. Important new controlled-trial evidence has accumulated in the area of type 2 diabetes:
moderate PA combined with weight loss, and a balanced diet can confer a 5060% reduction in
risk of developing diabetes among those already at high risk. Limited new evidence has
accumulated for the role of PA in promoting mental health and preventing falls (Bauman, 2004).
More recently, the European Commission (2007) released its White Paper on Sport,
explicitly referencing the role of sport in advancing public health, stating that: As a tool for
health-enhancing physical activity, the sport movement has a greater influence than any other
social movement. Sport is attractive to people and has a positive image. However, the recognized
potential of the sport movement to foster health-enhancing physical activity often remains underutilized and needs to be developed.

Obesity
Obesity is defined as the abnormal and excessive accumulation of fat that may impair an
individuals health. In 2005, it was estimated that 400 million people in the world were obese.
By 2015, this figure is expected to rise to 700 million. This trend is largely due to a shift in diet
(to energy dense foods low in vitamins) and decreased physical activity (WHO, 2006). Obesity is
recognized as a medical condition and as a major contributor to a number of serious chronic
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illnesses heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke and cancer. WHO reported that
physical activity, in the context of broader lifestyle changes and healthy eating, can make a
significant contribution to the control and reduction of obesity and associated health risks
(Welk& Blair, 2000).
Cardiovascular Disease
It is now well established that regular physical activity and increased cardio-respiratory fitness
reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in general and of coronary heart disease
mortality in particular.
Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes
There is a strong link between type II diabetes and sedentary lifestyles. Physical activity would
seem a prudent strategy for all people, especially those who are at risk of type II diabetes
(Krisha, 1997; Boule et al, 2002).
Colon Cancer
Evidence linking inactivity and a variety of cancers has grown over the last decade (Thune and
Furberg, 2001). The evidence for a positive relationship between regular physical activity and
reduced risks of colon cancer is convincingand for breast and prostate cancer probable
(Marrett et al, 2000).
Osteoporosis
There is some evidence to suggest that load- bearing/resistance-based physical activity
throughout childhood and early adolescence can contribute to the reduction in the incidence of
osteoporosis (Shaw and Snow, 1995; Puntila et al, 1997; Kemper et al, 2000).
Haemorrhagic Strokes
Although there are many factors that contribute to the incidence of strokes, evidence suggests
that increased left ventricular mass without physical activity results in a high risk of stroke
(Rodriguez et al, 2002).
Mental Health
Mental health is defined by the WHO as a state of well-being in which every individual
realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively
and fruitfully, and is able to contribute to her or his community. Exercise and, by extension, sport
have long been known to produce beneficial effects on mental health, enhance self-esteem, help
to manage stress and anxiety, and alleviate depression (Ruiz, 2004). In patients with psychiatric
disorders, physical exercise has been shown to diminish clinical symptoms, especially for
depression (Knechtle, 2004). More recently, breakthrough research has shown that exercise may
also improve brain functions such as memory and learning and reduce the risk of cognitive loss
through Alzheimers and small strokes (Carmichael, 2007).
Regular participation in sport and exercise programs can play an important role in
supporting the formation of self-concept in adolescents and building self-esteem and selfconfidence in people of all ages (Seiler &Birrer, 2001). While investigations of the short-term
effects of sports show that it largely results in positive mood changes, ongoing physical activity
results in the same improvements to well-being, and improved perception of ones health status
and a higher satisfaction with ones health. All these effects are important determinants of health
because they influence individuals perceptions of their self-worth and their ability to respond to
lifes challenges (Vail, 2005).
Research evidence illustrates that physical activity, and associated processes, can contribute
positively to mental health (with the obvious exceptions of over-training and training addiction)
and have a positive effect on anxiety, depression, mood and emotion, self-esteem and
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psychological dysfunction (SPAG, 1999; Mutrie and Biddle, 1995). However, there are concerns
about how these disputed conditions are defined and measured, and there is a poor understanding
of the mechanisms that underlie the relationship between physical activity and psychological
well-being (Scully et al, 1998; Fox, 1999). Nevertheless, research evidence illustrates the
following: participation in a one-off bout of physical activity can result in a reduction in anxiety
levels and self-reported feelings of increased well-being. Such improvements have been reported
to last for up to three hours after the activity session (Raglin, 1990; Steptoe, 1992). Improved
self-esteem, self-efficacy and perceived competence result from long-term participation in an
exercise programme (King et al, 1989). Roberts and Brodie (1992) found that minor increases in
sporting activity can lead to increases in positive self-assessments.
The Social Nature of Sport
Sports can provide excellent educational opportunities for social development because
many of the social and moral requirements for participation in sports are parallels to how
individuals must function in a law-abiding society. Because sports are so highly valued in any
culture, many parents believe that children should be exposed to organized sports at an early age.
Participation in sports alone does not result in the development of positive social and emotional
characteristics. The positive development of youth in organized sports can only be derived
through sports experiences that foster positive experiences and minimize negative
experiences.Sports contribute to the maintenance and improvement of health, provide a
wholesome leisure-time occupation and enable man to overcome the drawbacks of modern
living. At the community level, they enrich social relations and develop fair play, which is
essential not only to sport itself but also to life in society.
Two different types of character values exist and are evident in sport: social and moral.
Typical social character values include loyalty, dedication, sacrifice, teamwork, and good
citizenship (Lumpkin, Stoll & Beller, 2002), while moral values include honesty, fairness, fair
play, justice, and responsibility. Social values, which are highly esteemed in our society, are
about the real world and how society views the importance of social character.
Sportsmanship and the development of positive character have long been explicit goals of
school sports. A strong belief exists that sport programs have the power to promote the
development of "...sportsmanlike behaviors, ethical decision-making skills, and a total
curriculum for moral character development" (Stoll, 1995, p. 335) and provide a social
environment to acquire personal and social values and behaviors contributing to good character
and good citizenship (Arnold, 1984; Sage, 1998).
Social Health
Sport clearly has the potential to provide a variety of social and recreational networks and a
regular routine, which promotes social interaction elements central to community development,
social inclusion and mental health (Thomas, 1995; Forrest and Kearns, 1999). Coalters (2005)
review essay captures important evidence regarding the role of sport in building and facilitating
social and community inclusion and active citizenship. Sports identifies as educationally useful
leading to desirable social and moral outcomes, such as generosity, magnanimity, courage and
perseverance could be cultivated and developed in sports (Arnold, 1994).
When sport is compared to other forms of socially acceptable activities, it becomes hard to
oppose statements from some sport philosophers and physical educationists such as Arnold
(1992, 1997, 1999), Kirk (2006), Maraj (1965), Schneider (2009) and Siedentop (2002) that there
are few activities or situations in our daily life that demand or teach the virtues that are
commonplace and necessary to partake in sport.
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Research suggests that Canadians see community level sports as benefiting their local
communities in the following ways: offering a source of fun and recreation, reducing crime and
delinquency, bringing people together and building community, and providing a source of
history and local tradition (CCES, 2002, p.3). Sports programs aimed at reducing youth
delinquency work simply by reducing boredom in youth and creating a diversion from less
desirable, sometimes criminal, behaviour (Morris, Sallybanks, Willis &Makkai, 2003).Schneider
(2009) also argued that achieving excellence in sport calls for not only effective skill execution,
but also practicing moral ethos of sport such as honesty, fairness, respect, generosity and
kindness. He maintains that sport participants must adhere to the written rules and the unwritten
rules of sport (the ethos of sport) in which he or she has agreed to participate (Schneider, 2009).
In this sense, Graham McFee (2000) supports Schneiders point by making the distinction
between the actual rules and the spirit of the rules.
Sport and recreation can also help to divert young people from crime and anti-social
behaviours. It can also target those young people most at risk of committing crime and help their
rehabilitation and development. Several policy-related reviews of the potential social value of
sport (Sport England, 1999; Collins et al, 1999; Best, 2001; Department of Culture, Media and
Sport, 1999; Coalter et al, 2000, Cabinet Office, 2002) list the prevention of youth crime as an
issue to which sports can make a contribution, both in terms of diverting young people from
crime and in the rehabilitation of offenders.Ewing et al. (2002, p.36) argued that sport offers a
dynamic domain for moral and character development and expression among youth,
particularly in terms of positive values such as hard work, fair play and an orientation to succeed,
and behavior and social relations.
Physical Activity, Sport and Academic Achievement
There is a widespread assumption that that taking part in sport and other physical activity
results in better academic achievement. The presumed mechanisms underpinning this
relationship vary and include: increased energy derived from fitness; productive diversion
resulting from time away from classroom; reduced disruptive behaviour; improved cognitive
functioning as a result of increased cerebral blood flow or improvement of brain
neurotransmitters; and a relationship between motor and mental skills and increased self-esteem
(Etnier et al, 1997; Lindner, 1999).
However, the factors involved are complex and raise significant issues of measurement.
For example, in a major review of relevant research, Etnier et al (1997) conclude that the largest
measured relationships are obtained from the weakest research designs and the weakest
relationships are found in the most robust research designs.
Sallis et al (1999) illustrate that few relevant research findings are based on standardized,
comparable, tests. Consequently, there is no definitive evidence of a positive, causal relationship
between physical activity/sport and academic achievement. Where such correlations have been
found, the explanation for the nature and direction of cause remains speculative (Etnier et al,
1997; Shephard, 1997; Lindner, 1999; Sallis et al, 1999). However, within this context, there are
some suggestive findings: Thomas et al (1994) conclude that the benefits of regular exercise on
cognitive functioning are small but reliable for reaction time, sharpness and maths. Etnier et al
(1997) found that both short-term and sustained exercise programmes resulted in small positive
gains in cognitive performance (such as reaction time, perception, memory, and reasoning).
Inspections of specialist Sports Colleges in England have shown early signs that examination
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results in physical education and other subjects are improving since physical education and sport
have become central elements of the colleges (Ofsted and the Youth Sport Trust, 2000).
Contrary to the fears of some parents, research undertaken with control groups and using
standardized tests suggests that devoting substantially increased school time to physical
education and sport does not have a detrimental effect on pupils academic performance while
also conferring physical and mental health benefits (Sallis et al, 1999).
CONCLUSION
Scientific and technological developments have led to sedentary lifestyles for many
people. Even as medical advances have found remedies for diseases and extended lifespan, the
quality of life is on the decline as people engage in unhealthy habits and face greater pressures
from the family, society and workplace. Emerging trends show that people know they should pay
more attention to the state of their physical, mental and social wellness. Consequently, the
perception of a healthy person now includes someone with a well-built body who is intelligent
and has strong mental character, morals, sensitivity and social skills. It is important, therefore,
that the PE curriculum in schools is designed appropriately to help develop citizens with these
characteristics as early as possible (Wang et al, 2008).
School sport remains the only universal access point for young people and we are
concerned and hopeful that sports remains attached to the school curriculum whatever changes
may emerge. We hold strongly to the view that quality sport for young people leads to quality
adult sport which will improve the physical, mental and social health children.We are all aware
of the awesome task of educators in todays society. The expression if we stand for nothing, we
will fall for anything applies to the teachers / coaches responsibility to e aware of the
fundamental universal values such as responsibility, respect, honesty, perseverance, selfdiscipline, goal setting, co-operation, fairness and service to others and how those universal
values must be taught, reinforced and modeled.
Sports and education provides a magnificent preparation for life and fosters most noble of
human values. These values include those required to excel in all areas of life, such as
leadership, discipline, teamwork, fair play and consistency. Through an integrated approach
sports generates hope, driving people of all ages to achieve new goals and turn dreams into
reality.We believe that participants can form moral habits and learn moral reasoning skill more
effectively through sport than through any other activities in our life. Taking part in any sport or
physical activity can improve the quality of life; improve physical health, mental health, counter
anti-social behavior. Sports cultivate important good moral values such as generosity,
magnanimity, courage, perseverance, cooperation, self discipline, self esteem, confidence,
loyalty, dedication, sacrifice, teamwork, honesty, fair play, justice, and responsibility that they
can then automatically be transferred and applied to other spheres of life. Playfield is a
laboratory to inculcate good human values.

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Construction of Electronic Digital Equipment to Assess the


Performance of Selected Standard Track Events
V.Ravikumar
Director of Physical Education, Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology
Othakkalmandapam, Coimbatore, India
ABSTRACT
In this push button era every field was automated by the support of computers which is more
accurate and reliable to carry out the work successfully. Hence the present investigator made an attempt
to construct an electronic digital equipment to Asses the timings and position of athletes in various track
events. Now days mostly timings are taken in track events by manually using stop watches, which may
not be very accurate, because stop watches are operated by human beings, such is based on the operating
ability of the timer. (Reaction time, observation sensitiveness, environmental factors, Psychological
aspects, etc.,) every individual has not having same operating ability, which is differ from individual to
individual, and it will having some influence over the final result either positively or negatively it may
prone to some error and will affect the performers timings. To avoid such things Electronic Digital
Equipment has been invented with accurate starting and finishing technique using the following core parts
1. Infra Red Transmitter 2. Infra Red receiver 3. Interfacing Unit and 4. Computer. To obtain scientific
authenticity of the device 24 subjects were chosen from Hindusthan College of engineering and
Technology, Coimbatore and the appropriate data were collected using the newly devised equipment and
stop watches simultaneously while the subjects were running in the 100m race. The collected data were
treated with appropriate statistical techniques and obtained Validity, Reliability and objectivity of the
device.
Key words: IR Transmitter, IR Receiver, Interfacing Unit, Computer, Validity, Reliability, objectivity.

INTRODUCTION
Scientific inventions and explorations enumerable like NANO Technology keep racking
the globe increasingly in unimaginable and incomparable proportions, almost everyday. We
remain pleasantly shocked and stunned by the progress in various fields. We may dare say, not a
minute is spared sans of any, such inventions or at least discoveries.
While all the fields reap the benefit of the scientific benedictions, the investigator taught
to implement such innovations in the field of sports. This line of quixotic thinking motivated
him, consequently born is this device. Blessed by the Olympus, he introduces this approach,
targeting accuracy and precision, promoted by this following gadget Electronic Digital
Equipment to Asses the timings and position of athletes in various track events.
Now days mostly timings are taken in track events by manually using stop watches,
which may not be very accurate, because stop watches are operated by human beings, such is
based on the operating ability of the timer. (Reaction time, observation sensitiveness,
environmental factors, Psychological aspects, etc.,) every individual has not having same
operating ability, which is differ from individual to individual, and it will having some influence
over the final result either positively or negatively, it may prone to some error and will affect the
performers timings.

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To avoid such things Electronic Digital Equipment was invented, and it is having
accurate starting and finishing technique. Hence we can find out perfect timings and position of
the sports man.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The purpose of the study was to construct an Electronic Digital Equipment to assess
timings of selected standard track events.
DELIMITATIONS
The Study was delimited in these following factors. An instrument was
constructed as per the requirement of conducting sprinting events. Twenty four subjects were
used to establish reliability, validity and Objectivity of the instrument.
LIMITATIONS
The following uncontrollable factors associated with the study was accounted as
limitations of this study,
1. The quantum of physical life, Style, Physiological stress and other factors effort were
considered as limitations.
2. The uncontrollable changes in climatic conditions such as atmospheric temperature,
humidity and other meteorological factors during the period of testing and their possible
influence on the test item were considered as limitations.
HYPOTHESIS
It was hypothesized that the newly designed instrument will be valid, reliable and
objective in assessing the timings of the subjects in various selected standard track events.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. This study gives an additional knowledge to the area of research.
2. The results of the study would be useful to coaches and administrators to assess the
performance of players more accurately in standard track events.
3. This study will help the teacher of Physical Education and administrators to assess the
players ability in position wise accurately.
4. This study will help the participants to know their accurate performance.
5. This study will help to reduce the duration (schedule) of the competition.
6. This study will help to know the timings and position of all participating athletes by
single attempt.
METHOD
Details about Electronic digital Equipment
The following are the contributing vital equipments of Electronic Digital Equipment.
1. IR Transmitters 2. IR Receivers 3. Interfacing unit and 4. Computer.
IR Transmitters
The Infra red transmitter promotes the operation with the help of two different kinds of IC 555
special chips that are capable of Infra Red rays production, as soon as power fed. The infrared
rays constructed by the square waves are adjustable to our desired frequency modulation.

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One of the two different categories of IC 555, one category produces the data signals the
other carries the produced data signal to the next stage into the amplifier. This amplifier
equipped with the transmitters, it converts those signals in the form of Infra red rays emission,
through the infrared Light Emitting Diode (LED).
These IR emitted rays unique of their nature, unlike other light rays travel in streamlined
straight lines. The potency of the emitted IR rays permits and accepts required modulation
exemplified through the pictorial circuit representation.
IR Receivers
The IR receivers were placed at the finishing line of every lane over the IR transmitters.
The TSO P17 series receivers were used to receive the IR rays from the transmitters. Since the
transmitters at various lanes are directly focused towards the receivers in the straight line they
accurately and deftly receive the IR signal emission. They initiate their function by converting
the received IR rays into data signal outputs. The TSO P17 series ICs can receive wide range
frequencies and promote the production of wide bandwidth frequency and directs them to be
felicitously received and interlinked with the micro controller.
Interfacing unit
The operation passes through a third stage in interfacing unit, which consist of a special
micro controller, which receive the signals from IR receivers and converted it as a data signals
also sending it to the computer for appropriate functions. This gadget by virtue of its function is
named as Interface or Interlinking unit.
Computer
The computer was installed with special software. The software receives the data from
interfacing unit and it gives the exact results professed as computer accuracy or precision. The so
begotten results defy and quell the needless, unhealthy disputes, doubts and dissensions,
guarantying exactitude.

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FUNCTIONING METHOD
The functioning method is represented through the following diagram

IR

Powercableto

Signalwiresto

InterLinkingUnit
( ) i
ll
PowerSwitch
TimerOperation

SensingSwitch

C
P
PowerUnitto

P.C
IRT

StandardTrack

FinishingLine
IRTransmitter

The IR transmitter was placed at the finishing point in every lane also the (8) IR receivers
were also fixed over the corresponding transmitters. The output of the receivers was connected
with interfacing unit. The interfacing unit consists of a special microcontroller, device operating
switch and special sensing switch. The special microcontroller is embedded with a software
program which encoding the signal data with the computer.
When fed with the appropriate power to enable IR emission and get streamlined injection
into the corresponding IR receivers at the top by the power button switch on operation.
Simultaneously the eight timers were also started in the computer by timer switch on operation,
mean while the so gathered ray by receiver was directed to the Interfacing unit. Thus the data
signals were encoded and sent it to the computer for appropriate function.
During the race, while the athletes crossing the finishing line, the continuously emitting
IR rays getting interruption; this interruption is sensed by the corresponding IR receiver and
sending it to the interfacing unit. The micro controller of the interfacing unit will encode the
interruptions with the corresponding timer in the computer. The computer analyzing the data
signals and displayed the exact timing of the every athlete in 1/1000 seconds.
When the starting gun was fired to commence the race the athletes were started the race,
simultaneously the all eight timers in the computer were started by operating switch on
operation. Consequently all 8 timers get operated simultaneously and flashed in the computer
screen.

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During the race, on the nearing of the finishing point of the athletes at every lane the
sensing switch was stimulated in the interfacing unit, to record the precise finishing time of the
athletes in every lane. As everyone has crossed the finishing point, the interruptions by everyone
at the finishing point were received by the receivers and transmitted into the interfacing unit.
Such corresponding interruption instantly sent to the computer in the form of a special
computer code and the corresponding timer in the computer also instomatically stops; so does
every athlete also. So the athletes timings positions like particulars are precisely recorded by the
computer for exactness. As already mentioned since the operation is equal to the speed of the
light wave precision assurance is guaranteed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Computation of descriptive statistics
Mean and S.D on Speed of 100m Sprinters (Sec)
Trials

Mode of Assessment
New Device

Stop Watches

New Device

New Device

100m Speed
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean

13.33
0.75
13.39
0.73
13.3
0.77
13.26

SD
0.76
The above table shows that the mean values of the subjects speed during the 1 to 3
trials are 13.33, 13.39, 13.30, and 13.26 with standard deviations of 0.75, 0.73, 0.77, and
0.76 respectively.
Reliability of 100m speed performance
Analysis of variance with repeated measures for 100m (sec.) sprint performance
VARIABLES
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE WITH REPEATED MEASURES
100m SPEED
PERFORMANCE
(sec.)

Source

SS

Df

MS

Subjects

127.86

119

1.074

Trials

0.0048

0.004

Residual

10.155

119

0.085

The table value is 4.78

MSE

0.05

0.85

0.93

The table value is 0.234

The above table indicates that the obtained F ratio 0.05 is less than the table value of 4.78
required at 0.01 level of significant. This proved that there is no significant difference between
the test and re-test scorers indicating that the process of testing of the 100m sprint is perfect and
consistent.
The result of intraclass correlation for 100m sprint performance is indicates that the
obtained intraclass (R) value 0.93 is higher than the table value 0.234 required at 0.01 level of
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significant. It denotes that the 100m sprint assessed by the device during the test and re-testing
periods are significantly related.
The above results proved that the newly constructed electronic device is reliable to assess
the 100m sprint performance of sprinters on the track simultaneously for eight athletes.

Validity of 100m speed performance


Pearson product moment correlation for 100m (sec.) Speed performance
VARIABLES
100m SPEED
PERFORMANCE(sec.)

PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION


Mode of Assessment

Mean

SD

Sprint Analyzer

13.33

0.75

Stopwatch

13.39

0.73

r
0.98

The table value is 0.236

The table indicates that the obtained correlation value 0.98 is higher than the table value
0.236 required at 0.01 level of significant. It denotes that the 100m speed performance using the
newly constructed electronic device and stopwatches simultaniously are significantly related.
The above results proved that the newly constructed electronic device is valid in
assessing the 100m speed performance of sprinters on the track simultaneously for eight athletes.
Objectivity of 100m speed performance
Analysis of variance with repeated measures for 100m (sec.) speed performance
VARIABLES
100m SPEED
PERFORMANCE
(sec.)

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE WITH REPEATED MEASURES


Source

SS

df

MS

Subjects

187.22

119

1.57

Trials

0.378

0.19

MSE

2.24

0.09

0.94

Residual

20.07 238 0.08


The table value is 4.78

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The above table indicates that the obtained F ratio 2.24 is less than the table value of 4.78
required at 0.01 level of significant. This proved that there is no significant difference among
three different testers. It reveals that the process of testing the 100m speed performance is perfect
and consistent.
The results of intraclass correlation is indicates that the obtained intraclass (R) value 0.94
is higher than the table value 0.234 required at 0.01 level of significant. It denotes that the 100m
speed performance recorded by the three testers using the newly constructed electronic device at
three different periods is significantly related.
The above results strongly proved that the newly constructed electronic device possess
objectivity to assess the 100m speed performance of sprinters on the track simultaneously for
eight athletes.
Analysis of Data and interpretation of the study
The main purpose of the study was to construct an electronic digital equipment to assess
the timings of the subject in selected standard track events and also to establish scientific
authenticity of the instrument.
The establishment of scientific authenticity involves establishment of validity, reliability
and objectivity. Though different methods are available to establish validity, reliability and
objectivity, the below mentioned methods were selected due to its appropriateness and
simplicity.Validity was established using twenty four Bachelors of engineering students,
Hindusthan college of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore.
Data were collected using the stop watches for twenty four subjects along with the newly
constructed equipment designed by the present investigator was used and data were collected for
the same subjects. Using these two sets of data, Pearson Product moment correlation was applied
and coefficient of correlation was found out. It resulted with the value of 0.98 indicates 97%
association between these two sets of scores. Thus the validity of the instrument was established.
Reliability was established by test and retest method. In this process data were collected
on two occasions with a gap of three days using the newly designed instrument, the same
subjects, providing similar conditions data were collected again. The obtained two sets of scores
were subjected to univariate correlation procedure which resulted in a coefficient of correlation
of 0.93 indicating that 92% association between these scores.
Objectivity was established by collecting data using the same subjects, and same
instrument, similar conditions were provided but two different testers were used. Thus two sets
of scores were obtained and they were subjected to univariate correlation procedure which
resulted in a coefficient of correlation of 0.94 indicating that 93% association between these
scores.

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The coefficient of correlation obtained for validity, reliability and objectivity were 0.98, 93
and 94, respectively. All these three values are highly significant with no or least error.
Therefore it is concluded that the equipment is valid, reliable and objective.
CONCLUSION
It is concluded that the equipment is more valid, reliable and objective to assess the selected
standard track events.
RECOMMENDATION
Equipment may be designed to assess the performance of track and field events. Similar
equipment may be designed to assess various motor fitness components. Equipment of similar
nature may be validated by the applying different scientific authentic tests.
REFERENCES
1. Adebola Dekoya and Jones A. Akangbe, (1992). Uses of instructional method and media: in
training of extension managers and supervisors in Nigeria India Journal of Adult Education, PP
53 - 55,
2. Ahuja and Ahuja, (1979). Demonstration of audiovisual and reading aids to school students and
reading speed in three languages Kanada, Hindi and English, Third Survey of in Education,
NCERT, New Delhi.
3. Anuparna Shah and Sushmita Mandal, (1994). Effectiveness of three Instructional Strategies for
Education Experiments in Education.
4. Arlott, J. (1975), Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Saint Louis: Oxford Companion
to Sports and Games, PP. 203-209.
5. Balasubrarnanian and Yoganandam, Trained teacher vs technology A Comparative Study
effectiveness in Improving English pronunciation, Journal of Research in Educational Media,
94, 25-30.
6. Baumann, W. (1976), Kinetic and Dynamic Characteristics of the Sprint Start Biomechanics,
saint Louis: The C.V.Mosby company, PP.195-198.
7. Cheng, L. et.al. (2010), A Low-cost, Accurate Speed Tracking System for Supporting Sprint
Coaching, Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 3, PP. 149-152.
8. Coutts AJ & Duffield R. (2008), Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Movement
Demands of Team Sports, Journal of Science and Med Sport, 11, PP. 10-16.
9. Korchemny, R. (1992), A New Concept for Sprint Start and Acceleration Training. New Studies
in Athletics 7, PP. 65-72.
10. Mero P.V. Komi & Gregor R.J. (1992), Biomechanics of Sprint Running, Illinois: Human
Kinetics, PP. 376-392.
11. Salo, A. & Bezodis, I.N. (2004), Sports Biomechanics, Saint Louis: The C.V.Mosby company,
PP. 43-54.
12. Suzuki, M. et. al. (1991), Analysis of the Race Patterns of Men, Saint Louis: The C.V.Mosby
company,
PP. 14 24.
13. Thomas, Jerry R. & Nelson, Jack K. (1996), Research Methods in Physical Activity, Ilinois:
Human Kinetics, PP. 234-240.
14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fully_automatic_time
15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photo_finish
16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertical_jump
17. http://linda-n-riggins.suite101.com/first-horserace-photo-finish
18. http://website.lineone.net/~athletics/coursemeasurement/history--/jewell.htm
19. http://www.answers.com/topic/photo-finish-camera#ixzz1tJtQH13j

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Effect of Stationary and Moving Circuit Training on


Selected Bio-Motor Variables among Women Sprinters
Ms. R. Selvarani
S. Indira
Director of Physical Education
Director of Physical Education
Dr. MGR Janaki College for Women
JBAS College for Women
Chennai 600 028
Chennai 600 018
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to find out the effect of stationary and moving circuit training on
selected bio-motor variables among women sprinters. 90 women sprinters (N=90), participated at inter
collegiate sports meets representing their colleges were randomly selected in the age group ranging from
19 to 21. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups and each group consists of 30 subjects.
Group I acted as experimental group which underwent stationary circuit training (SCTG) and Group II
acted as experimental group which underwent moving circuit training (MCTG) and group III acted as
control group (CG). The control group did not participate in any specialized training except of their
routine activities. Pre and post test scores were collected on bio motor abilities speed through 50 M run
test, strength through dips test and endurance through 12 M run / walk test, which formed initial scores.
The ANCOVA results proved that SCT and MCT significantly contributed for on bio-motor abilities
speed, strength and endurance. Post hoc analysis proved that MCTG group scored the highest gain on biomotor abilities, speed, strength and endurance among women sprinters, followed by SCTG group and CG
group. Both treatment groups MCTG and SCTG were significantly better than CG. Comparing between
the treatment groups, it was found that there was significant differences on bio motor abilities. It was
concluded women sprinters can choose any of the circuit training to improve their speed, strength and
endurance.
Key words: Speed, Strength, Endurance, stationary circuit training, moving circuit training.
INTRODUCTION

Speed is the measure of how fast an athlete can sprint short distances. A high maximum
speed by itself does not guarantee athletic success. Quickness refers to the ability of an athlete to
perform specific movement in the shortest possible time. It also involves the ability of the
nervous system to process and produce rapid contractions and relaxations of the muscles fibers.
Fast, explosive movement of the entire body, which occur in the starting and acceleration phases
of sprinting or of adjusting a body part to start a new movement or rapidly change direction
demonstrate an athletes quickness. (Loren Seagrave (1998) .
Speed is the capacity to perform successive movements at a fast rate as well as thinking
about speed as "running speed" it is really the development of the ability to move the limbs
quickly which is needed in a variety of sports and events, for example javelin throw, discus

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throw, tennis, squash etcetera. Therefore, there is more to think about than just running fast
(Bompa, 1999) .
Training is a program of exercise designed to improve the skills and to increase the
energy capacity of an athlete for a particular event, therefore training is essential for the
development of physical fitness components (William and Sperryn, 1976) . Circuit training is
very special form of training which concentrates on different parts of the body and general
endurance. Circuit training is a method of physical conditioning that employs both resistance
training and callisthenic training exercises. (Frank W. Dick., (1962)
Circuit training is based on the premise that the athlete must do the same amount of work
within the limits of an assigned training period. Numerous variations of this system are in use,
but all employ certain common factors: a circular arrangement of the activities that permits
progression from one station to another until all stations have been visited, the total comprising a
circuit and a limiting time within which the circuit must be concluded. The circuit training that
employs a series of exercises stations that consists of weight training, flexibility, calisthenics,
and brief aerobic exercises by moving from one station to another station is considered as
moving circuit training for the purpose of the study. In circuit training the athletes can move
rapidly from one station to the next and perform whatever exercise is to be done at that station
with in a specified time period. A circuit would consist of 8 to 12 stations and the entire would
be repeated with in three of four times, concentrating on the legs, abdomen, back, arms,
shoulders and trunk. These exercises should be organized so the subject moves from one muscle
group to another. This method allows working hard on a muscle group and then resting it, while
the other groups have their then to work out (Brooks and Fahey, (1987).
Exercise bikes are a great addition for stationary circuit training routine. One can begin
the circuit training on a bike, as this type of movement provides an ideal warm-up. Keep the
level low and warm up the legs. This will also begin to slowly raise the heart rate and prepare the
body for whats yet to come. Stationary bikes are also ideal to use in the intense parts of a
circuit training routine. One can crank up the level as high as one need to in order to rev up the
heart rate. This will maintain the intensity of the circuit workout, keeping the metabolism raised
to burn the maximum amount of calories. When one cant make it to a specialized circuit training

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class, he can still create the own circuit workout through stationary bike (Fred Hoffman, (2009) .
Both stationary circuit training and moving circuit training may improve fitness including bio
motor variables of women sprinters.
Greene NP, et.al. (2009) compared changes in physical fitness, body weight, and body
composition in physically inactive, overweight, and obese adults after 12 wks of land treadmill
(LTM) and found differences due to land treadmill machine. Wong PC, et.al. (2008) studied the
effects of a 12-week twice weekly additional exercise training, which comprised a combination
of circuit-based resistance training and aerobic exercises, in additional to typical physical
education sessions, on aerobic fitness, body composition

and found exercise training

significantly improved lean muscle mass, body mass index, fitness. Nash MS, et.al. (2007)
examined the effects of circuit resistance exercise (CRT) training on muscle strength, endurance,
anaerobic power, and shoulder pain in middle-aged men and found improvement muscle
strength, endurance, and anaerobic power of middle-aged men.
The theoretical foundations laid based on previous researches proved that circuit training
increases strength and aerobic fitness and burns lots of calories. Aside from improving an
individuals total health and wellness, it also works the different muscles of the body. Depending
upon the exercises in different stations of circuit training, it improves strength of lower legs,
quadriceps, hip flexors, glutes and hamstrings of the upper legs, and the abdominals, obliques as
well as the core and lower back muscles of the mid body. These exercises are also influences the
physiological and anthropometric variables to some extent. There was dearth of studies to find
out whether stationary circuit training, that is, exercises in stationary bike or moving circuit
training has greater influences on selected bio motor variables, speed, strength and endurance of
women sprinters.
METHOD
Randomly selected 90 women sprinters (N=90), who participated at inter collegiate sports
meets representing their colleges were randomly selected. The selected subjects age group was
ranging from 19 to 21. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups and each group
consists of 30 subjects. Group I acted as experimental group which underwent stationary circuit
training (SCTG) and Group II acted as experimental group which underwent moving circuit
training (MCTG) and group III acted as control group (CG). The control group underwent
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routine activities and care was taken that they should not involve in special exercise programs.
Prior to experimental treatment all the subjects were measured of their bio motor abilities speed
through 50 M run test, strength through dips test and endurance through 12 M run / walk test,
which formed initial scores. The subjects were tested of their bio-motor abilities agility, strength
and flexibility using standard tests as listed in Table I.

Table I, Showing the Variables, Tests and Unit of Measurements for the Study
S.No

Variables

Tests

Unit of
Measurement

Speed

50 M Run

In seconds

Strength

Dips Test

In Numbers

Endurance

12 M Run / Walk

In Meters

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

The collected data was subjected to statistical treatment using the following statistical
techniques.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Descriptive statistics was used to determine the normative status of the data collected.
Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of effect of
SCTG and MCTG groups compared to CG.
When significant results were obtained, post hoc analysis (Scheffes test) was used to
determine the significance between paired means of the groups.
In all cases 0.05 level was fixed to test significance.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The collected data on selected bio motor abilities on the effect of SCTG and MCTG) was
tested for significance using ANCOVA for each variable separately. To test the hypothesis
significant level of 0.05 level was fixed. That is, if the obtained F value was lesser than the
required value to be significant, the null hypothesis was accepted. And if the obtained F value
was greater than the required value to be significant, the null hypothesis was rejected.
Table II shows the results of ANCOVA on selected bio motor variables and Table III
shows the results of post hoc analysis for variables of significant results.

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Tab II: ANCOVA Results on the Effect of Stationary Circuit Training Group (SCTG), Moving
Circuit Training Group (MCTG) and control group (CG) on Selected Bio Motor
Variables among Women Sprinters.
Results on Bio Motor Variable SPEED
Source of
Sum of
Mean
Means
SCTG
MCTC
CG
df
F
Variance
Squares
Square
0.04
2
0.02
Between
Pre Test
7.28
7.25
7.30
0.15
11.37
87
0.13
Within
1.16
2
0.58
Between
Post Test
7.11
7.06
7.32
3.28*
15.41
87
0.18
Within
0.86
2
0.43
Between
Adjusted
7.10
7.09
7.30
7.14*
5.15
86
0.06
Within
Results on Bio Motor Variable STRENGTH
Between
14.69
2
7.34
Pre Test
23.30
23.00
22.33
0.60
Within
1060.97
87
12.20
Between
204.87
2
102.43
Post Test
25.93
25.87
22.70
10.34*
Within
861.63
87
9.90
Between
124.42
2
62.21
Adjusted
25.57
25.76
23.16
59.21*
90.35
86
1.05
Within
Results on Bio Motor Variable ENDURANCE
Between
23360.00
2
11680.00
Pre Test
1966.67
1934.67
1930.67
0.21
Within
4766400.00
87
54786.21
Between
221806.67
2
110903.33
Post Test
2051.67
2042.33
1942.00
2.00
Within
4822833.33
87
55434.87
Between
157246.21
2
78623.11
Adjusted
2031.41
2050.68
1953.92
6.66*
Within
1015431.52
86
11807.34
SCTG : Stationary Circuit Training Group; MCTG: Moving Circuit Training Group. CG: Control Group

* Significant

Table Value Required df (2,87) F0.05 3.10


Tab III: Showing Multiple Comparisons of Scheffes Post Hoc Analysis
Comparisons on Speed
MEANS OF
SCTG

MCTC

7.10

7.09

7.10
7.09

Mean
Difference
CG
0.01

0.16

7.30

0.20*

0.16

7.30

0.21*

0.16

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Comparisons on Strength
25.57

25.76

25.57
25.76

0.19

0.66

23.16

2.41*

0.66

23.16

2.60*

0.66

Comparisons on Endurance
2031.41

2050.68

2031.41
2050.68

19.27

69.86

1953.92

77.49*

69.86

1953.92

96.76*

69.86

*Significant at 0.05 level.


The results showed that due to SCT and MCT significantly contributed for on bio-motor abilities
speed, strength and endurance as the obtained F value was significantly greater the required F value
(Table II). The results on post hoc analysis presented in Table III proved that MCTG group scored the
highest gain on bio-motor abilities, speed, strength and endurance among women sprinters, followed by
SCTG group and CG group. Both treatment groups MCTG and SCTG were significantly better than CG.
Comparing between the treatments groups, it was found that there were significant differences on bio
motor abilities, speed, strength and endurance. Thus, the findings proved that even through MCTG
effects found to be higher than SCTG, there was no significant difference.

The findings of this study are in agreement with the findings of Greene NP, et.al. (2009)
who found improvement in physical fitness due to 12 weeks land treadmill training. Further the
findings of this study were in agreement with the findings of Wong PC, et.al. (2008) and Nash
MS, et.al. (2007) who found circuit resistance exercise (CRT) training improved muscle strength,
endurance, and anaerobic power. The theoretical foundations were made on different groups of
people, such as obese and middle aged men. In this study, the effects of MCTG and SCTG were
studied among women sprinters and the previous findings were found to hold good for women
sprinters also.
CONCLUSION

It was concluded that well both MCTG and SCTG significantly contributed for the
improvement of selected bio motor abilities among women sprinters. Hence, women sprinters
can choose any of the circuit training to improve their speed, strength and endurance.

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REFERENCES
1. Frank W. Dick., (1962) Sports Training Principles, New york, The Ronald press
company, P. 184.
2. Fred Hoffman, (2009), Sample Class: Core Circuit Training,
http//www.ideafit.com/expert
3. George A. Brooks and Thomas D. Fahey,(1987) Fundamentals of Human
performance, New York: Macmillan.
4. Greene NP, et.al. (2009), Comparative efficacy of water and land treadmill training for
overweight or obese adults., Med Sci Sports Exerc. 41(9):1808-15.
5. Loren Seagrave (1998), cited by Jimson Lee (2009), Loren Seagrave Neuro
Biochemics of Maximum Velocity, http://speedendurance.com.
6. Nash MS, et.al. (2007), Effects of circuit resistance training on fitness attributes and
upper-extremity pain in middle-aged men with paraplegia., Arch Phys Med
Rehabil. 88(1):70-5
7. Todor O. Bompa, (1999). Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training [4th
ed], Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, PP. 3 4.
8. William J.C.P. and Sperryn P.N. (1976). Sports Medicine, London: Edward Arnold
Publishers Ltd.,P.8.
9. Wong PC, et.al. (2008), Effects of a 12-week exercise training program on aerobic
fitness, body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein in adolescents with
obesity., Ann Acad Med Singapore. 37(4):286-93

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EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND ENERGY


BALANCE AMONG SELECTED SPORTSPERSONS OF
COIMBATORE DISTRICT
K Mahalakshmi Sangeetha*, Lalitha Ramaswamy** Jisna* PK
*Dept of Foods and Nutrition, Rathnavel Subramaniam College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore
**Associate Prof & Head, Dept of Nutrition & Dietetics, PSG College of Arts & Science,
Coimbatore,

Abstract
The present study was purported to quantify the relation of physical fitness to energy
intake and energy expenditure of the sportsperson. One hundred subjects aged between 20 35
yrs of age engaged in different sports discipline were selected. The subjects were tested for
Abdominal Strength and Endurance (push up test), Arm & Shoulder Strength (Bent knee sit up test),
Flexibility Strength (by sit and reach test) and Cardio-respiratory Endurance (12 minute run test) . The
variables were expressed as absolute value and relative value for analysis. Based on 24 hours
dietary recall method and time allocation pattern [TAP] the energy balance was assessed for a
sub sample(N=20). The subjects showed poor physical fitness, and the mean energy intake fell
short of meeting the recommended dietary allowances [RDAs]. Negative correlation exists
between physical fitness and energy balance.
Key words: Physical fitness, energy intake, energy expenditure, sports person.
INTRODUCTION
Sports are important part of every society, every country, and every part of our planet. In
one way or the other, everyone is involved in sport or some sports, whether they are playing or
watching or just knows someone who does either. Sport activity is integral to all round
development of the personality. Achievement in sports has a considerable bearing on the national
prestige and morale. India has a rich tradition of sports and physical fitness (Nath, 1993).
Principles of physical education subdivide fitness into health-related physical fitness and motorrelated physical fitness. Health-related physical fitness consists of cardiorespiratory endurance,
muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. Motor-related physical fitness consists of
power, agility, and balance (Vivian, 2006). Nutrition is an important component of any physical
fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to
optimize health and fitness or sports performance (Berning 2000). The present study was
conducted with an objective to assess the fitness of selected sports person and its relation to
energy balance.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Unlike in the past, modern sports are highly competitive, the use of modern equipment,
nurturing of talent from a very tender age, stress on hard and physical training along scientific

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lines and introduction of modern infrastructure and highly sophisticated equipment have changed
the very complexion of modern sports. International sports events have become a showcase of
nation pride and power (Debath, 1994).
Appropriate nutrition is essential for the proper performance of exercise. In particular,
correct nutrition is critically important for improvement of athletic performance, conditioning,
recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Although athletes need to eat a
well-balanced basic diet, there are several nutritional factors that are difficult to obtain at a
sufficient level from a normal diet since athletes require more nutrients than the recommended
daily allowances. (Aoi et.al., 2006).
An athletes needs for energy are large to delay fatigue, prevent cramp, maintain strength
and enhance endurance. Physical activity places a huge demand on energy requirements and
systematic exercise and athletes need a well-planned diet. Diet plays a very significant role in
giving the winning edge to the athletes. (Prajakta et.al., 2010).
Nutrition not only plays a role in performance, but it can also help to prevent injuries,
enhance recovery from exercise, help maintain body weight and improve overall health. It is
important for all sports person to have a good working knowledge, understanding of exercise
science and sports nutrition so that these can help in their own performance potential (Bakulin
and Efimo, 1996; Loucks, 2004).
The importance of the relationship between nutrition and exercise performance is
obvious. Good nutrition is essential to proper growth and development. Too often, coaches think
of good nutrition only during the season of their sport. Actually, for effective athletic
performance, good nutrition is critical at all times. For competitive athletes, the diet must provide
the optimal mix of energy yielding nutrients to fuel their special needs. To maximize
performance, athletes strive to achieve an optimum sport specific body size, body composition
and minimum of energy stores. To peruse these objectives, athletes need to manage fat, protein
and carbohydrate balance. To guide their progress, athletes need to eat by discipline. (Nande et
al, 2008).

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MATERIALS AND METHODS
Selection of subjects
This study was carried out on one hundred sportspersons, 88 male and 12 female subjects
who were engaged in regular practice and participating in professional sport tournaments. The
subjects aged between 20-35 years were from two well known Physical Education Institutions of
Coimbatore.
Assessment of physical fitness
Physical fitness of each subject was assessed using following procedures1. Abdominal Strength and Endurance (Push-ups)
Men should use the standard "military style" push-up position with only the
hands and the toes touching the floor and perform as many push ups as possible until
exhaustion. The total number of push ups completed is counted and compared with the
chart to rate the performance.
Arm and Shoulder Strength (Bent Knee Sit-Ups)
The number of sit-ups performed in a 60 second period was recorded for subjects
lying on flat surface using their upper body only with their knees bent at right angles and
both hands held behind their necks. The results are compared with the chart to rate the
performance.
Flexibility Strength (sit and reach)
For the sit and reach test, subjects sat on a flat surface with their heels positioned to
the edge of a step and their knees pointed upwards, and they bent forward at the waist
with their hands outstretched with the palms facing downwards, and the hands on top of
each other or side by side, the subject reaches forward along the measuring line as far as
possible. Ensure that the hands remain at the same level, not one reaching further forward
than the other. After some practice reaches, the subject reaches out and holds that
position for at one-two seconds while the distance is recorded. The test was administered
three times, and the average value was recorded.
Cardio-respiratory Endurance Test (12 minute run)
When the track has been set up, the subject starts running around it. The objective of
this test is to run or walk as much as can in the 12 minute period. At the end of 12
minutes the test is stopped, and the covered distance is measured. It should record the
distance travelled in those 12 minutes in miles or kilometers. With the obtained result, the
VO2max level is calculated using formula.

Evaluation of Energy Balance


Dietary Survey: Precise information on food consumption pattern of subjects was
gathered through 24 hour dietary recall method. Energy intake was computed for all
players using the values given in the Nutritive Value of the Indian Foods (Gopalan et. al.,
2004) Mean was derived and compared with RDA.

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Energy Expenditure Pattern: The time allocation pattern (TAP) was used to
calculate the total energy expenditure. The TAP i.e., recording of the time spent by each
individual in various dayto-day physical activities both in occupational (training) and
non occupational (routine) hours was done for each athlete separately. Energy
expenditure was determined for whole day using the time activities code procedure
adapted from Bouchard et.al., (1983).

Statistical Appraisal of Data:


Data was collected, tabulated and statistically analyzed using means and standard deviation.
Comparisons were made with the available standards.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fitness Test for Selected Athletes


Performance in any sporting event is the result of a multitude of factors, which include
the amount of training performed, the body's adaptation to the training, motivation level,
nutritional status and weather conditions to name a few. As can see, physiological parameters
only account for a portion of any performance, and so the role of any exercise physiologist is
also similarly limited. Through fitness testing, the factors involving physiological processes, over
which there is some control, can be measured and ultimately improved upon.
Push up Test for the Selected Subjects
The scores of Push up tests for the selected subjects is given in the Table I
TABLE I, Scores for Push up Test of the Selected Subjects
Sl .no
1
2
3
4
5
6

Push up test
Excellent
Above Average
Average
Below Average
Poor
Very poor

N=100
Per cent (%)
1
9
23
44
20
3

The above Table shows that, nearly 44 percent of subjects were rated as below average
performers of push up test, 23 percent average performers, 9 percent above average performers,
20 percent poor performers, 3 per cent very poor performers and only one percent showed
excellent performance. The reason for this could be either lack of regular abdominal exercises or
due to low motivation during endurance.
Bent- Knee Sit-up Test for the Selected Subjects
Results of Bent- knee sit up test of the selected subjects is given in Table II

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2
TAB
BLE II, Scoore of Bent- Knee Sit-u
up test of th
he Selected Subjects
S
Sl .no

B
Bent
Knee Sit
S Up Test

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

N=100
Per cent (%
%)
4
9
15
14
13
36
9

E
Excellent
Good
G
Above
A
Averaage
Average
A
Below
B
Averaage
Poor
P
Very
V
poor

It is disapppointing to note that only 4 percent of subbjects were excellent performers.


15 percentt above average, 14 peer cent averrage, 13 perr
About 9 percent were
w
good performers,
p
cent beelow averagge, 36 per cent poor performers and 9 perrcent of subbjects weree very poorr
perform
mers. Lifestyyle could possibly
p
be a key factoor along wiith stress, lack of mottivation andd
nutritionnal knowleddge.
Sit and
d Reach testt for the Seelected Sub
bjects
The results of Sit and reach
r
test foor the selectted subjectss is given inn below Figuure 1

60
37

41

40
20

13

Percent(%))
5

0
Excellent

Good

Average

Fair

Poor

Flexibility is the abilitty to move a muscle thhrough a fulll range of m


motion. It iss saddeningg
to note that only 4 percent of selected sports persons were exceellent perforrmers of Sitt and Reach
h
w
good performers,
p
41 per cen
nt average pperformers, 13 percentt
Test. Thhirty sevenn per cent were
fair, and
d 5 per cent were poorr performers. The resullts show thaat there is a lack of fleexible jointss
and muuscles whichh would hinder the perfformance off routine moovement.
12 minu
utes Run Test
T for the Selected Subject
S
Thhe scores off 12 minutess run test foor the selectted subjects are given inn below Fig
gure 2.

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2
4

11

14

Super
Excellent
Good

30

Fair

5
35

Poor
Verypoor

Assessing cardiovascuular fitnesss encompassses testingg the abilitty of the respiratory,


cardiovvascular, andd skeletal muscle
m
tissuee to take in deliver, andd utilize oxyygen while performing
g
prolongged exercisee of moderaate to high intensity (M
Manore andd Thompsonn, 2000). According
A
too
the resuults of 12 minutes
m
run test
t for the selected suubjects, onlyy 4 per centt of subjectss were ratedd
as supeer performers, 6 per ceent excellennt performeers, 11 perccent good pperformers, 14 percentt
very pooor and 30 per cent were
w
poor performers. Majority (35%) of tthe subjectts were fairr
perform
mers.Similarr results weere observedd by Prajaktta et al. (20010) where the highestt percentagee
value foor poor carddio respiratoory fitness was
w found inn 10 + age group of fem
male swimm
mers (44.444
%) which might bee because of
o slower paace of swim
mming, overrall intensityy, duration, motivationn
and oveerall health status of sw
wimmers.
ENERG
GY BALAN
NCE
TABLE III
I

Mean en
nergy balaance of seelected sub
bjects,(N==20)
M
Mean Energyy
Intake
(K.cal)

Mea
an Energy
Exp
penditure
(K
K.cal)

Deficit/Surrplus
(K.call)

En
nergy
Baalance

22052.362900

35366.96315

-1484.66

Neegative
baalance

Table III presents


p
thee mean eneergy balancce of the seelected spoorts person. The meann
energy intake of the
t selectedd sports perrson was ffound to bee 2052.362290 K Cal.. The meann
y of 1484.66
energy expendituree was 35366315 K Caal. The sporrts persons spent an exxcess energy
nd thereforee were in negative eneergy balancee. The mainn reason forr the low ennergy intakee
K.cal an
among the subjectts might bee due to pooor eating habits and lack of knnowledge on
o nutrition,
c
s of a well-bbalanced dieet, and its implicationss
unhealthhy food chooices, a defficit in the components
of nutrition on perfformance. Too
T often, coaches
c
thinnk of good nutrition
n
onnly during th
he season off
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their sport. Actually, for effective athletic performance, good nutrition is critical at all times.
Torres-McGehee et al. (2012) suggested that proper nutrition programming should be provided
for athletes, coaches, Athlete Trainers, and Strength and Conditioning Specialists.
The results of the present study goes in accordance with the observations by Prajakta et al.,
(2010) who showed that swimmers were unable to meet their energy demands which had a
deleterious influence on their cardio respiratory fitness. Cardio respiratory fitness correlated
negatively with energy intake strongly suggesting need for sufficient energy to carry out sports
activities. Nande et al (2004) showed 100% of female and male players engaged in different
sports disciplines showed negative energy balance,
Calorie requirements vary greatly from person to person and are affected by activity level,
body size, age and climate. Body size impacts on calorie requirements more than any other
single factor. Some sports demand high energy expenditure, others do not. If intake is
consistently above or below an athletes requirement, weight gain or weight loss will occur, both
of which can affect performance (Venkata Ramana et. al.,2004). The energy derived from
carbohydrate, protein and fat should always be in proportion to that of energy expenditure by an
individual athlete with respect to his/her energy requirements for whole day activity schedule
and to the process of performing physical exercise (Chandrashekhar and Bhargava, 1988;
Simopoulous and Pavlou,1993).
Energy intake of the players therefore should be regulated with specific distribution of
carbohydrate, protein and fat calories so as to maintain their body weight, meet the energy
requirements of both routine and sports activities as well as enhance their performance.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The selected sport persons had a lower fitness level including Abdominal Strength, Arm and
Shoulder Strength, Flexibility and Cardio-respiratory Endurance. In addition, the results of this
study tend to confirm the fact that negative energy balance affects their performance.
Participation in regular physical exercise programs complemented with healthy eating habits will
improve the performance.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author records her deep sense of gratitude to the subjects who willing
participated in the study.
REFERENCES
1. Nath, S. (1993) Anthropometry- the Measurement of Body Size, Shape and Form. 1st
2. Edition, Friends Publication, Delhi, 30, 142.
3. Vivian, H.H. (2006) Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription. 5th edition.
Human kinetics.

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4. Berning JR. (2000)Nutrition for Exercise and Sports Performance. Krause's Food. In:
Mahan KL, Escott-Stump S, editors. Nutrition and Diet Therapy. 10th ed. Saunders
Company; p. 535.
5. Debnath (1994) Womens Performance and Sports. Friends Publication, India, 53, 58-60
6. Aoi W, Naito Y and Yoshikawa T (2006) Exercise and functional foods Nutrition
Journal Vol, 5:15 ;135-140
7. Prajakta, N., Bhawnani, N. & Sabiha V. (2010 ) Assessment Of Nutritional Status And
Physical Fitness Of Female Swimmers, Journal Of Exercise Science And Physiotherapy
Volume 6, No.1pp 7 21.
8. Bakulin, V. & Efimo, V. (1996) Nutrition for Sports.Sports Authority of India, XLV II.
1- 4.
9. Loucks, A. B. (2004) Energy Balance & Body Composition in Sports & Exercise.
American Journal of Nutrition & Dietetics, 54 (2):718 719.
10. Nande, P., Mudafale, V. & Vali, S. (2008) A Study on Energy Balance among Female &
Male Players Engaged in Different Sports Disciplines Journal of Exercise Science and
Physiotherapy, Vol. 4, No. 1: 1-14.
11. Gopalan, C., Ramasastri, B.V. & Balsubramanian, S.C. (2004). Nutritive Value of Indian
Foods. NIN Publication, ICMR, Hyderabad, 3, 47-80.
12. Bouchard, C., Tremblay,A.C. ,Lortie,G and Theriault,G.A (1983)Method to assess
energy expenditure in children and adults American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.,Vol.2
(9)Pp 137, 467.
13. Manore, M. and Thompson, J. (2000). Sport Nutrition for Health and Performance. 10th
Edition, Human Kinetics, United Sates, Europe, 397, 401.
14. Torres-McGehee T M, Kelly L. Pritchett and Mike Sibilia. (2012) Sports Nutrition
Knowledge Among Collegiate Athletes, Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Strength and
Conditioning Specialists, J Athl Train.; 47 (2):205 211
15. Venkata Ramana, Y. Surya, Kumari. Sudhakar, Rao. Balakrishna, N. (2004). Variations
in Basal Metabolic Rate with Incremental Training Load in Athletes. Journal of Exercise
Physiology Online, 7 (1): 26 33
16. Chandrashekhar, Usha. & Bhargava, Geeta. (1988) Nutritional Status of Athletes & the
Impact of Dietary Modification on Their Athletic Performance. Indian Journal of
Nutrition &Dietetics, 25:176 184.
17. Simopoulous, A. P. & Pavlou, K. N. (1993) Nutrition &Fitness for Athletes. 4th Edition,
Karger Publishers.155-157.

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ANALYSIS OF THE CHANGES IN SELECTED MOTOR


FITNESS COMPONENTS WITH CONCURRENT
STRENGTH AND PLYOMETRIC TRAINING
R.S VARMA

Coach, Andhra University, Vishakapatnam, India


M.KAVITHA

Research scholar under the Supervision of R.V.L.N.Rathnakara Rao


Dept of physical education, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam, India
ABSTRACT
Motor fitness is the basis of all the activities of individuals to perform them efficiency and effectively.
The purpose of the study was to compare the selected Motor ability of tennis and volleyball players
(age16-18 years). Thirty (30) Tennis and Thirty (30) volleyball players were randomly selected for the
study. To measure the level of motor ability of tennis and volleyball players, five test items of AAPHER
Youth fitness test battery were used. For statistical analysis and Interpretation of data t test was
conducted. It was observed that there was significant difference in sit ups, standing broad jump, shuttle
run, 50 yard dash and 12 minute run and walk. Result showed Tennis players are better in all test items in
comparison to Volleyball players except Agility.

Key words: Tennis, Volleyball, Sit ups, Shuttle Run, 12 minute run and Walk, 50 yard dash.
INTRODUCTION
Motor ability means the ability to perform fundamental motor skills involving all basic
performance traits including coordination or arm eye, and foot eye, muscular power, agility,
muscular strength, cardio-respiratory endurance, flexibility and speed, (H.Harrison Clarke,
1976). Many researchers in the field of Physical Education and Sports have emphasized the
importance of Motor ability, technical and tactical ability, physical and mental efficiency, for
achieving top performance. Tennis and Volley ball are most popular game in the world and
require high-level of motor ability, strength, speed, agility, endurance .balance, co-ordination and
skillful bodily movement. In the pre-historic times, Physical fitness was the key element of the
survival of human beings. Physical fitness is the pre-requisite of the ability to perform any motor
tasks in day to day life as well as in sport. It has been considered as one of the most important
aspects of human existence. Physical fitness is that state of body in which a person can carry his
daily duties and responsibilities efficiently and with the energy left he can enjoy hobbies and
other recreational activities and can meet the unusual. In other words Physical fitness can be
defined as the state of body in which a person can do work for a longer duration without undue
fatigue. Physical fitness not only a state of youngers but is the reality for all ages. Physical
fitness is the product of physical exercises and exercise is very much related to health and
wellbeing. Moreover the development of science and technology discouraging the human beings
from doing vigorous activities as a result of which various physical and mental diseases are

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International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
flourishing at a great speed throughout the world. The findings of the present study will
encourage the youth of the nation to participate in Games and Sports.
METHOD
A group of Thirty (30) Tennis and Thirty (30) Volleyball players (age16-18 years) were selected
from Nine (9) Higher Secondary Boys School in Purba Medinipur. Tennis and Volleyball players
are those boys who regularly used to go for physical activities willingly and took part in District
level matches and tournaments. The random group design was used for the study. Random
sampling method was employed. Five test items of the AAHPER youth fitness test battery were
administered to measure motor ability of the Tennis and Volleyball players. After collecting the
data to observe the difference among the group the raw data were converted to the percentile
scores according to the normative scale of this battery. Bend knee sit-up was used to measure
abdominal strength of the subjects. To measure explosive strength and power of the subjects
Standing broad jump was employed. Shuttle run was administered to measure agility of the
subjects. To measure the speed of the subjects 50 yard dash was used and 12 minute run & walk
was administered to measure endurance of the subjects. Tools used for the present study were
Measuring Tape, Stop Watch, Mat, Clapper, Wooden block and Whistle. Age of the subject
was taken from their school record. Both the groups were same in age.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For statistical analysis and Interpretation of data t test were conducted. The results are
presented in tabular form as given here under.
Sl .no
Variables
Mean tennis
Mean volley
Mean
t-ratio
players
ball players
difference
1
Sit-ups
59.67
47.50
12.17
2.50*
2
3
4

Standing
broad jump
Shuttle run
50 yard dash

67.17

52.50

14.47

2.38*

60.50
60.17

56.00
45.33

4.50
14.84

0.79NS
2.58*

12 min run
67.67
42.50
25.17
and walk
*Significant at 0.05 level, **Significant at 0.01 level, NS is Not significant

6.86**

Fig. 1: Graphs Showing Motor ability Test between Means of Tennis and Volleyball players
Table-1 give information regarding selected Motor ability variables of Sit ups, Standing Broad
Jump, Shuttle Run, 50 Yard Dash and 12 minute Run and Walk of Tennis and Volleyball
players. Table shows that there were significant differences in all the variables of Tennis and
Volleyball players. The Mean Difference of Sit ups, Standing Broad Jump, Shuttle Run, 50 Yard
Dash and 12 minute Run and Walk of Tennis and volleyball players were 12.17, 14.47, 4.50,
14.84 and 25.17 respectively. t-test was applied and t-value of Sit ups, Standing Broad Jump,
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ISSN 2349 722X

International Journal of Fitness, Health, Physical Education & Iron Games


Volume: 2, No: 1, Jan 2015- June 2015
Shuttle Run, 50 Yard Dash and 12 minute Run and Walk were 2.50, 2.38, 0.79, 2.58 and 6.86
respectively.
CONCLUSION
Based on the result of the present study and within the limitation, following conclusions were
drawn.

Tennis players are better in abdominal strength in comparison to Volleyball players

Tennis players are better in explosive strength in comparison to Volleyball players

Tennis players are slightly better in agility in comparison to Volleyball players but it was
not statistically significant.

Tennis players are better in speed in comparison to Volleyball players

Tennis players are better in endurance in comparison to Volleyball players


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