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Tolerance Analysis

and

Stack-up Tolerances
Aditi Consultancy Services
#2, ANANDA, 19th Cross, 24th Main
J P Nagar 5th Phase, Bangalore-560078
Phone/Fax: 080-26580711; Mobile: 9449612671
Web Site: http://www.aditiconsultancy.com

TOLERANCES
BILATERAL TOLERANCE
EQUAL BILATERAL
UNEQUAL BILATERAL

UNILATERAL TOLERANCE
LIMIT TOLERANCE

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Bilateral Tolerance
A bilateral tolerance is a tolerance which is expressed as
plus and minus values, where neither is zero, to denote
permissible variations in both directions from the
specified size.

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Unilateral Tolerance
A unilateral tolerance is one which applies only in one
direction from the specified size, so that the permissible
variation in the other direction is zero.

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Limit Dimensioning

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Limits of Size

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Limits of Size

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Classification of Tolerances
Tolerances

Dimensional

Size

Geometric

Form

Orientation

Location

Run-out

Profile

Straightness

Parallelism

Position

Circular

Line

Flatness

Perpendicularity

Concentricity

Total

Surface

Circularity

Angularity

Symmetry

Cylindricity

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Fuel Pump

Fuel Pump

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Geometrical Variations

Geometry, GD&T...

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Assembly, FEA, Wear ...

Assembly Problems

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Dimension this part with a tolerance of 0.05mm between


any two surfaces

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Tolerance Accumulation
Chain Dimensioning

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Tolerance Accumulation
Base Line Dimensioning

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Tolerance Accumulation
Direct Dimensioning

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Change the design such that variation in distance between any two
surfaces is not more than 0.1mm

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Position tolerance of Multiple Holes

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LIMITS and FITS

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Material Conditions
Maximum Material Condition (MMC)
That condition where a feature of size contains the maximum
amount of material within the stated limits of size.
Example: maximum shaft size and minimum hole size.

Least Material Condition (LMC)


That condition where a feature of size contains the least
amount of material within the stated limits of size.
Example: minimum shaft size and maximum hole size.

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Shaft Size Limits

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Hole Size Limits

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Taylors Principle

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FITS

Clearance Fit

Transition Fit
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Interference Fit

Deviations

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Deviations

+ 0.3

Hole Tolerance

0.2
+ 0.1

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- 0.1
- 0.10
- 0.17

0.07

Shaft Tolerance
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+ 0.1

FITS

INTERFERENCE
FITS

p
m

H
g
e

k
j

f
TRANSITION FITS

d
c
b

CLEARANCE FITS

a
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Types of Fits
Extra Loose Running Fit
Loose Running Fit
Easy Running Fit
Running Fit
Close Running Fit
Slide Fit
Push Fit
Wringing Fit Easy Keying Fit
Light Keying Fit
Drive Fit
Light Press Fit
Press Fit
Heavy Press Fit
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ISO SYSTEM OF TOLERANCES


SHAFT

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ISO SYSTEM OF TOLERANCES


HOLE

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Fundamental Deviation
Fundamental deviations are represented by the
following letter symbols:
Type of Fit

Hole

Shaft

Clearance

A, B, C, D, E,
EF,F,FG, G & H

a, b, c, d, e, ef,
f, fg, g & h

Transition

J, JS, K, M & N

j, js, k, m & n

Interference

P, R, S, T, U, V,
p, r, s, t, u, v, x,
X, Y, Z, ZA, ZB & ZC y, z, za, zb & zc

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I T GRADES
INDIAN STANDARD IS 919-1963
 18 FUNDAMENTAL TOLERANCES or
TOLERANCE GRADES .
 For different grades values of standard
tolerance are determined from diff formulas.
Relative magnitude of each grade is

GRADES

IT5

IT6

IT7

IT8

IT9

IT10

IT11

IT12

IT13

IT14

IT15

IT16

VALUES

7i

10i

16i

25i

40i

64i

100i

160i

250i

400i

640i

1000i

Where i = 0.45

D + 0.001 D

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Tolerance Grades

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30m

Tolerance Zones IT5 to IT11


with h Tolerance Grade

H7

For a

50 hole/shaft
combination

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LIMITS AND FITS

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Fundamental Deviations

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Fixing the Fit between Hole and Shaft


Problem:
Taking the nominal size of the shaft and the hole as 8mm, fix the
ISO system fits for the hole and shaft diameters such that the
clearance lies between 0.05 to 0.35 mm

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Fixing the Fit between Hole and Shaft


Let the hole tolerance be 0 & +0.2 mm.
The size of the hole would be 8

+ 0.2
0

The design clearance value varies from 0.05 to 0.35 mm


Minimum clearance between hole and shaft
AL = MMCH(Minimum dia of hole) MMCS(Maximum dia of shaft)
i.e 0.05 = 8.0 - Maximum dia of shaft
So, Maximum dia of shaft = 8.0 0.05 = 7.95
Maximum clearance between hole and shaft
CL = LMCH (Maximum dia of hole) LMCS(Minimum dia of shaft)
i.e 0.35 = 8.2 - Minimum dia of shaft
So, Minimum dia of shaft = 8.2 0.35 = 7.85
7.95

The two size limits of the shaft would be


7.85
In other words, the shaft size would be 8

- 0.05
- 0.15

mm.

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Fixing the Fit between Hole and Shaft


Problem:
Taking the nominal size of the shaft and the hole as 8mm, fix the
tolerances for the hole and shaft diameters such that the maximum
clearance is 0.1 and maximum interference is 0.02

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Tolerance Analysis
A
B

Nominal Condition

AB+C

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Tolerance Analysis
Aa

Bb

Worst Case Assembly Condition

Cc

(A - a) (B + b) + (C + c)
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Tolerance Analysis

Maximum Gap Condition


(A+a) {(B - b) + (C - c)}

Minimum Gap Condition


(A-a) {(B + b) + (C + c)}

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Tolerance Analysis
Find the maximum and minimum gap values when the following 3 parts are
assembled.
+0.05
50 -0.02

30 0.1

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19.5 0.2

Making a Tolerance Equal Bilateral

3.019

+.012
-.000

3.031

+.000
-.012

3.028

+.003
-.009

3.022

+.009
-.003

3.025

.006
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Tolerance Analysis vs. Tolerance Synthesis

Tolerance Synthesis /
Tolerance Allocation

Tolerance Analysis

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Tolerance Analysis
Functional Requirement:
The functional requirements for an assembly are normally expressed
as toleranced dimensions.
Functional Dimensions:
These are the dimensions on the components which directly affect
the functional requirements

Loop Equation: The loop equation forms a closed loop of


functional dimensions involved in a functional requirement.
It is derived by starting on left side of the functional requirement
dimension and then moving round the assembly from one functional
surface to the another, adding or subtracting the functional
dimensions as appropriate, until the right side of the functional
requirement is reached.
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Loop Equation for Z1

Z1 = E + D C B A
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Tolerance Analysis
+0.06
50 -0.04

30.03
29.95

20 0.02

Calculate the mean value of the gap with equal bilateral tolerance. Determine
the maximum and minimum values of the gap in the assembly.

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Tolerance Analysis
Find the maximum and minimum gap values when the following 3 parts are
assembled.
+0.05
50 -0.02

30 0.1

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19.5 0.2

For the given nominal dimensions of the parts, fix the tolerances such that the
gap in the assembly is with in 0.4 to 0.6 mm

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C

52
A

10.5
B
GAP

Equation for gap is, G = A B C

0.4 0.6
C

A
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C

+0.05
0

52

10.5
B

+0.1
0

G=ABC

Maximum gap, G max = A max - B min C min


0.6 = 52.05 10.5 C min

C min = 40.95

Minimum gap, G min = A min - B max C max


0.4 = 52 10.6 C max

C max = 41

The maximum and minimum values of the gap meet the two specified limits

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Determine the nominal dimension of C and fix the tolerances for B and C

+0.03
0

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A

10
B
GAP

Equation for gap is, G = A B C

10.1
C

A
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Tolerance Analysis For Lengths

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Hydraulic Punch Assembly


Sleeve

Hydraulic
Cylinder

Plunger

Cap

Z1
Z2
Punch Stopper

Piston

The functional requirements are:


Length of Protrusion of the Punch, Z1
Length of the Spring when the punch is fully extended, Z2
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Hydraulic Punch Assembly


The functional dimensions which directly affect the functional
requirements Z1 and Z2 are:
A is the wall thickness of the cap.
B is the distance between the contacting surfaces of the cap and
sleeve and those of the sleeve and stop.
C is the thickness of the stop.
D is the overall length of the piston.
E is the overall length of the punch
F is the length of the head of the punch

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Geometric Analysis For Lengths


Hydraulic Punch Assembly

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Loop Equation for Z1

Z1 = E + D C B A
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Design Sizes for Functional Dimensions


Let the nominal punch protrusion, Z1, be 12 mm
Assign the design sizes to the independent functional dimensions
so that the functional requirements are satisfied.
Let

E = 90.0

D = 125.0

B = 160.0

A = 16.0

From the loop equation, Z1 = E + D C B A


C = 27.0
Let Z1 be 12 0.4 mm
Tolerances for the functional dimensions A, B, C, D & E can be
allocated suitably,
B = 160 0.12

C = 27 0.06

E = 90 0.06

A = 16 0.1

D = 125 0.06

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Loop Equation for Z2

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Tolerances for Functional Dimensions


The spring dimension with tolerance, Z2 is 25 0.4 mm.
From loop equation Z2 = B + C D - F
Z2 minimum occurs when
B is minimum
C is minimum

D is maximum
F is maximum

So, Z2MIN = BMIN + CMIN DMAX - FMAX


Substituting values for Z2, B, C and D in the loop equation,
24.6 = 159.88 + 26.94 125.06 FMAX
Z2 maximum occurs when
B is maximum
C is maximum

F maximum is 37.16

D is minimum
F is minimum

So, Z2MAX = BMAX + CMAX DMIN - FMIN


Substituting values for Z2, B, C and D in the loop equation,
25.4 = 160.12 + 27.06 124.94 FMIN

F minimum is 36.84

i.e., F = 37 0.16
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MAX / MIN Tolerance Chart


Loop equation is Z2 = B + C D - F
The parts have equal bilateral tolerances
Column 1

Column 2

Part #

Stack
Contributor

sign

Maximum

sign

Minimum

160.12

159.88

0.25

27.06

26.94

0.12

124.94

125.06

0.12

36.84

37.16

0.31

24.6

0.8

Totals

25.4

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MAXIM
UM
STEP ID

COMMENTS:

DESCRIPTION FROM/TO

SUB TOTALS
ANSWER

MINIM
UM

Component

Factored

Component

Tolerance

Total

Tolerance

Monte

Tolerance

Squared

Carlo

MRSS

RSS

MC

MAX

MIN

MIN

MAX

+
WORST CASE
OPTIMIZED?

DESIGN GOAL:
YES NO

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MAX / MIN Tolerance Chart


MAXIMUM
STEP ID

DESCRIPTION FROM/TO

MINIMUM

COMPONENT

FACTORED

COMPONENT

TOLERANCE

TOTAL

TOLERANCE

MONTE

TOLERANCE

SQUARED

CARLO

MAX

MIN

MIN

MAX

160.12

159.88

0.24

0.800

0.0576

27.06

26.94

0.12

0.800

0.0144

124.94

125.06

0.12

0.736

0.0144

36.84

37.16

0.32

0.640

0.1024

25.4

24.6

0.8

0.652

0.435

COMMENTS:

SUB TOTALS
ANSWER

WORST
CASE

MRSS

RSS

MC

OPTIMIZED?

DESIGN GOAL:
YES NO

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Hydraulic Punch Assembly


Design this hydraulic assembly keeping Z1 = 10 0.6 and Z2 = 25 0.4

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Shaft and Housing Assembly

Clearance = -A + B - C + D - E + F - G
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Shaft and Housing Assembly

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Dimension
Nominal Value

.0505

8.000

.5093

.400

7.711

.400

.5093

.0015

.008

.0025

.002

.006

.002

.0025

Fixed

Design

Fixed

Design

Design

Design

Fixed

Tolerances(+/-)

The mean assembly clearance is the vector sum of the average part dimensions
in the loop: = -A + B - C + D - E + F - G
= -.0505 + 8.000 - .5093 + .400 - 7.711 + .400 - .5093
= .020
Let us say the functional tolerance for the assembly clearance is +/-.015.
The actual clearance tolerance is obtained by summing the given tolerances

TASM = + TA+ TB+ TC+ TD+ TE+ TF+ TG


= + .0015 + .008 + .0025 + .002 + .006 + .002 + .0025
= .0245 (too large)
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Tolerance Allocation by Proportional Scaling


Solving for the proportionality factor:

.015 = .0015 +.0025 +.0025 + P (.008 + .002 + .006 + .002)


P = .47222
Note that the fixed tolerances were subtracted from the assembly tolerance
before computing the scale factor. Thus only the four design tolerances are
re-allocated:

TB= .47222 (.008) = .00378

TE= .47222 (.006) = .00283

TD= .47222 (.002) = .00094

TF= .47222 (.002) = .00094

Each of the design tolerances has been scaled down to meet assembly
requirements. This procedure could also be followed assuming a statistical sum
for the assembly tolerance, in which case the tolerances would be scaled up.
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Dimension
Nominal Value

.0505

8.000

.5093

.400

7.711

.400

.5093

.0015

.008

.0025

.002

.006

.002

.0025

Fixed

Design

Fixed

Design

Design

Design

Fixed

Tolerances(+/-)
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Geometric Tolerance Analysis

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Geometric Tolerance Zones

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Propagation of Variation
Rotational error due to surface variation

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Form Variation

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Orientation Variation

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Location Variation

Nominal
Position

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Accumulation of Variation

Geometric variations propagate through an assembly as


imperfect shapes and surfaces contact each other.
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Substrate Package

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Substrate Package

Gap = A + B C + D + E
Where A = .040 .003
B = 0 .002
C = .125 .005
D = .185 .008
E = 0 .004
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Form Controls

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Component Variation

Size variation
Form variation
Location variation
Orientation variation
Surface roughness variation

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Assembly Variation

Component size variation


Component form or shape variation
Component feature location variation
Component feature orientation variation

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Functional Gauges for


Perpendicularity Checking

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Functional Gauges for


Perpendicularity Checking

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Functional Gauges for


Perpendicularity Checking

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Functional Gauges for


Perpendicularity Checking

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Datum Reference Frame

Sequence of datum features that relate part to


Datum Reference Frame
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Floating Fasteners

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Floating Fasteners

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Fixed Fasteners

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Fixed Fasteners

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Centered

Shifted

Floating
Fasteners

Fixed
fasteners
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Formulas for Position Tolerance

F
P

T
D

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Formulas for Position Tolerance


F = Maximum Diameter of fastener (MMC limit)
H = Minimum Diameter of the clearance hole (MMC limit)
T = Positional Tolerance Diameter
For Floating Fasteners,
H=F+T

or

T=H-F

For Fixed Fasteners,


H = F + 2T or T =

HF
2

If part with tapped holes should have larger positional tolerance (T1)
than the part with clearance holes (T2), then 2T = T1 + T2,
i.e.

H = F + T1 + T2
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Example 1:
In case of a floating fastener assembly, fasteners are 3.5 diameter
maximum and the clearance holes are 3.94 diameter minimum. Find
the required positional tolerance
T

= HF
= 3.94 3.5
= 0.44 diameter for each part

Example 2:
In the above case, find the required positional tolerance if the assembly
had fixed fasteners
T

= (H F) / 2
= (3.94 3.5) / 2
= 0.22 diameter for each part
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Coaxial Features
The formula for the floating fastener
case also applies to mating parts
having two coaxial features where one
of these features is a datum for the
other.
Where it is desired to divide the
available tolerance unequally between
the parts, the formula used is:
H1 + H2 = F1 + F2 + T1 + T2

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Example 4:
In the previous example of coaxial features solve for T1 and T2.
H1 + H2 = F1 + F2 + T1 + T2
T1 + T2 = (H1 + H2) (F1+F2)
= (20 + 10) (19.95 + 9.95)
= 0.1 total available tolerance

If T1 = 0.06, then T2= 0.04

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H7

What should be T1 and T2?


10H7

g6

10g6

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Position Tolerance of a Hole at MMC

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Functional Gauge for Inspection

Part must slide over 13.88 gauge pin.


Must lie flat on base of gage (Datum A).
Touch Datum B along its length and simultaneously touch Datum C
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3-2-1 Principle: Functional Gauge

Part must slide over 13.88 gauge pin Must lie flat on base of gage (Datum A)
Touch Datum B at least at two points along its length
Simultaneously touch Datum C at least at one point
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Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation

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Virtual Condition Boundary for Location

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Virtual Condition Boundary for Location

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MMC Resultant Condition


The variable boundary generated by the collective effects of a size
features specified size tolerance, the geometric tolerance specified
at MMC material condition and the additional geometric tolerance
derived from the features departure from its specified MMC material
condition.
Resultant Condition is derived by
For External features of size controlled at MMC:
LMC size limit - Geometric Tolerance - Size Tolerance
For Internal features of size controlled at MMC:
LMC size limit + Geometric Tolerance + Size Tolerance
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Position at RFS

Gap = A/2 + B
Where
A = .0625 .0001
B = .2250 .0011
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Position at MMC Internal Feature

Gap = A - B /2

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Position at MMC Internal Feature


The value for B in the Loop diagram is:
Largest outer boundary = .145 + .020 = .165
Smallest inner boundary = .139 - .014 = .125
Nominal diameter = ( .165 + .125)/2 = .145
Equal bilateral tolerance = .020
For position at MMC, an easier way to convert this is:
LMC (total size tolerance + tolerance in the feature control frame)
= .145 (.006 + .014) = .145 .020
The equation for the Gap in previous fig is
Gap = A - B /2
Where
A = .312 0 and
B = .145 .020
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Position at MMC External Feature

Gap = A/2 + B

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Position at MMC External Feature


The value for B in the Loop diagram is:
Largest outer boundary = .0626 + .0022 = .0648
Smallest inner boundary = .0624 - .0024 = .0600
Nominal diameter = ( .0648 + .0600)/2 = .0624
Equal bilateral tolerance = .0024
For position at MMC, an easier way to convert this is:
LMC (total size tolerance + tolerance in the feature control frame)
= .0624 (.0002 + .0022) = .0624 .0024
The equation for the Gap in previous fig is
Gap = A/2 + B
Where
A = .0624 .0024
B = .2250 0

and

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Position at MMC External Feature


Find the values of maximum and minimum gap

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Position at MMC External Feature


Find the values of maximum and minimum gap

Gap = A/2 + B

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4X 16 0.4
0.16
0.04

Find gaps G1 and G2

G1

G2

50

20
50

25

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A B C
A

Profile Tolerancing
Calculate the minimum value of Y and Z dimensions

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Concentricity

Gap = + A/2 + B C/2


Where A = .125 .008
B = 0 .003
C = .062 .005
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Motor Assembly

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Motor Components
Housing

Housing Cap
Stator
Rotor

Screw

Inner
bearing
Cap

Shaft

Bearing

Bearing
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Outer
bearing
Cap 117

Motor Components

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Motor Components
Housing

Housing Cap
Stator
Rotor

Screw

Inner
bearing
Cap

Shaft

Bearing

Bearing
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Outer
bearing
Cap 119

Establishing Performance/Assembly
Requirement
Requirement 1: The gap between the shaft and the inner bearing cap
must always be greater than zero to ensure that the rotor is clamped and
the bearings are preloaded
Requirement 2:The gap between the housing cap and the housing must
always be greater than zero to ensure that stator is clamped
Requirement 3:The The mounting surfaces of the rotor and stator must be
within .005 for the motor to operate
Requirement 4:The bearing outer race must always protrude beyond the
main housing. So that the bearing stays clamped
Requirement 5:The thread of the bearing cap screw must have a
minimum thread engagement of .200 inches
Requirement 6:The bottom of the bearing cap screw thread must never
touch the bottom of the female thread on the shaft
Requirement 7: The rotor and stator must never touch. The maximum
radial distance between the rotor and stator is .020
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Motor Assembly

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Motor Assembly

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Conversion of Requirements into


Assembly Gap Requirements
Requirement 1: Gap 1 0
Requirement 2: Gap 2 0
Requirement 3: Gap 3 .005
Requirement 4: Gap 4 0
Requirement 5: Gap 5 .002
Requirement 6: Gap 6 0
Requirement 7: Gap 7 0 and .020

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Motor Assembly
Gap 6 0 : Requirement 6

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Horizontal Loop Diagram for


Requirement 6

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Dimensions and Tolerances used


in Requirement 6

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Calculating the mean value for the


requirement
The mean value for the gap is:

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Worst Case Tolerancing Model

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Resizing Tolerances Worst Case Model


There are two ways to reduce the tolerances in the stack-up
1. The designer could randomly change the tolerances and analyze
the new numbers
Or
2. If the original numbers were weighted the same, then all variable
tolerances (which are under the control of the designer) could be
multiplied by a resize factor to yield the minimum assembly gap.
This is the correct approach if the designer assigned original
tolerances that were equally producible.

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Resizing Tolerances Worst Case Model

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Resize Factor for the Worst Case Model

The new variable tolerances (t kv, wc, resized) are the old tolerances multiplied
by the factor Fwc.
t kv, wc, resized = Fwc * t kv
t kv, wc, resized = equal bilateral tolerance of the kth variable component in the
stackup after resizing using the worst case model
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Graph of piece part tolerances versus assembly tolerance


(before and after resizing using the worst case model)

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Resized Tolerances using the Worst case Model

Resizing
Factor:
.3929

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The new maximum expected assembly gap for requirement 6, using


the resized tolerance is:

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Worst- Case Tolerance Analysis


This is the most often used method. It is sometimes called as Maximum Minimum calculation method
Advantages:
It works on the condition of keeping the required deviation of an
assembly for any combination of dimensions of the components.
This method guarantees full assembly and working interchangeability
of components.
Disadvantages:
Due to the demand of higher accuracy of the assembly, it results in too
limited tolerances of components
High manufacturing costs.
This method is suitable for calculating dimensional circuits with a
small number of components. It is most often used in piece or smalllot production.
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Normal Curve

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Root Sum Square (RSS) Model

Distribution of actual size


(size deviation) of a part

Distribution of the actual values of the


closing dimension (Clearance)
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Root Sum Square (RSS) Model


The assumptions used in the model are:

The RSS equation is:

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Dimensions and Tolerances used


in Requirement 6

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Root Sum Square (RSS) Model

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Resizing the tolerances in the RSS model

The new variable tolerances (t kv, rss, resized) are the old tolerances multiplied by
the factor Frss.
t kv, rss, resized = Frss * t kv
t kv, rss, resized = equal bilateral tolerance of the kth variable component in the
stackup after resizing using the RSS model
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Resized Tolerances using the RSS model

Resizing
factor is:
1.7984

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Graph of piece part tolerances versus assembly tolerance


(before and after resizing using the RSS model)

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Resizing the tolerances in the RSS model

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Comparison of Worst Case and RSS models

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Estimated Mean Shift Model


A new model for assembly tolerance accumulation has been proposed
which includes an estimate of expected bias . It is called the Estimated
Mean Shift method because the designer must estimate the bias for
each component in an assembly.
This is done by defining a zone about the midpoint of the tolerance
range, which is the probable location of the mean of a typical batch of
parts.
The midpoint tolerance zone is expressed as a fraction of the specified
tolerance range for the part dimension, (a number between 0 and 1.0).
If the process to be used to produce the part is closely controlled, a low
mean shift factor may be selected, say 0.1 to 0.2.
For less well-known processes, such as a part supplied by a new
vendor, a larger factor, say 0.7 or .8, could be selected to account for
the uncertainty.
For common processes the factor could be selected on the basis of
prior history from quality assurance data.
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The location of the mean is not known precisely

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Estimated Mean Shift Model


Some parts may be nearly worst case, while others nearly straight
statistical. There is no need to penalize an entire assembly with a
worst limit analysis because of one poorly controlled component.
Thermal expansion, which must be treated as worst limit, may now
be included in a statistical assembly analysis.
Early in the design stage, when little manufacturing data are
available, conservative shift factors may be assigned. Later, during
production, as data becomes available, manufacturing systems
analysts may substitute more precise values. This may allow
tolerances to be loosened up so that production rates may be
increased.

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Estimated Mean Shift Model


ems

In this model,
The mean shift factor is a number between 0 and 1.0
It represents the amount that the midpoint is estimated to shift as
a fraction of the tolerance range.
If a process were closely controlled, we would use a small mean
shift, such as .2. If we know less about the process, we would use
higher mean shift factors.
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Estimated Mean Shift Model


Using a mean shift factor of .2 for the variable components and .8
for the fixed components, the expected variation for requirement 6
is:

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If you have any queries please contact:

A Raghunath
Aditi Consultancy Services
Email: training@aditiconsultancy.com
Tel / Fax: 91 80 26580711; Mobile: 9449612671

http://www.aditiconsultancy.com
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