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SUMMARY OF PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

By: Yanuarius Alfando Djawa (reg : A Nim 1301021024)


Psycholinguistic
consist of psycho: Study of mind. And Linguistic: Study about
language.
Pcycholinguistic also the process to using and understanding
language. Other meaning of psycholinguistic is: The study of mental process
that a person use in producing and understanding language.
Language and Thought
There is the closet of relationships between language and thought: everyday
experience suggests that much of our thinking is facilitated by language. Kinds
of Thinking: Many kinds of behaviour have been referred to as thinking ,but not
all of them require us to posit a relationship with language. Independence or
Identity: First there is the hypothesis that language and thought are totally
separate entities, with one being dependent on the other. At the opposite
extreme, there is the hypothesis that language and thought are identical that it
is not possible to engage in any rational thinking without using language. Second
possible has also been widely held: the way people use language dictates the
lines along which they can think. A third language and thought are
interdependent- but this is not to say that they are identical.
Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis
Linguistic Determinism: Language Determinism the way we think. While
Linguistic Relatively: Language encoded in one language are not coded in other
language.
Contoh encoding: Lecturer send message to student, then student encode and
response. Other e.g: Di Inggris ada 2 istilah mandi ( Take a bath dan Shower).
Take a Bath: seluruh badan dan kepala masuk ke dalam air sedang Shower:
shower. Jadi di Indonesia tidak bisa di sebut take a bath atau Shower karena tata
cara nya beda. Thats why not coded in other language.
Psychological Identity
In psychology identity, if someone who has the high intelligence, good
concentration and aggressive personality but they have a poor memory. It will
shown by someone behave when they carried out tasks and interact in specific
situation. There is a relationship between language structures or skills such
notion as memory,attention,perception,personality,intelligence,learning or any
other recognized psychological domain. These studies have both theoretical and
partial implications constructing models of our mental process and a major
preoccupation of the field of psycholinguistics.
There are two several issues of language learning:
>> Both Normal (In such context as mother tongue education and foreign
language learning).
>> Pathological (In such context as speech an hearing disorders)

Language and Intelligence


People are judge as more or less intelligence based on how they believe in
certain tasks. It also need a long tradition of intelligence and testing most
research has been carried out in relation to the development of children
intellectual process as the learn about the world react to situation solve problems
and carry out all kinds of tasks. There is no clear relationship between
intelligence and the ability to use particular language structure.
Personality
Personality fields deals with the characteristic the enable us to distinguish
between people and make a predictions about their behaviour. Characteristic
generally classified and personality traits and type traits are styles of behaviour
and individual display. Whatever the stimulus in many different circumstance
types involve the identification of a silent feature that is used as a label for the
whole personality.
Aphasia
Is the language disorder that caused by an area of the brain involved in language
processing is damaged. In Britain, aphasia known as dysphasia. Both of this
terminological is from a literal interpretation of two prefix:Aphasia suggests a
total lack of language and dysphasia implies a partial lack.
Cause of Aphasia
The brain is totally dependent on the oxygen conveyed by its blood supply ; brain
cells will die if deprived oxygen for more than a few minutes. There are many
cerebro-vascular accidents (CVAS,commonly known as strokes) that can cause
this to happen,and these account for about 85 % of all case of aphasia. Other
cause of aphasia included certain kinds of celebral tumour,brain desease,and
traumatic damage.
Dyslexia and Dysgraphia
Are brain-based issues. Both tend to emerge during childhood, although some
people may not be diagnosed until later in life. Psychologists can get insights
into how your child thinks and figure out the specific brain processes that are
giving her difficulty. This will make it easier to find strategies that can help her
with these lifelong challenges. Dysgraphia may not be as widely discussed as
dyslexia, but its surprisingly common. Dysgraphia can manifest itself as
difficulties with spelling and grammar, poor handwriting or trouble putting
thoughts on paper.
Traits
Traits are styles of behaviour that an individual displays, whatever the stimulus in
many different circumstances.
A. Sanguie Populer: Spontan,lincah,periang (bicara).Bervariasi dalam
dapur,tidak ada tindak lanjut,orang yang tanpa kesalahan,bicara banyak,
pentingkan
diri
sendiri,punya
ingatan
yang
belum
dikembangkan,pelupa,menyela dan menjawab untuk orang lain.

B. Melankolis:
Penuh
pikiran,setia,tekun,mengejar
keteraturan,mudah
tertekan,memiliki citra diri rendah,mangajukan tuntutan yang tidak
realistis pada oranglain.Pesimistis,perasaan mudah sakit hati.masuk diamdiam dan tidak menonjolkan diri,sulit menerima pujian.
C. Koleris : Pekerja keras, Harus terkendali, tidak tahu bagaimana menangani
orang lain,berbakat jadi pemimpin, suka bertengkar,selalu benar,tidak
bermaksud menyakiti.
D. Phlegmatic (damai): Ramah,sabar,puas,melawan perubahan,tampaknya
malas,punya kemauan baja yang tenang, tampaknya tidak punya
pendirian,masuk perlahan lahan sambil tersenyum,suka menundanunda.
Campuran Alami : Sanguinis + Phlegmatic: mudah bergaul,optimis,suka
blak- blakan.
Melankolis+ Koleris: Introvert, pesimistis, suka bicara, lunak, serius, sulit
mengambil keputusan.
The Noblest Tool
Six capacities of brain: memory,attention,focus,flexibility,creativity,speed.
Memory we were born with 5 sense theyre: Memory through
Sights,Hearing,Touch (motor),Taste,and Smell.
Memory Systems: There are 5 memory systems :
Cue system(Membantu kita untuk mengerti sesuatu)2.Visual key system,3.
Initial system of remembering.4. Cue using logic and imagination,5.
Observation and Assosiation.
The Six easy steps remember someone
Attention(get the name),Repeat the name,observe the face,Assosiate the
name,use name in conversation,Write the name down.
Percepations
Perceptions( Perceptio= Latin), the organization, identification and
interpretation of the sensory information, in order to represent and
understand the environment .All perception involves signals in the nervous
system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the
sense organ such as to light,sound,food.
Natural Signals (Proximal stimulus)>>Brain >>React to stimulus (percept)
like: Question,Telephone Ringing,Respon to Fire,Love,Sick,Hunger.
Concept: A concept is a common feature or characteristic which comparise of:
Comparison,Reflection,Abstraction or Segregation of everything else by which
the mental image different.
Process Of Language Use: Acquisition and learning, First
Acquisition, Second Language Acquisition,Language Learning.
Social & Psycho factors affect on: Academic success, Life.

Language