Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3
[Home] [SITESEARCH] SpeechBank Top100Speeches RhetoricalLiteracy ObamaSpeeches MovieSpeeches FiguresinSound
[Home] [SITESEARCH] SpeechBank Top100Speeches RhetoricalLiteracy ObamaSpeeches MovieSpeeches FiguresinSound

ForScholars

CoolExercises

ScholarlyDefinitionsofRhetoric

Plato: [Rhetoric]isthe"artofenchantingthesoul."(Theartofwinningthesoulbydiscourse.)

Aristotle:Rhetoricis"thefacultyofdiscoveringinanyparticularcasealloftheavailablemeansof

persuasion."

Cicero: "Rhetoricisonegreatartcomprisedoffivelesserarts:inventio,dispositio,elocutio, memoria,andpronunciatio." Rhetoricis"speechdesignedtopersuade."

Quintilian: "Rhetoricistheartofspeakingwell"or" goodmanspeakingwell."

FrancisBacon:Thedutyandofficeofrhetoricistoapplyreasontoimaginationforthebetter

movingofthewill.

GeorgeCampbell: "[Rhetoric]isthatartortalentbywhichdiscourseisadaptedtoitsend. The fourendsofdiscoursearetoenlightentheunderstanding,pleasetheimagination,movethe passion,andinfluencethewill."

HenryWardBeecher:“Notuntilhumannatureisotherthanwhatitis,willthefunctionofthe livingvoice­thegreatestforceonearthamongmen­cease Iadvocate,therefore,initsfullextent, andforeveryreasonofhumanity,ofpatriotism,andofreligion,amorethoroughcultureoforatory andIdefineoratorytobetheartofinfluencingconductwiththetruthsethomebyalltheresources ofthelivingman.”

I.A.Richards: Rhetoricisthestudyofmisunderstandingsandtheirremedies.

RichardWeaver: Rhetoricisthat"whichcreatesaninformedappetitionforthegood."

ErikaLindemann: "Rhetoricisaformofreasoningaboutprobabilities,basedonassumptions peopleshareasmembersofacommunity."

PhilipJohnson:"Rhetoricistheartofframinganargumentsothatitcanbeappreciatedbyan

audience."

AndreaLunsford: "Rhetoricistheart,practice,andstudyofhumancommunication."

KennethBurke:"Themostcharacteristicconcernofrhetoric[is]themanipulationofmen'sbeliefs

forpoliticalends

attitudesortoinduceactionsinotherhumanagents."

thebasicfunctionofrhetoric[is]theuseofwordsbyhumanagentstoform

Reviews/Traffic

Legal/Privacy

GeorgeKennedy:Rhetoricinthemostgeneralsensemayperhapsbeidentifiedwiththeenergy inherentincommunication: theemotionalenergythatimpelsthespeakertospeak,thephysical energyexpandedintheutterance,theenergylevelcodedinthemessage,andtheenergy experiencedbytherecipientindecodingthemessage.

LloydBitzer:" rhetoricisamodeofalteringreality,notbythedirectapplicationofenergyto objects,butbythecreationofdiscoursewhichchangesrealitythroughthemediationofthought andaction."

DouglasEhninger:"[Rhetoricis]thatdisciplinewhichstudiesallofthewaysinwhichmenmay

influenceeachother'sthinkingandbehaviorthroughthestrategicuseofsymbols."

GerardA.Hauser:"Rhetoricisaninstrumentaluseoflanguage.Onepersonengagesanother

personinanexchangeofsymbolstoaccomplishsomegoal.Itisnotcommunicationfor

communication'ssake.Rhetoriciscommunicationthatattemptstocoordinatesocialaction.For

thisreason,rhetoricalcommunicationisexplicitlypragmatic.Itsgoalistoinfluencehuman

choicesonspecificmattersthatrequireimmediateattention."

C.H.Knoblauch:" rhetoricistheprocessofusinglanguagetoorganizeexperienceand communicateittoothers.Itisalsothestudyofhowpeopleuselanguagetoorganizeand communicateexperience.Theworddenotesbothdistinctivehumanactivityandthe"science" concernedwithunderstandingthatactivity."

JohnLocke:"[Rhetoric,]thatpowerfulinstrumentoferroranddeceit."

CharlesBazerman:"Thestudyofhowpeopleuselanguageandothersymbolstorealizehuman goalsandcarryouthumanactivities ultimatelyapracticalstudyofferingpeoplegreatcontrolover theirsymbolicactivity."

MichaelHydeandCraigSmith:"Theprimordialfunctionofrhetoricisto'make­known'meaning

bothtooneselfandtoothers.Meaningisderivedbyahumanbeinginandthroughtheinterpretive

understandingofreality.Rhetoricistheprocessofmakingknownthatmeaning.Isnotrhetoric

definedaspragmaticcommunication,moreconcernedwiththecontemporaryaudiencesand

specificquestionsthanwithuniversalaudiencesandgeneralquestions?"

AlfredNorthWhitehead:"Thecreationoftheworld­­saidPlato­­isthevictoryofpersuasion

overforce.Theworthofmenconsistsintheirliabilitytopersuasion."

SamuelM.Edelman:"Rhetoriccanbedefinedastheartormethodofreconciling individualand

systemicgoalsandconstraints."(JCRSept2003)

AndrewKingandJimKuypers:"Thestrategicuseofcommunication,oralorwritten,toachieve

specifiablegoals."(TheArtofRhetoricalCriticism,2004)

ThomasB.Farrell:Rhetoricisanacquiredcompetency,amannerofthinkingthatinvents possibilitiesforpersuasion,conviction,action,andjudgments."(TheNormsofRhetoricalCulture,

1993)

RichardE.Vatz:"This[isthe]sinequanonofrhetoric:theartoflinguisticallyorsymbolically creatingsalience.Aftersalienceiscreated,thesituationmustbetranslatedintomeaning.“

(PhilosophyandRhetoric,1973)

MichaelE.Eidenmuller:"Rhetoricisarationalstudyandartfulpracticeofhumansymboluse (especiallyifnotexclusivelywithwords)whenandwherethosesymbolstargetidentifiable communitiesofinteresttocreate,enhance,undermine,orotherwiseinfluencehumanbelief,

attitude,emotion,judgment,behavior."(VoiceofAmericaInterview,2011,andmodifiedforprint)

©Copyright2001­2016.

AmericanRhetoric

byMichaelE.Eidenmuller

Allrightsreserved.