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Welcome to a Course On

Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using Co-ordinate


Dimensioning and GD&T
For

Satyam Venture Engineering Services


Pvt.Ltd., Secunderabad, INDIA
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About iSquare

iSquare
(InterOperability & InterChangeability Solutions)
Pune, INDIA

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Focus Areas:

CAD Data InterOperability : Consistent


representation of 3D CAD data in variety of
CAD/CAM/CAE applications and platforms.

InterChangeability: Predicting Dimensional


Variations, its impact and causes at the
product and assembly level at early design
stage.

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Relationships:
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InterOperability:

With International TechneGroup Incorporated, USA


having more than 20 years of Experience in CAD
Data InterOperability technology, solutions and
services.

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Relationships:
InterChangeability:
With Dimensional Control Systems, USA having
more than 15 years of experience in Dimensional
Control techniques, solutions and Services.

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Our Offerings:
CAD Data InterOperability:
Focused & Customized Training Programs on:
CAD/CAM/CAE Data Exchange : Problems and Solutions from CAD, CAE , CAM Perspective.
CAD Model Quality Assessment : CAD Model Quality evaluation from downstream application
perspective

Software Solutions For:


Effective Data exchange between heterogeneous CAD/CAM systems: R egardless of source,
target application, standard and formats !! Solutions Include CA Dfix, IGES/Works,CAD/IQ.
Model Quality Assessment from Downstream application perspective

Quality Services for:


Data Exchange, Data Migration, Lower version to higher or vice -a-versa
Vendor Supplier data integration : ensuring effective data exchange with minimal / NO
rework at either ends.

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Our Offerings:
InterChangeability:
Focused & Customized Training Programs on:
Dimensional Management : Understanding and appreciation of computer aided tools for.
Takes participants thru evolution, various approaches and real life problems from their
application areas.

Software Solutions For:


Dimensional Management / Stack Analysis: Solutions embedded in C ATIA V4/V5 as Gold
Partner and also Stand Alone solutions for data coming from othe r CAD platforms !! Solutions
Include 1-DCS, DCS-DFC, 3DCS-SA, 3DCS-CAA V5 Designer, 3DCS-CAA V5 Analyst,
GDM3D

Quality Services for:


Dimensional Engineering / Management : Base Line tolerance mode l creation, reporting with
suggestions and recommendations. Follow-on consulting
Per requirement, includes 1D, 1D with GD&T, Full 3D simulations, Piece part variations,
assembly variation prediction against desired objectives.

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Training Programs in Dimension


Management / Engineering
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Training Programs Launched:

Training Programs Under Development (Tentative release by Oct 05)

Fundamentals of GD&T based upon ASME Y14.5M : ~36hrs


Tolerance Stack up Analysis: A logical approach to solve assembly build
problems: ~30hrs
Advanced GD&T: Concepts and Applications as per ASME Y14.5M : ~30hrs
Tolerance Stack up Analysis using DCS (Dimensional Control Syste ms, USA)
Software Solutions (1DCS, DCS-DFC, 3DCS-SA): ~36hrs

GD&T Workshop and Practice (15% theory, 85% working on various problems):
~24hrs
The Role of Probability and Statistics in Mechanical Tolerance A nalysis: ~20hrs
Measurement of GD&T and Functional Gauging Techniques: ~24hrs
Metrology: Measurement Uncertainty and Analysis : ??

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Customers
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TATA Motors
TATA Technologies
TATA Auto Plastics
TATA Auto Components
Ashok Leyland
Mahindra & Mahindra Auto
Godrej & Boyce Mfg Ltd.
GE
Infotech Enterprises
TATA Johnson Control
Automotive
Kinetic Engineering
Research & Development
Establishment (Engrs)
Armament Research &
Development Establishment
Bhabha Atomic Research
Center

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Bajaj Auto
Bajaj Tempo
Brakes India
Emerson Climate Technologies
Grupo Antolin
Mahindra Engg Design Develop
Center
Kirloskar Copeland
Mahindra Engineering Services
Onward Technologies
Space Applications Center
TATA Consultancy
Lear Seatings Pvt. Ltd.
Atlas Copco
Jayahind Industries
L&T
Satyam Venture Engg Services

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Thats about iSquare

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How is Course Organized?


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Total 11 Sessions; 3days (June 23,24 and 25 , 2005)


Pre-defined objectives at the beginning of each
session
Classroom exercises at the end of each session
Homework
Extended hours as necessary
Assumption : Understanding of GD&T controls
Feel free to interrupt and ask Questions

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Session #1 : The Basics


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Objectives:

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How to calculate mean dimensions with equal


Bilateral Tolerances
Calculating Inner and Outer Boundaries
Virtual and Resultant Conditions

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What is Tolerance Stack-up Analysis?

Tolerance Stack-up Analysis (also called as Gap


Analysis, Loop Diagrams or Circuit Analysis) is the
process of calculating minimum and maximum
airspaces or wall thickness or material interferences in
a single part or assemblies
Its a logical process broken in few steps

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Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis


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Step #1:

Step #2:

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Identify objectives: for example, you want to test if no


interference is possible at a certain place in an assembly, then
you set your requirement as Gap must be equal to or greater
than zero

Identify all dimensions that contribute to your objectives as


defined in step #1 (gap) and convert them to equal bilateral
toleranced dimensions; if they are not already

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Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis


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Step #3:

Assign each dimension a +ve or ve value. For Radial stacks


(going up and down); start at the bottom of gap and end up at
the top of gap
Down direction is ve (top of gap to bottom)
Up direction is +ve (bottom of gap to top OR towards end)

Stacks that go left and right in the assembly, start at the left
side of gap and end up at the right side of the gap.
Left direction is ve (right of gap to left)
Right direction is +ve (left of gap to right OR towards end)

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Remember that you are working one part at a time; so deal with o ne
parts significant features before jumping to next part. This is the best way
to work with assemblies having many parts

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Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis


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Step #4 (Basic Rules):

Remember that one set of mating features between parts creates the variable
you are looking for. Variable in this case is either minimum gap or maximum
gap or maximum overall assembly dimension. One set mating featur es creates
it. So, though multiple routes may have to be investigated to fi nd this most
significant set of features, only one set creates worst case, fr om one part to
next.

Its often mistake to follow one route from one set of mating fea tures
(holes/shaft, hole/pin) then continue the same route through ano ther set. One
of these sets creates the smallest or biggest gap or maximum ove rall
dimension, Once you find, which it is, others become non -factors in analysis.

Using more than one set of features within same two parts, will most likely
produce wrong results. Still tolerances from other features may contribute to
the critical set you are using. For example: when datum features are
referenced at MMC or when more than one set of datum features co me into
effect.

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Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis


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Step #5 (Basic Rules):

When a single feature or a pattern of features are controlled by


more than one Geometric Tolerance (such as orientation
combined with position), the designer must determine which, if
either is contributing factor to variable. It is also possible that
none of geometric tolerance is a factor and instead size
dimensions are factors.

The Designer must deduce what factors are pertinent through


sketches and reasoning.

The judgment of designer is critical in these determinations.

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Beginning Tolerance Stack-up Analysis

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Add all +ve and ve dimensions which will calculate your


mean gap. If mean gap is ve number, your requirement
of no material interference (or clearance in other
words) is already violated!

Then we must add sum of equal bilateral tolerances (1/2


of total tolerance) to the mean dimension (or gap) to
determine maximum gap.

Then we must subtract the sum of equal bilateral


tolerances (1/2 of total tolerance) from the mean
dimension (or gap) to determine minimum gap.

Again any ve value for minimum or maximum gaps


indicate interference situation

Maximum gaps are maximum clearance (or in case of


interference fits, minimum interference)

Minimum gaps are minimum clearance (or in case of


interference fits, maximum interference)

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Beginning Tolerance Stack-up Analysis

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Its important to mentally shove all the features and parts in the
directions that will create the max or min gap (variable). This is to
allow your routes always pass through material and you dont
want to jump over an air space unnecessarily in analysis

You should position the features of the parts against each other so
that you will get extremes and make clear to you the correct path
and +ve v/s ve designations for each number.

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Finding Mean Dimensions


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Few Important Concepts of Tolerance Stack-up


Analysis:

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There is NO difference between equal, unequal or unilaterally


toleranced dimension.
There is NO difference between a limit dimension and a plus
or minus toleranced dimension
They all have extremes and they all have means. So, first thing
is to change any dimension to an equal bilateral toleranced
dimension

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Finding Mean Dimensions

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Finding Mean Dimensions

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Finding Mean Dimensions : Exercise

Convert following Dimensions to an equal bilateral toleranced dimensions

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Boundaries

Boundaries are generated by collective effects of


size and Geometric tolerances applied to
feature(s) and often referred to as simply inner
and outer boundaries
There are two types of boundaries
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Virtual Condition boundary (VCB)


Resultant Condition Boundary (RCB)

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Virtual Condition Boundaries

(Refer ASME Y14.5M section

2.11)

FCFs that use m (MMC symbol), generate constant


boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and
are calculated as:

VCB for internal FOS such as hole = MMC Size Boundary


Geometric Tolerance value

VCB for external FOS such as pin = MMC Size boundary +


Geometric Tolerance

VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual


mating size of the feature

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Virtual Condition Boundaries

(Refer ASME Y14.5M

section 2.11)

FCFs that use l (LMC symbol), generate constant


boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and
are calculated as:

VCB for internal FOS such as hole = LMC Size Boundary +


Geometric Tolerance value

VCB for external FOS such as pin = LMC Size boundary Geometric Tolerance.

VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual


mating size of the feature
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Resultant Condition Boundaries

(Refer ASME

Y14.5M section 2.11)

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RC Boundaries are non constant in nature and


are generated on opposite side of the virtual
conditions.

When RFS (Regardless of Feature Size)


concept applies to FOS, they generate only
non-constant or RC boundaries.

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Case#1: Internal FOS controlled at MMC

Hole MMC Concept

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Case#1: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary Geometric
Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric
Tolerance value

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Case#1: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced


Dimension from VCB and RCB

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Case#2: Internal FOS controlled at LMC

Hole LMC Concept

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Case#2: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary +Geometric
Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary - Geometric
Tolerance value

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Case#2: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced


Dimension from VCB and RCB

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Case#3: Internal FOS controlled at RFS

Hole RFS Concept

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Case#3: Calculating RC boundaries


Since its a RFS Callout, no virtual condition
boundaries exist and all boundaries are non -constant

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Case#3: Assumption about feature form in


case of RFS callout
Only if the hole has a significant
depth, might this median line
curvature (out of straightness)
be a consideration. For thin
parts, such as sheet metal, it is
probably not of concern in these
analyses. In fact many
designers would agree that a
banana shaped hole is not likely
to occur on most products.

Therefore we are ignoring


axially out of straightness
consideration from the
analyses.

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Case#3: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced


Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries

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Case#4: External FOS Controlled at MMC

Shaft MMC Concept

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Case#4: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary Geometric
Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric
Tolerance value

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Case#4: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced


Dimension from VCB and RCB

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Case#5: External FOS controlled at LMC

Shaft LMC Concept

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Case#5: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary +Geometric
Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary - Geometric
Tolerance value

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Case#5: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced


Dimension from VCB and RCB

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Case#6: External FOS controlled at RFS

Shaft RFS Concept

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Case#6: Calculating RC boundaries

Inner Boundary

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Case#6: Assumption about feature form in


case of RFS callout
In case of RFS Callout, one may want to consider
additional deviation arising out of form to
determine absolute worst case inner boundary.

This applies only if shaft length is significant. For


very shirt shafts / pins, it is probably not of
concern in the analysis.

Therefore we are ignoring out-of-straightness


consideration from our analysis. If your product
runs a risk of banana shaped shafts, you may
wish to consider illustration on the left in your
calculations.

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Case#6: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced


Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries

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Formulae to Remember

For Internal FOS controlled at MMC / LMC:


VCB at MMC (IB) = MMC Size Boundary Geometric Tolerance value at MMC
VCB at LMC (OB) = LMC Size Boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at LMC

For External FOS controlled at MMC / LMC:


VCB at MMC (OB) = MMC Size boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at MMC
VCB at LMC (IB) = LMC Size boundary - Geometric Tolerance value at LMC

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Finding Inner & Outer Boundaries : Exercise

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Session #2: Analyzing a Box Assembly


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Objectives:

To determine min and max gap for a simple


eleven parts assembly
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Perform the calculations


Create a Loop Analysis Diagram
Create a Number Chart

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Box Assembly

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Box Assembly: Part #1


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Cavity in part#1 has limit dimensions (392.43


384.81); so we need to convert these to mean
with equal bilateral toleranced dimensions

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Add limit dimensions : 392.43 + 384.81=777.24


Find Mean dimension: 777.24/2=388.62
Find total tolerance by subtracting limit dimensions: 392.43
384.81=7.62
Find equal bilateral tolerance=7.62/2=3.81
Finally express limit dimensions as equal bilaterally toleranced
dimension as: 388.62`3.81

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Box Assembly: Part #2- #11

parts MMC (1)

parts LMC (2)

Add (1) and (2) (3)

Subtract (1) and (2)(4)


Half of (3) (5)
Half of (4) (6)
(5)
(6)

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Box Assembly: Part #1 & Part #2- #11 put


together

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Box Assembly : Loop Analysis Diagram


lLoop

Diagram begins by showing Gap to be


calculated at the top
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loop diagram begins at Part#11 (plate)


and progresses downward constantly through
material until it reaches at the last plate at the
bottom of an assembly (ie. Part#2 or plate#2)
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sum of all these ve mean dimensions,


which run from top to bottom is 381and has
total tolerance of `3.81
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loop then reverses and progresses up


through cavity (ie. Part #1).
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portion of the loop is +ve since it


progresses from bottom to top
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logic of +ve and ve is simple material


removes airspace (therefore ve) and cavity
which lacks material adds to airspace
(therefore +ve)

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Box Assembly : Loop Analysis Diagram


lThe

mean dimension of cavity is 388.62 and has a


total tolerance of `3.81
lSo,

in numbers chart, we add means: (+)388.62 + ( )381.00 = 7.62 (1)


lIf

this number is ve, it would have proven that even


mean sizes of parts, when produced result in
interference. Now that sum is +ve, we can proceed

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step is to add, charted plus or minus tolerances : 3.81+3.8 1 = 7.62 (2)

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step is to calculate min and max gaps (airspace or interfer ence):

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lMean

dimensions difference + sum of tolerances = (1) + (2)= (+)7 .62+(+)7.62=+15.24 (max gap)

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dimensions difference - sum of tolerances = (1) - (2)= (+)7.62-(+)7.62=0 (min gap)

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Box Assembly : Alternate Method to


calculate min / max gap
From situations such as this, it is easier to simply calculate t he MMC of the
cavity and the collective MMCs of the plates and subtract them to get
minimum gap.

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Box Assembly : Loop Analysis Diagram

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Session #2: Exercises

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Session #3: Loop Analysis for Features of


Size (FOS)
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Objectives:

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Using Loop Analysis Technique; determine Max and Min gap


in Horizontal and Vertical Directions
Determine proper start and End points for stack-ups
Graph the numbers calculated into Loop Diagram

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Analyzing FOS: Problem Description

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Analyzing FOS: Charts to be used

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Analyzing FOS: Steps Involved (Horizontal


Direction)
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Convert horizontal limit dimensions of part #1 to equal bilatera l toleranced


dimension. (26.615`0.405)
Convert horizontal limit dimensions of part #2 to equal bilatera l toleranced
dimension. (25.705`0.105)
Graph the loop from left-to-right through material, using appropriate signs
(+ve / -ve) (- 25.705 and + 26.615)
Add these mean dimensions (dont forget signs) to get difference
between mean dimensions ((-) 25.705 + (+) 26.615)=+0.910
Add plus and minus tolerances for part#1 and part#2 to get total plus and
minus tolerance (0.105+0.405)=0.510
Max gap in horizontal direction is = sum of difference between mean
dimensions and total of plus and minus tolerances (0.910+0.510=1.42)
Min gap in horizontal direction is = difference (subtraction) of difference
between mean dimensions and total of plus and minus tolerances (0.9100.510=0.4)

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Analyzing FOS: Steps Involved (Vertical


Direction)
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Convert vertical limit dimensions of part #1 to equal bilateral toleranced


dimension. (26.615`0.405)
Convert vertical limit dimensions of part #2 to equal bilateral toleranced
dimension. (24.390`0.610)
Graph the loop from top-to-bottom through material, using appropriate
signs (+ve / -ve) (- 24.390 and + 26.615)
Add these mean dimensions (dont forget signs) to get difference
between mean dimensions ((-) 24.390 + (+) 26.615)=+2.225
Add plus and minus tolerances for part#1 and part#2 to get total plus and
minus tolerance (0.610+0.405)=1.015
Max gap in vertical direction is = sum of difference between mean
dimensions and total of plus and minus tolerances (2.225+ 1.015)=3.24
Min gap in vertical direction is = difference (subtraction) of difference
between mean dimensions and total of plus and minus tolerances (2.2251.015)=1.21

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Analyzing FOS: Easier Method using MMC


and LMC
Calculating min and max gaps may be easier as discussed before ( slide #48); by
subtracting the MMCs for minimum gaps and LMCs for maximum gaps as
shown below:

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Analyzing FOS: Charts and Loops with


dimensions
Part #1, vertical
direction
Part #1, horizontal
direction

Part #2, horizontal


direction

Part #2, vertical


direction

Material side (-ve)


Part #2 thickness

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Session #3: Exercise

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Session #4: Analysis of an assembly with


Plus and Minus tolerancing
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Objectives:
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Calculate the airspaces and interferences for a plus and


minus toleranced assembly

Performing multiple loop analyses on an assembly

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Assembly with plus and minus tolerances :


Problem Description

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Assembly with plus and minus tolerances :


Charts to be used

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Steps Involved in calculating stack in


Horizontal Direction
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Convert horizontal limit dimension 1 male (31.75 34.90) to equal bilateral


toleranced dimension. (33.325`1.575)
Convert horizontal limit dimension 2 air (21.41 19.84) to equal bilateral
toleranced dimension. (20.625`0.785)
Convert horizontal limit dimension 3 male (16.67 15.09) to equal bilateral
toleranced dimension. (15.88`0.79)
Graph the loop from left-to-right through material, using appropriate signs (+ve / ve) (- 33.325, +20.625 and + 15.880)
Add these mean dimensions (dont forget signs) to get difference between mean
dimensions ((-) 33.325 + (+) 20.625 + (+)15.880)=+3.180
Add plus and minus tolerances for dimensions 1, 2, 3 to get tota l plus and minus
tolerance (0.785+0.790+1.575 = 3.150)
Max gap in horizontal direction is = sum of difference between mean dimensions
and total of plus and minus tolerances (3.180+ 3.150=6.330)
Min gap in horizontal direction is = difference (subtraction) of difference between
mean dimensions and total of plus and minus tolerances (3.180-3.150=0.030)

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Steps Involved in calculating stack in Vertical


Direction
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Convert vertical limit dimension 1 air (26.21-25.40) to equal bilateral toleranced


dimension. (25.805`0.405)

Convert vertical limit dimension 2 material (25.40 24.59) to equal bilateral


toleranced dimension. (24.995`0.405)

Graph the loop from top-to-bottom through material, using appropriate signs (+ve /
-ve) (- 24.995, +25.805)
Add these mean dimensions (dont forget signs) to get difference between mean
dimensions ((-) 24.995 + (+) 25.805)=+0.810

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Add plus and minus tolerances for dimensions 1, 2, 3 to get tota l plus and minus
tolerance (0.405+0.405 = 0.810)
Max gap in horizontal direction is = sum of difference between mean dimensions
and total of plus and minus tolerances (0.810+0.810=1.620)
Min gap in horizontal direction is = difference (subtraction) of difference between
mean dimensions and total of plus and minus tolerances (0.810-0.810=0.0)

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Easier Method for calculating stacks using


MMC and LMC
Calculating min and max gaps may be easier as discussed before ( slide #56); by
subtracting the MMCs for minimum gaps and LMCs for maximum gaps in
horizontal direction as shown below:

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Assembly Analysis: Charts and Loops with


dimensions

Vertical Loop

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Horizontal Loop

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Session #4: Exercise

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Session #5: Analyzing a Floating Fastener


Assembly with Geometric Controls
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Objectives:
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Calculate Virtual and Resultant conditions (Inner / Outer


Boundaries) for GD&T callouts
Determine mean of all these boundaries
Convert all FOS (diameters and widths) to mean radii with
equal bilateral tolerance
Mixing FOSs (widths and diameters) in number chart
Graph the numbers in tolerance stack-up diagram
Determine all unknown gaps in the assembly

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Floating fastener assembly sketch with


GD&T

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Steps involved in analyzing floating fastener


assembly
1.

2.

3.

4.

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Calculate Virtual and Resultant Condition for each holes (holes


#1 thru #4)
For each hole, calculate difference between resultant condition
and virtual condition boundaries. This difference represents total
size tolerance for each hole. Take half of the difference which is
represents equal bilateral tolerance value .
For each hole, add resultant condition and virtual condition
boundaries; and take mean of the sum. This mean represents
the mean diameter of that hole (for analysis purpose)
Again, for each hole, take mean of values in step #2 and #3.
This new mean represents mean radius`mean radial tolerance

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Defining Virtual and Resultant Condition


Boundaries
As per ASME Y14.5M-1994,

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Virtual Condition is defined as a constant value outer locus (for


external FOS specified at MMC or internal FOS specified at LMC)
and a constant value inner locus (for internal FOS specified at
MMC and external FOS specified at LMC).

Resultant conditions are in opposite direction to virtual conditions


and are non-constant in nature. They are the worst case inner
locus and worst case outer locus of FOS

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Charting values calculated per steps #1


through #4

Step #1: Calculate Virtual and Resultant Condition for each holes (holes #1 thru #4)

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Charting values calculated per steps #1


through #4
Step #2: For each hole, calculate difference between resultant condition and virtual condition
boundaries. This difference represents total size tolerance for each hole . Take half of the difference
which is represents equal bilateral tolerance value .

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Charting values calculated per steps #1


through #4
Step #3, #4: For each hole, add resultant condition and virtual condition bou ndaries; and take mean of
the sum. This mean represents the mean diameter of that hole (for analysis purpose)
Again, for each hole, take mean of values in step #2 and #3. Thi s new mean represents mean
radius`mean radial tolerance

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Step #1: values printed in the chart


Step #1: Calculate Virtual and Resultant Condition for each holes (holes #1 thru #4)

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Step #2: Values printed in the Chart


Step #2: For each hole, calculate difference between resultant condition and virtual condition
boundaries. This difference represents total size tolerance for each hole . Take half of the difference
which is represents equal bilateral tolerance value .

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Step #3,4: Values printed in the Chart


Step #3, #4: For each hole, add resultant condition and virtual condition bou ndaries; and take mean of
the sum. This mean represents the mean diameter of that hole (for analysis purpose)
Again, for each hole, take mean of values in step #2 and #3. Thi s new mean represents mean
radius`mean radial tolerance

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Locating / Orienting parts in an Assembly to


create MIN gap

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The loop diagram begins by pushing all the parts


is such a manner that the parts configuration
(position) in an assembly would create a minimum
gap. As shown in figure left this has had the effect
of trapping the fasteners (or pins) between hole #1
and #3 and Hole #2 and #4.

The pin on the left passing thru hole 1,3 is trapped


by pushing part having hole 1 to the right and the
pin on right passing thru holes 2 and 4 is trapped
by pushing part having hole 2 to the left (both
these operations closes gap between the parts
having holes 1, 2)

Since this is a floating fastener situation, pin on


the left (passing thru holes 1,3) and pin on the
right (passing thru holes 2,4) continues to slide
unless the pins are held against the left and right
side of respective holes as shown in figure

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Construct a Loop Diagram


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1.

The Loop begins at the the face on the left side of the gap, it
proceeds towards left (thru material), designated as ve
numbers thru the basic dimension of 125mm to the center of
hole #1.

2.

Go 3mm left (-ve) thru the radius of hole #1 ( as calculated


with its VC and RC boundaries). We are done with hole #1 and
exhausted part #1

3.

Now go over the left pin trapped between holes 1, 3 in right


direction (+ve) 3mm

4.

Now we come across hole#3 and we now go from right side of


hole#3 towards it center in left direction (-ve) 3mm.

8
7

6
5

6.

Step 4 takes us to center of hole 3. From there we go towards


left (+ve) to the center of hole 4; 260mm. We are done with
hole #3.
This step reverses the route going left (-ve) thru 3mm radius of hole #4. We are done with hole #4.

7.

Here we again reverse the loop and go right direction (+ve) thru the right pin diameter 3mm

8.

This step begins on last hole #2, the route goes from right side edge of this hole towards center (-ve) 3mm

9.

Go in the same direction from center of hole #2 to the end of the gap (inner right side face of part) (-ve) 125mm

5.

87

i2

Logic Behind Loop Diagram


The logic behind this loop route was to proceed from left
edge/face of gap through all features having an effect on
the Minimum Gap, to the right of gap.
To begin, the parts were shoved to create a min gap
configuration and in this case this is the only logical route
to take.
The route went left and right and involved all related
features until loop was complete. The related feature list
includes four holes #1 thru #4, pins on left and right . Hole
radii were used because the pertinent dimensions binding
the gap to holes and holes to each other, went to the hole
centers.

Key in this table the ve and +ve route


values

88

The full pin diameters were used as the pins got trapped
between hole edge faces.
The basic dimensions were used to allow a route from left
side of gap to the center of hole 1 and then center of hole
3 to to the center of hole 4 and at the last from center of
hole 2 to the right side face of the gap

i2

Loop Diagram with values printed

89

i2

Can you Locate / Orient parts in an Assembly


to create MAX gap

90

i2

Loop Diagram for MAX gap with values


printed

91

i2

Session #5: Exercise

Calculate MIN and MAX Gap


for the assembly shown in
figure at left

92

i2

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly with Tab


and Slot (Fixed Fastener)

93

i2

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly with Tab


and Slot
l

Objectives:

l
l
l

94

Calculate assembly overall MAX and MIN dimensions


Calculate MAX and MIN gaps within assembly as shown
Calculate boundaries using various GD&T controls

i2

Steps involved in analyzing Tab -Slot


assembly
1.

2.

3.

4.

95

Calculate Virtual and Resultant Condition for Tab and Slot. They
work on similar principals as hole and pin and are controlled at
MMC.
For Slot and Tab, calculate difference between resultant
condition and virtual condition boundaries. This difference
represents total size tolerance for Slot or Tab. Take half of the
difference which is represents equal bilateral tolerance value .
For Slot and Tab, add resultant condition and virtual condition
boundaries; and take mean of the sum. This mean represents
the mean width for either Slot or Tab (for analysis purpose)
Again, for Slot and Tab, take mean of values in step #2 and #3.
This new mean represents mean radius`mean radial tolerance

i2

Charting values calculated per steps #1


through #4
Step #1: Calculate Virtual and Resultant Condition for Tab and Slot. They work on
similar principals as hole and pin and are controlled at MMC

96

i2

Charting values calculated per steps #1


through #4

97

2.

For Slot and Tab, calculate


difference between resultant
condition and virtual condition
boundaries. This difference
represents total size tolerance for
Slot or Tab. Take half of the
difference which is represents equal
bilateral tolerance value.

3.

For Slot and Tab, add resultant


condition and virtual condition
boundaries; and take mean of the
sum. This mean represents the
mean width for either Slot or Tab (for
analysis purpose)

4.

Again, for Slot and Tab, take mean


of values in step #2 and #3. This
new mean represents mean
radius`mean radial tolerance

i2

Step #1: values printed in the chart


Step #1: Calculate Virtual and Resultant Condition for Tab and Slot. They work on
similar principals as hole and pin and are controlled at MMC

98

i2

Step #2,3,4: Values printed in the Chart

99

2.

For Slot and Tab, calculate


difference between resultant
condition and virtual condition
boundaries. This difference
represents total size tolerance for
Slot or Tab. Take half of the
difference which is represents equal
bilateral tolerance value.

3.

For Slot and Tab, add resultant


condition and virtual condition
boundaries; and take mean of the
sum. This mean represents the
mean width for either Slot or Tab (for
analysis purpose)

4.

Again, for Slot and Tab, take mean


of values in step #2 and #3. This
new mean represents mean
radius`mean radial tolerance

i2

Locating parts in an Assembly to create MIN


overall Dimension and creating a Loop
Diagram
l

Before we begin constructing loop


diagram for minimum overall
dimension, we must imagine the parts
being shoved together such that
configuration creates minimum overall
assembly dimension

This means left side of tab is pushed


against left side of slot

Loop Diagram follows this route

1
2

3
4

100

1.

We know now to start with left


side face/edge of part#1 to the
center of slot.

2.

Then back to the left side of slot


and tab

3.

Then back to the center of tab


and then

4.

To the right side face of part#2

i2

Loop Diagram with values printed

101

i2

Can you Locate parts in an Assembly to


create MAX overall dimension and create a
Loop Diagram?

102

i2

Loop Diagram for MAX Overall Dimension


with values printed

103

i2

Calculating MAX, MIN values for Lower-Left


and Upper-Right gaps

Case #1: Min Lower-Left Gap

104

Case #2: Max Lower-Left Gap

Case #3: Min Upper-Right Gap

Case #4: Max Upper-Right Gap

i2

Case #1: Min Lower-Left Gap

105

i2

Case #2: Max Lower-Left Gap

106

i2

Case #3: Min Upper-Right Gap

107

i2

Case #4: Max Upper-Right Gap

108

i2

Calculating MAX overall Diameter for a


coupling

Assembly

109

i2

Detailed Part Drawing with GD&T Controls


Notice the controls
used and study the
drawing

110

i2

Factors and Non-Factors in calculating


overall Diameter

lWill

the controls and dimensions circled in


color will participate in overall diameter
calculations
OR
lWill

the controls and dimensions circled in


color will participate in overall diameter
calculations
lOR
lWill

dimensions circled in both colors


participate or None?

111

i2

Step #1: Calculate Virtual condition and


Resultant Condition boundaries for Threaded
holes

Threaded Hole on Crank Shaft (consider a stud here now):

112

VC= n8.0+0.44=n8.44
RC=n8.0-0.44=n7.56
Sum of RC+VC=n16; half of this=n8
Difference of VC and RC=n8.44-n7.56=0.88; half of this is 0.44
So, threaded hole expressed in equal bilateral toleranced dimens ion
is: n8`0.44

i2

Step #1: Calculate Virtual condition and


Resultant Condition boundaries for
Clearance holes

Clearance Hole on Coupling:

VC= n8.66-0.22=n8.44
RC=n8.90+0.22=n9.12
Sum of RC+VC=n17.56; half of this=n8.78
Difference of VC and RC=n9.12-n8.44=0.68; half of this is 0.34
So, clearance hole expressed in equal bilateral toleranced dimension
is: n8.78`0.34

Now, Calculate difference between biggest clearance hole diamete r and


biggest threaded hole diameter = n9.12-n8.44=n0.68= clearance

113

i2

Step #2: Calculate Clearances between


Datum Feature Diameters D and B
l

In this case the perpendicularity tolerance callout on crankshaf ts center bore and
couplings center shoulder are ignored since the maximum clearanc e (and thus
play) between these two features would occur at when both features a re at their
LMC sizes and perfectly perpendicular to their datum planes.

Center Bore on Crankshaft Datum feature D :

LMC = 50.10

Center Shoulder on Coupling Datum feature B :

LMC = 49.97

Subtracting these two values, we get clearance of 50.10 49.97 = 0.13, which is less than
0.68 clearance calculated on threaded and clearance hole in previous slide.
This means in this case, the threaded/clearance holes are not the factors in stack-up and we
would consider only offset between datum features B and D due to their respective LMC
sizes.

114

i2

Step#3: Create a Loop Diagram


All Dimensions printed in the Loop are Nominal
(bolt holes are ignored now onward)

+115

+25.05

-24.985

+115

115

i2

Step#4: Chart the values

Bottom to
Top

Top to
Bottom

(+ve)

(-ve)

` Tolerance

Remarks

115

`.15 (Size tol of ` 0.2/2 and Gtol of `


0.1/2) radial calculations

From start to center of


crankshaft

25.05

From center of
crankshaft to edge of
center bore/shoulder

24.985

From edge of center


bore/shoulder to center
of coupling

115

`.15 (Size tol of ` 0.2/2 and Gtol of `


0.1/2) radial calculations

From center of coupling


to end

255.05

24.985

0.30

Totals

230.065 + 0.30 = 230.365

Max Dimension

255.05 - 24.985 = 230.065

116

i2

Session #6: Exercise #1

117

Calculate MAX/MIN Overall dimensions, Calculate MIN/MAX Gaps

i2

Session #6: Exercise #2

Calculate MAX
overall diameter
of assembly

118

i2

Session #7: Analyzing a Rail Assembly


having Fixed fasteners

Assembly

119

i2

Part #1: Detailed Drawing

120

i2

Part #2: Detailed Drawing

121

i2

Session #7: Analyzing a Rail Assembly


having Fixed fasteners
l

Objectives:
l
l
l
l
l
l

122

Calculate Boundaries for Threaded features


Work with multiple Geometric Controls on a single feature
Determine effect of Projected Tolerance Zone on Stack-up
GD&T Controls affecting and non-affecting stack-up
Calculate Clearance and Interference
Use product knowledge / experience and Assembly
conditions in stack-up analysis

i2

Observations from Assembly and Part


drawings
l
l
l
l

123

A classic example of fixed fastener assembly: a threaded hole in


rail and a clearance hole in block
Note that datum features B on both part are given a flatness
tolerance since they are mating
Note the refinement frame for Datum feature B on rail.
Consider objectives: to calculate max/min gap between rail and
block in assembled condition. This means we need to calculate
pertinent boundaries for features that affect objectives such as
boundaries for slot in rail, width of block, screws when mounted in
rail, clearance holes in block.

i2

Steps involved in analyzing Rail assembly


1.

2.

3.

4.

124

Calculate Inner and Outer Boundaries for Slot and Width of


block. (Will there be VCB or just RCBs?)
For Slot and Width of block, calculate difference between Inner
and Outer boundaries. This difference represents total size
tolerance for Slot or Width of block. Take half of the difference
which is represents equal bilateral tolerance value.
For Slot and Width of block, add Inner and Outer boundaries;
and take mean of the sum. This mean represents the mean
width for either Slot or Width of block (for analysis purpose)
Again, for Slot and Width of block, take mean of values in step
#2 and #3. This new mean represents mean radius`mean
radial tolerance

i2

Steps involved in analyzing Rail assembly


5.
6.

7.

8.

125

Calculate Inner and Outer Boundaries for Threaded Hole and


Clearance hole. (Will there be VCB or just RCBs?)
For Threaded Hole and Clearance hole, calculate difference
between Inner and Outer boundaries. This difference represents
total size tolerance for Threaded Hole and Clearance hole . Take
half of the difference which is represents equal bilateral
tolerance value.
For Threaded Hole and Clearance hole, add Inner and Outer
boundaries; and take mean of the sum. This mean represents
the mean width for either Threaded Hole and Clearance hole (for
analysis purpose)
Again, for Threaded Hole and Clearance hole, take mean of
values in step #2 and #3. This new mean represents mean
radius`mean radial tolerance

i2

Step #1: Boundaries calculations for slot and


width
1.

Calculate Inner and Outer Boundaries for Slot and Width of block.

Note that slot in the rail has refinement frame. A positional to lerance is refined by a
orientation (perpendicularity) tolerance. So, is positional tole rance a factor in stack-up or
an orientation tolerance?
Draw tolerance zone shapes / boundaries for each frame and discu ss

126

i2

Step #2,3,4: Calculating Mean Radius /


tolerance for slot and width of block
Outer Boundary of Slot =
- Inner Boundary of Slot =
Difference =

- Inner Boundary of Block=


-------------------------------------Difference =

Difference of Slot =

Difference of Block=

Outer Boundary of Slot =


+Inner Boundary of Slot =
--------------------------------------

Outer Boundary of Block =


+Inner Boundary of Block =

Sum

Sum

--------------------------------------

--------------------------------------

of Sum of OB & IB of Block =


Sum ` Difference of Block =

of Sum ` of Diff of Slot =

of Sum ` of Diff of Block =

127

For Slot and Width of block,


calculate difference between Inner
and Outer boundaries. This
difference represents total size
tolerance for Slot or Width of
block. Take half of the difference
which is represents equal bilateral
tolerance value.

3.

For Slot and Width of block, add


Inner and Outer boundaries; and
take mean of the sum. This mean
represents the mean width for
either Slot or Width of block (for
analysis purpose)

4.

Again, for Slot and Width of block,


take mean of values in step #2
and #3. This new mean
represents mean radius`mean
radial tolerance

Sum ` Difference of Slot =

of Sum of OB & IB of Slot =

2.
Outer Boundary of Block =

i2

Step #1: Boundaries calculations: Values


printed in the chart
1.

Calculate Inner and Outer Boundaries for Slot and Width of block.

Note that we have ignored positional tolerance on the slot in ra il.Only orientation
(perpendicularity) is accounted for in the analysis.

128

i2

Step #2,3,4: Calculating Mean Radius /


tolerance : values printed in the chart
Outer Boundary of Slot = 1.510
- Inner Boundary of Slot = 1.502

Outer Boundary of Block = 1.444

Difference = 0.008

- Inner Boundary of Block = 1.436


-------------------------------------Difference = 0.008

Difference of Slot = 0.004

Difference of Block = 0.004

Outer Boundary of Slot = 1.510


+Inner Boundary of Slot = 1.502
--------------------------------------

Outer Boundary of Block = 1.444


+Inner Boundary of Block = 1.436

Sum

Sum

--------------------------------------

= 3.012

--------------------------------------

of Sum of OB & IB of Block = 1.440


Sum ` Difference of Block = 1.440
`0.004

of Sum ` of Diff of Slot = 0.753


`0.002

of Sum ` of Diff of Block =


0.720 `0.002

129

For Slot and Width of block,


calculate difference between Inner
and Outer boundaries. This
difference represents total size
tolerance for Slot or Width of
block. Take half of the difference
which is represents equal bilateral
tolerance value.

3.

For Slot and Width of block, add


Inner and Outer boundaries; and
take mean of the sum. This mean
represents the mean width for
either Slot or Width of block (for
analysis purpose)

4.

Again, for Slot and Width of block,


take mean of values in step #2
and #3. This new mean
represents mean radius`mean
radial tolerance

= 2.880

Sum ` Difference of Slot = 1.506


`0.004

of Sum of OB & IB of Slot = 1.506

2.

i2

Step #5: Boundaries calculations for


Threaded and Clearance Hole
5. Calculate Inner and Outer Boundaries for Threaded Hole and Clearance hole.
(Why not VC and RC Boundaries?)

What is projected tolerance, why it is important? Explain

130

i2

Step #6,7,8: Calculating Mean Radius /


tolerance for Threaded & Clearance Hole
Outer Boundary of Screw =
- Inner Boundary of Screw =

Outer Boundary of Hole =

Difference =

- Inner Boundary of Hole =


-------------------------------------Difference =

Difference of Screw =

Difference of Hole =

Outer Boundary of Screw =


+Inner Boundary of Screw =
--------------------------------------

Outer Boundary of Hole =


+Inner Boundary of Hole =

Sum

Sum

--------------------------------------

--------------------------------------

of Sum of OB & IB of Hole =


Sum ` Difference of Hole =

of Sum ` of Diff of Screw =

of Sum ` of Diff of Hole =

131

For Threaded Hole and Clearance


hole, calculate difference between
Inner and Outer boundaries. This
difference represents total size
tolerance for Threaded Hole and
Clearance hole. Take half of the
difference which is represents
equal bilateral tolerance value .

7.

For Threaded Hole and Clearance


hole, add Inner and Outer
boundaries; and take mean of the
sum. This mean represents the
mean width for either Threaded
Hole and Clearance hole (for
analysis purpose)

8.

Again, for Threaded Hole and


Clearance hole, take mean of
values in step #2 and #3. This
new mean represents mean
radius`mean radial tolerance

Sum ` Difference of Screw =

of Sum of OB & IB of Screw =

6.

i2

Step #1: Boundaries calculations: Threaded


& Clearance Hole: Values printed in the chart
5. Calculate Inner and Outer Boundaries for Threaded Hole and Clearance hole.

Inner Boundary of Screw Mounted in Rail = n0.2408 (LMC Major Dia) 0.0140 = n0.2268
Outer Boundary of Screw Mounted in Rail = n0.250 + 0.0140 = n0.264
Outer Boundary of Hole in Block = n0.286+ 0.015 = n0.301
Inner Boundary of Hole in Block = n0.276- 0.005 = n0.271

132

i2

Step #6,7,8: Calculating Mean Radius /


tolerance for Threaded & Clearance Hole:
values printed in the chart
Outer Boundary of Screw = 0.2640
- Inner Boundary of Screw = 0.2268

Outer Boundary of Hole = 0.301

Difference = 0.0372

- Inner Boundary of Hole = 0.271


-------------------------------------Difference = 0.030

Difference of Screw = 0.0186

Difference of Hole = 0.015

Outer Boundary of Screw = 0.2640


+Inner Boundary of Screw = 0.2268
--------------------------------------

Outer Boundary of Hole = 0.301


+Inner Boundary of Hole = 0.271

Sum

Sum

--------------------------------------

= 0.4908

--------------------------------------

of Sum of OB & IB of Hole = 0.286


Sum ` Difference of Hole = 0.286
`0.015

of Sum ` of Diff of Screw =


0.1227 `0.0093

of Sum ` of Diff of Hole =


0.1430 `0.0075

133

For Threaded Hole and Clearance


hole, calculate difference between
Inner and Outer boundaries. This
difference represents total size
tolerance for Threaded Hole and
Clearance hole. Take half of the
difference which is represents
equal bilateral tolerance value .

7.

For Threaded Hole and Clearance


hole, add Inner and Outer
boundaries; and take mean of the
sum. This mean represents the
mean width for either Threaded
Hole and Clearance hole (for
analysis purpose)

8.

Again, for Threaded Hole and


Clearance hole, take mean of
values in step #2 and #3. This
new mean represents mean
radius`mean radial tolerance

= 0.572

Sum ` Difference of Screw = 0.2454


`0.0186

of Sum of OB & IB of Screw = 0.2454

6.

i2

Locating parts to create MIN Gap


Configuration

134

i2

Steps in Creating a Loop Diagram


1.

The Loop begins on the left edge/face of


slot and proceeds in the +ve (right )
direction to the center of threaded hole (or
screw).

2.

Then it continues in same (+ve) direction


until right side of outer boundary of the
threaded hole. Note that we must stay on
the same part until we have to jump to
next mating part

3.

Now the loop reverses. Jumping to mating


part features in ve direction (left) to the
center of clearance hole.

4.

Finally, from center of clearance hole we


continue in same ve direction to the end
of loop ie. Left edge/face of the block.

1
3

2
4

135

i2

Loop Diagram : Values Printed


Step 1: +0.753`0.002 Slot
Step 2: +0.1227`0.0093 Mounted Screw

1
2

Step 3: -0.1430`0.0075 Clearance Hole


Step 4: -0.720`0.002 Block

3
4

136

i2

Calculate MIN gap


MIN GAP
-

MIN GAP
` Tolerance

`Tolerance

0.7530

0.0020

0.1227

0.0093

0.1430

0.0075

0.7200

0.0020

0.8630

0.8757

0.0208 (Totals)

0.8757- 0.8630 = 0.0127 = Mean Gap


0.0127 0.0208 = -0.0081 (Interference Max)

Since the min gap value is a ve number (-0.0081), we know that there is interference possible.
Discuss on possibility of occurring such interference in practic e. Not the configuration under
which the interference occurred. Can such configuration exist? A nd is avoidable?

137

i2

Locating parts to create MAX Gap


Configuration

138

i2

Steps in Creating a Loop Diagram

1.

The Loop begins on the left edge/face of


slot and proceeds in the +ve (right )
direction to the center of threaded hole (or
screw).

2.

Then it continues in opposite (-ve)


direction until left side of outer boundary
of the threaded hole. Note that we must
stay on the same part until we have to
jump to next mating part

3.

Now the loop reverses. Jumping to mating


part features in +ve direction (left) to the
center of clearance hole.

4.

Finally, from center of clearance hole we


continue in same ve direction to the end
of loop ie. Left edge/face of the block.

4
3

2
1

139

i2

Loop Diagram : Values Printed


Step 1: +0.753`0.002 Slot

Step 2: -0.1227`0.0093 Mounted Screw

Step 3: +0.1430`0.0075 Clearance Hole


Step 4: -0.720`0.002 Block

2
1

140

i2

Calculate MAX gap


MIN GAP
-

MIN GAP
` Tolerance

+
0.7530

0.1227

0.0020
0.0093

0.1430
0.7200
0.8427

`Tolerance

0.0075
0.0020

0.8960

0.0208 (Totals)

0.8960 - 0.8427 = 0.0533 = Mean Gap


0.0533 0.0208 = -0.0741 (MAX GAP)

141

i2

Conclusions
l

142

The traditional methodology we used for MAX and MIN gap calculations
may be misleading! It may arrive at a wrong decision if one is t rying to
determine from MIN gap value whether or not parts will actually fit
together; if the route chosen assumes the screw WCOB touches WCIB of
clearance hole, but it does not actually touch
If WCIB of holes (internal FOS) and WCOB of the shafts (external FOS)
of all the mating features are compatible, we can assume that the parts
are able to fit.
For example, the WCIB of the slot in rail is 1.502 and WCOB of block is
1.444 (smaller); therefore they dont interfere and there is still a play
(clearance) within these boundaries.
Similarly, we know that, WCOB of mounted screws is 0.264 and WCI B of
clearance hole is 0.271; therefore we conclude that they these t wo
boundaries dont interfere and there is play (clearance) within these
boundaries
Therefore, if the parts are allowed to assembly naturally (not pushed to
extremes at the assembly stage), they will fit w/o interference.

i2

Looking at the case from Different Angle

143

Once the WCB are proven compatible, another check


is to determine minimum airspace between WCOB of
mounted screw and WCIB of slot and the maximum
wall thickness between WCIB of clearance hole and
WCOB of block.

If there is more airspace than wall thickness, no


interference should occur when assembled naturally.

i2

Min Airspace V/s Max Wall Thickness


The Loop analysis approach assumes
the airspace between screw and
clearance hole will be used to push the
parts in most undesirable assembly
conditions,

However, if we assume that this


airspace is used to push the parts into
most desirable and practical condition;
the analysis proves the parts will
assemble

144

i2

Steps involved in calculating MIN Air space


On Slot Part
1.

MMC of the Screw =


+ Geo Tolerance for Threaded Holes =

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Watch signs in this


column

Sum = Virtual Condition of the Screw =


of Virtual Condition of Screw =

2.

MMC of the Slot =


- Geo Tol for the Slot =

-----------------------------------------------------Difference = Inner Boundary Of Slot =


of Inner Boundary of Slot =

3.

of Inner Boundary of Slot =


- of Virtual Condition of Screw =

-------------------------------------------------------------Difference = Min Airspace between the screw surface & Slot wall =

145

i2

Steps involved in calculating MAX wall


thickness on Block Part
1.

MMC of the Clearance Holes =


- Geo Tolerance for Holes =

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Watch signs in this


column

Difference = Virtual Condition of the Hole (IB) =


of Virtual Condition of Hole =

2.

MMC of the Block =


+ Geo Tol for the Block =

-----------------------------------------------------Sum = Outer Boundary of Block =


of Outer Boundary of Block =

3.

of Outer Boundary of Block =


- of Virtual Condition of Hole =

-------------------------------------------------------------Difference = MAX Wall thickness between the Hole surface & Block wall =

146

i2

Steps involved in calculating MIN Air space


and MAX wall thickness

Minimum Airspace =
- Maximum Wall Thickness =
----------------------------------------------------Difference = Clearance between Rail and Block per side =

147

i2

Calculated MIN Air space


1.

MMC of the Screw = 0.250


+ Geo Tolerance for Threaded Holes = 0.014

--------------------------------------------------------------------Sum = Virtual Condition of the Screw = 0.264


of Virtual Condition of Screw = 0.132

2.

MMC of the Slot = 1.504


- Geo Tol for the Slot = 0.002

-----------------------------------------------------Difference = Inner Boundary Of Slot = 1.502


of Inner Boundary of Slot = 0.751

3.

of Inner Boundary of Slot = 0.751


- of Virtual Condition of Screw = 0.132

-------------------------------------------------------------Difference = Min Airspace between the screw surface & Slot wall = 0.619

148

i2

Calculated MAX Wall thickness


1.

MMC of the Clearance Holes = 0.276


- Geo Tolerance for Holes = 0.005

--------------------------------------------------------------------Difference = Virtual Condition of the Hole (IB) = 0.271


of Virtual Condition of Hole = 0.1355

2.

MMC of the Block = 1.442


+ Geo Tol for the Block = 0.002

-----------------------------------------------------Sum = Outer Boundary of Block = 1.444


of Outer Boundary of Block = 0.722

3.

of Outer Boundary of Block = 0.7220


- of Virtual Condition of Hole = 0.1355

-------------------------------------------------------------Difference = MAX Wall thickness between the Hole surface & Block wall =
0.5865

149

i2

Now, calculate min clearance between rail


and block per side

Minimum Airspace = 0.6190


- Maximum Wall Thickness = 0.5865
----------------------------------------------------Difference = Clearance between Rail and Block per side = 0.0325
This value also represents Minimum clearance with parts adjusted optimally for Assembly

150

i2

MAX Gap calculation: Discussion on


Perpendicularity as factor
l

MAX gap can be viewed in two ways:

151

First considers perpendicularity tolerance on both rail slot and block


Second, does not consider perpendicularity.

Second approach assumes that more uniform maximum gap is


created only when both features (slot and block) are at their LMC
and are perfectly perpendicular to bottom faces.

It seems logical that both are worth knowing.

i2

MAX Gap calculation: With & without


Perpendicularity as factor

152

i2

MAX Gap calculation: without


Perpendicularity as factor

+
0.7540

0.1134

Slot
Mounted Screw

0.1505
0.7190

0.8324

Part/Feature

Clearance Hole
Block

0.9045

Totals

(0.9045 - 0.8324) = Min Gap = 0.0721

153

i2

Session #7: Exercises

154

i2

Session #8: Tolerance Stack-up Analysis for


Single Part

Please read the part


drawing and write down
your findings

155

i2

Session #8: Tolerance Stack-up Analysis for


Single Part
l

Objectives:

Perform variety of single-part tolerance stack-up calculations using


l
l
l

156

Two single stacked composite position controls


Datum features referenced at MMC
Profile of surface

Analyze envelopes of perfect form and geometric tolerances of


perfect orientation at MMC
Calculate minimum and maximum axial separations
Understanding SEP REQ notes effect on gaging requirements and
effect of multiple DRFs in accumulating tolerances
Determine MAX and MIN wall thickness using different approaches

i2

What are we trying to find out in single


part?
lWe

are going to calculate minimum wall thickness between surface of


small hole in bottommost row and bottom edge of part as shown in figure
left.
lWhat

factors control this wall thickness?

l From

where the bottom most hole controlled from? Is it edge of


part? It is controlled from Datum feature B (a four way locator)
that datum feature B also has positional tolerance of n0.050
at MMC. This tolerance grow up to n0.060 if datum feature B is
produced at LMC
lNote
Min wall

means datum feature B axis can lie anywhere in n0.060 max


when produced at LMC, lets assume it lies on circumference of
n0.060 position tolerance circle towards bottom edge of part (wor st
case).
lThis

lNote

that wherever datum feature B hole ends up; small hole is


measured from its (datum B s) axis.
lSmall

hole has no positional tolerance if produced at MMC, but i ts


positional tolerance can grow up to n0.010 if hole is produced at
LMC. We will assume that it is worst case.

157

i2

What are we trying to find out in single


part?
lThe

FCF for bottommost hole references B and C datums at

MMC
lThough

FCF references C; the datum features C s role is to


prevent part rotation and since bottommost hole is
positioned from datum feature B, C is not a factor in
calculation. Datum C is two way control
lSince

Min wall

datum feature B is referenced at MMC, gage pin size


for datum B will be of size = virtual condition for B = n0.245.
If datum B is produced at n0.245, it will hug gage pin. But if
datum B is produced at larger size (within size limits), the par t
may shift aside until Datum B feature surface hits the gage
pin.
lRemember

gage pin axis is datum feature B and not axis of

AMS/AME.
datum feature B is produced at n0.255 (LMC), the part
can shift radially by 0.005 or diametrically 0.010
lIf

158

i2

What are we trying to find out in single


part?
lThis

means the bottommost hole can further shift towards


bottom most edge by 0.005; thus thinning wall further!
lSuch

shift due to clearance between gage pin and datum


feature of size (FOS) is called as Datum Shift OR DRF
displacement.
lTherefore,

the bottommost hole shifts downward towards part


edge by an amount equal to = datum shift/2+positional tolerance
of datum feature B at LMC/2= 0.010/2 + 0.060/2 = 0.035
Min wall

lFind

the resultant condition (outer boundary) size of bottom


most hole = (0.130+.01) = 0.140. Mean of this = 0.070.
lNow,

add 0.070+0.035 = 0.105. This value indicates how far


the bottommost hole s surface can go from its true position
in worst case. Remember this number. Double of this = 0.210
which is outer boundary of hole in worst case.

159

i2

Begin the loop now


lStart

at the bottom surface of bottommost smallest hole, go up (away from start point) by
0.105 to the center of the hole (-0.105)
lFrom

center of this hole go up by 1.375 (basic) to the center of datum feature B (-1.375)

lFrom

center of datum feature B, go further up to the part edge ( basic 0.375), (-0.375)

lFrom

top upper edge of part, loop reverses in downward direction (+ve) and goes until inner
boundary of width datum feature G. Inner boundary for datum feature G is calculated as 1.950
(LMC Width) -0.100 (Geo tol at LMC) = +1.850

lSo,

160

We used fundamental principals to calculate min wall thickness


which accounted for datum shifts and bonus tolerances

i2

Same example, solved using traditional


approach of chart and loop

We calculated worst
case outer boundary of
bottommost hole as
n0.210.
Now, calculate worst
case inner boundary in
the same manner.

Expressed as equal bilateral


toleranced dimension as
n0.130`0.080 or in terms of radius
as R0.065`0.040

161

i2

Now construct Loop Diagram and print


values in chart

Using traditional loop


and chart method, you
can find both: minimum
and maximum wall
thickness!

162

i2

Using the same traditional approach to


calculate right-side wall thickness

We know by now that for all 28 hole


pattern, the mean radius`mean
tolerance is R0.065`0.040 and this
number will be used everywhere to
calculate wall thickness or separation
between holes

Can you calculate min and max distance


between center of hole and right side edge of
part?

163

i2

Using the same traditional approach,


calculate max/min wall thickness between
datum features B,C

Steps:

164

1.

Calculate inner and outer WCB for


datum features B and C (consider
only lower segment in composite
position callout. Why not upper?)

2.

How to calculate inner and outer


boundaries for Basic Dimension
2.000 between datum features B and
C??

3.

Create a loop and make a chart

i2

Using the same traditional approach,


calculate max/min wall thickness between
datum features B,C

Now, calculate min and max axial separation

165

i2

Using the same traditional approach,


calculate max/min wall thickness between
datum features B and E

Steps:

166

1.

Calculate inner and outer WCB for


datum features B and C (consider
only upper segment in composite
position callout. Why not lower?)

2.

How to calculate inner and outer


boundaries for Basic Dimension
0.375 between datum features B and
E??

3.

Create a loop and make a chart

i2

Using the same traditional approach,


calculate max/min wall thickness between
datum features B and E

167

i2

Using the same traditional approach,


calculate max/min wall thickness between
datum features B and E

168

i2

Same Example, but now with different GD&T


Scheme

169

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX axial separation


between datum features B and C
lThese

two holes are controlled to each


other and datum plane A
lTheir

relationship with datum A is simply


orientation, ie. The hole axis is
perpendicular to datum A
lThe

analysis can be thought in terms of


tolerance zones or virtual conditions.

170

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX axial separation


between datum features B and C using
tolerance zones
lA

cylindrical tolerance zone exists at each


end of basic dimension 2.000
lThe

tolerance zone diameter is zero at


holes MMC (0.245)
lThe

tolerance zone diameter can grow up


to 0.01 at holes LMC (0.255)

171

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX axial separation


between datum features B and C using
tolerance zones

172

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX axial separation


between datum features B and C using
Virtual Condition Boundaries

lThe

Virtual Condition for each hole is

0.245
lSince

functional gage would be made at


virtual condition size, we would consider
gage pins of 0.245 size and these gage
pins (virtual boundaries) would be 2.000
apart from center to center
lIf

the holes are produced at 0.245, they


will hug the gage pins as shown.

lHowever,

when holes size grow, they could be out of proportion i n any radial
direction by an amount equal to half of amount of departure from MMC (half of
(AMS-MMC size))
lIf

the holes are produced at LMC size (0.255), it could result i n following
configurations

173

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX axial separation


between datum features B and C using
Virtual Condition Boundaries

OR

174

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX edge-axis


separation between datum feature B and left
edge of part

MIN- MAX

175

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX edge-axis


separation between datum feature B and left
edge of part
lThe

profile control relates the outside surface of


part to two holes (datum feature B and C)
lConsider

upper left corner of part and datum


feature hole B and also profile callout
lWe

can think of profile (edge of part al around)


can grow or shrink by +/-0.025 per surface. This
could be thought of affecting two basic dimensions
by `0.025
lSo,

just considering profile tolerance of 0.050, we


could see that the distance between the actually
produced edge of part (profile) and axis of the hole
is 0.500 `0.25 (0.475 - 0.525) and 0.375 `0.25
(0.350 0.400)
overall dimensions of 2.000 (1.625+0.375) and 3.125 a re affected by `0.025 per surface.
Therefore overall dimensions of the part are 2.000 `0.050 x 3.125 `0.050
lSimilarly,

lThe

datum features referenced on profile callout has no effect o n size of the part, but has effect
on angle and location of part surfaces

176

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX edge-axis


separation between datum feature B and left
edge of part
lBut,

now that the datum feature B is referenced at MMC, does have an effect on 0.500 and 0.375
dimensions beyond 0.050 profile tolerance due to pattern shift ( or datum shift effect).
lFollowing

are the illustrations of extreme configurations:

OR

MAX DIST=0.025+0.500+0.005=0.530

177

MIN DIST=0.500- 0.025-0.005=0.470

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX wall thickness


between datum feature B and left edge of
part

MAX WALL THK=0.530-0.1275=0.4025

178

MIN WALL THK=0.470 -0.1275=0.3725

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX wall thickness


between datum feature B and left edge of
part using Loop Diagram

179

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX wall thickness


between bottommost small hole and right
edge of part
Calculations for
bottommost small hole
The Loop analysis can be
done with these numbers,
but we must consider that
the profile tolerance on right
edge is `0.025 with an
additional shift of 0.005 ;
which is a separate
requirement from the 28
holes on another `0.005
(since the edges could shift
one way and 28 hole pattern
shifts opposite way)

180

i2

Calculating MIN and MAX wall thickness


between bottommost small hole and right
edge of part : Loop Diagram

OR

181

i2

Calculating MIN wall thickness between


bottommost small hole and right edge of part
: Alternate method

182

i2

Calculating MAX wall thickness between


bottommost small hole and right edge of part
: Alternate method

183

i2

Session #8: Exercises

184

1.

Calculate MIN and MAX


wall thickness and axis
separation from left
edge of the part the
n0.125 `0.005 hole
closest to it.

2.

Calculate MIN and MAX


wall thickness from the
bottom edge of the part
to the n0.125 `0.005
hole closest to it.

i2

Session #8: Exercises

185

1.

Calculate MIN and MAX


wall thickness between
B and C holes when
they are produced at
LMC

2.

Calculate MIN and MAX


wall thickness from the
B hole to the top edge
of the part

3.

Calculate MIN and MAX


wall thickness from the
lower right n04.0-4.3
hole to the right edge
and bottom edge of the
part

i2

Session #8: Exercises

1.

186

Calculate MIN and MAX


wall thickness between
surface of one hole
n0.570-0.590 and the
Outside Diameter

i2

Session #8: Exercises

1.

187

Calculate MIN wall


thickness between hole
pattern to Datum feature
C

i2

Session #9: Tolerance Stack-up Analysis for


a Five part assembly

188

i2

Session #9: Tolerance Stack-up Analysis for


a Five part assembly

Objectives:
l

l
l

189

Calculating tolerance stack-ups on a five part rotating


assembly with a variety of geometric controls such as:
position, perpendicularity, parallelism, profile, flatness,
projected tolerance zones, runout, total runout,
concentricity, positional coaxiality
Learn Simplifying a complex situation
Calculate radial clearance and interference

i2

Part #1: Detailed Drawing

190

i2

Part #2: Detailed Drawing

191

i2

Part #3: Detailed Drawing

192

i2

Part #4: Detailed Drawing

193

i2

Part #5: Detailed Drawing

194

i2

Step#1: Check if housing inner width is


sufficient to house part #2,3,4

195

1.

Shortest pertinent length on part#1 is 250-0.5 = 249.5

2.

Seating length on part#5 for part#1 = 324.5 -51.0 = 273.5, therefore provides
sufficient stability for part #1 when fastened with part#5.

3.

So, the only important factor is housings inner width of 249.5

4.

The parallelism tolerance of 0.2 on datum E of part#1 is a factor

5.

Profile tolerance of 0.2 on datum A of part#1 relative to Datum D is factor


since it controls attitude of datum A surfaces relative to datum D

6.

Attitude variations from #4,#5 tends walls to lean 0.2 each, but the size
tolerance (249.5-250.5) on overall inner width cannot be violated

i2

Step#1: Check if housing inner width is


sufficient to house part #2,3,4
lPart

#2 has MMC size = 12.8

lPart

#3 has MMC size = 100.0. Parallelism tolerance of


0.05 on datum plane B gets accommodated in MMC size
limit automatically
lPart

#4 : Start from datum plane A, travel towards right


a basic dimension of 48.75 up to center plane of last
width feature of 15`0.1, and add of is outer boundary
= (15.1+0.0 (geo tol at MMC)) = 15.1; take of it = 7.55
lNow

add all above: 12.8+100.0+48.75+7.55=169.1.


This is the minimum space needed to house parts 2,3,4
lComing

back to inner width of housing; which is 249.5 0.2 (attitude tolerance due to leaning of walls) = 249.3

lSo,

196

the clearance = 249.3 169.1 = 80.2, so we have plenty of clearance to house all three parts.

i2

Step#2: Check if housing inner height is


sufficient to house part #2,3,4: Radial gap
study
lParts

2,3,4 are pushed upward to


create a minimum gap configuration of
assembly
lNote

one line places in assembly


where mating parts respective features
coincide.
lPart

#4: Outer boundary =


(n251.0mmc+n0.2 geo tol) = n251.2,
of it = R125.5
lClearance

hole: n8.8LMC = R4.4

lPart

#3: Threaded hole treated as


mounted screw: inner boundary of
screw=n7.76 (LMC of screw)-n0.30 (geo
tol)=n7.46; n7.46-0.05 (pattern shift due
to Dm reference on threaded
hole)=n7.41 = inner boundary of screw
with pattern shift; of it = R3.705
of D = n99.95; of it =
R49.975
lLMC

197

i2

Step#2: Check if housing inner height is


sufficient to house part #2,3,4: Radial gap
study
#2: n100.05 (LMC of D)+n0.10
(positional tolerance on D at LMC) = n100.15.
Take of it = R50.075
lPart

ln115

(LMC of E), take 1/5 of it = R57.5

#1: Center hole. n115.52 (LMC of hole) +


n0.20 (Geo tol at LMC) = n115.72 (outer
boundary of hole). Take of it = R57.86
lPart

198

i2

Create Loop and Print values in the chart.

199

i2

Challenges in this example were: Factors


and Non-factors in Gap analysis.
Factors / Non-factors in Part#1:

200

Is Datum C a factor? Yes, the


inner boundary of datum C needs
to be accounted since this will
decide amount of gap. R137.25

The outer boundary of center


clearance hole is also a factor,
since movement of this hole
affects the other parts related to it.
The outer boundary of this hole is
n115.72 or R 57.86. The outer
boundary allows the equal
movement of shaft (Part#2)

i2

Challenges in this example were: Factors


and Non-factors in Gap analysis.
Factors / Non-factors in Part#2:

201

Is Datum E a factor? Yes, The most


airspace between datum feature E and
clearance hole on part#1 would occur
when datum E is at LMC and perfect
perpendicular to C. So, perpendicularity
tolerance is not a factor in this analysis.
LMC of datum feature E is n115 or R57.5

Since datum feature D is alignment


feature between part #2 and #3, the
threaded holes are not factor in this
analysis. Datum D has two geometric
tolerances , but since location of datum
feature D will determine location of part#3,
the position callout is a factor and
perpendicularity is not. Since the largest
movement and largest size of D allows
largest movement of part#3, the outer
boundary of D is n100.05+n0.1 =
n100.15 or R50.075

i2

Challenges in this example were: Factors


and Non-factors in Gap analysis.
Factors / Non-factors in Part#3:

202

Is Datum D a factor? Yes, The most airspace


between datum feature D and bore on part#2
would occur when datum D is at LMC and perfect
perpendicular to C. So, perpendicularity
tolerance is not a factor in this analysis. LMC of
datum feature D is n99.95 or R49.975

Since datum feature D is alignment feature


between part #2 and #3, the clearance holes are
not factor in this analysis. The threaded holes
move the screws around and create alignment
between part#3 and part#4, therefore pattern of
four holes is a factor. If LMC screws are moved
by the threaded holes as a group off of the datum
axis D, it would eventually move part#4. Also
since pattern of threaded holes reference datum
feature D at MMC, the pattern may shift
additional amount if D is produced at LMC. So
the inner boundary of screws mounted in
threaded holes and shifting as a group would be
n7.76(LMC Screw)-n0.3 (geo tol)-0.05(pattern
shift)=n7.41 or R3.705

i2

Challenges in this example were: Factors


and Non-factors in Gap analysis.
Factors / Non-factors in Part#4:

203

The clearance holes connect part#4 to


threaded holes in part#3, but since these
clearance holes are positioned only to
each other and held perpendicular to
datum A, and other pertinent features are
related to axis of these four holes, the
position tolerance on these four holes is
not a factor. The movement between part
#3 and 4 is governed by clearance
between screws and clearance holes. The
LMC of clearance holes is n8.8; R4.4

The OD of part#4 is also a major factor.


The movement of this OD off the axis of
four hole pattern (datum B), effectively
increases the overall size, therefore
runout tolerance is a factor. Thus the
outer boundary of part#4 is
n251+0.2=n251.2 or R125.6

i2

Challenges in this example were: Factors


and Non-factors in Gap analysis.

204

These are all factors in this analysis. We started with with fac tors on
Part#4 until we exhausted those and then moved on to part#3 and so
on

This way, many parts can be analyzed in a complex assembly witho ut


getting lost. Remember, its done ONE PART AT A TIME. Thats why
doing single part analysis helps engineer to do assembly analysi s.

The first and the foremost, one must decide objectives ( what ga ps or
overall dimensions or material thickness are to be calculated). Secondly
assembly should be investigated to determine which parts, which part
features, which sizes and which geometric tolerances are and are not
factors in analysis.

i2

Session #9: Exercise

205

i2

Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance


Stack-up Analysis

206

i2

Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance


Stack-up Analysis
l

Objectives:
l
l
l
l
l

207

Understanding the role of trigonometry and proportions in


tolerance stack-up and geometric tolerancing
Understanding the effect of Rocking Datums
Know how skewed vertical stacks affect horizontal housing
requirements.
Mixing trigonometry and algebra determining stack-up
results
Consider the rules in Y14.5.1 (Math Standard) for
constructing a valid Datum

i2

Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance


Stack-up Analysis

208

The examples we worked up till included mainly addition and


subtraction; however many situation calls for trigonometric aspe cts
while calculating stack-ups.

Consider flatness, which controls rocking of datum features can


affect stack-up analysis

Y14.5M states that the datum feature is to be rocked to an


optimum assembly condition, in other words, if it rocks, rock it until
the part checks good to simulate the manner in which assembler
would rock the part until it is assembled.

So, its illogical to rock the part until it interfered in the as sembly,
same as it would be illogical to rock it until the part checked bad in
inspection.

i2

Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance


Stack-up Analysis

209

If the rock point is at the center of part, it is difficult to d etermine


that one is to rock the part one way or other which way the
assembler will choose?

To summarize, if rocking is the option chosen, (over say,


shimming it up to equalize the work), that even if there were only
two ways to rock the part, there is only 50% chance that the
assembler and the inspector will choose the same way.

i2

210

In normal GD&T approaches, it is assumed that these


chance will workout optimally. However, in tolerance
stack-up analysis, the approach is exactly opposite. If
datum feature has rock, the part is to be rocked until it
interferes! So, how much a rock would allow part to
lean (imperfect orientation) must be calculated to
determine the amount it would contribute to the
possibility of say, interference.

i2

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

lOut

of flatness is shown on datum A on one


side of part center; since this is worst case
than flatness tolerance being evenly spread
on entire surface
lY14.5.1

states that in order to be a valid


primary datum feature, the points used to
construct a datum plane (3 high points of
contact minimum) must not lie solely in one
of the outer thirds of the surface. So its
possible to conceive of slightly worse
situation than this, but we are restricting to
rocking at center point of part
lThe

illustration shows that flatness


tolerance allows datum A to lean by an
amount equal to flatness tolerance = 0.002. If
the part is inspected on surface that does not
lean; but assembled on surface that leans,
the pin will be forced to lean with with it, by
an amount = 0.006

211

i2

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

lNormally

this is ignored while calculating


worst mating conditions of features like 6.000
length pin. We normally calculate worst
mating condition diameter = MMC size + geo
tol at MMC = 1.010+0.005 = 1.015.
lBut

with additional radial lean of 0.006, the


worst mating condition can be seen as 1.015
+ 2x0.006=1.027
lAlso,

while calculating the minimum gap


between this shaft and the housing into which
it fits, as per procedure we used in previous
sessions, we would probably be working with
radii, therefore of 1.027 = R0.5135

212

i2

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

lParallelism

is also a factor that can be


related to the problems that flatness creates.
Parallelism when used on planer surfaces,
controls flatness and angle to datums
referenced.
lIn

the illustration on left, produced part has


crest in middle (rock point) and surfaces
sloping on either side of rock point.
lSo,

when two or more such parts are


stacked on top of one another, and each
having problem as shown, such assembly
would exhibit a problem of not fitting other
assemblies/housings or closing holes on parts
into which pins ore screws had to fit. (see next
slide)

213

i2

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

lInitially,

the three parts were aligned with


center, left edge and right edge aligned,
then the parts are either to left or right
lThis

would assume that interior part


features such as holes (not shown here)
have been positioned from one of these
features as secondary datum feature.
lEach

This much space


would be needed
if parts were
stacked this way
and allowed to
rock this way

214

part during inspection has been


adjusted 9shimmed up) to allow high point
shown at the bottom center of part 1 and
2 to establish the datum plane, but during
assembly parts have been rocked instead
of equalized.
lThis

is just one speculation as what can


happen due to out of flatness of bottom of
parts 1,2. Many such scenarios are
possible.

i2

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

lUnlike

previous configuration, this configuration


calculates the space needed to house these parts if
they were stacked with their edges aligned and then
rocked in either direction.

This much space would be


needed if parts were stacked
this way and allowed to rock in
either direction

215

i2

Calculating overall housing dimension


requirements
lTo

calculate overall housing space


requirements, visualize parts stacked as
shown.
Part #1

Part #2

lWe

need to calculate offset of bottom left


most point on part #3 from the bottom left
most point on part #1
lSince

part may rock on either side, the


offset calculated must be doubled then
added to length (400mm) of part#1.

Part #3

216

i2

Calculating overall housing dimension


requirements

217

i2

Calculating overall housing dimension


requirements

218

i2

Calculating overall housing dimension


requirements

219

i2

Calculating overall housing dimension


requirements

220

Therefore offset = a2+a6 = 0.04995+0.100=0.14995


(say 0.150)

Hence, housing size must increase by 0.150 on each


side = 400 + (2 * 0.150) = 400.300

i2

Simplified Summary of previous Example

221

i2

Conclusions from the Exercise

222

Purpose of exercise was to show how complex the


calculations can be when one assumes certain
flatness, parallelism and perpendicularity problems
may occur.

You may want to use computer software to simulate


such situations, but you must study the software to
make certain that they are sufficient to simulate wide
range of possibilities that may occur and concerns you
most

i2

Removing out-of-flatness from our


example
lAssume

we have three parts assembly


and all parts are cylindrical.
lIn

a situation, where we had a shaft


that passes / fits through the center hole
of all these three parts, the parallelism
of top and bottom of part sandwiched
between other two would be a factor.
lThe

virtual condition of hole in part#3


would have to be increased beyond
0.240 virtual condition boundary shared
by part#1, part#2 because of out-ofparallelism between top and bottom of
part#2.

223

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Removing out-of-flatness from our


example
lThis

amount in increase in virtual


condition diameter is directly
proportional to parallelism tolerance and
can be expressed as:
lPtol/dia

of part#2 = increase in VC for


part#3/thickness of part#3
lSo,

in this case, 0.002/7=x/1; ie.


0.0002857 increase in VC of part#3s
hole.
lSo,

the ? size in part#3s position


callout is = 0.2400+0.0003=0.2403
lAs

is sometimes the case, the


increase is so small, it may be that once
calculated, may be ignored.

224

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Session #10: Exercise


Calculate the increase and the
VC for the hole in part#3,
given following changes to
figure in previous slide:

225

The parallelism tolerance


on part#2 to datum A =
0.020
The diameter of part#2 =
36.000
The thickness of part#3
= 16.000

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Session#11 : The Theory of Statistical


Probability

226

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The Theory of Statistical Probability


l

Objectives:
l
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227

Convert arithmetically calculated tolerances to statistically


calculated tolerances.
Use Root Sums Square (RSS) formula
Comparing Worst-case and Statistical tolerances
Reintegrating statistical tolerances into the assembly

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Background
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228

So far, in our examples, we assumed that all parts and tolerance s that
participate in stack-up analysis are produced at their worst case
tolerances and also assembled in worst case configurations!
The probability of producing features at their worst case assemb ly
conditions is unlikely unless manufactures are targeting them and in most
cases they are not.
Although manufacturing practices differ place to place, even if they are
aiming at smallest hole and largest shaft, they would unlikely be trying to
use up all of the tolerances that affect the assembly.
We have seen, there are four things related to part geometry to come
together to create worst case assembly conditions. They are Size , Shape
(form), angle (orientation) and position (location)
For example, in mating features that have size dimensions and also have
position tolerances, all four would affect their worst case.(see next slide)

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Background

229

Under ASME Y14.5M-1994, size tolerance also controls feature s form


within size limits on all rigid parts. Position controls both: o rientation
(within position tolerance) and location.

A part feature having size tolerance, consequently form, which i s also


positioned has to span all of its size tolerance, shape, angle a nd location
to be made at the worst case assembly conditions.

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Background
l

230

Manufacturers that use Statistical Process Control, are generall y


believed to be in statistical control instead of Statistical cha os that
it would take to produce features at their worst!
Such manufacturers will produce parts which when measured; will
found to follow a natural variation which forms a natural bell c urve
distribution of part dimensions.
Such distributions will depict that large % of produced parts
measure close to average (nominal) dimension. The magnitude
and spread of dimensions will vary from the nominal by an amount
that can be represented in a graph known as Gaussian Frequency
Curve; where in the area under the curve represents 100% of the
parts produced. The height of the curves represents the times
dimensions have been produced for variable individual component

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Background
l

The dispersion of dimensions


under the curve is described as
standard deviation and often
represented by letter s (sigma),
and calculated as:
s
lThe

arithmetic mean +or- one


standard deviation (`1 s ) is often
described as containing 68.26% of the
produced parts under this normal curve.
By the same logic `2 s is 95.46% of
the total production and `3 s is

99.73%

231

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Root Sum Squares (RSS) Method


l
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232

So, the statistical probability can be applied to tolerance stac k-up analysis for
assemblies both with and without geometric tolerances.
Thus the tolerance of an assembly is expressed as square root of the sum of
squares of the individual component tolerances and is called as RSS
formula:

Statistical probability has been practiced for many years and we ll


documented. Statistical approaches are more reliable for volume production.
For small production runs, the frequency curve tends to be skewe d from its
normal shape.

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Applying RSS: Steps Involved and Examples


l

Steps: Once the worst case calculations (lets


call it as 100% tolerance stack-up analysis)
are done;
1.

2.

3.

233

Using the RSS formula, calculate assembly tolerance


(lets call it as statistical probability tolerance)
Determine the percentage (%) ratio between statistical
probability tolerance and 100% assembly tolerance
Determine the increased statistical probability tolerances
to be re-distributed to the assembly s individual
components.

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RSS Calculations: Example#1

234

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RSS Calculations: Example#1

235

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RSS Calculations: Example#1


lSo,

259.08 254.00 = +5.08 = Mean Gap

take square root of 7.096760 = 7.096760


=2.6639744 = Statistical (RSS) tolerance.
lNow,
lNow,

determine % ratio between statistical


tolerance and worst case tolerance:
l2.6639744

(tolerance likely to be consumed) / 5.08


(worst case tolerance) = 0.5244044, so 2.6639744 is
approx. 52% of 5.08
l1 / 0.5244044 = 1.9069252 and 1.9069252 x

2.6639744 = 5.08 (original worst case tolerance)


lThus

the worst case calculations allow a gap of


5.08`5.08; ie. Max gap of 10.16 and min gap of 0.
lWhile

the statistically calculated assembly


tolerance allows a gap of 5.08`2.66 and this is
amount of tolerance likely to be consumed in a
volume production scenario.

236

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RSS Calculations: Example#1


if we want to consume `5.08 tolerance, the
piece part tolerance should be increased to 191% of
its initial value. Thus the `.254 (the tolerance
originally given to part#11 thru part#2) becomes
1.91x`0.254 = `0.485. Similarly tolerance on part#1
becomes `4. 851
l So,

l This

is the answer to the problem of what the


statistical tolerances for each part in the
assembly would be if calculated by RSS method
l As

per the statistical methods, the tolerance


originally assigned would not be fully consumed, the
worst case gap calculations given, 5.08`5.08,
becomes statistical probability within `3 s of
consuming only 5.08`2.66. This results in max gap
of 7.74 and min gap of 2.42

l With

the newly assigned statistically calculated tolerances,


with each piece part given a tolerance of `0.485 for parts
part#11 thru part#2, for a total of `4. 85 and part#1 with a
tolerance of `4. 85 , we have probability of `9.7.
l So,

we would have a gap of 5.08`9.7 for a max gap of 14.78


and min gap of 4.62. In other words, max interference of 4.62,
but unlikely.
likely is that out of `9.7 , only `5.08 tolerance will be
consumed
l Most

0.485 = 0.235225 (part#2 thru part#11 tolerance)


0.235225 x 10 = 2.35225
4.85 = 23.5225 (part#1s tolerance)
2.35225 + 23.5225 = 25.87475
Square root of 25.87475 = 25.87475 = 5.08

So, by the same RSS method, we arrived at `9.7 tolerance, we were able to calculate
that the likely consumed amount of tolerance by the assembly wil l be only `5.08, so
likely max gap is still 10.16 and likely min gap is still zero e ven though the individual
component tolerance has been increased by 191%

237

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RSS Calculations: Example#2

Bottom Left MIN Gap Calculations:


lWe

converted all dimensions to equal


bilateral toleranced dimensions.
lAll

basic dimensions had zero


tolerances.
lWe

had slot and tab having both size


and geometric tolerance of position
which we converted to +/ - toleranced
dimension.

238

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RSS Calculations: Example#2


l So,

158.385 154.595 = +3.790 = Mean Gap

take square root of 0.50605 = 0.50605


=0.7113719 = Statistical (RSS) tolerance.
l Now,

l Now,

determine % ratio between statistical


tolerance and worst case tolerance:
l 0.7113719(tolerance

likely to be consumed) /
0.910 (worst case tolerance) = 0.7817273, so
0.7817273 is approx. 78% of 0.910
l1

/ 0.7817273 = 1.2792184 and 1.2792184 x


0.7113719 = 0.910 (original worst case tolerance)
l Thus

the worst case calculations allow a min gap


of 3.790-0.910 = 2.88.
l While

the statistically calculated assembly


tolerance allows a min gap of 3.790-0.71=3.08
and this is amount of gap likely to occur in a
volume production scenario.

239

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RSS Calculations: Example#2


if we want to consume `0.910 tolerance, the
piece part tolerance should be increased to 128% of
its initial value. Thus the `.0.055 (the tolerance
originally given to slot and tab) becomes
1.28x`0.055 = `0.0704. Similarly tolerance on wall
becomes 1.28x`0.100= `.128. And the tolerance on
overall dimension becomes 1.28 x `0.7= `0.896
l So,

l This

is the answer to the problem of what the


statistical tolerances for each part in the
assembly would be if calculated by RSS method
l As

per the statistical methods, the tolerance


originally assigned would not be fully consumed, the
worst case MIN gap calculations given, 3.790-0.910
= 2.88, becomes statistical probability within `3 s of
consuming only 3.790-0.71=3.08 MIN gap

l With

the newly assigned statistically calculated tolerances,


with each piece part given a tolerance as 0.070 (slot), + 0.070
(tab) + 0.128 (wall) + 0.896 (overall dim) = `1.164
l So,

we would have a min gap of 3.790-1.164 = 2.626, but


unlikely.
likely is that out of `1.164 , only `0 to.910 tolerance will
be consumed
l Most

0.070 = 0.0049 (slots new tolerance squared)


0.070 = 0.0049 (tabs new tolerance squared)
0.128 = 0.016384 (walls new tolerance squared)
0.896 = 0.806404 (overall dims new tolerance squared)
Add all above = 0.832588
Square root of 0.832588 = 0.832588 = 0.910

So, by the same RSS method, we arrived at `1.164 tolerance, we were able to calculate
that the likely consumed amount of tolerance by the assembly wil l be only `0.910, so
likely min gap is still 2.88 even though the individual componen t tolerance has been
increased by 191%

240

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Assumptions Under RSS Calculations


l

The statistical approach assumes a zero mean shift for all the dimensions being
used. It is based upon manufacturing processes that are under st atistical control,
not in statistical chaos!

Those not employing statistical process control in manufacturing should not use
the RSS tolerancing methodology described now.
RSS method also assumes that parts produced for assembly have be en mixed and
components are picked randomly for assembly.
The logic of RSS model is interesting it basically allows more tolerance for those
manufacturers that need it least : those using SPC controls!
It calculates that the chances of producing a part that spans it s larger statistical
tolerance (ST) are so small that if it does happen, the randomly selected mating
parts will make up for the potential problem by not spanning the ir tolerances.

l
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241

In fact, it presupposes that the mating part will be produced so much well than its
tolerance extremes as to allow parts to assemble well!!. If this is false assumption,
unacceptable functional conditions may arise such as interferenc e.

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Assumptions Under RSS Calculations

242

The 100% tolerancing scares many engineers and they are


uncomfortable when they see that a line fit possibility exist be tween
mating features. Such possibility exists when inner boundary (of
holes/slots) are same as outer boundary of mating parts such as
shafts/tabs.

If that makes them uncomfortable, then allowing more tolerances using


RSS calculations, and consequently a greater possibility of interference
should make them even more restless!

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Benderizing Tolerances
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243

In 1968, a statistician: A. Bender wrote a paper for SAE entitled


Statistical Tolerancing as it relates to Quality Control and Des igner.
In his paper, he suggested a safety factor added to RSS formula.
Instead of taking mere square root of sum of squares of individu al feature
tolerances; he suggested a factor of 1.5 be multiplied by the answer of
RSS calculations. In other words 1.5 times the square root of the sum of
squares of individual feature tolerances
Why? .. It was so that additional tolerance given to features of part in
assembly was not so risky. It is known that, most cases, produci ng
features at their worst case condition is unlikely, but it is also known that it
happens!
Some studies have shown that the RSS methodology doesnt accurately
reflect the production scenario, so having cushion would be wise.

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Reintegrating the Statistical Tolerance into


the Assembly
l

244

Once the statistical tolerance is calculated, it has be integrated


back (re-distribute to individual components and features) into
assembly which we have done in previous examples.
In case of first example of 12 parts assembly, we had only +/tolerances and therefore reintegration was a simple process the
mean dimension remains the same and each tolerance gets
multiplied by 1.91, ie. Tolerance of `0.254 got changed to
`0.485.
In second example, the process of reintegrating statistical
tolerance is slightly difficult; since the inner and outer bound aries
for slot and tab are calculated from collective effects of size and
geometric tolerance (position); we need to apportion the statistical
tolerance to both: size and position.

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Reintegrating the Statistical Tolerance into


the Assembly
l

Recollect that in second example, we increased worst case tolera nces by approx 128%.
Therefore the slots radial dimensions would be 6.095 `0.07 instead of previous 6.095
`0.055, similarly tabs radial dimensions will be 5.985 `0.07 instead of previous 5.985
`0.055.

Now, we need to apportion this increased tolerance to size and p osition. To do this, we simply
reverse the process
Slot:

245

6.095 x 2 = 12.19 = slot width


` 0.07 x 2 = `0.14 = tolerance on slot width
12.19 `0.14 are the slot dimensions.
Therefore inner boundary of slot = 12.19 0.14 = 12.05
And, outer boundary of slot = 12.19+0.14 = 12.33
Since original TOP on slot was 0.05m, we will increase this also by 128%=0.064 m
Similarly, TOP at slot LMC was 0.11l, which when increased by 128% becomes 0.1408 l.

Now, to get new MMC of slot, we add (inner boundary of slot + TOP on slot at MMC) = 12.05+
0.064m=12.114

On the similar lines, to get LMC size of slot, we subtract (Outer boundary of slot - TOP on slot at LMC) =
12.33 0.1408 = 12.189

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Reintegrating the Statistical Tolerance into


the Assembly
l

Cross check the reintegration .


The inner boundary = 12.114 (MMC) 0.064 (geo tol at MMC) = 12.05
The outer boundary = 12.189 (LMC) + 0.0.064 (geo tol at LMC) + 0 .075
(bonus tolerance at LMC = 12.189-12.114) = 12.33
So, the reintegration was successful.

246

The key in this process was to use the % that all tolerances wer e
increased to 128% in this case.

There are other methods that can be used to reintegrate the tole rances
that distributes them differently. Some try to help difficult to manufacture
features by drawing tolerances from other features in assembly. This
allows difficult to manufacture features to get more of the tole rances. But
if that was a factor, it probably should have been thought of and handled
when tolerances were being arithmetically calculated and before
calculation of the Statistical Tolerances began.

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Using Statistical Tolerances on Drawings

247

The statistical tolerances thus calculated are


identified with <ST> symbol. When both the statistical
tolerance and the smaller arithmetic tolerance are
shown, only those facilities using SPC controls are to
be allowed the larger <ST> tolerance.

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Methods for calculating Statistical


Tolerances

248

Methods for calculating statistical tolerances vary from company to


company and in case of complex assemblies, its done with the
help of computer software.

One such known method is Monte` Carlo method and relates to


simulating random nature of manufacturing process with random
number stream generation which will in turn simulate dimensions
of the part of an assembly. Given a knowledge of manufacturing
capability, random numbers are generated to simulate process
results. Thereafter careful averaging and multiple simulations with
varying samples, one arrives at the likely amount of tolerance t hat
will be consumed.

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Summarizing Reintegration of Statistical


Tolerances into Assembly

Final Answer

249

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Session #11: Exercises


Calculate Statistical Tolerances for the Wall, Slot,
Tab and Overall dimension using RSS
methodology

250

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Session #11: Exercises


Using the drawing below from Session #5, Calculate Statistical T olerances to be reintegrated
into assembly for all features used in minimum gap calculation. Instead of using the
standard RSS formula, use the following RSS formula with a 1.5 safety correction factor.
TA = 1.5 x T12+ T 22+ T 32+ T 42+ T 52+ T 62

251

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Miscellaneous

252

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GD&T Reference Chart

253

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Dimensioning Habits (?)

254

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Suggested Readings & References


l
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ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing


ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Pri ncipals
Geometrics IIIm - Lowell W. Foster - The best book on GD&T from a technical point of view.
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniq ues for Use in Design,
Manufacturing, and Inspection - James D. Meadows - Not so in depth but more practical
Tolerance Design: A Handbook for Developing Optimal Specificatio ns Clyde M. Creveling More general approach, very academic but still a reference on the subject of tolerance analysis
CAD/CAM Theory and Practice : Ibrahim Zeid (Dedicates a chapter on Mechanical
Tolerancing) A good reference book.(< Rs.500/-)
Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing : Danie l Puncochar. Good examples
and explanation on various Geometric Tolerances.
Dimensioning & Tolerancing Handbook : Paul Drake Jr.
References from ETI Mailbag

All books are priced in US$ 40 -US$125 range.

255

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Thank You!
Rajendra Deshmukh
Principal Consultant

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iSquare (InterOperability & InterChangeability Solutions)
Pune, INDIA
Telefax: 020-24250234
Cell: +91-98.900.36625
Email: rajendra@isquare -india.com

256

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