Principles and Practice of Physics-1 Mazur Solutions

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Chapter 11 Solution Mazur

Principles and Practice of Physics-1 Mazur Solutions

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11

11.1. The maximum density of bits is on the inner track. The entire disk spins at one rotational speed, this means

that a bit on the outer track will have a higher translational speed than a bit on the inner track. So for bits to be read at

the same rate (while moving at different translational speeds) the spacing between the bits must be different on the

inner and outer tracks. The spacing between bits on the outer track must be larger, meaning the maximum density is

on the inner track.

11.2. The daily rotation carries Earth through an angle of 2 radians in just one day. The annual motion of Earth

around the sun requires 365 days to go through 2 radians. Thus the ratio of daily rotational speed to annual

rotational speed is 365:1.

11.3. The distance around the curved track is shorter in the inner lane, meaning the distance the passing car has to

travel in order pass is shorter in the inner lane than it would be in an outer lane.

11.4. (a) With t representing time interval required for car in innermost lane to complete 20 laps, required time

intervals are 1.10t for car in middle lane and 1.20t for car in outermost lane. (b) With v representing speed of car

in innermost lane, speeds are1.10v for car in middle lane and 1.20v for car in outermost lane.

11.6. The center of the moving quarter revolves around the stationary quarter, tracing out a circle that is concentric

with the stationary quarter and has a radius equal to the sum of the radii of the two coins. As it moves once around

the stationary quarter, the moving quarter completes one rotation about its center. The direction of this rotation is the

same as the direction of the revolution.

11.7. The units of acceleration are m/s 2 . Since units of time only appear in v, not in r , we know p = 2 so that we

have two powers of s. Just having v 2 gives us units of m 2 /s 2 , which is one too many powers of m. Thus q = 1.

That way we have

v2

, the units of which are m/s 2 . So p = 2 and q = 1.

r

11.8. Point b. The stone will follow a trajectory that starts out tangential to the initial circular motion.

11.9. INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.9

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11-1

11-2

Chapter 11

11.10. (a) The path is a straight line across the merry-go-round, from you to your friend, passing near the center of

the circle but slightly to one side. INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.10a (b) To you, the path does follow a

straight line; it curves either left or right away from the center depending on in which direction the merry-go-round is

rotating INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.10b (c) To your friend, the path curves in the direction opposite

the direction you observe. (d) You would need to identify a force that can cause the observed motion. Such a force is

fictitious (does not actually exist), but would be required to explain why the ball apparently accelerates.

11.11. As the spinner rotates, the water and lettuce, because of their inertia, tend to move in a straight line tangent to

the spinner circumference. Because it cannot fit through the holes in the spinner wall, the lettuce cant move in a

straight line. The contact force exerted on it by the wall keeps it inside. Water drops can pass through the holes and

do so, separating from the lettuce and leaving it dry. Initially, the drops might be held to the lettuce by cohesive

forces, but as the spinner speeds up, these forces are insufficient to keep the drops moving a circle, and they spin out

of the spinner.

11.12. INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.12

11.13. Ignoring friction between the car and track, the car climbs up the right wall as it enters the left turn. Because

the students body and the metal chunk climb this wall by the same amount as the car, the chunk stays between his

knees, just as it was before the ride began.

11.14. (a) The top string breaks first. The bottom string and gravity both exert forces that have a downward

component. The top string is the only thing exerting a force with an upward component. So that vertical component

of the tensile force in the top string must be larger than that in the bottom string. Since the strings are at the same

angle from vertical, this means the total tension in the top rope is greater. (b) INSERT FPO FIGURE

ISM_11.14b

11.15. (a) INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.15a (b) The tensile force exerted by string is responsible for

the acceleration. This is possible because the hand is not at the center of the circular motion. The acceleration has a

radial and a tangential component. (c) Ignoring air resistance, your hand stays at the center of the circle; the tensile

force is directed toward the circle center and the acceleration has no tangential component.

11.16. You should hold the lamp close to the base. The center of mass will be closer to the base than to the top.

11.17. Because the bodys rotational inertia is greater in layout position than in tucked position. The radius of the

circular path the head and feet travel during the flip is larger in layout position than in tucked position. Because the

body remains airborne for roughly the same time interval in either position, the gymnast must have much greater

kinetic energy in layout position to complete the backflip.

11.18. The ice cube will reach the bottom first. As the ball rolls down the cookie sheet, it gains translational kinetic

energy, but it also spins around its center meaning it gains rotational kinetic energy. In contrast, the ice cube does not

roll, so all the energy converted to kinetic energy is purely translational. This means the ice cube will have a higher

translational speed after falling a given distance, and will thus reach the bottom first.

11.19. (a) No, the inertia of the bowling ball is so much greater than that of the baseball that even placing the

rotation axis on the outer surface of the baseball would not make it as difficult to spin as the bowling ball. (b) Yes.

You could choose to revolve the baseball around an axis that passes no closer than, say, 5 m to the baseball, while

choosing an axis passing just centimeters from the edge of the bowling ball. The rotational inertias are Ibowl =

mbowlr2bowl and Ibase = mbaser2base, where r is distance from either ball to the axis of revolution. Choose an arbitrary

location for this axis and place the two balls at distances rbowl and rbase >> rbowl from the axis. Once the inequality rbase

>> rbowl is sufficiently large to makes the difference between mbowl and mbase insignificant, Ibase > Ibowl.

11.20. (a) A vertical axis going through the center of the door would yield the smallest rotational inertia for the

door. (b) This axis is not practical, as people would have great difficulty fitting through such a door.

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Motion in a Circle

11-3

11.21. (a) The rotational inertia decreases. As you move toward the center, there is less inertia far from the axis of

rotation. (b) The carousel should rotate faster. As you decrease the rotational inertia of the system, it becomes easier

to rotate.

11.22. =

2 1

=

= 6.283 10 s

60

s

t (1 min) 1 rev

11.23. second =

1 rev 2 1 min

1 rev 2 1 h 1 min

=

= 0.10 s 1 and hour =

=

t (1 min) 1 rev 60 s

t (12 h) 1 rev

60 min 60 s

= 1.5 104 s 1

11.24. The odometer would overestimate the distance travelled. The tires would slip a little as the car drives, so that

some of the tire rotation measured by the odometer would not actually correspond to moving the car forward.

2

11.25. f2 = i2 + 2 =

( 0 ) 12 s

f2 i2

= 8.7 103 s 1

=

2

2(2.5)(2 )

11.26. Call the horizontal direction radially in toward the center of the circular path the + r axis, and call the

direction perpendicular to the incline with some upward component + y. In order for the car to move in a circle, the

G

vector sum of all forces must point inward toward the center of the circular path, along r . The only force with a

G

component along r is the normal force that the road exerts on a car. Call the radius of curvature of the road R. We

mv 2

n

. The sum of force components perpendicular to the incline is Fy =

can write Fr = Froad

car r = mar =

R

v2

n

G

n

Froad

+

F

=

ma

F

=

mg

cos(

)

+

ma

sin(

).

Combining

the

two

sums

of

forces

yields

(1 sin 2 ( )) =

car

Ec

road car

y

r

R

v2

cos( ) = g cos( )sin( ) v = gR sin( ) = (9.8 m/s 2 )(400 m)sin(7.0 ) = 22 m/s, which is roughly 50 mi/h.

R

11.27. (c)

11.28. (a) If a smooth decrease in speed, means a decrease in speed that is linear in time, then the speed of both

horses should be drawn as straight lines with negative slopes that end up with a speed of zero. Note that since the

horse at 2R has the same rotational speed as the other horse, but twice the distance from the axis of rotation, the

horse at 2R must have twice the initial speed of the horse at R. INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.28a (b)

v2

= 2 R. Clearly the horse at 2R has twice the initial

R

centripetal acceleration of the horse at R. Again, both curves end at a value of zero. The primary difference between

these curves and those shown in part (a), is that here the decrease is not linear, but quadratic. INSERT FPO

The centripetal acceleration of either horse is just ar =

FIGURE ISM_11.28b

11.29. (a) Let the unit vector r point radially inward toward the pivot. The sum of all forces in the radial direction is

(1)

2

v

, but to find the speed

R

we must consider energy. Let the moment of release be the initial time, and the moment the string makes an angle

Since the ball is moving in a circle, we know the radial acceleration must be given by ar =

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11-4

Chapter 11

1 2

mv . From this it follows that

2

ar = 2 g sin( ). Inserting this into equation (1) yield an expression for the tensile force Fsbc = 3mg sin( ). So, the

tension is also given by T ( ) = 3mg sin( ). (b) The largest value that the tension achieves is 3mg , which it reaches

when = /2. The string should be able to support at least this much tension.

with the horizontal the final time. Then U iG = U fG + K f or mg y = mg A sin( ) =

11.30. We can find the translational speed using conservation of energy, and then relate the translational speed to

the rotational speed. Let the + y direction point vertically upward. We have U iG = U fG + K f mg y =

1 2

mv .

2

Using simple trigonometry, we can rewrite this as v = 2 g A cos( ) cos(i ) . Since rotational and translational

speeds are related through v = R, we can write =

2 g cos( ) cos(i )

A

v 2 (2 R/ T )2

4 2 (1.50 1011 m)

=

=

= 5.95 103 m/s 2 . We have explicitly state

2

R

R

24 h 3600 s

( 365.26 days )

1 day 1 h

this as the radial component of the acceleration, but in this case it is also the magnitude of the entire acceleration:

a = 5.95 103 m/s 2 . (b) The radial component of the force that causes this acceleration must be given by

Fr = mar = (5.97 1024 kg)(5.946 m/s 2 ) = 3.55 1022 N. So the force is 3.55 1022 N toward the center of the

11.31. (a) ar =

11.32. (a) The vertical component of tensile force will slightly exceed the gravitational force slightly at some times,

and be slightly smaller than the gravitational force at other times, as the ball rises and then settles into a circular

motion with the string very nearly horizontal after a large time interval has passed. Because the rotational

acceleration is small, these deviations are too small to illustrate. INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.32a (b)

The rotational speed will increase linearly with time, and the radial component of acceleration increases quadratically

with the rotational speed. INSERT FPO FIGURE ISM_11.32b

11.33. Let our gravitational potential energy be zero at the bottom of the bowl. Ignoring dissipation, we can equate

the initial potential energy to the final kinetic energy. From this we obtain v 2 = 2 gR. Thus the radial acceleration is

v2

= 2 g = 19.6 m/s 2 . Since there is no force in the horizontal plane, there is no other component to acceleration

R

at this instant. Thus a = 19.6 m/s 2 .

ar =

11.34. (a) Clearly at point 1, the tensile force is supporting the ball against the force of gravity and accelerating the

ball. At positions 2 and 4, there is no component of gravity along the rod. At position 3, the force of gravity is

actually helping accelerate the ball in toward the center of the circular path. This tells us T1 > T 2 = T 4 > T 3 . (b) At

position 3, we can write

c

G

c

G

2

= Fwb

y + FEby = Fwb + FEb = m R. So =

c

Fwb

+ FEbG

. We require that the tensile

mR

c

force be greater than zero, but by any infinitesimal amount. So we take the limit as Fwb

approaches zero to obtain

min =

FEbG

=

mR

g

(9.8 m/s 2 )

=

= 7.0 s 1. (c) At position 1,

R

(0.20 m)

c

G

c

G

2

c

= Fwb

y + FEb y = Fwb FEb = m R. So Fwb =

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Motion in a Circle

1

2

(c) v = R = (58 s 1 )(0.33 m) = 19 m/s. (d) x = R = (2.9 102 )(0.33 m) = 96 m.

11-5

1

2

11.35. (a) f = i + t = (0) + (5.8 s 2 )(10 s) = 58 s 1. (b) = i t + t 2 = (0) + (5.8 s 2 )(10 s) 2 = 2.9 102.

11.36. The final centripetal acceleration is given by f2 R, and the rotational acceleration is

radial to tangential acceleration is

ar

f

t

11.37. (a) Call + y vertically upward. Ignore dissipation. Energy conservation tells us U iG = U fG + K f

1 2

mv , or v = 2 g ( h d ). (b) Call the direction in toward the center of the circular path the + r direction.

2

v2

2(h d )

Then at the bottom of the path Fr = Ftcn FEcG = mar Ftcn = m + g = ( mg )

+ 1 . (c) We can apply

R

R

mg y =

energy conservation again, as in part (a). The only difference is that the height of the car is greater by R. So

v = 2 g ( h d R ). (d) At this position, the normal force is the only force acting in the radial direction. So

Ftcn = mar =

mv 2

2(h d R)

2(h d R )

= mg

. (e) This was found in part (d): ar = g

.

R

R

R

11.38. (a) We begin by writing the sum of all forces on the car at the top of its path and at the bottom of its path:

n

+ mg =

Ftop,r = Ftc,top

2

mvtop

(1)

R

2

mvbottom

n

+ mg =

(2)

Fbottom,r = Ftc,bottom

R

Solving eqs. (1) and (2) for the normal forces and taking the difference yields:

2

2

vtop

m(vbottom

)

n

n

Ftc,top

= 2mg +

(3)

Ftc,bottom

R

In order to determine the difference of the squares of the speeds, we need to turn to energy. Applying energy

conservation between the bottom and the top yields:

1 2

1 2

mvbottom = mgh + mvtop

2

2

2

2

vbottom

vtop

= 2 gh = 4 gR

(4)

Inserting eq. (4) into eq. (3) yields finally:

m(4 gR)

= 6mg

R

which was the required result. (b) A number of expressions are possible, depending on what variables we decide to

v2

use, and which we eliminate. We require that the centripetal acceleration at the bottom of the loop, ar ,bottom = bottom ,

Rbottom

n

n

Ftc,bottom

Ftc,top

= 2mg +

vh2

. We know the speeds are related through the

R ( h)

2

2 gh. So equating the centripetal accelerations at each position yields

conservation of energy: vh2 = vbottom

2

2

2 gh vbottom

2 gh) Rbottom

vbottom

(v 2

=

.

R (h) = bottom 2

R ( h)

Rbottom

vbottom

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11-6

Chapter 11

11.39. (a) ar =

v 2 (3.0 m/s) 2

=

= 18 m/s 2 . (b) The problem states that the ball is moving at a constant speed. Thus

R (0.500 m)

at = 0 m/s 2 . (c) The vertical component of the normal force exerted by the cone on the ball. (d) Call the angle that

one side of the cone makes with the vertical . Call the direction in toward the center of the circular path + r, and

call vertically upward + y . We write the sum of all force components in each of these directions.

mv 2

R

= 0 Fcbc sin( ) mg = 0

= Fcbc y + FEbG y

(1)

(2)

gR

R

. Note from the geometry of the cone that tan( ) =

also.

h

v2

v 2 (3.0 m/s) 2

Equating the two expressions for tan( ) yields h =

=

= 0.92 m.

g (9.8 m/s 2 )

11.40. (a) Call the direction in toward the center of the circular path + r, and call vertically upward + y. We write

the sum of all force components in each of these directions, assuming no frictional force.

mv 2

Fr = Frcnr = mar Frcn sin( ) = critical

R

n

G

n

F

=

F

+

F

=

0

F

cos(

mg

=0

y rcy Ecy

rc

(1)

(2)

2

vcritical

vcritical = Rg tan( ). (b) Again, we write the sum of all

Rg

force components in r and y, this time assuming that friction acts with a component in toward the center of the

circular path, and we assume the car is just on the verge of slipping.

2

mvmax

F = F + F = ma F sin( ) + F cos( ) = R

F = F + F + F = 0 F cos( ) mg F sin( ) = 0

n

rcr

n

rcy

s

rcr

G

Ecy

s

rcr

n

rc

n

rc

n

rc

n

rc

(1)

(2)

mg

cos( ) sin( )

Inserting equation (3) into equation (1) and solving for the maximum speed yields

Frcn =

vmax =

Rg ( sin( ) + cos( ) )

cos( ) sin( )

(3)

2.5 rev 2

1

1

1

11.41. K = mv 2 = m( r )2 = (0.25 kg)(1.0 m) 2

= 31 J

2

2

2

1 s 1 rev

1

11.42. (a) K rot = 3 mr 2 2 = (1.0 kg)(0.50 m) 2 (3.0 s 1 )2 = 3.4 J. (b) L = 3I = 3mr 2 = 3(1.0 kg)(0.50 m) 2

2

2

(3.0 s 1 ) = 2.3 kg m 2 /s.

11.43. (a) When the bird passes directly over your head, it is a distance r = 3.0 m above the reference point,

moving with a speed of 2.0 m/s. So L = mvr = (2.0 kg)(2.0 m/s)(3.0 m) = 12 kg m 2 /s. (b) When the bird passes

directly below your friends head, it is a distance

r = 1.0 m

L = mvr =

2

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Motion in a Circle

11-7

11.44. (a) We calculate the angular momentum of each puck in terms of the variables given. LA = mA vrA = mvA

A

= 4mvA. So LB = 4 LA . (b) We calculate the rotational kinetic energy of each puck in

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

terms of the variables given. K rot,A = mA rA2A2 = mA vA2 = mv 2 and K rot,B = mB rB2B2 = mBvB2 = 8mv 2 . So

2

2

2

2

2

2

K rot,B = 8K rot,A .

11.45. In order to continue moving in a circle at constant speed along with the bucket, the water must have

centripetal acceleration. This acceleration must be due to some force directed toward the center of the circle. When

you whirl the bucket rapidly, the forces exerted on the water are the force of gravity and a large contact force exerted

by the bottom of the bucket. When you whirl the bucket at just the right speed, the gravitational force alone is

sufficient to keep the water from spilling out. If you whirl too slowly, the acceleration due to gravity is larger than the

necessary centripetal acceleration and the water spills out.

11.46. Let us first look at the sum of all forces in toward the center of the circular path ( + r ) at the moment the car

= Ftcnr + FEcGr =

2

mvtop

R

enormous speed at the top of the loop, requiring that a significant force be exerted by the track on the car to keep it

moving in a circle. But we are asked for the minimum starting height. At that minimum, gravity alone is sufficient to

maintain the circular motion, and the car barely makes contact with the tracks at the top of the loop. Thus, in that

2

mvtop,min

. Now, let us consider the conservation of energy, treating the highest position on the track as

limit: mg =

R

the initial position, and the top of the loop as the final position. We have U iG = U fG + K f mghmin = mg (d + 2 R) +

is at the top of the circular loop:

1 2

5

mvtop,min . Inserting our result from the consideration of radial forces, we have hmin = d + R.

2

2

11.47. (a) Let us use conservation of angular momentum, and kinetic energy:

A

A

A

LA ,i = LA ,f + LB ,f + LC ,f mA vA,i = mA vv + ( mB + mC ) f

2

2

2

(1)

1

1

1

A

2

= mA v 2 + (mB + mC ) 2

mA vA,i

2

2

2

2

Combining these equations, we can solve for the two unknowns to obtain

(m mB mC )vA,i

v= A

(mA + mB + mC )

K A,i = K A,f + K rot,BC,f

(2)

(3)

4mA vA,i

(4)

A( mA + mB + mC )

Inserting the inertias given into equation (4), we have

4mA vA,i

4v

=

= i

A(mA + mB + mC ) 5A

(b) Inserting the given values into equation (3) obtained in part (a), we have v =

(mA mB mC )vA,i

(mA + mB + mC )

3vi

, where

5

G

3G

the negative sign indicates that puck A has reversed directions. Thus v = vi .

5

2

rotational speed has increased by a factor of four. (b) From part (a), we know that the rotational speed has increased

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11-8

Chapter 11

r

by a factor of four. Thus we know that vf = f = 2r , and we know the initial speed vi = r. So, the speed

2

doubled.

11.49. After the collision, the pair will rotate around their center of mass. Thus the center of mass makes a good

reference point. We refer to the heavier skater with a subscript h, and to the lighter skater with a subscript l. Placing

the origin at the heavier skater, and letting the positive x axis point in the direction of the lighter skater, the center of

m x + ml xl (0) + (48 kg)(2.0 m)

mass at the moment of collision is xcm = h h

=

= 0.78 m from the heavier skater.

(mh + ml )

((75 kg) + (48 kg))

Now, angular

2

2

mh rh vh,i + ml rv

l l,i = ( mh rh + ml rl )f .

f =

L ,i = L ,f

mh rh vh,i + ml rv

l l,i

( mh rh2 + ml rl 2 )

= 3.3 s 1.

((75 kg)(0.78 m) 2 + (48 kg)(1.22 m) 2 )

11.50. (a) This can be answered using rotational kinematics. Using the information about the first five seconds, we

can write f = i + t =

f i

t

33 rev

0.25i 0.25 3

min 2

2

=

=

t

5.0

s

min

(

)

60 s 1 rev

f i (0) (3.49 s 1 )

=

= 20 s. (b) The work

(0.175 s 2 )

1

1

done will be the change in kinetic energy: W = K f K i = I i2 = (0.020 kg m 2 )(3.49 s 1 ) 2 = 0.12 J.

2

2

11.51. Because there is friction between the disks, we cannot say that the rotational energy is constant during this

process. But we can still say that the rotational momentum is constant. Thus L ,i = L ,f I ,i = 2 I ,f

,f =

,i

2

11.52. (a) We will break this problem into two steps. When the child collides with the ride, rotational momentum is

conserved. After the collision, as the child rises, energy is constant. Call the moment just before the collision time 1, the

moment just after the collision time 2, and the moment that the child reaches the top of the circle time 3. Then we can write

Lchild ,1 = Lchild ,2 + Lride ,2 mchild Rvchild,1 = (mchild R 2 + I ride )2

(1)

1

(2)

( mchild R 2 + I ride )22 + mchild gh2 = mchild gh3

2

In writing equation (2), we have assumed that the child and ride stop when the child reaches the maximum height,

because we are looking for the minimum initial speed of the child (meaning all energy is required to get the child up

to that height, and no energy is left in the form of kinetic energy). Solving equation (2) for the rotational speed, and

inserting this into equation (1), we obtain

(m R 2 + I ride )

4mchild gR

vchild,1 = child

mchild R

(mchild R 2 + I ride )

K rot,2 + U 2G = U 3G

4(30.0 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(1.00 m)

(30.0 kg)(1.00 m)

((30.0 kg)(1.00 m) 2 + (200 kg m 2 ))

= 17.3 m/s

(b) No, this is not a reasonable speed for a child. This is likely desirable from a safety standpoint.

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Motion in a Circle

11-9

11.53. From left to right in Figure P11.53, number the particles 1, 2, and 3. The rotational inertia is I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 =

2

2

11.54. Two balls are on the axis and will not contribute to the rotational inertia. Four balls are exactly one edgelength away from the axis of rotation, and the remaining two are a distance

I = 2m(0) 2 + 4m(A 2 ) + 2m(2A 2 ) = 8mA 2 = 8(0.20 kg)(0.25 m) 2 = 0.10 kg m 2 .

11.55. According to equation (11.53) in PRIN, the rotational inertia of an object around some axis a distance d

from the objects center of mass is given by I = I cm + md 2 . So, in this case we can read the rotational inertia of the

spherical shell around its center of mass from table 11.3, and we move the axis of rotation by exactly R. Thus

2

5

I = mR 2 + mR 2 = mR 2 .

3

3

11.56. Running quickly requires swinging the legs back and forth rapidly. If muscles were distributed evenly along

the legs, the rotational inertia of the legs would be relatively large, making it difficult for the deer to swing them

rapidly. Having most of the muscle near the hip gives the legs a lower rotational inertia and makes it easier for the

deer to run quickly.

11.57. During the collision between the child and the merry-go-round, angular momentum must be constant. Thus

1

mmerry R 2f . Rearranging to solve for the final

2

mchild vchild,i

(20 kg)(1.4 m/s)

=

= 0.16 s 1.

rotational speed, we find f =

1

1

2

2

5

5

kg m 2 . (b) The fact that we get a different number means that the density of Earth

2

11.58. (a) Using the formula from table 11.3, we can write I Earth = M Earth REarth

= (5.97 1024 kg)

must not be uniform. The fact that the measured rotational inertia is smaller than the calculated value, means that the

density must be greater near the center of Earth, than near the outer crust.

11.59. (a) If one axis in the plane of the hoop is along a diameter, then choose our second axis in the plane of the

hoop to cross this first axis at its midpoint such that the second axis also lies along a diameter of the hoop. In this

way, we have chosen two axes in the plane of the hoop that yield identical rotational inertias. Using the perpendicular

axis theorem, we know the third axis (out of plane) must pass directly through the center of the hoop, and the

rotational inertia around this point is given by table 11.3 I out-of-plane = mR 2 . Thus 2I in-plane = I out-of-plane I in-plane =

1

1

I out-of-plane = mR 2 . (b) We know from table 11.3 that the rotational inertia of a square sheet of side length a about

2

2

1

an axis passing perpendicularly through its center is I out-of-plane = ma 2 . If our first in-plane axis of rotation goes from

6

the center of one side through the center of the square and to the center of the opposite side, then there is only one

choice for an in-plane axis that is perpendicular to this. Further, this perpendicular axis is identical to the first. Thus

1

1

the sum of the two in-plane rotational inertias can be written 2 I in-plane = I out-of-plane I in-plane =

I out-of-plane = ma 2 .

2

12

11.60. Call the inertia of each rod m and the length of each rod A. We calculate the rotational inertia around each

axis, and then compare them.

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11-10

Chapter 11

2

1

11

A 1

I ( a ) = mA 2 + m + mA 2 = mA 2

3

12

2 3

1 2

4

I ( b ) = mA + (0) + mA 2 = mA 2

3

3

1

1

1

2

I ( c ) = mA + (0) + mA 2 = mA 2

12

12

6

2

I( d ) =

1

7

A

A

mA 2 + m + m = mA 2

12

2

2

12

11.61. The melting of Antarctica would lengthen the day. Water that is currently confined close to the poles (near

the axis of rotation) would flow into the ocean and redistribute over the entire surface. Some of this water would end

up far from the pole. This would increase the rotational inertia of Earth, meaning the rotational speed of Earth would

have to decrease in order for rotational momentum to be unchanged. A slower rotation would correspond to a longer

day. Incidentally, the melting of the Arctic would not have the same effect. You may want to revisit this problem

after you have studied Archimedes Principle in Chapter 18.

1

2

1

2

11.62. (a) The rotational kinetic energy can be written as K rot = I 2 = cmR 2 2 . Now, if the object rolls without

slipping, then vcm = R. In that case the rotational kinetic energy becomes K rot =

c

2

mvcm

. The total kinetic energy is

2

1 2

c

2

mvcm + mvcm

. So clearly, the object with the greatest shape factor c will have the greatest fraction of kinetic

2

2

energy in rotational form. Thus billiard ball < solid cylinder < hollow cylinder. (b) If all objects start from the same

height, then all objects will have the same amount of total kinetic energy when they reach the bottom. We can write,

1 2

2 ghi

for any of the objects K tot,f = mvcm

(1 + c) = U iG vcm =

. This expression is the same for all objects, except

2

(1 + c)

K=

for the shape factor. We can relate the final speeds of the objects:

vhollow cylinder

vsolid cylinder

vhollow cylinder

vbilliard ball

and

1

1 + 2

= 0.87

=

=

(1 + chollow cylinder )

(1 + 1)

(1 + csolid cylinder )

2

1 + 5

(1 + cbilliard ball )

= 0.84

=

=

(1 + chollow cylinder )

(1 + 1)

vsolid cylinder

vbilliard ball

2

1 + 5

(1 + cbilliard ball )

= 0.97

=

=

1

(1 + csolid cylinder )

1 + 2

11.63. The human body can be approximated as a cylinder. Table 11.3 gives us an equation for the rotational inertia

of a cylinder about an axis pass through its center and through the curved face. Let us estimate the athletes average

1

1

1

1

radius as 0.20 m, and her height as 1.8 m. Then I = mR 2 + mA 2 = (70 kg)(0.20 m) 2 + (70 kg)(1.8 m) 2

4

12

4

12

= 20 kg m 2 . This is only an estimate; answers may vary.

11.64. We can solve this problem using conservation of energy. Let us assume that the rope does not slip across the

pulley, meaning the translational speed of either block is the same as the speed of a point on the surface of the pulley.

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Motion in a Circle

11-11

We refer to the lighter block using a subscript l, and to the heavier block with a subscript h. We can write U iG =

G

G

U fG + K f U l,iG + U h,i

= U l,fG + U h,f

+ K l,f + K h,f + K p,f . Inserting expressions for the various types of energy yields

1

1

1 2

2

+ I p,f

mlvl,f2 + mh vh,f

2

2

2

Because the rope does not slip and because the rope does not stretch, the two translational speeds are the same and

v

p,f = . The expression above becomes

R

ml ghl,i + mh ghh,i = ml ghl,f + mh ghh,f +

(ml mh ) g h =

1

1

( ml + mh )vf2 + mp vf2 vf =

2

4

(ml mh ) g h

1

1

(ml + mh ) + mp

2

4

1

1

( (0.20 kg) + (0.25 kg) ) + (0.50 kg)

2

= 0.65 m/s

11.65. All the initial gravitational potential energy will be turned into kinetic energy: U iG = U fG + K f

G

G

U b,i

= U b,f

+ K b,f + K rot,h,f . Inserting expressions for the energies yields

1

1

2

2

+ I cc,f

mbvb,f

2

2

If we assume the rope does not slip across the cylinder, then we can write vb,f = c,f R. Rearranging the above

mb ghb,i = mb ghb,f +

2

2mb g (hb,i hb,f ) = mb R 2c,f

+

1

2

mc R 2c,f

c,f =

2

1 2

mb + 2 mc R

= 2.0 102 s 1

1

2

(12 kg) + 2 (4.0 kg) (0.080 m)

11.66. Gravitational potential energy is being converted to kinetic energy as the lighter block rises. Let us refer to

the lighter block with a subscript l, and to the heavier block with a subscript h. Let us assume that the string does not

slip over the surface of the pulley, such that the speed of the block is related to the rotational speed of the cylinder

G

G

through vh,f = f R. Then we can write U iG = U fG + K f U l,iG + U h,i

= U l,fG + U h,f

+ K l,f + K h,f + K p,f . Inserting the

1

1

1 2

2

+ I p,f

mlvl,f2 + mh vh,f

.

2

2

2

We have written the final translational speeds of the blocks using different subscripts, but we know they must have

the same final speed. Inserting the moment of inertia of a solid cylinder and rearranging, we find

expressions for the various types of energies yields ml ghl,i + mh ghh,i = ml ghl,f + mh ghh,f +

vf =

=

1

ml + mh + mp

2

2(m) g (h)

=

3

3m + m

2

4 gh

9

11.67. Using the equation for the rotational inertia about the symmetry axis of the cylinder ( I cm ) given in table 11.3,

1

1 5 2

2

2

m( Router

+ Rinner

) = m Router

. Equation 11.53 relates the rotational inertia of an object about an

2

2 4

axis through its center of mass to the rotational inertia about some parallel axis a distance d from the center of mass.

In this case, the axis on the outer edge of the cylinder is a distance Router from the axis of symmetry. So, I = I cm +

we find I cm =

5

13

2

2

2

2

mRouter

= mRouter

+ mRouter

= MRouter

.

8

8

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11-12

Chapter 11

11.68. (a) We have a formula in table 11.3 for the rotational inertia of a rectangular sheet about an axis

perpendicular to the sheet and passing through its center of mass. Let a be the length of the longer side and b be the

length of the shorter side. We can relate this to the axis specified using the parallel axis theorem: I = I cm + md 2 . In

this case, the axis is translated from the center of mass to the center of a long edge, which is a distance

2

d = b /2. Thus I = I cm + md 2 =

1

1

1

b

m(a 2 + b 2 ) + m = m(a 2 + 4b 2 ) = (0.15 kg)((0.080 m) 2 + 4(0.040 m) 2 )

12

12

2 12

= 1.6 104 kg m 2 . (b) We proceed exactly as in part (a), but now the axis of rotation is translated a distance

2

1

a

m( a 2 + b 2 ) + m =

12

2

1

1

m(4a 2 + b 2 ) = (0.15 kg)(4(0.080 m) 2 + (0.040 m) 2 ) = 3.4 104 kg m 2 . (c) Now the axis of rotation is

12

12

2

a b

translated a distance d = +

2 2

a 2 b 2 1

1

1

m( a 2 + b 2 ) + m + = m(4a 2 + 4b 2 ) = (0.15 kg)((0.080 m) 2 + (0.040 m) 2 ) = 4.0 104 kg m 2 .

12

2

2

12

3

11.69. This is the same as the rotational inertia of a hoop, and four rods about the axis specified. We can read

1

off the rotational inertias for each from table 11.3. Thus I wagon wheel = 4 I rod + I hoop = 4 mrod (2 R ) 2 + mhoop R 2 =

12

4

2

2

2

(0.80 kg)(0.30 m) + (2.0 kg)(0.30 m) = 0.28 kg m .

3

11.70. The initial rotational kinetic energy will be converted to gravitational potential energy as the center of mass

1

I rodi2 = mg A, where we have used the fact that the center of mass

2

of the rod will one full length of the rod. Inserting the rotational inertia of a rod about one end yields

1 2 2

3 A i = 2 g A. Finally, note that the initial speed of the free end is related to the rotational speed by iA = vi .

Finally, we have required initial speed of the free end vi = 6 g A = 6(9.8 m/s 2 )(0.83 m) = 7.0 m/s.

2 1 h

4 1

hour =

= 1.454 10 s

12 h 3600 s

2 1 h

3 1

minute =

= 1.745 10 s

1 h 3600 s

Now the rotational kinetic energy is given by

1

1

11

11

2

2

2

2

2

2

K rot = K rot,hour + K rot,minute = I rod,hourhour

+ I rod,minuteminute

= mhour Rhour

hour + mminute Rminute

minute

2

2

23

23

11

11

K rot = (300 kg)(2.7 m) 2 (1.545 104 s 1 ) 2 + (100 kg)(4.2 m)2 (1.745 103 s 1 ) 2 = 9.0 104 J

23

23

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Motion in a Circle

11-13

1

2

11.72. (a) We know the rotational inertia of an actual disk is I disk = mR 2 , and we require that this be the same

1

R

. (b) We

mR 2 Rgyr =

2

2

proceed exactly as in part (a), but now we use the rotational inertia of a solid sphere. So

2

2

2

mRgyr

= mR 2 Rgyr =

R.

5

5

(c) The process is the same as in (a) and (b), but now we use the rotational inertia of a solid sphere about an axis

2

7

tangent to its surface. Using the parallel axis theorem, we have I tan = I cm + md 2 = mR 2 + mR 2 = mR 2 . So

5

5

2

=

rotational inertia as a single particle of the same inertia located at Rgyr . Thus mRgyr

2

mRgyr

=

7

7

mR 2 Rgyr =

R.

5

5

m

m

m

=

= . We integrate over differential

A 1 (2A 2 ) A 2

2

contributions to the rotational inertia as follows. Let the short side lie along the x axis such that the distance of any

particle from the axis is simply equal to its position along the y axis. Then

I short =

dI =

triangle

A 2x

triangle

r 2 dm = y 2 dxdy

0 0

8x

2 4 2mA 2

I short =

dx = A =

3

3

0 3

(b) Here the process is the same as in part (a), except that we alter our choice of axes to let the long side lie along the

x axis, and we change our integration limits, accordingly.

A

I long =

triangle

dI =

r 2 dm =

triangle

2A x / 2

y 2 dxdy

2A

x3

1

mA 2

I long = dx = A 4 =

6

6

0 24

11.74. The initial spring potential energy and gravitational potential energy will be converted to spring potential

energy, gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. We can write

G

G

U b,i

+ U isp = U b,f

+ U fsp + K b,f + K rot,f

2

1 2

1 A 1 2

1

2

kd = mghf + k + mvb,f

+ I cylcyl,f

2

2 2 2

2

This can be simplified somewhat by noting that the distance down the incline that the block has moved is d + A /2,

which is related to the vertical distance y that the block has moved according to y = (d + A /2)sin( ). We assume

mghi +

further that the rope does not slip on the surface of the cylinder, such that cyl,f R = vb,f . Then

2

A

1

11

A 1 2

2

+ mR 2 cyl,f

mg d + sin( ) + k d 2 = mvb,f

2

2

2

2

2

2

11.75. Let us call the central axis of symmetry of the bat the z axis. We start by finding the volume of the bat, so

that we can obtain an expression for the density. We work in cylindrical coordinates. We integrate over z from 0 to

L. The radius R of the bat varies from 0.020 m to 0.035 m.

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11-14

Chapter 11

V = 2

Rmin +

Rmax Rmin

z

L

2

2

L

R

R Rmin 2

2

z dz = Rmin

+ min ( Rmax Rmin ) z + max

z dz

L

L

0

2

L3

3

L

1

R Rmin

rdrdz = 2 Rmin + max

2

L

2

R

L2 R Rmin

V = Rmin

L + min ( Rmax Rmin ) + max

L

2

L

+

(0.84 m)

2

(0.84 m)

3

V = 2.045 103 m3

(0.85 kg)

m

From this volume we can write the density as = =

= 415.6 kg/m3 . Now we calculate the

V 2.045 103 m3

rotational inertia as follows:

I=

dI =

bat

Rmax Rmin

Rmin +

L

L

2

d dm = 2

bat

L

R Rmin

L

z dz

R2

R R

R2

10

5

30

2

(0.020 m)

(0.020 m)(0.035 m) (0.035 m) 2

2

+

+

I = (415.6 kg/m3 )(0.84 m)3

= 0.25 kg m

10

5

30

R Rmin

I = z 2 Rmin + max

L

0

L

11.76. No, because the translational speed v depends on radial distance from the rotation axis. All the pennies have

the same rotational speed , but v for pennies on the outside rim is greater than v for pennies near the rotation axis.

Because v increases linearly with radial distance from the center and because v is squared in the equation for

centripetal acceleration, pennies near the center stay on better.

11.77. (a) There may be several possible answers depending on which numbers you choose to use. One might use

the equatorial diameter of the sun, or the polar diameter (they are very similar). Also, the distance between Earth and

the sun varies throughout the year. Here, we take the diameter of the sun to be 1.393 109 m, and we assume it is

1.496 1011 m from Earth on average. Thus, the angle from the center of the sun to its outer edge is half =

tan 1

= 0.267, so the full angular size of the sun is = 2 half = 0.53. (b) The radius of the

11

(1.496 10 m)

(1.738 106 m)

moon is 1.738 106 m and its average distance from Earth is 3.84 108 m. So half = tan 1

=

8

(3.84 10 m)

11.78. Centripetal acceleration is given by ac = v 2 / r , and v can be expressed distance traveled in a given time

interval: v = 2 r /T . Inserting this expression in the expression for ac yields ac = 4 2 r/ T 2 .

11.79. The liquid inside the egg continues to rotate once you stop the egg. When stopped and released, viscous

forces between the liquid and shell soon cause the shell to move along with the liquid, causing the entire egg to spin.

In a hard-boiled egg, there is no liquid to continue rotating once you stop the egg. When you stop the outside of the

hard-boiled egg, you stop everything.

11.80. Let us assume that the distance from your eye to your thumb is approximately 1.0 m. Then your finger must

(1.0 m) 1 h 103 mm

12 h

60 min

1m

= 4.4 mm/min.

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Motion in a Circle

11-15

11.81. (a) No work is done. The tensile force is always radially inward toward the point at which the vine is

G G

anchored. Janes motion is always tangential to the circle. Hence F r = 0. (b) The tensile force is greatest when

Jane is at the lowest point. This is the position at which the speed is greatest; it is also the position at which gravity is

directed exactly opposite the tensile force. Thus at this position the tensile force must overcome the entire

gravitational force (rather than just one component of it), and it must provide a centripetal force that is larger than at

any other point on Janes path.

11.82. The

speed

of

the

Earth-Moon

system

around

the

sun

is

given

by

vE =

2 RES

=

TE

4

( 365.24 days ) 24 h

3600

s

2 REm

2 (3.84 108 m)

3

=

vm =

= 1.02 10 m/s. So the moons speed around Earth is far too low to cause the

6

(2.36

10

s)

Tm

mv 2

2 r

, and we can relate this to the period of the motion through v =

.

r

T

4m 2 r

. Now, if the period depends on r (we can express this as T = C r where C is a

T2

4m 2

constant that has no r dependence), then F =

. So, in this case the force F is independent of the distance r.

C2

4m 2 r

4m 2

3/ 2

.

, so in this case the

Now

we

assume

T

=

Cr

and

obtain

=

(b) From part (a) we already have F =

F

T2

C 2r 2

4m 2 r

, and now we assume T = C (independent of r).

force is proportional to 1/ r 2 . (c) Again we start with F =

T2

In this case we find the force is proportional to r.

This shows us that F =

11.84. We will use the conservation of rotational momentum to solve this. We can write L ,i = L ,f . If we assume no

2

2

matter is ejected from the sun in the process, such that its inertia remains constant, we can write Rsun,i

sun,i = Rsun,f

sun,f

2

R2

sun,i Rsun,f

= 2 or Tsun,f = Tsun,i sun,f

2

sun,f Rsun,i

Rsun,i

= (25.4 days)

= 3.1 minutes.

8

1 day 1 h (6.96 10 m)

11.85. We will use the conservation of rotational momentum to solve this. We know L ,i = L ,f Lclay ,i =

Lclay ,f + Ldoor ,f . Inserting expressions for each rotational momentum yields

1

3

2

mb A d vb

mB rbvb

6mb vb

3

=

=

d,f =

1

(4

m

2 2 1

2

2

b + 3md )A d

mb rb + 3 md A d mb A d + md A 2d

3 3

11.86. Call the starting height of the roller coaster cars the initial position, and call the top of the loop the final

position. At the top of the loop, we will call the direction radially in toward the center of the loop the + r direction.

In general, the sum of all radial components of forces at this final position is

mvf2

n

G

n

F

F

F

ma

F

mg

=

+

=

+

=

(1)

r tcr Ecr

r

tcr

R

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11-16

Chapter 11

We want this loop to be as high as possible, meaning there will be as little energy left in the form of kinetic energy as

possible. Minimizing the right hand side of equation (1) means taking the limit as the normal force exerted by the

track on the car goes to zero. This means the cars are just barely maintaining contact with the track. Thus equation (1)

yields mgR = mvf2 . Now we can use conservation of energy. Some of the initial gravitational potential energy is

converted to kinetic energy. We can write U iG = U fG + K f mghi = mg (2 Rmax ) +

maximum radius of the loop yields Rmax =

1 2 5

mvf = mgRmax . Solving for the

2

2

2

2

hi = (55 m) = 22 m.

5

5

11.87. Let us assume the astronaut is approximately 1.8 m tall. If we assume the apparent gravity as the astronauts

feet is equal to the acceleration due to gravity on Earth, then we know g = 2 R = 2 3hast . But at the astronauts head,

2

2

the apparent gravity would be only g app,head = 2 2h = 2 3h = g = 6.5 m/s 2 . So the apparent acceleration due to

3

3

gravity at the position of the astronauts heads would only be about 6.5 m/s 2 . Suppose you wanted to ensure that the

acceleration due to gravity at the astronauts heads is within 5% of the value at their feet. Then we would write

g g app,head

2 R 2 ( R h) h

h

< 0.05

= < 0.05 or R >

R > 36 m in the case of a 1.8 m astronaut.

2

g

R

R

0.05

Astronauts may reasonably be as tall as 2 m, so you would build a circular section of the spacecraft having a radius of

no less than 40 m.

11.88. The rod would fly off of the turntable, provided there is no friction between them. The center of mass of the

rod would move off of the turntable in a straight line, tangential to the circle it made when it was attached to the

turntable. In the figure, this would be the + y direction. At the moment of release, the center of mass of the rod was a

2 r 2 (0.080 m)

=

=

(0.360 s)

T

1.40 m/s. Immediately after release, the speed of the center of mass would still be 1.40 m/s. The rod will also rotate

about its center of mass so as to satisfy conservation of angular momentum. Assuming there is no friction and that the

angular momentum of the turntable is unchanged, the angular momentum of the rod would also be unchanged. Thus

1

1

4(2 )

8

we can write mA 2i = mA 2f f = 4i =

=

= 69.8 s 1. Note that the rotational inertia has

3

12

T

0.360 s

changed because initially the rod was constrained to rotate around one end, but after release the rod will rotate around

its center of mass. So the rod will rotate with a rotational speed of 69.8 s 1 in the counterclockwise direction.

distance 0.080 m from the center of the disk, and had been moving at a speed of v =

11.89. The energy involved in the desired final rotational motion of the top is

K = 12 I 2 = 12 (5.0 103 kg m 2 )[(1800 rev/min)(2 rad/rev)(1 min/60 s)]2

= 9.0 2 J = 89 J

This energy must come from the work done as you pull on the string. If we assume no dissipation, and that you pull

with a constant force F on the string, then we can compute the work you do as the product of F and the displacement

of your hand. Here we must also assume that the center of mass of the top moves by a negligible distance as the

string unwinds, so that all of your effort goes into producing spin. Your hand will then move by the length of the

string during the time that the string unwraps. Putting this together, we find

K = W = F r

F = K / r = (9.0 2 J)/(1.2 m) = 74 N

This is enough force to lift a large bowling ball, so you really have to pop that string to make the top sing!

I tf + md Rt vd,f . After the collision, we know f Rt = vd,f . Inserting this, and the rotational inertia of a disk, we have

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Motion in a Circle

11-17

1

1

mt Rt2 + md Rt vd = mt + md Rt2f . Solving for the final rotational speed of the target yields

2

2

1

mt Rt + md vd

f = 2

. (b) Again we can use conservation of angular momentum, but now the dart has zero initial

1

m

m

R

+

d t

2 t

1

mt

1

1

2

.

as before, we find mt Rt2 = mt + md Rt2f . Solving for the final rotational speed yields f =

1

2

2

2 mt + md

11.91. Call the moment just before the cube strikes the threshold time 1, the moment just after time 2, and the

moment the center of the cube reaches a height h time 3. When the cube strikes the door threshold, rotational kinetic

energy will not be constant, but angular momentum will. We can determine the rotational speed of the cube just after

2

3v

d

the collision by writing L ,1 = L ,2 m v = md 22 2 =

. Now as the blocks center rises the energy of the

2

3

4d

1

1

block will be constant. We can write K rot,2 = K rot,3 + U 3G I 22 = I 32 + mgh. Solving for the final rotational

2

2

2

3v 2mgh

speed, and inserting our known expression for 2 yields 3 =

I . Now to write the height h in terms

4d

of the horizontal displacement x, consider the diagonal line from the center of the cube to the center of the edge that

2

d

d d

. This length will be the same no

struck the threshold. This diagonal line has a length A = + =

2

2 2

d

matter where the center of the cube is. Take for example the moment when the cubes center has reached xf = x,

2

and yf =

d2

d

h=

+ h. We know xf2 + yf2 =

2

2

d2 d

d

2 2

2

3v

2

3g d 2 d

d

x

2 2

2

3 ( x) = 2

4d d

2

or ( x) =

1 3v 3 g

( d 2 + 4dx 4 x 2 d )

2

d 4

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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