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Animal and Plant cells

Animal cell
All animals are mutlicellular. Human body contains trillions of cells.
All animal cells are eukaryotic, they are surrounded by cell membrane
and do not have a cell wall.
The components of animal cells are centrioles, cilia and flagella,
endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, microfilaments,
microtubules,mitochondria, nucleus, peroxisomes, plasma membrane
and ribosomes.
There are many different cell types, approximately 210 distinct cell
types in adult human body.

Plant cell
Plant cell are eukaryotic cells, they are membrane bound
organelles. They are surrounded by a rigid cell wall.
Plant cells are similar to animal cells in being eukaryotic and they
have similar cell organelles.
Generally, plant cells are larger than animal cells and are mostly
similar in size and are rectangular or cube shaped.
plant cell contains a few distinctive features like a cell wall, large
vacuole and plastids.

Parts of Animal and Plant Cells


Following are the parts and description of the animal cell
and plant cell

Cell membrane: It is the outer lining of the cell which


encloses all other cell organelles. The cell membrane
also known as the plasma membrane is semipermeable.
It allows only specific molecules to pass through and
blocking others.
Cell wall: The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the
plant cells. Plant cell walls are primarily made up of
cellulose. It is located outside the cell membrane whose
main function is to provide rigidity, strength, protection
against mechanical stress and infection.
Cytoplasm: It is the fluid substance that fills the cell. All
the cell organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm. The
cytoplasm maintains the osmotic concentration of the cells and prevents them from bursting or shrinking.
Nucleus: It is a membrane bound organelle, spherical in shape. Most of the activities of the cell is directed by the nucleus.
All the cells in an animal has one complete set of genes in its nucleus. The genetic material DNA help in protein formation.
Nucleolus: It is darkly stained are in the nucleus, it aids in protein formation and RNA synthesis.
Nuclear membrane: It is the porous double membrane layer surrounding the nucleus. It allows passage of substances and is a
distinctive characteristic of the eukaryotic cell.
Nucleoplasm: It is the semi-fluid substance inside the nucleus, contains the genetic material and the nucleolus
Mitochondria: Mitochondria is one of the largest organ of the cell and is known as the 'power house of the cell'. It is a spherical
or rod shaped organelles and is enveloped by a double membrane. The mitochondria aids in conversion of glucose to high
energy molecules (ATP) for the cell.
Ribosomes: Ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum. Together they help in manufacturing proteins for the cell
following instructions of the nucleus.
Lysosomes: Lysosomes are membrane bound organelles, they contain digestive enzymes. They break down the waste
products and detoxify the cell.
Centrosome: It is a small body located near the nucleus. Centrioles are made in the centrosomes. During cell division the
centromere organizes the assembly of the micro-tubules.

Endoplasmic reticulum: It is a large network of interconnecting membrane tunnels. It is composed of both rough endoplasmic
reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes hence appears rough.
They follow the instructions from the nucleus and make proteins the cell needs. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is continuous
with the outer nuclear membrane. It transports material through the cell and produces and digests lipids and membrane proteins.
Golgi apparatus: They are flattened stacks of membrane bound sacs. They function as the packaging unit, the proteins formed
by the endoplasmic reticulum are packed into small membrane sacs called vesicles.
Vacuoles: They are organelles for storage. Small membrane bound vacuoles filled with fluids and water are present in animals.
In plant cells the vacuoles perform functions of secretion, excretion and storage.
Chloroplasts: It is an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. It is the site for photosynthesis in a plant cell.
The green pigment chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight.
Cytoskeleton: It is a network of fibers made up of micro-tubule and micro-filament. They maintain the shape and gives support
to the cell.
Plasmodesmata: They are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and enables transport and
communication between them.
Plastids: Plastids are storage organelles. They store products like starch for synthesis of fatty acids and terpenes.

Structure of Animal and Plant Cells


Plant cells are similar to animal cells in being eukaryotic and they have similar cell organelles.
Generally, plant cells are larger than animal cells and are mostly similar in size and are rectangular or cube shaped. Plant cell
contains a few distinctive features like a cell wall, large vacuole and plastids.
Animal cells are typical eukaryotic cells. They are enclosed by plasma membrane and constitutes of membrane bound nucleus
and organelles. Animal cells do not have cell wall. Due to the lack of the cell wall the size of the cell varies and the shape is
irregular. Animal cells contain structures like centrioles, cilia and flagella and lysosomes.

Cell membrane: All cells are covered by cell membrane. It


supports and protects the cell. It also controls the
movement of materials in/out of cell.
It forms a barrier between cell and its environment. Also
helps maintain homeostasis.
Cell Wall: Cell wall is seen only in plant cell. It is made of
cellulose. The function of the cell wall is to support,protect
and allow diffusion of gases in and out of the cell. The
strength of the cell walls help the tree to stand tall and
grow against gravity.
Nucleus: It is a membrane bound organelle, spherical in
shape. Most of the activities of the cell is directed by the
nucleus. It also contains the hereditary material of the cell
and also helps in protein synthesis. It is surrounded by a
porous membrane the nuclear membrane which enables
movement of materials in/out of the cell.
Nucleolus: It is darkly stained are in the nucleus, it aids in
protein formation and RNA synthesis.
Endoplasmic reticulum: ER is a membrane bound organelle which makes lipids and other materials. It helps carrying materials
through the cell and it aids in proteins synthesis.
Ribosomes: Ribosomes are the smallest cell organelles and are most abundant. They are found in all cells, as they synthesize
proteins that are required for the survival of the cell.
Mitochondria: mitochondria is a double membrane bound organelle and has numerous folds. It is the site of aerobic cellular
respiration and breaks down sugar molecule to release energy. Most of the ATP is made here.
Chloroplast: Chloroplasts are bound by two membranes. They are flattened structures and look like stack of coins. It is found in
plant cells and is absent in animal cells. It is the site of photosynthesis in plants to prepare food(glucose) for the plant with the
use of energy. Also helps in release of oxygen.
Golgi apparatus: The Golgi complex looks like the ER, and are located near the nucleus. Its function is to modify proteins made
by the cell and pack and export proteins to the cell parts.
Vacuole: Plant cells have large membrane bound chamber called vacuole. Its main function is storage. It stores food, water,
metabolic and toxic wastes. Also stores large amounts of food or sugars in plants.
Lysosome: These are special vesicles in animal cells, they contain enzymes. It digests old cell parts and breaks down larger
food molecules.

Compare Animal and Plant Cells


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Below you could see Comparison of Plant Cells and Animal Cells.

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Cell Wall

Cell wall made of cellulose is present in almost


all cells.

Cell wall is absent.

Plastids

Plastids like leucoplasts, chloroplast and


chromoplasts are present.

No plastids found.

Chloroplasts

Plants cells have chloroplasts to prepare their own


food.

Chloroplasts completely absent.

Vacuoles

Cell sap containing vacuoles are present.

Vacuoles are usually absent or one or


more small vacuoles are seen.

Lysosomes

Lysosomes not evident.

Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm.

Nucleus

Due to the presence of the vacoule at the centre of


the cell, nucleus may be located at the edge of the
cell.

Nucleus is usually located centrally.

Golgi bodies

Plant cells have many simpler units of golgi


complex, called dictyosomes.

Animal cells have a single highly


elaborate golgi complex.

Endoplasmic
reticulum

Present

Present

Ribosomes

Present

Present

Mitochondria

Present

Present

Centrioles

Present only in lower plant forms.

Present

Microtubules/
microfilaments

Present

Present

Flagella

May be found in some cells.

May be found in some cells.

Cilia

Very rare

Present

Nutrition

Can prepare own food through photosynthesis.

Cannot make their own food. They


depend directly or indirectly on plants for
their food.

Locomotion

Most plants do not exhibit movement.

Most animals exhibit locomotion

Growth and
development

Keep growing throughout their life and are


localized in the apical meristem.

Growth stops after maturation, but body


cells are replaced periodically .

Cell shape and


structure

Rigid, fixes rectangular shape.

Lack rigidity, are round and irregular


shape.

Starch grains

Present

Are not present.