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About the European Union

Headquarters: City of Brussels, Belgium
Founded: November 1, 1993, Maastricht, Netherlands
Largest city: London
Founders: France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, Netherlands, Germany

Membership is open to any country with a democratic government, a good human rights
record, and sound economic policies.
The member states delegate sovereignty to the EU institutions to represent the interests of
the European Union as a whole.

The capital of the European Union is Brussels, Belgium.
The EU is run by five main bodies: European Parliament, Council of the Union,
European Commission, Court of Justice, and the Court of Auditors.

The United States is the EU's main trading partner.
The Treaty of Lisbon amends the Treaty on European Union to explicitly
recognize for the first time the member states' right to withdraw from the union.
(Article 50, amended TEU)
Timeline:
1957 - The European Economic Community (EEC) is created. The member countries
are Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The
group aims to remove trade barriers and form a common market.
1973 - Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom become member countries.
1981 - Greece becomes a member.
1985 - Spain and Portugal become members.
June 14, 1985 - Five of the 10 member states sign the Schengen Agreement, which
eventually opens borders of agreeing member states, doing away with border controls.
As of 2016, 26 countries belong to the Schengen Area.
February 7, 1992 - The Treaty on the European Union is signed in Maastricht
(Netherlands) by leaders of the member states.
November 1, 1993 - The Maastricht Treaty enters into force.

It amends the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 and the Rome Treaty of 1957. Cyprus. UK.The European Union decides to lift diplomatic sanctions imposed on Cuba. (No = 54.The Treaty of Lisbon comes into force.Herman Van Rompuy.The EC members at the time (Belgium. 2005 . marking the expansion of the EU from 15 to 25 members. 2009 . Lithuania. .The Netherlands votes against the constitution in a referendum. 2004 .European Union leaders in Brussels agree on an outline of a treaty that would replace the EU constitution rejected by French and Dutch voters two years ago.The European Union agrees to a new round of membership negotiations with Turkey.Austria. the citizens vote on a referendum. Hungary. Spain. 2008 . All 27 members of the EU must pass the constitution for it to take effect. Either a national parliament can approve it or in some countries. November 19. Malta. May 29.Is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for contributing to the advancement of peace.13%) June 1. June 19. Slovakia. democracy and human rights in Europe. the Belgian Prime Minister. It is signed by all the members in October 2004. 2013 . and Slovenia.Croatia joins the EU as its 28th member. becomes the first president of the European Council under the Treaty of Lisbon. June 23. 2012 . 2005 . January 1. Germany. December 1. June 2004 . 1995 . Latvia. June 25. October 12. April 30. Finland. Greece.87%/Yes = 45. 2009 .The member countries approve the text of the EU Constitution. Ireland. and Portugal) extend their cooperation into the areas of justice and home affairs and a common foreign and security policy. France. Luxembourg.A ceremony is held in Dublin. Denmark.The people of France (and its territories) vote against the European Union constitution in a referendum. Catherine Ashton of the UK will be the first foreign minister.1993 . the Netherlands. 2013 . July 1. Estonia. having been ratified by all European Union member states. Ireland. The new members are Poland. and Sweden join the EU. 2007 . the Czech Republic. Italy.

2016 . March 2015 . Malta . Candidate Countries: Albania. Germany. Finland. Croatia. Denmark. Netherlands. Romania.Iceland withdraws its request to be considered as a candidate for membership. Montenegro. 2016 . Sweden United Kingdom . Estonia. Serbia. Italy.The EU and Turkey reach an agreement on how to deal with a flood of Syrian refugees.The European Union launches military operations to restore stability to the Central African Republic.voted to leave June 24. It will take at least two years to sort out the exit. Greece. Spain. Presidencies of the Council of the European Union until 2020: Netherlands: January-June 2016 Slovakia: July-December 2016 Malta: January-June 2017 United Kingdom: July-December 2017 Estonia: January-June 2018 Bulgaria: July-December 2018 Austria: January-June 2019 Romania: July-December 2019 Finland: January-June 2020 Current Members: (Founding members in bold) Austria.The UK votes to leave the European Union. Slovenia. Portugal.April 1. 2016. 2014 . Bulgaria. Ireland. Belgium. June 23. France. The agreement stipulates that all migrants entering Greece from Turkey will be returned to Turkey. Czech Republic. Kosovo . Poland. another Syrian will be resettled to the EU. Macedonia. For every Syrian returned to Turkey from Greece. Luxembourg. Hungary. Turkey Applicant Countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina. March 18. Slovakia. Latvia. Lithuania . Cyprus.

 Merger Treaty (1965). Two states remained outside the Schengen Area – the UK and . also known as the Common Market referendum and EEC membership referendum was a referendum held on 5 June 1975 in the United Kingdom. Italy and West Germany established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). France. The EEC heads of government agreed to a deal in Dublin on 11 March 1975 In the late 1950s – Harold Macmillan (PM of UK) Labour Prime Minister – Harold Wilson Britain joined the European Economic Community on 1 January 1973. The treaty that was signed on 14 June 1985 resulted in abolition of the border checks between the members of the EU. however. The treaty that was signed on 18 April 1951 between Belgium. Luxembourg. The treaty that was signed by the founders of the ECSC on 25 March 1957 led to the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC) that was formally founded on 1 January 1958. EEC and the European Atomic Energy Community. The Merger Treaty resulted in the creation of a single set of institutions for the ESCS. It is traditionally regarded as the foundation of the EU because it led to political and economic stability in western Europe as well as provided the basis for the modern EU. The treaty was signed between the founding states of the ESCS and EEC on 8 April 1965 and resulted in the creation of first joint institutions. This later became the European Union.  Treaty of Rome (1957). was created only in 1995. The EEC at the time of the referendum was made up of nine countries Most Notable Treaties in Regard to EU: Treaty of Paris (1951).The United Kingdom EC referendum of 1975. The later was founded with a separate treaty that was singed in Rome on the same day as the Treaty of Rome (1957). The so-called Schengen Area. along with Denmark and Ireland. The aim of the EEC was to increase economic integration between the signatory states.  Schengen Agreement (1985). the Netherlands.

 Maastricht Treaty (1992). It entered into force on 1 December 2009. Signed on 2 October 1997 by the members of the EU. started by the Amsterdam Treaty. freedom and security. the Treaty of Amsterdam defined EU citizenship and individual’s rights in terms of justice. the precursor of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy. he called for formation of a supranational community and reorganisation of post-war Europe through treaties. Iceland and Switzerland which are not members of the EU. But he also initiated the post-war French-German cooperation that resulted in the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ESCS) which was . On the other hand. It also dealt with the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the reform of the EU institutions in future enlargements but the work on the reform of the EU institutions is still ongoing.Ireland. The treaty was signed by all EU member states on 13 December 2007 with an aim to complete the reform process. The treaty which is named after the place it was signed – Maastricht. Founding Fathers of EU: Robert Schuman (1886-1963). the Netherlands was signed between 12 members of the EEC on 7 February 1992.  Treaty of Lisbon (2007). In the so-called Schuman Declaration. It is one of the most important EU treaties not only because it formally created the EU but also because it laid the foundation for formation of the eurozone. Schengen Area includes Norway. The German-French statesman is often referred to as the “Father of Europe” for his contribution to formation of the precursor of the modern EU.  Amsterdam Treaty (1997). Bulgaria and Cyprus. Outside the Schengen Area also remain Romania. It also formalised the European Political Cooperation. The treaty that was signed between 12 members of the EEC revised the Treaty of Rome and provided the basis for foundation of a single market.  Single European Act (1986).

known as the Spaak Report was accepted and used as a basis by the Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom in 1956 which in turn led to creation of the EEC and Euratom.  Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967). The Elysee Treaty that was signed by Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle in 1963 ended the rivalry between the two nations and paved the way to French-German friendship without which the EU wouldn’t be possible. He helped prepare the Schuman Declaration which foresaw integration of the German and French coal and steel industries under common control and was accepted by Germany in 1951. The Committee’s report. 9 May (1950) was designated as the Europe Day. French diplomat and political economist never hold a public office but he was one of the main architects of the European Union. The Italian politician and statesman who served as Prime Minister of Italy from 1945 to 1953 closely cooperated with both Adenauer and Schuman and supported the . He led the so-called Spaak Committee that was set up by the founding states of the ESCS to prepare a report on a common market and European Community.  Jean Monnet (1888-1979). Monnet also advocated gradual approach to the European integration. Belgian statesman who served as Prime Minister on three occasions was among the strongest supporters of European cooperation after the end of the Second World War. Adenauer played the key role in the formation of the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) as well as German reconciliation with France. He supported Schuman Declaration but he also sought other ways to advance the European cause.besides France and West Germany also joined by Italy and the states of Benelux. The first post-war (West) German Chancellor worked hard in reintegrating Germany into Western Europe and heavily promoted the idea of European cooperation.  Paul-Henry Spaak (1899-1972).  Alcide De Gasperi (1881-1954). The date of the drafting of the Schuman Declaration.

the Luxembourgian politician played an important role in convocation of the Messina Conference. The Dutch politician and diplomat thought the idea of European political integration cannot succeed in the near future. Together with other Benelux politicians.  Johan Willem Beyen (1897-1976).latter’s plan that led to the foundation of the ESCS. He proposed economic cooperation and created a plan of economic cooperation and common market. . De Gasperi also supported the idea of a common European defence policy which. however. didn’t succeed.  Joseph Bech (1887-1975). The latter was convened on the initiative of a memorandum Bech drafted with other Benelux politicians. Beyen’s plan was discussed and largely accepted by the founders of the ESCS at the Messina Conference (1955) which in turn led to the Treaty of Rome that created the ESS and Euratom.