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Experiment No:-

Date:-

EVALUATION OF ABCD PARAMETERS OF TRANSMISSION LINE

Aim: To evaluate ABCD parameters of 180km transmission line simulation panel.


Apparatus Required:
S. No

Apparatus

Type

Range

Quantity

1.

Dimmer stat

Single phase, Iron

230/0-270V,5A

1no

Single phase Watt

core
Dynamometer

150V,1A,LPF

1no

75V,2A,UPF

1no

MI

0-150V

1no

MI

0-75V
0-1/2A

1no
1no

2.

meters

3.

Voltmeters

4.

Ammeters

Theory:ABCD constants of transmission line can be obtained by conducting open circuit and
short circuit tests at the ends of the transmission line.
Zso=sending end impedance with receiving end open circuited.
Zss=Sending end impedance with receiving end short circuited.
Zro= Receiving end impedance with sending end open circuited.
Zrs= Receiving end impedance with sending end short circuited.
ABCD parameters of a two port network are defined as:
Vs = A Vr + B Ir
Is = C Vr + D Ir
Zso=Vs/Is=A/C with Ir=0 (open circuit test at Receiving end)
Zss=Vs/Is=B/D with Vr=0 (short circuit test at Receiving end).
Conducting test from receving end side similar to sending end side tests, the equations
becomes
Vr=Avs+BIs

Ir=CVs+DIs
Zro=Vr/Ir=D/C with Is=0 (open circuit test at Sending end)
Zrs=Vr/Ir=B/A with Vs=0 (short circuit test at Sending end).
From a symmetric network:
Zro=Zso; Zrs=Zss.
Thus A=D=

( Zso /( ZroZrs))

B=AZrs
C=A/Zso

It is to be noted that the impedance are complex quantities. The magnitudes are obtained from
the ratio of voltage and currents and the angle is obtained with the help of wattmeter reading.
Power supply voltage is to be regulated at constant at sending end with power frequency
50Hz or the correction factor is to be applied for the respective frequency.
Circuit diagram1:
Open circuit test:-

Circuit diagram 2:

Short circuit test:-

Procedure:
Open circuit test:1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 1.
2. Apply 127V at the sending end and note down the receiving end voltage.
3. Note down the values of sending end current and wattmeter reading.
4. Calculate Zso.

Zso=Zro.

Short circuit test:1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 2.


2. Slowly apply voltage at sending end so that the short circuit current through the line is
1A.
3. Note down the values of sending end voltage and wattmeter reading.
1. 4. Calculate Zss.

Zss=Zrs.

Observations & calculations:

1. Open circuit test: Ir=0


Vso= 127V
Iso= _____ A
Wo= _____ W
Zso=Vs/Is 0

o =cos-1(W /(Vso Iso))


0

2.Short circuit test: Vr =0


Vss =

Iss = 1A
Ws=

Zss=Vs/Is s
Verify

s =cos-1(Ws/(VssIss))

AD-BC=1

3.
(a)Write the equations for receiving end powers in terms of ABCD parameters.
(b)Calculate the value of maximum power transfer capability of the line.
Precautions:1. Check the connections properly before switching ON the supply.
2. Vary the dimmerstat gradually to apply voltage.
3. In short circuit test care must be taken while passing the short circuit current through the
circuit.

Result: ABCD parameters of artificial transmission line are obtained.


A=

, B=

, C=

, D=

Discussions:1. What is the significance of ABCD parameters?


2. What are power circle diagrams and list out their applications?
3. Write the equation for receiving end power of transmission line interms of ABCD
parameters.
4. What is meant by compensation of a transmission line?
5. What do you understand by regulation of a line?
6. What are different devices used for compensating a given transmission network?
7. How a medium length transmission line can be modeled?
8. Draw the phasor diagram of a line operated at leading power factor?
9. Write ABCD parameters for a short line, medium line and long line interms of line
resistance, inductance and capacitance.