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RULES OF THUMB

FOR
PROCESS ENGINEERS
Revised 8/2002
Edited by H. R. Hunt

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

SEPARATION ...................................................................................................................1-1

A.

Vertical Knockout Drum Preliminary Sizing .................................................................................................... 1-1

B.

Crude Oil Service Separator Sizing...................................................................................................................... 1-1

C.

Vertical Separator Design....................................................................................................................................... 1-1

D.

Horizontal Separator Design.................................................................................................................................. 1-2

E.

Solid/Liquid Separations ......................................................................................................................................... 1-3

F.

Solid / Liquid Separations ....................................................................................................................................... 1-3

G.

Brown - Souders Equation For Vessel Sizing .................................................................................................... 1-4

H.

Mist Extractor Selection .......................................................................................................................................... 1-4

HEAT TRANSFER SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS....................................2-1

A.

Heat Exchanger Design Practices.......................................................................................................................... 2-1

LIQUIDS

SHELL TUBE SIDE................................................................................................................................ 2-4

B.

Reboiler Thermal Design Practices ...................................................................................................................... 2-8

C.

Process Condenser Thermal Design Practices.................................................................................................2-11

D.

Heat Transfer Units conversions Table 5 ..........................................................................................................2-14

E.

Heat Exchangers (General)...................................................................................................................................2-16

F.

Condensers ................................................................................................................................................................2-16

G.

Reboilers and Chillers ............................................................................................................................................2-16

H.

Sizing Plate Heat Exchangers...............................................................................................................................2-17

I.

Brazed Aluminum Plate Heat Exchangers .......................................................................................................2-17

J.

Air Fin Heat Exchangers .......................................................................................................................................2-17

K.

Fired Heaters ............................................................................................................................................................2-18

L.

Cooling Towers.........................................................................................................................................................2-18

M.

Insulation ...................................................................................................................................................................2-19

N.

NGL Expander Plants ............................................................................................................................................2-20

O.

Miscellaneous Plant Systems ................................................................................................................................2-21

P.

Method For Feasibility Study Sizing of Gas Plant Gas/Gas shell & Tube Heat Exchanger: .............2-24

TREATING.........................................................................................................................3-1

A.

Dehydration................................................................................................................................................................. 3-1

B.

Amine Treating .......................................................................................................................................................... 3-2

C.

Mol Sieve Treating .................................................................................................................................................... 3-4

D.

Corrosion ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3-5

E.

Copper Strip................................................................................................................................................................ 3-5

F.

Conversion Factors ................................................................................................................................................... 3-5

G.

Caustic Washer Design............................................................................................................................................ 3-5

H.

Metallurgy Requirements For Amine Treaters................................................................................................. 3-5

I.

H2S Gas Toxicity ....................................................................................................................................................... 3-7

J.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plants ................................................................................................................... 3-7

K.

Gas Treating Iron Sponge ....................................................................................................................................... 3-8

L.

Distribution of Sulfur Compounds in NGL Product ....................................................................................... 3-8

FLUID FLOW.....................................................................................................................4-1

A.

Misc. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4-1

B.

NGL Expander Plants .............................................................................................................................................. 4-1

C.

Piping ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4-2

D.

Physical Fan Laws ..................................................................................................................................................... 4-4

E.

Control Valves ............................................................................................................................................................ 4-5

F.

Two Phase Flow: ........................................................................................................................................................ 4-6

FRACTIONATION.............................................................................................................5-1

A.

Minor Components Non Ideal In Hydrocarbons .............................................................................................. 5-1

B.

Columns........................................................................................................................................................................ 5-1

COMBUSTION ..................................................................................................................6-1

A.

Flare............................................................................................................................................................................... 6-1

B.

Fired Heaters .............................................................................................................................................................. 6-1

C.

Fuel Requirements .................................................................................................................................................... 6-2

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ..............................................................................................7-1

A.

Standard Conditions ................................................................................................................................................. 7-1

B.

Characterization of Liquid Refinery Feeds and Products ............................................................................. 7-1

C.

Physical Properties of Selected Liquids ............................................................................................................... 7-2

D.

Physical Properties of Selected Gases/Vapors ................................................................................................... 7-8

E.

Physical Properties Recommendations ..............................................................................................................7-13

F.

Simulation Techniques for Characterization of Oils .....................................................................................7-14

COMPRESSORS, EXPANDERS & PUMPS................................................................8-1

A.

Reciprocating Compressors.................................................................................................................................... 8-1

B.

Compressor Quickies................................................................................................................................................ 8-1

C.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plants ................................................................................................................... 8-2

D.

Energy Conservation Natural Gas Engines........................................................................................................ 8-2

E.

Fuel consumption....................................................................................................................................................... 8-2

F.

NGL Expander Plants .............................................................................................................................................. 8-2

G.

Gas Processing Simulation guidelines............................................................................................................... 8-3

H.

Pump sizing ................................................................................................................................................................. 8-3

I.

Pumps ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8-4

J.

General:........................................................................................................................................................................ 8-5

REFRIGERATION ............................................................................................................9-1

A.

Condensers .................................................................................................................................................................. 9-1

B.

Propane Refrigeration Systems ............................................................................................................................. 9-1

C.

Gas Processing Simulation Guidelines ............................................................................................................. 9-1

D.

Condensing Temperature Effects:........................................................................................................................ 9-1

10 MISCELLANEOUS........................................................................................................ 10-1
A.

Large Production & Processing Platforms .......................................................................................................10-1

B.

Water and Steam Systems .....................................................................................................................................10-3

C.

Economics ..................................................................................................................................................................10-3

D.

Hydrates .....................................................................................................................................................................10-4

E.

NGL Expander Plants ............................................................................................................................................10-4

F.

Miscellaneous Plant Systems ................................................................................................................................10-4

G.

Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Plants ..................................................................................................................10-4

H.

Gas Processing Simulation Guidelines ...........................................................................................................10-4

I.

Offshore Pipeline Gas Specifications..................................................................................................................10-4

J.

Offshore Crude Oil Specifications ......................................................................................................................10-5

K.

Wind Loadings .........................................................................................................................................................10-5

L.

Steam Leaks @ 100 psi...........................................................................................................................................10-5

M.

Composition of Air ..................................................................................................................................................10-5

N.

Platform Deflection .................................................................................................................................................10-5

O.

Kinetics .......................................................................................................................................................................10-6

P.

Storage, Vessel Capacity ........................................................................................................................................10-6

Q.

Pipeline Volume:......................................................................................................................................................10-6

R.

Pressure Vessels .......................................................................................................................................................10-6

S.

NACE Requirements .............................................................................................................................................10-6

T.

Pressure Waves (e.g. water hammer).................................................................................................................10-6

U.

Insulation Types .......................................................................................................................................................10-7

V.

Absolute Pressure of Atmosphere at Height H feet above Sea Level .....................................................10-7

1
A.

SEPARATION

Vertical Knockout Drum Preliminary Sizing


1. Size for Vapor
W=1100 [Density Vapor (Density Liquid-Density Vapor)] 1/2
Where:
W = maximum allowable mass velocity - pounds/hour/ft 2
1100 is an empirically determined constant
Densities - pounds/cubic foot at process T & P
2. Size for Liquid
Should be able to contain maximum slug expected depending on pipe configuration.
Never size for less than 1 minute liquid holdup.
Size 8 to 10 ft tall

B.

Crude Oil Service Separator Sizing


1. Use vertical separator for high vapor to liquid ratios and for two phase separation.
2. Use horizontal separator for high liquid to vapor ratios and for three phase separation.
Vessel L/D 3 to 5.
3. Check size for both gas and liquid handling (i.e. gas superficial velocity and liquid
residence time).
4. Use 3 min liquid residence time for the hydrocarbon phase in a crude oil system.
5. Use 3 to 6 min residence time for the water phase in a crude oil system.
6. Estimate 15 to 30 minutes water residence time for electrostatic coalescers (100%
filled). Vessel L/D 4 to 6.

C.

Vertical Separator Design


1. The disengaging space - the distance between the bottom of the mist elimination pad
and the inlet nozzle, should be equal to the vessel internal diameter or a minimum of
3' -0".
2. The distance between the inlet nozzle and the maximum liquid level should be equal
to one-half the vessel diameter, or a minimum of 2' -0".
3. A mist eliminator pad should be installed. Otherwise the separator should be
designed so that actual gas velocity should be no greater than 15% of the maximum
allowable gas velocity as calculated by the following equation:
Vg = (11.574) * (AMMcfd) /A

1-1

Where: Vg = Vertical velocity of gas, ft/sec


AMMcfd = Actual gas volume at operating conditions, MMcfd
A = Cross Sectional Area of vessel, ft2
4. The dimension between the top tangent line of the separator and the bottom of the
mist eliminator pad should be a minimum of 1' -0".
5. Inlets should have an internal arrangement to divert flow downward.
6. Liquid outlets should have antivortex baffles.
7. Mist eliminator pads should be specified as a minimum of 4 inches thick, nominal 9
lb/ft3 density and stainless steel.
8. Normal practice for calculating liquid retention time is to allow for the volume
contained in the shell portion of the vessel only. No credit is taken for any liquid
retention time attributable to the volume contained in the vessel head. Sump height
should be a minimum of 1' -6". to allow for liquid level control.
D.

Horizontal Separator Design


The following are commonly used rules of thumb for sizing Horizontal separators.
1. Oil level is usually controlled by a weir, which is commonly placed at a point
corresponding to 15% of the tangent-to-tangent length of the vessel. This results in
85% of the vessel being available for separation. Height of the weir is commonly set
at 50% of the internal diameter of the vessel.
2. The maximum liquid level should provide a minimum vapor space height of 1' -3"
3. but not be substantially below the centerline of the vessel.
4. Separators designed for gas-oil- water separation should provide residence time and
separation facilities for removal of the water.
5. For separators handling fluids where foaming is considered a possibility, additional
foam disengagement space and foam control baffling should be provided. Mist
eliminator devices should be located external to the vessel to maximize foam
disengagement potential within the vessel.
6. The volume of dished heads should not be taken into account in vessel sizing
calculations.
7. Inlet and outlet nozzles should be located as closely as possible to vessel tangent
lines.
8. Liquid outlets should have antivortex baffles.

1-2

E.

Solid/Liquid Separations
Recommended Feed Solids Content for Separation Processes
Feed Solids Content in Vol %
Max 25
Max 4
Max 10
Max 0.2
Max 20
Max 15
15-20
40
10
Max 5/10
Max 25
Max 40
25-40
30-50
15-40
10-20
10-30
20-40
20-40
20-40
20-40
2-30
10-40
20-40

Decanter centrifuge
Self-cleaning separator
Disc-nozzle centrifuge
Tube centrifuge
Conical hydrocyclone
Circulating bed hydrocyclone
Tables and spirals
Cone concentrator
Heavy media cyclone, jigs
Clarifiers/thickeners
Hydroseparators
Bowl classifiers
Upstream classifiers
Rake/spiral classifiers
Filter press
Vacuum disc filter
Vacuum drum
Vacuum band
Horizontal filters
Sieve bends
Vibro screen
Basket/peeler centrifuge
Pusher centrifuges
Screen (scroll) centrifuges
Vibro screen centrifuges

F.

20-40

Solid / Liquid Separations


Comparative Performance

UNIT OPERATION

FAVORABLE FEED CONDITIONS


SOLIDS
SOLIDS
CONCENTRATION
CHARACTERISTICS

CYCLONING

PRODUCT PARAMETER
SOLID IN
LIQUID IN
WASH
LIQUID
SOLIDS
POSSIBILITIES
STREAM
STREAM
FAIR TO
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
FAIR TO
POOR
LOW
EXCELLENT
EFFICIENCY
FAIR
POOR
FAIR TO
EXCELLENT
POOR
POOR
POOR

SCREENING

POOR

POOR

HIGH/MEDIUM

ULTRAFILTRATION

EXCELLENT

POOR

LOW

FILTRATION
SEDIMENTATION
CENTRIFUGATION

POOR TO
FAIR
POOR TO
FAIR

1-3

HIGH/MEDIUM
MEDIUM/LOW
MEDIUM/LOW
LOW/MEDIUM

LIGHT, COURSE TO
MED. FLOC. FINE
DENSE, MEDIUM OR
FLOCCULATED FINE
DENSE, FINE
DENSE, COURSE TO
MEDIUM
COURSE TO
MEDIUM
VERY FINE

G.

Brown - Souders Equation For Vessel Sizing


W = C DV ( D l DV )
W = Vapor Loading - #/Hr. /Sq. Ft.
DV = Vapor Density - #Cu. Ft. at operating condit ion
D1 = Liquid Density - #Cu. Ft.
C = Constant
(a) For Absorbers use 600
(b)For Scrubbers use 1100
(c)For Still use 500
Example: Size Scrubber For Field Engine Discharge
Dv =

29, 423# / mol 63 psia 520 R


x
x
= 0.333# / ft 3
380.6 ft 3 / mol 14.5 psia 550 R

D1 = 0.82 Sp. Gr. X 62.3 #/Cu. Ft. (H2 0) = 51.0 #/Cu. Ft.
W = 1100 .333(51.0 .333)
= 1100v16.9
= 4520 #/hr./Sq. Ft.
Gas Flow = 158,311 MPD x 29.423 #/Mol = 194,000 #/hr.
Cross Section Area Required = 194,000 #/hr.
= 43 Sq. Ft.
4520 #/hr/Sq. Ft
Dia . = 43x 4 / = 7.4Ft.
Use 8 Ft. Diameter Scrubber
H.

Mist Extractor Selection


1. The stainless steel mesh pad type mist extractor is generally less expensive than the
vane type and is adequate for most clean service applications. Similar liquid removal
efficiencies can be achieved (within certain velocity constraints) with mist particle
sizes of 10 microns and larger.
2. The pad type usually has less clean pressure drop than the vane type.
3. The vane type usually performs better than the pad type where tacky solids such as
iron sulfide are present in the flowing gas stream. The liquid flow from the mist
extractor is at right angles to the gas flow in vane type and it tends to wash solids
away better.

1-4

4. If the vane type is used in corrosive service (hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, or
oxygen with water wet gas), the vanes should be 316 stainless steel. Experience has
shown that a small amount of corrosion with carbon steel vanes roughs the surface
and solids tend to accumulate and plug the vanes rapidly.
5. For retrofit or sometimes new applications, it is possible to use a smaller dia meter
vessel for the vane type as it may be fitted in different orientations to limit the
velocity to acceptable ranges. The pad type is usually installed horizontally.
6. It is usually cheaper to retrofit vessels with the pad type as both would have to be cut
and match marked to fit through an 18 or smaller manway and reinstalled inside the
vessel. The vane type usually has boxing that must be welded together inside the
vessel while the pad type can usually be bolted.
7. The vane type may be used for small in- line applications where the pad type usually
can not.
8. If the pad type plugs with solids or hydrates, the pressure drop will likely dislodge the
mist extractor and plug downstream piping or equipment.
9. For tough separation applications where it is necessary to remove mist particles
smaller than 10 microns (such as inlet to glycol or amine systems where the foreign
liquid may cause foaming or chemical contamination), often a combination of pad
type (for coalescing) and vane type (for mist removal) is used.

1-5

Separation References

GPSA Engineering Data Book, Vol. 1,


Section 7 - Separators and Filters
Engineering Standard 10.48-2:
Process Vessel Sizing- Entrainment Reduction
SPS Design Report - DR15
Selection of Equipment for a Solid-Liquid Separation Process

1-6

HEAT TRANSFER SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Material presented herein is intended to supplement Phillips Engineering Standards, General


Design Specifications, and Recommended Design Practices listed in the Section VI and does
not supersede these documents.
A.

Heat Exchanger Design Practices


1. Heat Exchanger Selection
The selection logic shown in Fig. 1, at the end of this section, may be used as a guide
in selecting heat exchanger types.
2. General Design Practices
General design practices governing the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers are
summarized, as follows:

High pressure stream should be located on the tubeside.


Stream requiring special metallurgy should be located on the tubeside.
Stream exhibiting highest fouling should be located on the tubeside.
More viscous fluid should be located on the shellside.
Lower flowrate stream should be placed on the shellside.
Consider finned tubes when shellside h is less than 30% of tubeside h.
Do not use finned tubes when shellside fouling is high.
Design exchanger for maximum utilization of allowable pressure drop.
Do not design heat exchanger for operation in transition flow.
Do not provide thermal overdesign by increasing fouling factors.
Provide thermal overdesign by increasing bundle length, not diameter
Avoid multiple tubepass exchangers with close temperature approaches.
Vertical shellside condensation should be in downflow.
Vertical tubeside boiling should be in upflow.
Use RODbaffle exchangers when tube vibrations are predicted.
Use RODbaffle exchangers for low shellside pressure loss processes.
Avoid triple-segmental plate baffles, disk-and-doughnut baffles, and orifice
baffles.
Horizontal shellside condensers should be specified with vertically cut baffles.

3. Overall Heat and Film Transfe r Coefficients


Overall heat transfer coefficients suitable for feasibility design estimates are provided in
Table 1, and film coefficients are contained in Table 2.
4. Heat Exchanger Velocities

2-1

Recommended shellside and tubeside liquid velocities for various tube materials are
summarized as follows: Permissible tubeside velocities for dry gases range from 50 to
150 feet/sec. The recommended minimum shellside liquid velocities are 1.5 feet/sec.
TUBE
Material

Velocity
(FT/SEC)

ADMIRALTY, CARBON STEEL


COPPER, BRASS (85-15)
NICKEL, COPPER-NICKEL
STAINLESS STEEL, MONEL
TITANIUM

4 TO 8
2 TO 4
5 TO 10
6 TO 12
6 TO 15

5. Allowable Pressure Losses


Recommended maximum allowable shellside and tubeside pressure losses are 10 to
15 psi for plate-baffle exchangers. Allowable shellside pressure losses for
RODbaffle should range from 4 to 8 psi.
6. Cooling Water Temperatures
Maximum cooling water and tube wall temperatures to minimize fouling deposition
are 125F and 145F, respectively.
7. Mean Temperature Differences
Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) correction factors (F) for single
shellpass, multiple tubepass exchangers should be greater than 0.75 to avoid
temperature approach problems.
8. Recommended Fouling Factors
Recommended Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) fouling
factors are provided in Table 3.
9. Vibration Considerations

Shellside baffle tip and average crossflow velocities should not exceed 80% of
the calculated Connors Critical Velocity in order to avoid fluidelastic instability
tube vibration.

The vortex shedding-to-tube natural frequency ration should not exceed 0.50 to
avoid vortex shedding tube vibration.

In exchangers flashing gas on the shellside, the turbulent buffeting- to-tube


natural frequency ratio should not exceed 0.50 to avoid turbulent buffeting tube
vibration.

2-2

In exchangers where acoustic resonance (noise) is predicted, a triangular tube


pitch may eliminate the problem Detuning plates may also be necessary in
certain cases.
TABLE 1

HOT FLUID

COLD FLUID

WATER
AMMONIA
MEA OR DEA
FUEL OIL
FUEL OIL
GASOLINE
HEAVY OIL
HEAVY OIL
REFORMER STREAM
LIGHT ORGANICS
MEDIUM ORGANICS
HEAVY ORGANICS
GAS OIL
GASES
GASES
CONDENSING STEAM
CONDENSING STEAM
CONDENSING STEAM
CONDENSING STEAM
CONDENSING STEAM
STEAM
LIGHT ORGANICS
MEDIUM ORGANICS
HEAVY ORGANICS
CRUDE OIL
GASOLINE (CONDENSING)

WATER
WATER
WATER
WATER
OIL
WATER
WATER
HEAVY OIL
REFORMER STREAM
WATER
WATER
WATER
WATER
WATER
GASES
WATER
LIGHT ORGANICS
MEDIUM ORGANICS
HEAVY ORGANICS
PROPANE (BOILING)
GASES
LIGHT ORGANICS
MEDIUM ORGANICS
HEAVY ORGANICS
GAS OIL
CRUDE OIL

2-3

OVERALL U
BTU/HR-FT2-F
250-500
250-500
140-200
15-25
10-15
60-100
15-50
10-40
50-120
75-120
50-125
5-75
25-70
2-50
2-25
200-700
100-200
50-100
6-60
200-300
5-50
40-75
20-60
10-40
80-90
20-30

TABLE 2. APPROXIMATE FILM HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS

LIQUIDS
Oils, 20 API
200 F average temperature
300 F average temperature
400 average temperature
Oils, 30 API
150 F average temperature
200 F average temperature
300 F average temperature
400 F average temperature
Oils, 40 API
150 F average temperature
200 F average temperature
300 F average temperature
400 F average temperature
Heavy Oils, 8-14 API
300 F average temperature
400 F average temperature
Diesel oil
Kerosene
Heavy naphtha
Light naphtha180
Gasoline
Light hydrocarbons
Alcohols, most organic solvents
Water, ammonia
Brine, 75% water
VAPORS
Light hydrocarbons
Medium HCs, organic sol.
Light inorganic vapors
Air
Ammonia
Steam
Hydrogen 100%
Hydrogen 75% (by volume)
Hydrogen 50% (by volume)
Hydrogen 25% (by volume)

SHELL

TUBE SIDE

40-50
70-85
80-100

15-25
20-35
65-75

70-85
80-100
110-130
130-155

20-35
50-60
95-115
120-140

80-100
120-140
150-170
180-200

50-60
115-135
140-160
175-195

20-30
0-50
115-130
145-155
145-155
180
200
250
200
700
500

10-20
20-30
95-115
140-150
130-140

10 psig
25
25
14
13
14
15
40
35
30
25

200
250
200
700
500

Shell or tube sides


50 psig 100 psig 300 psig
60
100
170
70
105
180
30
60
100
25
50
85
30
55
95
30
50
90
105
190
350
80
150
280
70
130
240
55
100
180

VAPORS CONDENSING
Steam
Steam, 10% non-condensables
Steam, 20% non-condensables
Steam, 40% non-condensables
Pure light hydrocarbons
Mixed light hydrocarbons
Gasoline
Gasoline-steam mixtures
Medium hydrocarbons
Medium hydrocarbons with steam
Pure organic solvents
Ammonia

Shell or tube sides


1,500
600
400
220
250-300
175-250
150-220
200
100
125
250
600

LIQUIDS BOILING
Water
Water solutions, 50% water or more
Light hydrocarbons
Medium hydrocarbons
Freon
Ammonia
Propane
Butane
Amines, alcohols
Glycols
Benzene, tolune

1,500
600
300
200
400
700
400
400
300
200
200

2-4

500 psig
200
220
120
100
110
135
420
340
310
270

NOTES:
1. Where a range of coefficients is given
for liquids, the lower values are for
cooling and the higher are for heating.
Coefficients in cooling, particularly, can
vary considerably depending upon actual
tube wall temperature.
2. Tube side coefficients are based on
3
/4in diameter tubes. Adjustment to
other diameters may be made by
multiplying by 0.75/actual outside
diameter. Shell side coefficients are also
based upon 3/4in diameter. Precise
calculations would require adjustment to
other diameters. The accuracy of the
procedure does not warrant it.
3. Coefficients can vary widely under
any one or combination of the following:
a. Low allowable pressure drop.
b. Low pressure condensing applications,
particularly where condensation is not
isothermal.
c. Cooling of viscous fluids particularly
with high coefficient coolants and large
LMTDs.
d. Condensing with wide condensing
temperature ranges 100 F and larger.
e. Boiling, where light vapor is generated
from viscous fluid.
f. Conditions where the relative flow
quantities on shell and tube sides are
vastly different (usually evidenced by
difference in temperature rise or fall on
shell and tube sides ).
g. Wide temperature ranges with liquids
(may be partly in streamline flow).

TABLE 3
EXCHANGER
SERVICE

FOULING
(HR-FT2-F/BTU)
LESS 125 F
GREATER 125F
COOLING TOWER WATER
0.001
0.002
BRACKISH WATER
0.002
0.003
SEA WATER
0.0005
0.001
BOILER FEEDWATER
0.001
CONDENSATE
0.0005
STEAM
0.0005
COMPRESSED AIR
0.001
NATURAL GAS & LPG GAS
0.001 - 0.002
ACID GASES
0.002 - 0.003
REFORMER FEED-EFFLUENT GAS
0.0015
HYDROCRACKER FEED-EFFLUENT GAS
0.002
HDS FEED-EFFLUENT GAS
0.002
MEA AND DEA SOLUTIONS
0.002
DEG AND TEG SOLUTIONS
0.002
HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS
0.002
PROPANE AND BUTANE
0.001
GASOLINE
0.002
KEROSENE, NAPTHA, & LIGHT DISTILLATES 0.002 - 0.003
LIGHT GAS OIL
0.002 - 0.003
HEAVY GAS OIL
0.003 - 0.005
HEAVY FUEL OIL
0.005 - 0.007
VACUUM TOWER BOTTOMS
0.010
NATURAL GAS COMBUSTION PRODUCTS
0.005

9. TEMA Shell Configurations


Single shellpass, TEMA E shells are preferred for most single-phase and
condensing applications. Two shellpass, TEMA F shells with two tubepass
bundles are preferred when pure counterflow conditions and maximum mean
temperature difference (MTD) are required. F shell exchangers should be
specified with welded longbaffles or Lamiflex longbaffles seals. Bundle should
may also be utilized to minimize longbaffle leakage. TEMA G and H split- flow
shells are preferred only for horizontal shellside thermosiphon reboilers. Dividedflow TEMA J shells with RODbaffle tube bundles are preferred for low pressuredrop, single-phase and condensing services. TEMA K shells are used exclusively
for horizontal, kettle reboilers.
10. Return Head Types
Fixed tubesheet exchangers are preferred for services where thermal expansion,
shellside mechanical cleaning, and tube bundle removal are not concerns. U-tube

2-5

and floating head bundles are required when thermal expansion, shellside
mechanical cleaning, and tube bundle removal provisions must be made. Fixed
tubesheet exchangers should be considered if shellside-to-tubeside inlet temperature
differences are less than 100F. Fixed tubesheet exchangers having shell expansion
joints should be avoided. U-tube and floating head exchangers are required when
fixed tubesheet units cannot meet above requirements, with U-tube bundles being
preferred over floating head bundles if tubeside mechanical cleaning is not required.
Split-ring floating head bundles are preferred over pull-through floating head
bundles in general refinery service because of higher thermal performance and lower
cost. Outside packed floating head exchangers are not recommended.
11. Shellside Baffle Types
Baffles types recommended for Phillips plant services include single-segmental
plate-baffles, double-segmental plate-baffles, no-tube-in-window(NTIW) baffles,
and RODbaffles. Single-segmental plate baffles, having a single chordal cut, are
preferred for single-phase services where higher shellside pressure losses (15 psi)
may be tolerated. Double-segmental plate baffles, having two chordal cuts, are
preferred for single-phase and condensing services, where modest shellside pressure
losses (10 psi) are allowed. RODbaffles are preferred for single-phase and twophase services, where low shellside pressure losses (5 psi) are required or where
flow- included tube vibrations are likely in plate-baffle exchangers. Triple segmental
disk-and-doughnut, and orifice baffles are not recommended. NITW baffles may be
used as an alternate to RODbaffles where economics are favorable.
12. Tube Type, Size, and Layout
The preferred tube size for shell-and-tube heat exchangers in medium to heavy
tubeside fouling service (.001 hr-ft2 -F/Btu or greater) is 1.00 inch O.D. For light
tubeside fouling services (less than .001 hr- ft2 -F/Btu), 0.750 inch O.D. tubes are
preferred. Generally 30 or 60 degree triangular layouts are preferred for clean,
single-phase services (<.001 hr- ft2 -F/Btu) in which chemical cleaning maybe used.
For medium or heavy fouling services (> .001 hr-ft2 -F/Btu) in which mechanical
cleaning is required, 90 square or 45 rotated square layouts are preferred. Minimum
TEMA tube pitch-to-diameter ratio is 1.25. For kettle and internal reboiler services
and all RODbaffle exchangers, 90 square layout is required.
13. Recommended Material
Tubes: Inhibited Admiralty tubes are strongly recommended for non-chromate
containing, cooling water services where tubewall temperatures range from 145F to
450F. Inhibited Admiralty tubes are also recommended for conventionally treated
cooling water service for tubewall temperature between 165F and 450F. Do not use
admiralty or other copper bearing alloys when cooling tower water may become
contaminated with ammonia or where copper is incompatible with the process fluid.
Carbon steel tubes are recommended for cooling water services where tubewall
temperature is below 165F. Low-chrome steel tubes are recommended for hightemperature, sulfur-bearing streams. Austenitic stainless steel alloys are
2-6

recommended for low temperature services (below - 150F). Monel tubes are
recommended for HF acid-containing streams above 160F, while Titanium tubes are
recommended for brackish and sea water services. Welded, fully killed carbon steel
(ASTM A-214) should be avoided in low pH water soluble hydrocarbons, furfural,
phenol, sulfuric acid, amine service, HF alkylation, and in final overhead crude
tower coolers. Seamless carbon steel tubes (A-179) should be used where welded
tubes are not permitted. Duplex 2205 tubes should be used instead of austenitic
stainless tubes in high chloride services. The table below contains recommended
tube wall thicknesses.

Material

Inch OD

Wall
Thickness

1 Inch OD

Wall
Thickness

Carbon Steel

14 BWG avg wall

.083

12 BWG avg wall

.109

Non-Ferrous
(Inhibited
Admiralty)

16 BWG min wall

.065

14 BWG min wall

.083

Nickel Base Alloy

16 BWG avg wall

.065

14 BWG avg wall

.083

Ferrous Alloy Steel

16 BWG avg wall

.065

14 BWG avg wall

.083

Baffles, Tie Rods, & Spacers : should be constructed of minimum quality material
compatible with tube and tubesheet material.
Tube Sheets: must be compatible with service conditions. In services requiring
welded tube-to-tubesheet joints, strength welds a re preferred over seal welds.
Shell & Channels : must be compatible with service conditions. Specify TEMA A
type heads when access to the tube ends is desirable or when frequent tubeside
cleaning is expected.
Direct question about material suitability should be directed to Engineering
Materials and Services.
14. U-Bend Support
U-tube exchangers having bundle diameters greater than 36 inches should have Ubend tube supports. I designing a new U-tube exchanger, it is preferred to specify a
full support baffle at the U-bend tangent, and avoid flowing through the U-bend
entirely.
15. Nozzles, Impingement Plates, and Annular distributors
Momentum criteria (pv2 ) above whic h shellside impingement plates and annular
distributors and tubeside solid distributor plates should be used are summarized in
Table 4. Impingement rods can be utilized in lieu of a solid impingement plate. Rod

2-7

diameter should be identical to the tube O.D. Perforated impingement plates should
not be used.
B.

Reboiler Thermal Design Practices


1. Reboiler Selection Logic
The choice of reboiler type is governed by thermal performance, fluid properties,
fouling tendencies, and surface area requirements, as shown in the logic diagram
provided in Fig. 2 at the end of this section.
2. Internal or Column Reboilers
Internal reboilers, consisting of multi- tubepass, U-tube bundles, should be used for
relatively-clean, moderate-viscosity fluids, in small surface-area applications, where
periodic column shutdown for cleaning may be tolerated.

Internal Reboiler Recommended Design Practices


Tube Bundle shall be U-Tube Type
Tubes Shall be Oriented on 90 Degree Square Pitch
Minimum Clearance Between Tubes Shall be 0.25 inches
Tube Bundle Diameter Shall Not Exceed 36 Inches
Use Two Bundles Side-by-Side in Column for Large Area Requirements
Limit Design Heat Flux < 0.7 Maximum Heat Flux

2-8

NOZZLES

TABLE 4
FLUID

MAXIMUM (Pv 2 )
(LB/FT 2_SEC2)_

SHELLSIDE
NOZZLES

CLEAN, NONCORROSIVE, NONABRASIVE SINGLEPHASE GAS, VAPOR,


LIQUID

SHELLSIDE
NOZZLES

ALL OTHER LIQUIDS

SHELLSIDE
NOZZLES

TWO-PHASE
MIXTURES,
SATURATED VAPORS,
ALL OTHER GASES
AND VAPORS

IMPINGEMENT PLATE
OR ANNULAR
DISTRIBUTOR

BUNDLE/SHELL
ENTRANCE & EXIT

ALL FLUIDS

4000

TUBESIDE

CLEAN, NONCORROSIVE
NON-ABRASIVE
LIQUIDS

6000

TUBESIDE

TWO-PHASE
MIXTURES,
SATURATED VAPORS,
ALL OTHER GASES
AND VAPORS

AXIAL NOZZLES WITH


PERFORATED
DISTRIBUTOR PLATES

2-9

1500

500

3. Kettle Reboilers
Kettle reboilers consisting of multiple tubepass, U-tube bundles, installed inside
enlarged TEMA K type shells, are preferred for medium viscosity fluids in
moderately heavy fouling services, where large surface areas are required.

Kettle Reboiler Recommended Design Practices


Tubes Shall be on 90 Degree Square Pitch
Tube Pitch Depends on Temperature Difference
Temperature
Tube Pitch (inch)
Difference
O.D. Tube
1 O.D. Tube
<35F
1.000
1.250
<60F
1.125
1.375
>60F
1.250
1.500
Shell Diameter (D s) > 1.6 Bundle Diameter (Db)
Kettle diameter should be sized for desired liquid entrainment ratio
Column Liquid Height (Hd) > Bundle Diameter, (Db )
Weir height (Wh ) > Bundle Diameter (Db )
Use Two Feed & Return Lines for Boiling Range Tbr>100F
Use Two Feed & Return Lines for Bundle lengths>12 feet
Limit Design Heat Flux < 0.7 Maximum Heat Flux
Limit Mixture Wall-to-Bulk Fluid Twb < Half Boiling
Range Tbr
Use RODbaffle Bundles if Tube Vibration Likely
Use Small Diameter, Long Tube Length Bundle when practical

4. Vertical Thermosiphon Reboilers


Vertical thermosiphon reboilers, consisting of single-tubepass, single-shellpass,
TEMA E shells and having upflow boiling on the tubeside, should be used for
moderate-fouling low viscosity (M< 50 cP), Wide boiling- range ( Tbr > 100F)
mixtures, at above atmospheric pressures, where moderate surface areas are required.
Vertical Thermosiphon Reboiler Recommended Design Practices
Single-Tubepass, Single-Shellpass, Fixed Tubepass Exchanger
Design Exit Weight Fractions Vapor range from 0.10 to 0.15 for Hydrocarbons
Maximum Exit Weight Fraction Vapor less than 0.30 for Hydrocarbons
Suited for Wide Boiling Range ( Tb > 100F), low Viscosity (M< 50cP) Fluids
Liquid Driving Head (Hd ) = 60 to 100% of Tube Length (Lt )
Liquid Sensible Heating Zone Length (Lsh ) < 25% of Tube Length (Lt )
Exit Pipe Flow area (Apo ) ~ (Total Tubeside flow area (At )
Inlet Pipe Flow area (Api) 25% of total tubeside Flow Area (At )
Exit Line Pressure Drop ( Po ) equal to 30% of total Hydrostatic Head ( Ph )
Use Sweep and Long Radius Elbows in Two-Phase Exit Lines
2-10

Limit Design Heat Flux < 70% of Maximum Nucleate Boiling Heat Flux Pr < 0.2
Consider inlet tubeside distribution baffles for cases where two-phase process
streams enter exchanger

5. Horizontal Thermosiphon Reboilers


Horizontal thermosiphon reboilers, consisting of multiple-tubepass, U-tube or
floating- head RODbaffle bundles, in either TEMA J,G or H shells, should be
considered for viscous fluids, in moderate fouling service, where larger surface areas
are required.
Horizontal Thermosiphon Reboiler Recommended Design Practices
Multiple-Tubepass, U- Tube or Floating Head Design
Use TEMA H Shell Configuration for Tube Length (Lt )>12 feet
Column Liquid Driving Heat (H d) > Bundle Diameter (Db)
Design Exit Weight Fraction Vapor 0.10 to 0.20 for Hydrocarbons
Maximum Exit Weight Fraction vapor <0.30 for Hydrocarbons
Limit Design Heat Flux < 0.7 Maximum Nucleate Boiling Heat Flux
Tube Diameter-to-Pitch (Dt /Pt ) Ratios same as Kettle Reboilers
Exit Line Pressure Drop ( Po ) < 0.3 Total Hydrostatic Head ( Ph )
Use Sweeps and Long Radius Elbows in Two-Phase Exit Piping
5. Forced Circulation Reboilers
Forced circulation reboilers, having vaporization on the tubeside, are recommended
for highly viscous fluids in heavy fo uling service, where large surface areas and low
exit weight fraction vapor are required.
Forced Circulation Reboiler Recommended Design Practices
Used for Highly Viscous, Heavy Fouling Fluid Services
Vertical Tubeside Vaporization Preferred
Entering Liquid Velocities of 5 to 7 fps
Design Exit Weight Fraction Vapor from 0.05 to 0.10
Bubble Flow, Two-Phase Flow Regime Preferred
Avoid Slug and Stratified Flow in Horizontal Tubeside Reboilers
C.

Process Condenser Thermal Design Practices


The major choices to be made in the selection of shell-and-tube condensers used in
the petrochemical industry are between shellside and tubeside condensation and
between horizontal and vertical orientation.
1. Condenser Selection Logic
Process condenser selection should be go verned by thermal performance, allowable
pressure loses, operational pressure, condensing temperature range, condensing
medium corrosiveness, mechanical cleaning considerations, and integral condensate
2-11

subcooling requirements, as shown in the logic diagram Fig. 3 at the end of this
section.
2. Horizontal Shellside condensers
Horizontal TEMA E shellside condensers are preferred for noncorrosive, low
pressure and vacuum service, where the single-phase tubeside cooling medium must
be placed in on the tubeside because of high fouling deposition. In low shellside
pressure loss services, TEMA J Shell, divided- flow, condensers containing
RODbaffle bundles are preferred. TEMA G shell condensers may be considered in
cases where temperature pinch problems occur in E or J type shell. H and K type
shells are not recommended for use in horizontal condensers..

Horizontal Shellside Condenser Recommended Design Practices


Use for Noncorrosive, Low Pressure and Vacuum Service
Use when Frequent Mechanical cleaning is required
Limit Shellside Pressure Loss to less than 10% of Inlet Pressure
Evaluate Effects of Shellside p on MTD for Mixtures
Use TEMA E Shell if Shellside p Permits
Use Multiple E Shells in Series if Temperature Pinch Predicated
Use TEMA J Shell with RODbaffle Bundles for Low Pressure Service
Shell and Baffle Type Governed by Following Shellside p :
Single Segmental E Shell: p s = 10-20 psi
Double Segmental E Shell: p s = 5-10 psi
RODbaffle J Shell:
p s = 1-5 psi
Design condenser for Shear Flow Regime
Use Vertical Baffle Cuts With Drainage Notches
Vary Baffle Spacing at Exit To Achieve Shear Flow
Design Outlet Nozzles to Avoid Shellside Condensate Flooding
Use Separate Exchanger for Condensate Subcooling

3. Vertical Shellside Condensers


Vertical TEMA E Shell downflow shellside condensers are preferred for
noncorrosive, low-to-moderate pressure services, where two-phase upflow
boiling is occurring on the tubeside.

Vertical Shellside Condenser Recommended Design Practices


Use for Noncorrosive, Low-to-Moderate Pressure Services
Use with Two-Phase Boiling on Tubeside
Use for Close Approach Temperatures
Preferred for Vertical Thermosiphon Reboilers and Feed-Effluent Exchangers
Design for Downflow Condensation and Upflow Boiling
Limited to Single Shellpass, TEMA E Shells

2-12

Double Segmental Plate Baffles and RODbaffles Preferred

4. Horizontal Tubeside Condensers


Horizontal tubeside condensers are preferred for kettle and horizontal shellside
thermosiphon reboilers and in corrosive services where the condensing medium
requires special metallurgy. Multiple tubepass tubeside condensers should be
avoided because of potential liquid-dropout and inerts accumulation in floating head
channels.
Horizontal Tubeside condenser Recommended Design Practices
Use in Kettle and horizontal Thermosiphon Reboiler service
Preferred when Condensing Medium Requires Special Metallurgy
Limited to Single Tubepass and Two Tubepass U-Tube Designs
Do Not Design as Multiple Tubepass, Floating Head Unit
Design for Operation in Shear-Controlled Flow Regime

5. Vertical Tubeside Condensers


Vertical TEMA E shell downflow tubeside condensers are preferred for high
pressure, wide condensing range, corrosive fluids, where single-phase fluids are used
as cooling medium.
Vertical Tubeside Condenser Recommended Design Practices
Preferred for High Pressure, Corrosive Condensing Media
Use with Single-Phase Cooling Medium
Design as Single Tubepass TEMA E Shell Configuration
Consider when Inerts Removal is Critical
Consider for Wide Condensing- Range Fluids

2-13

D.

Heat Transfer Units conversions

LENGTH

AREA

VOLUME

MASS
FORCE

BY
0.039370
3.2808
0.083333

TO OBTAIN
in
ft
ft

SPECIFIC
HEAT

in
ft
ft

25.400
12.000
0.30480

mm
in
m

THERMAL
W/m C
0.57779
CONDUCTIVITY cals/s cm C 241.91
Btu/hr ft2F/in 0.083333

m2
cm2
in 2

10.764
0.15500
0.0069444

ft 2
in 2
ft 2

m2 / m
ft 2 /ft
ft 2

3.2808
0.30480
0.092903

ft 2/ ft
m2 / m
m2

m3
In 3
ft 3
gal

35.315
0.00057870
0.028317
0.13368

ft 3
ft 3
m3
ft 3

gal (IMP)
litter
kg
lb
N
kp
lbf
kp

1.2009
0.26417
2.2046
0.45359
0.22481
2.2046
32.1740
9.80665

PRESSURE Pa
kPa
kPa
kp/m2

in of water
in of water
lbf/in 2
in of water

0.09370
0.24864
0.036063
0.0024539

in of water
kPa
lbf/in 2
atmospheres

3.2808
3.2808

ft/s
ft/min

mi/hr
ft/s
ft/min

1.4667
0.30480
0.016667

ft/s
m/s
ft/s

kg/s

7936.6

lb/hr

kg/hr

2,2046

lb/hr

VELOCITY m/s
m/min

MASS

DYNAMIC
VISCOSITY

gal (US)
gal (US)
gal
kg
lbf
lbf
lb ft/s 2
N

0.0040218
4.0218
0.14504
0.039441

mm of water
in of water
in of water
in of water

MASS
FLOW

Table 5

MULTIPLY
mm
m
in

KIMEMATIC
VISCOSITY
ENERGY

POWER

HEAT FLUX

THERMAL

2-14

MULTIPLY BY
kj/kg C
0.23885
kcal/kg C
1.0000
Btu/lg F
4.1868

TO OBTAIN
Btu/lb F
Btu/lb F
kj/kg C
Btu/hr ft F
Btu/hr ft F
Btu/hr ft F

Btu/hr ft F
kcal/hr m C
W/cm C

1.7307
0.67197
57.779

W/m C
Btu/hr ft F
Btu/hr ft F

Pa s
cP
kg/hr m

2419.1
2.4191
0.67197

lb/hr ft
lb/hr ft
lb/hr ft

lb/s ft
lbf s/ft 2
lb/hr
lb/hr ft

3600.0
115827.0
0.00041338
0.41388

lb/hr ft
lb/hr ft
Pa s
cP

m2 /s
cSt
m2 /s
kj
KWhr
kcal
ft lbf
hp hr

38750.0
0.038750
10000.0
0.94782
3412.1
3.9683
0.0012851
2544.4

ft 2 /hr
ft /hr
Stokes
Btu
Btu
Btu
Btu
Btu

Btu
Btu
Btu
J

1.0551
0.0002931
0.25200
0.00027778

kj
kWhr
k cal
W hr

W
kcal/hr
ft lbf/hr
Hp

3.4121
3.9683
0.0012851
2544.4

Btu/hr
Btu/hr
Btu/hr
Btu/hr

Btu/hr
Btu/hr

0.29307
0.25200

W
kcal/hr

W/m2
Kcal/hr m2
W/cm2

0.31700
0.36867
3170.0

Btu/hr ft 2
Btu/hr ft 2
Btu/hr ft 2

Cal/s cm2
Btu/hr ft 2
Btu/hr ft 2

13272.0
3.1546
2.7125

Btu/hr ft 2
W/m2
kcal/hr m2

m2 C/W

5.6783

hr ft 2 F/Bt

FLOW
VOLUME
FLOW

MULTIPLY BY
lb/s
3600.0
lb/hr
0.45359
m3 /s
ft 3 /s
ft 3/ min

MASS
kg/s m2
VELOCITY kg/hr m2
lb/s ft 2
DENSITY

TO OBTAIN
lb/hr
kg/hr

RESISTANCE

2118.9
ft 3 /min
60.000
ft 3 /min
0.00047195 m3 /s

MULTIPLY BY
hr m2 C/kj
20.442
hr m2 C/kcal 4.8824

TO OBTAIN
hr ft 2 F/Bt
hr ft 2 F/Bt

s cm2 C/kcal
Cm2 C/W
hr ft 2 F/Btu

0.00013562 hr ft 2 F/Bt
0.00056783 hr ft 2 F/Bt
0.17611
m2 C/W
0.20482
0.17611
0.048919

hr m2 C/W
Btu/hr ft 2 F
Btu/hr ft 2 F

737.34
020482
3600.0

lb/hr ft 2
lb/hr ft 2
lb/hr ft 2

HEAT
TRANSFER

hr ft 2 F/Btu
W/m2 C
kj/hr m2 C

lb/hr ft 2

4.8824

kg/hr m2

COEFFICIENT

kcal/hr m2 C

0.20482

Btu/hr ft 2 F

kg/m3
g/cm3
lb/in 3
lb/ft 3

0.062428
62.428
1728.0
16.018

lb/ft 3
lb/ft 3
lb/ft 3
kg/m3

cal/s cm2 C
W/cm2 C
Btu/hr ft 2 F
Btu/hr ft 2

7373.4
1761.1
5.6783
4.8824

Btu/hr ft 2 F
Btu/hr ft 2 F
W/m2 C
kcal/hr m2 C

TEMPERATURE
1.8c + 32 = F
(f-32)/1.8 = C
C + 273.15 = K
F + 459.69 = R

METRIC EQUIVALENTS
Pa = w/m2 = kg/s 2 m
N = kg m/s 2
J = Ws
Liter = dm3
Kp = kgt

2-15

E.

Heat Exchangers (General)


1. Heat Exchanger Area Approx.

Area = [Heat Duty, Btu/hr]/[U.LMTD]


Where: U = heat transfer coeff.
(GPSA typical Us Heat Exch.)

2. Limit temperature approach in gas to gas exchanger to 20 F.


3. For preliminary design for cooling water systems, use a cooling water temperature
rise of 15 to 20 F through the heat exchangers. In most cases a process stream
temperature approach of 10 F to the cold water to the exchanger is reasonable.
4. If flow through the exchanger is not countercurrent, hot fluid outlet temperature
should be greater than cold fluid outlet temperature.
5. For exchangers of 200 ft 2 and less, consider compact heat exchangers.
F.

Condensers
1. Be aware when condensing pure components such as propane that the limiting
temperature occurs when the desuperheating stops and condensing starts.
2. For water cooling, try to cool no further than a 10 F approach to the warm cooling
water leaving the condenser. Use 4 to 8 ft/sec velocity for water through the tubes.
Restrict cooling water return temperature to maximum of 125 F.

G.

3. For water cooled propane condenser design, generally use 10 F temperature rise on
cooling water through the exchanger.
Reboilers and Chillers
1. Many failures occur because the pressure on the condensate return header is higher
than the low pressure steam at the reboiler.
2. About 50 F delta T is all that can profitably be used. Limit the approach
temperature of the gas to the refrigerant in gas chillers to 10 F. Less than 10 F delta
T requires excess exchanger surface area.
3. Usually design reboilers for a conservative heat flux of 8,000 to 12,000 BTU/ft2 and
reduce pressure of steam to prevent film boiling.
4. Submergence of Bundle Level generally controlled at top of bundle.
5. For thermosiphon and side reboiler designs for demethanizer columns, limit the
vaporization of the reboiler liquid stream to a maximum of about 35% by volume.

2-16

H.

Attempting to vaporize more fluid may result in problems with the thermosiphon
flow.
Sizing Plate Heat Exchangers
A method for calculating plate heat exchangers is presented in Plate-Type Heat
Exchangers by F. J. Lowry, Chem. Eng., 66, 89-94, June 29, 1959. Generally,
accurate sizing of [late heat exchangers must be done by the manufacturer.

I.

Brazed Aluminum Plate Heat Exchangers


1. For aluminum plate fin reboilers, methanol may tend to accumulate in the reboiler
and eventually log off the exchanger limiting thermosiphon flow. It can usually be
cleared if a drain is provided on the lower header of the exchanger.
2. Mercury occurring naturally in some natural gas steams is extremely corrosive to
aluminum heat exchangers used extensively in LNG plant processes. Plan to check
for mercury in feed gas up front in any project.
3. For Aluminum Plate Fin Core- in-Shell evaporator heat exchange design use a 2 to 4
degree temperature approach to shell side evaporating fluid temperature. Use a
maximum evaporation of 25% of the thermosiphon circulated fluid in the evaporator
when preparing preliminary core specifications.

J.

Air Fin Heat Exchangers


1. All air coolers should be designed in accordance with API 661.
2. Normally design for 40 F approach to inlet air temperature if no cooling water used
(20 F Minimum).
3. Forced draft units are preferred over over induced draft units.
4. For preliminary estimates assume 4 rows of tubes. Estimate power requirements at 3
HP/MMBTU/hr for fans for face velocity of air to the coil of 450 to 550 ft/min.
5. Limit tip speed of fans:
< 9 feet in diameter to 12,000 ft/min (FPM)
>9 feet in diameter to 11,000 ft/min.
6. Hot air recirculation can be a problem, especially in hot weather. Consider air
recirculation when locating air Cooled Exchangers.
Locate coolers away from taller buildings or structures, especially downwind
of the cooler.
Do not locate coolers downwind of other heat generating equipment: i.e.
furnaces, boilers, etc.

2-17

K.

Mount coolers high enough from the ground to avoid high inlet air approach
velocities. Consider mounting them on pipe lanes or provide at lease a fan
diameter clearance between the ground and the plenum.
Locate large banks of coolers with the banks long axis perpendicular to the
prevailing summer wind direction.
Do not mix forced and induc ed draft coolers in close proximity and do not
locate coolers of different heights in close proximity.
Fired Heaters
1. Maximum recommended heat flux for a direct fired Triethylene Glycol regenerator
in a TEG Dehydration Unit is 8000 BTU/ft2 of fire tube surface area. The
recommended heat flux for maximum fire tube life is 6000 BTU/ft2 .
2. For most process heaters, assume a thermal efficiency of 75 to 80% when calculating
fuel requirements.
Where: % Thermal Efficiency = (Heat Transferred/Heat Released)*100.
3. Organic Heat Transfer Fluids
A. Fired heaters for organic heat transfer fluids are usually designed with average
radiant heat fluxes ranging from 5000 to 12,000 BTU/hr-sq ft. Actual allowable
heat flux is usually limited by fluid maximum allowable film temperature. Film
temperature is dependent on:
a. Maximum fluid bulk temperature
b. Velocity of the fluid across the heat transfer surface
c. Uniformity of heat distribution in the furnace
d. Heat transfer properties of the heat transfer fluid
B. If too high film temperature results, too much fluid is vaporized and the heat
transfer surface is blanketed with vapors. The heat transfer coefficient is rapidly
reduced and dangerously high surface temperatures can develop resulting severe
fluid degradation and mechanical fa ilure.

L.

C.

High surface temperatures may also cause the fluid to carbonize forming carbon
scale on the heat transfer surface which may lead to over heating and tube metal
failure.

D.

All other things being equal, any organic heat transfer fluid degrades in
proportion to its temperature. Operation at approximately 100 F below vendors
maximum recommended bulk fluid operation temperature may extend the life of
the fluid by 10 times.

Cooling Towers

2-18

1. The evaporation rate on a cooling tower is dependent on the amount of water being
cooled and the temperature differential. For each 10 F temperature drop across the
tower, 1% of the recirculation rate is evaporated. In other words, 0.001 times the
circulation rate in gpm times the temperature drop equals the evaporation rate in
gpm.
2. Windage losses for cooling towers:
Spray ponds 1.0 to 5.0% of circulation
Atmospheric Cooling Towers 0.3 to 1.0% of circulation
Forced Draft Cooling Towers 0.1 to 0.3% of circulation
Evaporation Losses for Cooling Towers:
Evaporation Losses are usually 0.85 to 1.25% of the tower circulation rate. An
evaporation loss of 1% of tower circulation per each 10 degrees F temperature drop
across the tower can be assumed for estimating purposes.
3. Cooling Water System Feasibility Design:
Feasibility designs for cooling water systems may be completed by setting the water
temperature rise across all exchangers, usually 15 to 20 F rise, (or at a 10 F
approach to the process outlet temperature if the assumed rise results in a
temperature cross for some exchanger), and setting the inlet water temperature to the
exchangers to the site wet bulb temperature plus 8 F.
4. Cooling Water System Fluid Flow and Piping:
For preliminary sizing branch offs with different flowrates from the main header, the
following rule of thumb equations may be used.
D2 = Summation di2
qi/di2 = Q/D2
M.

where: Q and qi are volumetric flowrates through


the header and branch i, and D and di
are the diameters of the header and branch
i. Round to nearest standard size.

Insulation
1.

For estimating insulation thickness:


Thickness = {3 +[(T - 100)]} Truncated / 2
Thickness inches
T (Process Temperature) F

2. Typical thermal conductivities for insulating materials


The first table below contains recommended insulation conductivities for insulating
materials. The second table contain conductivities for various materials.

2-19

Representative Conductivities of Pipe Insulation (Btu/hrftF)


Insulation temperature
300 F
400 F
(149 C)
(204 C)

100 F
38 C

200 F
(93 C)

calcium
silicate

0.033

0.037

0.041

cellular glass

0.039

0.047

0.055

fiberglass

0.026

0.030

0.034

magnesia,
85%

0.034

0.037

0.041

Polyurethane

0.016

0.016

0.016

500 F
(260 C)

600 F
(316 C)

0.046

0.057

0.060

0.064

0.074

0.085

0.044

(Multiply Btu-ft/hr-ft 2 - F by 12 to get Btu in/hr-ft 2 - F.)


(Multiply Btu-ft/hr-ft 2 - F by 1.7307 to get W / mK.)
(Multiply Btu-ft/hr-ft 2 - F by 4.1365 x 10-3 to get calcm/scm2 C.)

Material
Asbestos-cement boards
Asbestos
Kaolin brick
Kaolin firebrick
Petroleum coke
Molded pipe covering
Mica
Aluminum
Iron
Steel
N.

Thermal Conductivity
Btu/hr- ft-F
0.43
0.090-0.129
0.15-0.26
0.050-0.113
3.4
0.051
0.25
117
30
26

NGL Expander Plants


1.

For thermosiphon reboiler and side reboiler designs for demethanizer columns, limit
the vaporization of the reboiled liquid stream to a maximum of about 35% by
volume. Attempting to vaporize more fluid may result in problems with
thermosiphon flow.

2-20

2.

O.

For aluminum plate fin reboilers, methanol may tend to accumulate in the reboiler
and eventually log off the exchanger limiting thermosiphon flow. It can usually be
cleared if a drain is provided on the lower header of the exchanger.

Miscellaneous Plant Systems


1.

Cooling Water Systems For Preliminary design for cooling water systems, use a
cooling water temperature rise of 15 to 20 F through the heat exchangers. In most
cases a process stream temperature approach of 10 F to the cold water to the
exchanger is reasonable.

2.

For Aluminum Plate Fin Core in Shell evaporator heat exchanger design use a 2 to
4 degree temperature approach to shell side evaporating fluid temperature. Use a
maximum evaporation of 25% of the thermosiphon circulated fluid in the
evaporator when preparing preliminary core specifications.

3.

Wind Chill & Tw = 33-[(10.45+10 V ) (33-T)]/32


Heat Loss
H = (10.45+10 V V)(33-T)
Where: Tw = Wind chill temp. C
T = actual temp.
V = wind speed in meters/sec.
H = heat loss in kcal/m2 -hr.

4.

Heat Transfer From Pipes

2-21

2-22

5.

Typical material emissivities for radiation heat transfer problems


Material
Aluminum
Iron

Steel

Brick
Refractory
Paint

Polished
Oxidized
Polished
Polished cast
New cast
Rusted
Polished
Oxidized
Rough plate
Poor
Good
Black matte
Black lacquer
White lacquer
Aluminum

2-23

Emissivity
0.040
0.11-0.19
0.14-0.38
0.21
0.435
0.685
0.52-0.56
0.79
0.94-0.97
0.93
0.65-0.75
0.80-0.90
0.91
0.80-0.95
0.80-0.95
0.27-0.67

P.
Method For Feasibility Study Sizing of Gas Plant Gas/Gas shell & Tube Heat
Exchanger:
1. From the process simulator output for the process, determine the required UA rate
for the gas/gas exchanger.
Assume U = 60 BTU/Hr Ft F
A = UA = UA
U
60
Assume a 20 ft long exchanger with OD tubes on a 15 /16 triangular pitch.
Go to a Tube Count Table and read the number of tubes required for the Area A and
unit diameter and/or number of units.
You now have a feasibility estimate which includes:
1. Exchanger Area (Ft2 )
2. Number of tubes
3. Unit length, diameter, and number of units.

2-24

Start
Surface
A>150 ft2

Yes

Q Recovery
@ T > 1000F

No
No
Q Removed
@ T> 140F

No

Yes

Yes

Exotic
Alloy

Yes

Q Recovery
Economical

Yes

Yes
No
Close dT
Approach

T > 350F
P > 200 psi

Yes

No

No

Yes

Double
pipe
Exchanger

No

RODBaffle
Exchanger

Vibration
Low dP

No

Plate
Baffle
Exchanger

Figure 1
Heat Exchanger Selection

2-25

PlateFrame
Exchanger

Air
Finned
Exchanger

Heavy Duty
Finned
Surface

Start
Fouling
Service

Extent
of Fouling

Low to
Moderately
Heavy

Very
Heavy

Viscosity
Low To
Moderately
High
Very
High

Pressure

Less Than
Atmospheric

Kettle
Reboiler
(Finned Tubes)
Pump-Through
Reboiler

Relatively
Clean
Service

Fluid Fouling
Characteristics

Pump-Through
Reboiler
(Critical
Operations)

Area
Required

Greater Than
Atmospheric

Small To
Moderate

Vertical
Thermosyphon
Horizontal
Thermosyphon

Pump-Through
Reboiler

Kettle
Reboiler
(Finned Tubes)

Figure 2
Reboiler Selection

2-26

Internal
Reboiler
Vertical
Thermosyphon

Large

Kettle
Reboiler
Horizontal
Thermosyphon

Start
Corrosive
High
Pressure

Yes

No
Mechanical
Cleaning Tubeside
Coolant

Yes

Change Design
To Reduce
Condensing dP

Yes

Very
Low
Allowable
Condensing
dP

Use Large
Diameter
Tubes

Yes

Large
Condensing
Range

No

Yes
Boiling
Coolant

Yes
Yes

No

No
Yes

Internal/
Kettle
Reboiler

No

Yes

Vertical
E Shell

Shear
Control
At Exit

Yes

Yes

Large
Subcooling

Yes
No

Shellside Condensers
Horizontal
E Shell

No

No

No

No

Low
Medium

Temperature
Cross

(dP/P) > 0.1

Allowable
Condensate dP

Very
Low

Low

Large
Subcooling

No

Yes

Med-High

Bioling
Coolant

ShellSide
Condensation
Required

No

Horizontal
J Shell
RODBaffle

Tubeside Condensers
Horizontal
RODBaffle
J Shell

Vetical Downflow
Single Pass

Figure 3
Condenser Selection

2-27

Horizontal
Single Pass
or U Tube

HEAT TRANSFER REFERENCES


Kern, D. Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 1950
Tabork, J. et. al, Heat Exchangers, Theory & Practice, McGraw-Hill, 1981
Phillips Eng. Std. 10.44-2, Shell & Tube Process Design Criteria
Phillips Eng. Std. 10-44-3, Reboiler Characteristics & Selection
Phillips Eng. Std. 15.18-4, Shell & Tube Mechanical Design Criteria
Phillips Eng. Std. 15.18-5, RODbaffle Heat Exchanger Specifications
Phillips Engineering Standard 15.18-2, Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design Criteria
Phillips Engineering Standard 25.04-85, General Design, shell and Tube Heat Exchangers,
Mechanical Fabrication Requirements
Phillips Engineering Standard 25.04-89, Heater-Fired-Mechanical Design Specifications
Perry, R. H., Chemical Engineers Handbook, Section 11, 4th Ed. 1963
HTRI Design Manuals, Vol. I & II.
Premises for Design & Specification of Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers, 1992
Gas Processors Suppliers Association Engineering Data Book, Tenth Edition, 1987; Volume I,
Sections 8, 9, & 10
Standards of the Tabular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Seventh Edition, 1988
API Standard 660, Fifth Edition (to be issued in 1993), Shell- And-Tube Head Exchanger for
General Refinery Services
API Standard 661, Third Edition, April 1992, Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger for General Refinery
Services
Quick Calculation of Cooling Tower Blowdown and Makeup, Chemical Engineering, July 7,
1975, pg 110
Designing a Near Optimum Cooling- Water System, Chemical Engineering, April 21, 1980pg 118-125)
Guidelines on Fluid Flow systems, Hydrocarbon Processing, April, 1990. Pg 47-60

2-28

HEAT TRANSFER REFERENCES (CONTINUED)


The Randall Corporation process group used this method for preliminary estimates and reports
close match to their final design
Organic Fluids for High Temperature Heat-Transfer Systems W. F. Seifert, and L. L. Jackson,
Chemical Engineering, October 30, 1972, pg 95-104

2-29

3
A.

TREATING

Dehydration
1. Dehydrate gas to 60% of the saturation water content at the conditions of lowest
saturation.
Sulfur Recovery Units
A. Thermal zone will produce 55-65% of the sulfur and is a function of the H2 S
content of the feed. Catalytic region makes the rest.
B. If the acid gas feed is less than 30% H2 S then flame stability in the reaction
furnace is a potential problem. Minimum temperature for effective operation is
1700 F.
C. Temperature in catalyst beds should be kept below 800 F.
D. SRU steam production will be approximately 6700 lbs of steam per long ton of
sulfur produced.
E. Glossy carbon deposits on catalyst indicates amine carryover.
F. Sulfur fog is caused by too much cooling capacity. Sulfur mist can be caused by
excessive velocity in the condenser.
G. Ferrules should extend at least 6 inside the tubesheet. Refractory lining is
usually 2 12 - 3" thick on the tubesheet.
H. Mass velocity in waste heat exchanger and sulfur condenser tubes should be 2-6
lbs/sec-ft2 .
I. Space velocity through catalyst beds should be 700-1000 SCFH of gas per cubic
foot of catalyst. Lean streams, lower value and rich streams, higher value.
J. Sulfation of catalyst caused by SO3 . Oxygen combines with SO2 to form SO3
which is chemisorbed on alumina surface.
K. Velocity in process piping should not exceed 100 ft/sec.
L. Liquid sulfur solidifies at 246 F and becomes very viscous above 320-350 F
M. Approximate Stack Gas Flow, scfm:
SGF = (Sulfur Production, LT/D) x (100)
2. Glycol Dehydration

3-1

a. TEG Dew point depression ranges 80-140 F. Degree of dehydration which can
be obtained depends on amount of water removed from glycol in the reboiler &
circulation rate. Minimum circulation rate to assure good glycol gas contact is
approx. 2 gal. glycol for each pound of water to be removed. Max is 7 gal. and
standard is 3 gal.
b. Stripping Gas-Approx. 3-8 scf/gas of glycol circ.
c. Glycol will absorb 1 scf of gas/gallon of glycol. Glycol contactor For best
scrubbing of overhead gas install Mist Pad on the face of Vane Type mist
extractor.
d. Estimate total reboiler duty from 2000 BTU/US gal of TEG circulation rate. Note
that the use of glycol/glycol heat exchangers will reduce the total reboiler duty.
e. Estimate glycol loss from 0.1 gal TEG/MMSCF.
f. Packing-Minimum of 4 in any gas-glycol contactor.
g. Triethylene Glycol Dehydration Unit-Maximum recommended heat flux for a
direct fired TEG regenerator is 8000 BTU/square foot of fire tube surface area.
The recommended heat flux for maximum fire tube life is 6000 BTU/ft2 .
3. Trouble shooting

B.

Black, viscous solution indicates that heavy hydrocarbons have been carried over
with the gas. Sweet, burnt sugar smell accompanied by low pH and a dark, clear
solution signals that thermal degradation is occurring.
Amine Treating
1. Amine Circulation: 3 cu.ft acid gas/gal amine
Reboiler Steam Rate: 1.2 lbs steam/gal amine
MEA gpm = 41.0 * Q*X/Z
DEA gpm = 45.0 * Q*X/Z (conventional)
DEA gpm = 32.0 * Q*X/Z (high load)
Where Q = Gas, MMscfd
X = Acid Gas, volume percent
Z = Amine Concentration, wt.%
2. Max acid gas pickup not more than 0.35 mols/mol of MEA. Normal value around
0.3.
3. Amine treating processes tend to be troubled by the same problems regardless of the
type amine used.

3-2

4. Typical MEA losses due to entrainment:


Absorber: 1.0 #/mmscf
Still: 2.5 #/mmscf
5. Flow Velocity Rich Stream: Not to Exceed 5 fps
Lean Stream: Not to Exceed 7 fps
6. Filter Beds: Recommended flow rate through carbon bed
4 gpm/ft2 (cross sectional area)
20 minutes superficial contact time
7. Loadings: .36 mols CO2/mol MEA [absorber RICH]
.12 mols C02/mol MEA [still LEAN]
8. Reflux Ratio: MEA & DEA 1.5 to 3.0
[mols H20/mols acid gas leaving reflux drum]
9. Equivalent Steam Rate:
MEA 0.9 to 1.2 lbs steam/gal amine
DEA 0.8 to 1.1 lbs steam/gal amine
10. Lean amine can contain 0.05 to 0.08 mols total acid gas and still meet specs.
11. CO2 and H2S gases appreciably increase total water content and dehydration
requirements of gas streams.
12. Recommended maximum ranges for amine strength and acid gas loadings that have
proven historically to adequately address corrosion concerns are:
Amine
MEA
DEA
MDEA

Wt%
15 - 20
25 30
50 55

Rich Loading, M/M


0.30 0.35
0.35 0.40
0.45 0.50

13. Recommended loading in the lean circuit to minimize acid gas flashing are:
Amine
MEA
DEA
MDEA

* Total Lean Loading, M/M


0.10 0.15
0.05 0.07
0.004 0.010

* These loadings should be easily achieved with a 1.0-2.0 M/M stripper reflux ratio.
14. Recommended Minimum Water Quality Standards for Make- up Water fo r Amine
Plants:

3-3

Total Dissolved Solids


Total Hardness
Chlorides
Sodium
Potassium
Iron

<100 ppm
<3 grains/gal
<2 ppm
<3 ppm
<3 ppm
<10 ppm

15. Liquid/Liquid Contactors: (Feasibility Sizing Data)


For rough diameter sizing of liquid/liquid contactors fo r amine treating of light
hydrocarbon liquids, use 12 to 15 GPM of hydrocarbon per square foot of packed
tower cross section area. This should correspond to approximately 10% of flooding
velocity.
For hydrocarbon distributor nozzles for liquid/liquid contactors, use an orifice
velocity of approximately 1 ft/sec. Higher velocities than this can lead to emulsion
problems. Velocities lower than 0.5 ft/sec can result in NGL being entrained in the
sour amine stream.
To estimate height of packing required, assume 6 to 8 ft of packing for each
theoretical separation stage.
Mercaptan Removal from Gas
MEA & DEA will remove approx.:
40-55 mol% methylmercaptan
20-25 mol% ethylmercaptan
0 10 mol% propylmercaptan
Regenerative Caustic process will remove mercaptans down to <10 ppm.

C.

Activated Carbon, Calgon FCA, will remove 4-5 wt% mercaptans.


Mol Sieve Treating
1. Bed Design (Length/Diameter)
Minimum
Liquid L/D
3:1
Gas L/D
2:1

Maximum
5:1
4:1

2. Max. Gas Velocity: 0.33 to 0.75 ft/sec


(superficial linear velocity)
3. Max. Liquid Velocity: 50 bbls/hr/ft 2 (bed area)
Dehy-ALCOA: 30 gpm/ft 2 ( 43 bbl/hr/ft 2 )

3-4

4. Min. Velocity: Liquid: 60 sec contact time, or


0.01 psi/ft p (liquid).
Gas: 3.5 sec (gas)
5. Mol Sieve Draining bed leaves approx. 25 vol% of total bed volume on bed as
sponged liquid.
6. Alumina Draining bed leaves approx. 0.048 gals. per pound of alumina on bed as
sponged liquid.

D.

7. Molecular Sieve Dehydrators As strictly a rule of thumb based on many Phillips


designs, when the pressure drop through a mol sieve bed reaches 20 psi, the bed
support is nearing its maximum load capacity and action should be taken to reduce
the pressure drop.
Corrosion
1.

C02 Corrosion: Low Corrosion Pco2 < 7 psia


Possible High Corrosion - Pco2 7-15 psia
High Corrosion Pco2 > 15 psia
Where: Pco2 = Partial Pressure of C02

E.

2. Corrosion rate directly related to temperature.


Copper Strip

F.

Copper Strip Test ASTM 5.05 D1838


No. 1A copper strip normally < 1-2 ppm H2S.
H2S corrosive to copper strip 1ppm or .16 gr/100 scf. Copper
Strip will not detect Mercaptan or other Organic Sulfides.
Conversion Factors

G.

H2S & C02 factors


1 mol% H2S = 630 grains/100 scf
1 mol% C02 = 813 grains/100 scf
Grains of H2S/100 scf x 1.591 x 10 = Mol% H2S
1 MMscf H2S = 37.6 long tons sulfur
1 grain H2S/100 scf = 17.1 ppmw = 22.8 mg/m
1 grain H2S/100 scf = 15.9 ppmv
1 grain C02/100 scf = 12.3 ppmv
H2S ppmw = [gr. H2S/100 scf] x [542/(mol wt gas)]
Caustic Washer Design

H.

Vertical washers sized by using a factor of 400-500 gal/hr/sq.ft. of cross-sectional area of


empty tower. In the tower, 5-7 ft. of raschig rings equal 1 stage.
Metallurgy Requirements For Amine Treaters

3-5

1. Vessels
a. Amine contactor, flash tank, stripper, surge tank, accumulator, inlet scrubber, and
outlet scrubber shall be carbon steel and stress relieved with corrosion allowances
as shown in 1.C.
b. Trays for the contractor and stripper should be 304 stainless.
c. Corrosion Allowances for MEA and DEA Systems
C02 /H2 S<20
Inches
1/8
1/8
1/16
1/8
1/8
3/16
1/8
1/8
1/4
0
1/16
1/8
1/8

Inlet Scrubber
Amine Contactor
Outlet Scrubber
Flash Tank
Cross Exchanger
Amine Stripper
Reflux accumulator
Reboiler
Reclaimer
Surge Tank
Piping
Amine Cooler*
Stripper Overhead Condenser*

C02 /H2 S>20


Inches
1/8
1/8
1/16
1/8
1/8
3/16
1/4
1/8
1/4
0
1/16
1/8
1/4

*Corrosion allowance applies to shell side exchangers with water cooling in the
tubes.
2. Heat Exchangers
a. Shells carbon steel and stress relieved
b. Tubes 12 gauge minimum, carbon steel, seamless
c. Reclaimer element carbon steel, 2- inch schedule 80 tubes. Amine temperature
in reclaimer should not exceed 310 F.
d. Temperature of amine in reboiler should not exceed 250 F.
e. U-bends of U-tube carbon steel bundles shall be stress relieved.
3. Pumps
a. The amine circulation and stripper reflux pumps shall be carbon steel with 316
stainless trim.
4. Piping

3-6

a. Piping should be carbon steel. The weld and heat affected zone of piping
containing H2 S and H2 0, with or without amine, shall have hardness no greater
than Brinnell hardness number 235.
b. Velocities in the rich and lean solution piping should be limited to 2-3 ft/sec. for
MEA solution, and to 7 ft/sec. for DEA solution.
c. Piping from the letdown valve to the flash tank and from the letdown valve to the
stripper should be 304 stainless with the letdown valves of 316 stainless.
5. An inert gas blanket should be maintained on the fresh amine storage and amine surge
to prevent oxygen contact with the amine.
6. No copper-bearing materials such as Admiralty, Monel, etc., should be used
anywhere in amine units.
When the C0 2 /H2 S ratio is greater than 20, the following exceptions to the above
requirements should be used.
7. The exchanger tubes in the reboiler, stripper overhead condenser, lean-rich cross
exchanger, and amine cooler should be 304 stainless. Those exchangers with water in
the 304 stainless tubes should have a minimum water flowrate of 5 ft/sec. Limit
amine velocity in tubes to 5 ft/sec.
8. The stripper vessel head and shell down through the top 3 trays should be 304
stainless clad or solid 304 stainless.
9. The stripper overhead piping from the stripper to the accumulator should be 304
stainless. The reflux piping from the accumulator back to the stripper can be either
thin wall 304 stainless or carbon steel with 1/16 corrosion allowance.

I.

10. The vapor line from the reboiler to the stripper should be 304 stainless.
H2S Gas Toxicity
ppm gr./100scf
10
0.65
100
6.48
200
12.96
500
32.96

J.

Can smell. Safe for 12 hr. exp.


Kills sense of smell in 2-15 min.
Kills sense of smell quickly. Stings eyes & throat.
Loses sense of reasoning & balance
Respiratory paralysis in 30-40 min
700
45.36
Breathing will stop & death result if not rescued promptly. Immed.
artificial resuscitation.
1000 64.80
Unconscious at once. Permanent brain damage or death may result
unless rescued promptly.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plants
Feed gas to LNG plants should be treated to provide a maximum CO2 content in feed gas
to liquefaction unit of 100 ppmv.

3-7

K.

Gas Treating Iron Sponge

L.

H2S Removal: W = 1.43*GQ = .09*PQ


Where: W = H2S removal lbs/day
G = H2S gr/100 scf inlet
P = H2S ppmv
Q = MMscfd
Distribution of Sulfur Compounds in NGL Product
1.

H2 S will be concentrated mainly in the C3 and lighter.

2.

COS will be concentrated mainly in the C3 streams.

3.

CH3 SH will primarily be split between the C3 and C4 streams.

4.

CH3 CH2 SH will be concentrated mainly in the C4 and heavier streams.

A. LNG Process Aluminum Platefin Mercury Corrosion:


1.

Any natural gas stream used for feed to a gas liquefaction plant will likely
contain measurable amounts of mercury.

2.

Elemental mercury amalgamates (forms an alloy) with the surface layer of the
aluminum being corroded.

3.

It is probable that liquid water must be present for the corrosion or attack to
occur. It follows that the temperature of the system must be above 32 F for
the corrosion to take place.

4.

Most probable time for mercury corrosion to occur is during deriming or


defrost periods (or possibly unscheduled shutdown for extended time periods)
when free water is likely to be present. It follows that the most likely time for
mercury corrosion induced equipment failure is during start-up immediately
after a planned or extended emergency shutdown.

5.

It is not known at what levels of mercury in the inlet gas problems may occur.
However, it is likely most of the mercury entering with the feed in a cryogenic
LNG plant with no liquid draws will remain within the plant equipment until
defrost. A number of studies associated with the Skikda failure have
suggested a threshold mercury content of 0.01 micrograms/Nm3 which should
not be exceeded at the inlet to the cryogenic plant.

6.

Mercury can exist in the feed gas co-currently with H2 S as evidenced from an
LNG plant feed gas in Sumatra, Indonesia which contains 200 to 330
micrograms/Nm3 mercury and 60 to 70 ppm of H2 S.

3-8

B.

7.

Mercury is more soluble in heavier liquid hydrocarbons than the lighter


hydrocarbons. (For instance solubility of mercury in propane is about the
solubility in hexane). Mercury in an LNG plant should concentrate in the
heavier liquid phases such as a hydrocarbon draws for heavies removal or
fractionation.

8.

There is more risk of mercury induced failure on the cycle gas (refrigerant)
side of the exchangers, and more risk in general with a mixed refrigerant plant
than a cascade cycle since a cascade system uses no refrigerant heavier than
propane. (This assumes refrigerants are derived from the mercury
contaminated feed gas).

9.

If stress is present in the parent aluminum (such as at weldments), cracking


will also occur accelerating the corrosion.

10.

The pipeline system feeding the LNG plant is an excellent trap as mercury
tends to be absorbed by the pipe metal. The initial mercury front progress
towards the plant slowly until pipeline saturation is reached. This is a good
reason to test the plant feed gas at least annually.

Treating Systems:
Mercury Removal with sulfur Impregnated Ca rbon:
Following are Vendor provided design rules of thumb for mercury removal beds:
1. Design for minimum gas/carbon contact time of 10 seconds.
2. Design for a maximum superficial velocity of 50 ft/min.
3. Maximum temperature is 150 F. Above this the sulfur impregnate is boiled off.
4. C02 and other sulfur compounds do not effect the beds performance.
5. Water vapor or free water present in the gas stream being treated will reduce the
mercury removal capacity of the beds as much as 75%.
6. Liquid hydrocarbons will rapidly deplete the bed mercury removal capacity as the
liquids dissolve the sulfur impregnated on the carbon.
7. L/D (actual carbon bed height to vessel diameter) ratios of 1.0 to 1.5 are preferred
for charcoal beds to prevent channeling. Minimum acceptable L/D is about 0.6.
8. Mercury removal efficiency is better for dry gas than for water saturated gas.
9. Mercury removal efficiency is better for lower feed gas temperatures.

3-9

10. Maximum attainable mercury removal efficiency is not effected by inlet mercury
content or inlet gas pressure.
11. Can be designed to remove feed gas mercury down to less than 1 nanogram/Nm3
(0.001 microgram/Nm3 ).
12. Vendors report that bed capacity is not affected if the bed becomes saturated with
gas phase heavy end hydrocarbons (as long as no free liquid is allowed to contact
the bed). In fact vendors often presaturate the beds with hydrocarbons for
ethylene service to prevent high temperatures resulting from initial adsorption in
beds at start- up.
13. Removal mechanism is as follows: elemental mercury physically adsorbs onto
the activated carbon surface inside the pores of the carbon. Then the mercury
chemically reacts with the sulfur impregnate to form mercuric sulfide. For
organic mercury compounds; Vendor 1: the systems function similarly except the
mercury compounds much break down to elemental mercury and organic
compounds first. Vendor 2: the organic mercury compounds are physically
absorbed on the carbon. This organic mercury criteria sets the minimum 10
second contact time.

3-10

TREATING REFERENCES
GPSA Engineering Data Book Tenth Edition 1987
Gas Conditioning and Processing, Vol. 4, Gas and Liquid Sweetening, Campbell Petroleum
Series, 1982
Chemical Engineers Handbook, Perry & Chilton, Fifth Edition
Gas Purification, Kohl & Riesenfeld, Fourth Edition 1985 Gulf Publishing Company
Acid and Sour Gas Treating Processes, 1985, Gulf Publishing
Gas Conditioning Conference Proceedings, 1954-1992
Linde Molecular Sieves, Union Carbide
Gas Treating, Gas/SPEC Dow
Corporate Engineering Process, Gas Section Reference, Files,
GR1020, GR1180, GR1559, GR1800, GR1802, GR1820, GR1870, GR7047
Sulfur Recovery, Paskall & Sames, 1988, Western Research
Oil & Gas Journal, Dec 1, 1980, pg 135-138 Liquid Liquid contractors need careful attention
Considerations For Mercury in LNG Operations by W. W. Bodie, A. Attari Institute of Gas
Technology R. Serauskas Gas Developments Corporation
Mercury-LNGs Problems by J. E. Leeper Hyrocarbon Processing November, 1980
Causes and Remedies of The Corrosion of Cryogenic Exchangers By Mercury by Tewfik
Hasni February, 1978
Phillips Metallurgist Hisham Hashim
Calgon HGR Sulfur Impregnated Activated Carbon
Pinion (Alcoa/NUCON) Mersorb Activated Carbon Adsorbent

3-11

4
A.

FLUID FLOW

Misc.
1. Absolute pressure of atmosphere at height H above sea level:
P = P1 (1-0.00000687H)n
n = 5.256
Where: P1 = pressure at sea level, psia
Density: W = W1(1-0.00000687H)n
n = 4.256
Where: W1 = density of air at sea level
P = e[2.6876 0.0000368 (H)] psia
Where H is height, ft above sea level
Borger- 13.2 psia: Woods Cross- 12.4 psia
2. Acoustic Velocity Va = 80.53 (P/)
where: P = psia
= density lb/ft3
Va = ft/sec

For perfect gas:


Va = (gc*k*R*T/M) Where: gc = 32/17
k = Cp/Cv
R = 1546
T = R
M = mol wt.

3.

Vortex Breaker
Vortex Breaker is needed if flow is greater than 1.9 ft/sec.

B.

NGL Expander Plants


1. Flowrate through an expander can generally be controlled from 0 to 150% of the
design value. Expanders adiabatic efficiency will generally be within 4 percentage
points of the design between 75 and 125% of design flowrate. (#/hr)
2. Preliminary Piping Sizing
For preliminary liquid piping sizing, the following table may be used as a guide:

Liquid Service

Pressure Drop

4-1

Velocity

(Psi/100 FT)
0.4
1.5 3.0
--0.4
---

(FT/Sec)
2.0 4.0
7.0 - 10.0
3.0 5.0
--2.5 9.0 **

Pump Suction
Pump Discharge
To Reboiler
Gravity Flow
Water
High Viscosity to 200 CP
Pump Suction
0.5 1.0
0.25 0.5
Pump Discharge
10.0 1.0
1.0 1.5
** Water with high CO2 , seawater, etc requires lower maximum velocities, linings, or
special material.
For preliminary vapor piping sizing, the following table may be used as a guide.
Vapor
Pressure Drop
Velocity
Total Allowable
Service
(PSI/100 FT)
(FT/Sec)
Pressure Drop (PSI)
Tower
0.5
--1.0
Overhead
On Plot
0.5
----Gas
Comp.
0.3
5-150
1.5
Suct
Comp.
0.5
1y00
4.0
Disc
Steam
--100
4.0
C.

Piping
1. Initial maximum fluid velocities for line sizing:
Most liquids:
10 ft/s
All vapors:
50 ft/s
Raw sea water:
11.5 ft/s (CuNi piping)
Gravity drains
1.5 ft/s
Steam condensate
1.0 ft/s
2. Fluid velocity for vapor and two-phase flows should not exceed the erosional
velocity. Estimate erosional velocity from Ve = 100/ where Ve = erosional velocity
in ft/s and = fluid density in lb/ft 3 .
Limiting Velocities Liquids: (Another source)
Normal limiting velocities (highest normal design velocities) in process lines are
given by the following formula:
100
V=

Where: V is limiting design velocity in ft/sec

4-2

is density in lb/ft3 at system T&P


Erosion velocity (velocity at which erosion of process line is expected) for clear
liquids is given by the following formula:
150

Where: Ve is the erosion velocity in ft/sec


is density in lb/ft3 at system T&P
V e=

3. Compressible gases (i.e. HC, air, steam) can be treated as incompressible when the
pressure loss for the segment in question is less than 10% of the inlet pressure.
Maximum Operable Velocities:
When rating existing liquid and/or gas piping systems, it is sometimes desirable to
determine the limiting fluid velocity for the system. This may be estimated as
follows:
a. For liquids:
Limiting velocity u m =

48

Where; um = limiting velocity, ft/sec


= density, lb/ft3 at system T&P
For erosive or corrosive liquids = 0.5 x um
b. For gases:
Turbulent flow average limiting velocity u m = 148.7

kZT 2
( /3 sonic velocity)
m

Where; um = Average limiting velocity, ft/sec


K = specific heat ratio
Z = Compressibility factor
T = temperature, R
m = Molecular Weight lb/lb mol
For erosive or corrosive gases = 0.5 x um
Note:

Economic factors such as pressure loss usually necessitate operating at


lower than limiting velocity.
4. Friction Factor Project Life:
Piping friction factor increases with operating time. As a result, the piping head loss
nearly doubles in:
4-3

a. 25 to 30 years for clean gases and light hydrocarbons.


b. 15 to 25 years for most middle distillates.
b. 10 to 15 years for residues.
While sizing pipelines and pumping facilities, this aspect should be duly
considered.
5. Piping Noise:

D.

Liquid velocities above 20 to 30 ft/sec can cause noise. As a rule, a velocity head less
than 1.3 psi avoids excessive noise.
Physical Fan Laws
1. The following relations are characteristic of fans operating in a given system with
constant air density:
a. With constant fan size and varying fan speed:
(1) Volume (CFM) varies directly as the fan speed.

CFM 2 RPM 2
=
CFM 1 RPM 1
(2) Static Pressure Varies directly as the square of the RPM.
SP 2 RPM 2
=

SP1 RPM 1

3) Horsepower absorbed by the fan varies directly as the cube of the fan speed.
HP 2 RPM 2
=

HP 1 RPM 1

b. With varying fan sizes at the same speed:


(1) Volume (CFM) varies directly as the cube of the fan speed.

4-4

CFM 2 DIA 2
=

CFM 1 DIA 1

(2) Static Pressure Varies directly as the square of the fan speed
SP 2 DIA 2
=

SP1 DIA 1

(3) Horsepower absorbed by the fan varies directly as the fifth power of size.
HP 2 DIA 2
=

HP 1 DIA 1

2. The following relations are characteristic of a fan of a given size delivering a constant
mass of air of varying density. (Density varies directly as absolute temperature and
inversely as the atmospheric pressure.):
a. Volume, fan speed, and total pressure vary inversely as the density.
b. Horsepower absorbed by the fan varies inversely as the square of the density.
3. Fan Horsepower varies directly as the product of the volume (ACFM) and the total
pressure (inches W.G.) divided by the constant 6370 times the total aerodynamic
efficiency.
Actual Fan Horsepower =

E.

ACFM x Total Pressure


6370 X Total Aerodynamic Efficiency

Control Valves
1. Pumped Circuit
Allocating Pressure Drops to Control Valves:
In a pumped circuit, the pressure drop allocated to the control valve should be 33% of
all other friction losses in the system at pump rated flow (exclusive of the valve
pressure drop itself) or 15 psi whichever is greater.
Valid for < 750 GPM & < 150 psi pump delta p
Valid for > 300 GPM & 150 to 275 psi pump delta p
If outside these ranges, pressure drop allocated may be 25% of system dynamic losses
at pump rated head, or 15 psi whichever is greater.
In both cases above, use no more than 90% of valve's Cv .

4-5

2. Compressor discharge and suction lines


The pressure drop allocated to a control valve in the suction or discharge line of a
centrifugal compressor should be 5% of the suction absolute pressure, or 50% of the
system dynamic losses (exclusive of the control valve) at the compressor rated point,
whichever is larger. Also, no more than 90% of the valve Cv should be used.
3. Pressure motivated systems
In a system where tank pressure moves liquid from one vessel to another, the pressure
drop should be 10% of the lower terminal vessel pressure, or 50% of the system
dynamic losses, whichever is greater.
The above rule also applies to vapor, but in addition, the assigned Delta P should not
exceed 42% of the upstream pressure to avoid critical flow problems through the
valve.
4. Steam and flashing water
Valves in steam lines to turbines, reboilers, and process vessels, should be allocated
10% of the design absolute pressure of the system or 5 psi, whichever is greater. The
valve should be sized for twice the normal flow rate since steam usage rates can vary
widely, especially during start-up.

F.

For valves handling a flashing mixture, the allocated pressure drop should be equal to
0.9 times the difference in between the absolute inlet pressure and the absolute
saturation pressure if flowing temperature is more than 5 F below the saturation
temperature. If less than 5 F below the saturation temperature, the pressure drop
should not be greater than 0.06 times the absolute inlet pressure.
Two Phase Flow:
For the seven types of two phase flow patterns in pipes, some guidelines on liquid and
vapor superficial velocities (LSV and GSV respectively) which can be used to make
initial predictions on the type of flow pattern are given below.
1. Horizontal Pipes:
a. In DISPERSED FLOW PATTERN, nearly all the liquid is entrained as spray by
the gas. This occurs at GSV > 200 ft/sec.
b. In ANNULAR FLOW PATTERN, liquid forms a film around the inside wall of
pipe and gas flows at a high velocity as a central core. This occurs at GSV > 20
ft.sec.
c. In BUBBLE FLOW PATTERN, bubbles of gas move along at about the same
velocity as the liquid. This occurs at LSV of 5 to 15 ft/sec, and GSV of 1 to 10
ft/sec.

4-6

d. In STRATIFIED FLOW PATTERN, liquid flows along the bottom of the pipe
and gas flows over the smooth liquid gas interface. This normally occurs for
LSV< 0.5 ft/sec, and GSV of 2 to 10 ft/sec.
e. In WAVE FLOW PATTERN, the interface is disturbed by waves moving in the
direction of flow; otherwise it is similar to stratified flow pattern. This occurs for
LSV < 1 ft/sec and GSV of about 15 ft/sec.
f. In SLUG FLOW PATTERN, waves are picked up periodically in the gas stream
and form a slug which moves at much greater velocity than average liquid
velocity. Slugs can cause severe vibration due to impact on fittings such as return
bends.
g. In PLUG FLOW PATTERN, alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the
pipe. This occurs at LSV < 2 ft/sec and GSV < 3 ft/sec.
2. Upflow Vertical Pipes:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

For dispersed flow, GSV > 70 ft/sec.


For annular flow, LSV < 2 ft/sec. and GSV > 30 ft/sec.
For bubble flow, GSV < 2 ft/sec.
Stratified flow does not occur.
For wave flow, the SVs are unpredictable.
For slug flow, GSV = 2 to 30 ft/sec.
For plug flow, GSV = 2 to 30 ft/sec.

4-7

FLUID FLOW REFERENCES


Flow of Fluids Through Values, Fittings, and Pipe, Crane, Technical Paper No. 410
E&P General Design Specifications Section VI. B. Piping
Hartzell Fan Engineering Data, Bulletin A-108-E, Hartzell Fan Inc. Pigua, OH 45356
Allocating Pressure Drops to Control Valves Instrumentation Technology, pg 102105, 10/1970
Preliminary Pipeline Sizing, Chemical Engineering, September 25, 1978, pg 119120
Guidelines on Fluid Flow systems, Hydrocarbon Processing, April, 1990, pg 47-60
Bechtel Process Engineering methods for limiting and erosion liquid velocity

4-8

5
A.

FRACTIONATION

Minor Components Non Ideal In Hydrocarbons


1. CO2

Behaves with volatility between methane and ethane. If 1% in gas, be


sure to check for solidification in NGL expander plant process.

2. H2 O

Behaves with volatility similar to ethane but causes hydrates with light
hydrocarbons and CO2 .

3. H2 S

Behaves with volatility similar to propane. Can be removed from liquids


by partial depropanization.

4. Methanol Behaves with a volatility similar to propane. Used to inhibit hydrates in


wet gas. Excess dissolves in water. In propane refrigeration systems,
collects as a separate phase in bottom of the chiller and must be drained
out.

B.

5. Ethyl
Behaves with a volatility less than propane. Used as stench for odorizing
Mercaptan commercial propane. In propane refrigeration systems, collects with the
oil in the propane chiller and is removed with the oil.
Columns
1. Rules of Thumb on Sequence
a. Get rid of troublesome components first. N2 , H2, H2S, CO2 , H2O.
b. Take successive cuts, lightest to heaviest.
c. Do easy separations first, i.e., where KLt key/KHv key is greatest.
d. Try to get distillate. (Mole basis)
e. Take a finished product as distillate.
2. All light hydrocarbon distillation columns should be controlled with floating pressure.
3. Heuristic for distillation: In a multicomponent mixture, it is usually best to remo ve
components one at a time beginning with the lightest.
4. Heuristic for separations: The next separation in a sequence is the one that can be
done the cheapest.
5. In large diameter (greater than 2 feet) packed distillation columns, liquid distribution
is the key element to separation efficiency.
6. Do not design a process based on an UNCONVERGED simulation!
7. For optimum economy, in terms of minimum column diameter and maximum tray
efficiency, distillation columns should be designed with 5 to 10 percent entrainment.

5-1

8. Practical limits for packed columns


a. 30 gpm/ft2 liquid rate maximum
b. 3 gpm/ft2 liquid rate minimum
(These can be extended by proper distributor design)
9. A quick estimate of the number of trays for a given separation double the minimum
number of stages obtained from the Fenske equation:
Dl

Bl
Log

D
hB
h

N min =
Log

Where D1 = Mole fraction of light key in distillate


Dh = Mole fraction of heavy key in distillate
B1 = Mole fraction of light key in bottoms
Bh = Mole fraction heavy key in bottoms
= Relative volatility, light key/heavy key
The minimum reflux ratio can be calculated by the following equation, if there are no
divided keys, i.e., no components whose volatilities lie between the light and heavy
keys. Multiply the minimum reflux ratio by 1.3 to correspond to double the minimum
stages.

R min =

1 D 1 (1 D1 )

1 F 1
(1 F 1)

Where F1 = Mole fraction light key in Feed


If divided keys are present, it is probably easier to run a rigorous simulation than to
solve the short cut equations by hand.
10. Sizing reflux accumulators:
Generally accumulators are sized based on liquid holdup time from normal liquid
level to low liquid level, where NLL is approximately the center of the vessel.
Holdup time of 8 to 10 minutes is generally acceptable, based on total overhead
condensed. Low liquid level should be 8 to 12 inches above the bottom of the vessel
or the height of the vortex breaker, if one is present. Generally reflux accumulators
should be 2 feet or greater in diameter.

5-2

For a column with a partial condenser, sufficient vapor space must be left above high
level for vapor/liquid separation. This can be roughly estimated for light hydrocarbon
systems as:
Area vapor, reqd (ft 2 ) = (Vapor flow rate, ft3 /sec) /0.7
This vapor cross sectional area should be added to the total cross sectional area of the
vessel to obtain the diameter. Even if the condenser is a total condenser, the high
liquid level should be 6 to 8 inches below the top of the vessel.
11. Estimating column diameter (low pressure columns only).
The active area of a trayed column can be fairly accurately estimated. The
downcomer areas can also be reasonable estimated. (Downcomer area should never
be less than 5% of the total area of the column.) Therefore a rough estimate of the
diameter can be readily obtained.
Area active =

W
1.6 v

DCarea (sq.ft.) = Liquid rate (gpm) / 175


Tower area = AreaActive + DCarea
Where W = Vapor rate, lb/sec
v = Vapor density, lb/ft3
12. Fractionation: Reflux to Feed Ratio 40 Tray 0.55 mol/mol
30 Tray 0.7 mol/mol
13. Estimating Tray Efficiency
The graph below can be used for rough estimates of tray efficiency. Use with
Caution.

5-3

5-4

FRACTIONATION REFERENCES
FRI Fractionation Tray Design Handbook, Vol 1, 2, & 5
PPCo Data Input Guide for Program 6180
H. L. Walker: Factors to be considered in the Design of Fractionation Equipment.
PPCo. 1980.
OConnell, H. E.: Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 42, 741 (1946)

5-5

A.

COMBUSTION

Flare
1. Flare tip velocities
Open pipe flare: 0.5 MACH emergency flaring
0.2 MACH continuous flaring
Proprietary flare tips: 0.5 0.7 MACH (max)
2. Limit flare piping velocities to 0.7 MACH in laterals and to 0.5 MACH in headers.
3. Flare stacks and headers must be continuously purged.
4. Flare tips shall be provided with gas seals to reduce purge gas requirements.
5. Sound level from flare tip shall not exceed 100db for 15 minutes.
6. Limit flare radiation to adjacent flares and other equipment to 1,500 BTU/Hr/Sq.Ft.
7. Flare pilots shall be monitored.
8. At all times headers shall maintain a positive pressure.
9. No relief/depressurizing streams containing oxygen shall be tied into flare header.
10. Laterals and headers shall not have low places to collect liquids & corrosion products.
11. Laterals to enter headers at top and at 45 degree angle in direction of header flow.
12. Slope laterals to drain to headers.
13. PSV bypass shall have a minimum opening equal to the PSV orifice, no less than 2.
14. Normally limit PSV back pressure to: 10% Conventional Relief Valves
30% Bellow Relief Valves
15. Estimate final temperature of gas remaining inside vessel following depressurization
to flare from mid-point between resulting temperature calculated by isenthalphic
(JT) and isentropic (turboexpander) expansion.

B.

16. Flare, reference API RP 521.


Fired Heaters
For most process heaters, assume a thermal efficiency of 75 to 80% when calculating fuel
requirements.
Where: % Thermal Efficiency = Heat Transferred x 100
Heat Released

6-1

C.

Fuel Requirements
For determining fuel requirements for process equipment, always use the net heating
value of the fuel rather than the gross heating value.

6-2

COMBUSTION REFERENCES
Furnace operations by Robert D. Reed, Gulf Publishing Co. Copyright 1973
Steam/Its Generation, Babcock & Wilcox 161 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017,
Copyright-1972, thirty-eighth edition
Consult API RP t521 Guide For Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring System For Flare Sizing
Calculations

6-3

7
A.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Standard Conditions
Standard conditions for the U.S. refining industry are 1 atmosphere and 60F for both
gases and liquids. Other standards apply at different international sites.
At standard conditions, 1 lb- mole of gas occupies 379 cubic feet

B.

Characterization of Liquid Refinery Feeds and Products


Refinery feeds and products can be described by o API , Characterization Factor, K,
and a distillation curve such as D-86 or D-2887.
1.

API gravity is related to specific gravity by the following equation:


O

API =

141.5
131.5
sp.gr .

The API gravity of water is 10.


2. K or characterization factor is a measure how aromatic, naphthenic or paraffinic
the liquid is. K is related to boiling point and specific gravity by:
3 T
B
K=
where TB = average boiling point at 1 atm, o Rankine
sp.gr.
K
Paraffinic stocks
12.2 12.5
Intermediate stocks
11.5 12.1
Naphthenic stocks
11.0 11.4
Aromatic Residues
9.8 - 10.9
Figures are available that relate K to molecular weight, specific heat, heat of
vaporization, viscosity, and critical properties.
3.

Distillation Curves
Distillation curves are obtained by distilling a standardized volume of sample a
defined rated. The distillation curve is a plot of the cumulative volume of the
condensed distillate vs. the vapor temperature. GC methods are also available the
produce distillation curves.
ASTM methods include: D-86, D-1160, D-2887, D-3710. The D-86 method is
the simplest and most common. A D-86 curve for distillate is below. The D-2887
and D-3710 methods are GC methods and commonly referred to as simulated
distillations or a SimDist.

7-1

D-86 Curve for Distillate

Vapor Temperature, F

600
550
500
450
400
350
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Volume Distilled, %

C.

Physical Properties of Selected Liquids

Compound

Specific Heat,
Btu/lb-F @ 60F

Properties of Selected Liquids


Heat of
Normal Boiling
Vaporization,
Point, F
Btu/lb @ NBP

Density, lb/gal
@ 60F

Viscosity, cP
@60F

IsoButane
n-Butane
IsoPentane
n-Pentane
Octane
Decane

0.57
0.57
0.54
0.54
0.53
0.52

158
166
148
145
131
120

11
31
82
97
258
345

4.70
4.88
5.22
5.27
5.90
6.20

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
1.0

Benzene
Toluene

0.41
0.40

191
156

176
231

7.36
7.28

0.7
0.6

Gasoline
Diesel

0.50
0.47

125
105

100-440
378-670

6.32
7.18

0.6
4.0

Arabian Extra Light


Arabian Light
Arabian Heavy

0.45
0.44
0.44

----------

570 (50% pt.)


611 (50%pt.)
733 (50% pt.)

7.00
7.18
7.43

4.6
9.2
38.4

Methanol
Ethanol

0.59
0.57

472
364

148
173

6.66
6.63

0.6
1.3

Water

1.00

974

212

8.32

1.7

1. Specific Heats of Hydrocarbon Liquids

7-2

2. Latent Heat of Vaporization at Atmospheric Pressure

7-3

3. Specific Gravity

7-4

4. Thermal Conductivity

7-5

5. Viscosity
Kinematic viscosity, , is measured in centistokes, and is equal to viscosity in cP
divided by specific gravity or =
sp.gr

7-6

6. Vapor Pressure

7-7

D.

Physical Properties of Selected Gases/Vapors


Compound

Specific Heats for Selected Gases/Vapors


Specific
Specific
Density,
Thermal Viscosity, cP
Heat, Btu/lb- Heat, Btu/lb- lb/cuft @ Conductivity @ 212F,
F @ 60F
F @ 200F
1 atm, 60F , Btu/hr-ft-f
1 atm
@ 212F,
1 atm

Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane

3.404
0.526
0.407
0.281
0.293

3.451
0.578
0.487
0.305
0.316

0.005
0.042
0.079
0.116
0.153

0.129
0.0262
0.0175
0.0151
0.0135

0.0104
0.0135
0.0115
0.0102
0.0093

Hydrogen Sulfide

0.239

0.246

0.090

0.0110

0.0157

Air
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Water Vapor
Helium

0.239
0.248
0.217
0.249
0.200
0.445
1.647

0.239
0.248
0.217
0.250
0.219
0.451
1.647

0.076
0.074
0.084
0.074
0.116
0.047
0.011

0.0183
0.018
0.0185
0.0174
0.0133
0.0137
0.0104

0.0218
0.0210
0.0246
0.0209
0.0184
0.0125
0.0232

7-8

1. Specific Heat of Gases and Vapors

7-9

2. Thermal Conductivity

7-10

7-11

3. Viscosity

7-12

E.

Physical Properties Recommendations


Experience has shown that the recommended choice of physical property models
depends upon the simulator being used, process being modeled and the process
modeling objectives. Each situation has unique conditions that may or may not
require additional analysis.
For crude still and refinery applications, the Chao-Seader method with Grayson
Streed modifications is a good first choice. This method will adequately model the
typical light gas processes in the refinery as well. In Aspen, this method is known as
GRAYSON and should be modified to have the free water with solubility option
for unsaturated systems selected (method 2 on the Properties specification form). This
method is not accurate for streams containing ammonia and/or hydrogen sulfide.
For gas plant or LNG processes either the Soave-Redlich-Kwong or the PengRobinson equation of state should be used. When using Hysys, the Peng-Robinson
method is recommended since the Hyprotech property expertise has been focused on
this method. When using Aspen, you should select the RKS-BM method, (RedlichKwong equation of state with Boston-Mathias modifications), that is included in the
PPCO NGL Processing template. The template contains modifications to the property
route that improve the liquid densities and other transport properties as well as make
the method work better for hydrogen containing streams. These methods should not
be used for streams containing Helium and or high concentrations of hydrogen
without obtaining special modifications from a Phillips property specialist (e.g.
Howard Wilson).
For sour gas or sour water treatment there are special physical property packages
available. The BR&E Tsweet amine property method works well for most gas
treatment modeling. The Amsim package in Hysys can also be used for gas treatment.
These amine treatment packages have a limited range of application, but are generally
fairly easy to use and are fairly accurate.
A special electrolyte modeling package such as the sour water options in Hysys, the
OLI Prochem software or the Aspen electrolytes package should be used to model
sour water treatment. These packages are complicated and should be used with
guidance from a physical property specialist.
Difficult or tight separations require close scrutiny by a physical property specialist.
These separations are generally characterized by cases where either very high purity
is required when the relative volatility of the primary keys is between 0.8 and 1.2.
Standard methods have to be specially adjusted or tuned to data near the pinch
points in order to get a reasonable fit and a good match with equipment.
Hydrates and solids formation can be modeled with some other special purpose
software. Gas hydrates are generally best estimated using the hydrate program within
PVTSIM and the Multiflash program from InfoChem. Bill Parrish is a world-class
expert in gas hydrates and should be consulted anytime they are of concern. Different

7-13

F.

programs are to be used for different types of solids prediction. For cryogenic
hydrocarbon systems, the multiphase flash program from DTH is currently the best
option, the GPA Kohn-Luks program is also usually a good option for these systems.
Dale Embry is Phillips expert on these programs. The OLI software is the best
available for prediction of chemical salt and hydrate formation. Contact Dale Embry
for more information about this program.
Separations involving other chemicals or other thermodynamic properties should be
reviewed by a physical property and/or separations specialist before any designs are
finalized.
Simulation Techniques for Characterization of Oils
Most of the time, data about oils are provided as some sort of curve. However, most
simulation programs are designed to work with pure components that have one value
for a property. So we take portions of the curve and treat it as though it were a pure
component. These fractions are commonly referred to as "pseudocomponents". The
number of pseudocomponents needed for accurate simulations is as much a function
of the process being simulated as the type of oil being characterized. The number of
pseudocomponents needed for an accurate simulation increases as the tightness of
separation increases and the number of unique products increases. Narrow cuts, cuts
having a boiling range of 25 to 50 F (10C to 25C) are needed at the boundaries of the
unique products, larger cuts can be used further away from the product boundaries.
For most field gas/oil separation calculations there are between one and three
relatively broad separations being performed in the butane to octane boiling range.
These simulations are well characterized by using standard components through
hexane and then using between 4 to 10 pseudocomponents with increasingly broad
boiling ranges. Often 5 cuts with the ranges of C7, C8, C9-C10, C11-C14, C15+ will
adequately model the separator performance and the oil properties.
For refinery simulations, as many as 40-50 pseudocomponents may be needed to
characterize a whole crude as it is being split into its various products. One often uses
25F cuts for the 200-800 F boiling range materials, 50F cuts for the 800-1000F
boiling range materials and 100F cuts for the 1000+ materials. If only single phase
properties are needed, it is very likely that a single pseudocomponent with a 100 to
200F boiling range can be used for a stream.

7-14

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REFERENCE


Engineering Data Book, GPSA, Tulsa, Vol II, 1987
J. M. Campbell, Gas Conditioning and Processing, Norman, Vol 2, 1981
Phillips Engineering Standards 7.00 7.16
Technical Data Book Petroleum Refining, API, Vol 1-3 (Chapter 2, Vol 1 contains
procedures for pseudo compound characterization)
K. B. Maxwell, Data Book on Hydrocarbons: Applications to Process Engineering, Van
Nostrand New York, 1950
W. L. Nelson, Petroleum Refinery Engineering, McGraw-Hill New York, 1949

7-15

8
A.

COMPRESSORS, EXPANDERS & PUMPS

Reciprocating Compressors
1. Limit compression ratio to get a maximum temperature of 300 F discharge
temperature. This is generally less than a compression ration of 3.7 per stage.
2. Horsepower required is usually a maximum at a compression ratio of 2.0.
3. For reciprocating propane compressor calculations, add 10% to the final Horsepower
calculated by conventional means and 10 F to the final discharge temperature for
preliminary design.
4. To avoid excessive vibration, the mass of the foundation must be approximately 5
times the mass of the unit.

B.

Compressor Quickies
1. 1 lb- mole (ideal) gas occupies 379 SCF. Thus mass flow in lb/min =
MMSCFD*MW/(1440*379).
2. Least flow through a centrifugal compressor is 175 ACFM (300 m3/hr) discharge
volume.
ACFM = MMSCFD*106 *14.7*T*Z/ (1400*P*520) (T-temperature in R)
To achieve a reasonable compressor efficiency with a centrifugal compressor, the
suction acfm needs to be above 1500 to 2000. Avoid applications at lower acfm.
3. Centrifugal compressor head
1

P d

Z 1545 T S

1
H a=


MW
1 P s

Maximum head per impeller is 10,000 ft.

4. Discharge temperature
P
Reciprocating T d =T s d
Ps

Centrifugal

P p
T d=T s d
Ps
p = Polytropic efficiency
8-1

= Cp /Cv

5. Maximum allowable discharge temperature for associated gas (i.e. gas from crude oil
wellhead separation) compression is 300 F (150 C).
Recommended maximum discharge temperature for centrifugal compressor is 350 F.
Absolute maximum discharge temperature for centrifugal compressor is 400 F.
High temperature seals are absolutely necessary to operate at the absolute maximum
temperature.
6. Head for a centrifugal compressor is really energy imported to the gas. Feet head
is in fact ft- lb force/ft- lb mass. SI expresses it as kiloJoule/kilogram.
Conversion: 1000 ft- lbf/ft-lbm = 2.989 kJ/kg
Other expressions such as me ters head (converting feet into meters) are
meaningless as they do not take the gravitational constant into account.

C.

7. For centrifugal compressors, a 20% surge margin from the design operating point is
recommended, 30% is preferred. Absolute minimum acceptable is 10%.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plants

D.

For centrifugal compressor calculations, assume a polytropic efficiency of 79 to 82 % for


LNG plant preliminary design.
Energy Conservation Natural Gas Engines

E.

If compression ratio is increased from 8:1 to 10:1 a 5% reduction in fuel rate and a 9%
increase in brake horsepower results (assumes 1000 Btu fuel & minimum octane of 115).
Octane Number:
C1-120
iC4-97.6
nC5-80.2
C2-100.7
nC4-89.1
C6-26.0
C3-98.1
iC5-61.9
C7-0.0
Fuel consumption

F.

Reciprocating Engines 1000 hp 7200 Btu/hr/bhp


turbines Solar T4500 9800 Btu/hr/bhp
NGL Expander Plants
1.

For expander-compressor preliminary designs, limit the adiabatic efficiency to 72 %


for the expander end and 65 % for the compressor end. Vendors will claim higher
efficiencies, but actual tests indicate the above efficiencies to be more representative
in service. Use a 95 % mechanical efficiency for transferring horsepower from the
expander to the compressor.

2.

For expanders, limit liquefication of feed stream through expander to 15 to 18


weight % maximum. In excess of this, mechanical problems may result with
expander.

8-2

G.

Gas Processing Simulation guidelines


1. Turboexpander maximum size approx. 8,000 hp (6 MW).
2. Turboexpander maximum pressure ratio 2.5:1.
3. Temperature reduction on expansion ( F/psi):

Lean gas
Rich gas
H.

Turboexpander
0.06
0.1

JT-valve
0.03
0.05

Pump sizing
Example Size The Lean Oil Pump
Suction Conditions 145 psig @ 90 F
Discharge = 485 psig
Capacity = 700,000 GPD @ 60 F
SP. GR. @ Pump Temp. = 0.805
700,000
GPM @ Pump Temp. = 1440 min/Day
= 486

0.815
0.805

.815
.805

Head = P x 2.31 = (485-145)2.31 = 976 Ft. of Liquid


SP. GR. =
0.805
B.H.P. = (GPM) (Ft of Hd.) SP. GR.)
(3960) x Eff.
B.H.P. = (492) (976) (0.805) = 139.5 H.P.
(3960) (.70)
Use 150 H.P. electric Motor Drive. Check Curve of Pump Purchased for End of
Curve H.P. Requirement.
Specify Pump for 4.92 GPM @ 976 Ft. Head.
Case to be good for 485# Disch. and
shut in head of pump. NPSH Not Critical.
H.P. x 33,000 = Ft. - LB
Min.
LB. H2 O @ 62 F x 0.12 = GAL.
H.P. x 33,000 x 0.12 = 3960 x H.P. = FT. - GAL.
Min.

8-3

I.

Pumps
1. Suction Specific Speed:
When selecting centrifugal pumps, the suction specific speed (N SS) for the pump
should be le ss than 11,000. Experience has indicated that pumps operating with
suction specific speeds above 11,000 have a much higher failure frequency.
N SS =

RPMx GPM

( NPSHR )0.75

Where: N SS = Suction specific Speed GPM = Flow


Rate in gallons per minute
NPSHR = Net positive suction head required for the pump in feet
of fluid.
If the pump is double suctioned, divide flow rate by two.
2. Net Positive suction Head:
Be sure to check the size and configuration of the pump suction and piping before
increasing the pump speed as it affects the pump required Net Positive Suction Head
(NPSHR) considerably. See the relation:
NPSHR 2 n 2
=
NPSHR 1 n 1

Where: n is pump speed in rpm and subscripts 1 & 2 indicate initial and final conditions.
3. Axial Compressors
1. Axial compressors cannot be used with side loads.
2. Maximum discharge pressure is around 300 psia.

3. The minimum suction actual cubic feet per minute is 60,000.


4. Axial compressors cannot operate over as large a range of flow as centrifugal
compressors.

5. The maximum recommended discharge temperature is similar to a centrifugal or


about 350 F.

8-4

J.

General:
1. Maintenance costs for gas engine driven reciprocating compressor units is about 6
times those of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor units.
For 1993: Reciprocating = $30/HP Yr
Centrifugal

= $ 5/HP Yr

2. Gas Turbine Wasteheat Available


About 1/3 of fuel gas BTU requirements can be considered recoverable as wasteheat
from a gas turbine for quickly preliminary estimates.

8-5

COMPRESSORS, EXPANDERS & PUMPS REFERENCE


GPSA Engineering Data Book, Section 13
Centrifugal Pump Seminar by C. C. Fletcher 10.92
Guidelines on Fluid Flow Systems, Hydrocarbon Processing, April, 1990, pg 47-60
C. C. Fletcher ROT advice for process engineers 6/93 & Nils Nilsen Pignone
contact July 1993
C. C. Fletcher wasteheat rule of thumb

8-6

9
A.

REFRIGERATION

Condensers
For water cooling with propane condensers, try to maintain no greater than a 10 F
approach to the warm cooling water leaving the condenser. Use a velocity of 4 to 8 ft/sec
for the water through the tubes. Restrict cooling water return temperatures to a maximum
of 125 F.

B.

Propane Refrigeration Systems


1. For design of propane refrigeration systems, suggest using a composition of 3.0 mol
% C2, 95 mol % C3 and 2 Mol % C4. Experience has indicated it is difficult and
expensive due to propane losses to maintain 99 % + propane content. The utilization
of continuous purge systems will typically result in high losses.
2. Air, which is pulled in around piston rod packing with low suction pressure of 1 to 2
psig and high valve losses) tends to accumulate in the propane accumulator vessel
vapor space after the condensers. This leads to high compressor discharge pressure
and a potentially hazardous situation. A manual purge of the accumulator vapor
space weekly will keep the air concentration down towards acceptable levels.
3. For water cooled propane condenser design, generally use 10 F temperature rise on
cooling water through exchanger and a 10 F approach of condensed propane out to
the warm water from the exchanger.

C.

4. For preliminary design of reciprocating propane compressor calculations, add 10% to


the final Horsepower calculated by conventional means and 10 F to the final stage
discharge temperature.
Gas Processing Simulation Guidelines

D.

1. Refrigerant chiller temperature approach to gas is normally 5 to 10 F.


Condensing Temperature Effects:
For gas turbine driven propane refrigeration systems, there will be approximately % to
1% increase in gas load horsepower for every degree Fahrenheit increase in refrigerant
condensing temperature.

9-1

REFRIGERATION REFERENCE
GPSA Engineering Data Book, Section 14
Bechtel Process Engineers rule of thumb and CE Process checks

9-2

10

A.

MISCELLANEOUS

Large Production & Processing Platforms


1. Specific Process Considerations
The following process considerations are relevant to the platform layout:
a. the layout should reflect a logical progression of the process. This should then
minimize major pip ing requirements. Other equipment with small diameter
piping, can be located where necessary e.g. glycol regeneration package.
b. Related equipment should be modularized to allow maximum hook up and
precommissioning to be achieved, e.g. compressor with associated knock out
drum and aftercooler.
c. Requirements for pump NPSH should be established e.g. export pumps.
d. Pump suction lines should have no vapor pockets and be of minimum length.
e. Systems based on gravity drainage should be identified.
f. Requirements for future equipment should be identified. to allow incorporation
into initial layout.
g. Allowances for straight piping runs should be made where appropriate e.g.
compressor suction lines, metering runs.
h. Compressor suction lines should have no liquid pockets.
i. Two phase lines should be of minimum length and with no pockets to minimize
potential slugging.
j. Two phase lines from coolers should free drain to the knock out drum.
k. Vapor lines in wet Carbon Dioxide or corrosive service should have no liquid
pockets.
l. Filter separator/KO drums located upstream of TEG contacting/acid gas treating
units should be located close to prevent hydrocarbons or millscale from entering
the contactor.
m. Flare lines should slope to the KO drum with no liquid pockets.
n. Locate control valves in bubble point liquid service so that there is no possibility
of flashing at the valve inlet.
2. Preliminary Space Estimate
On the assumption that a modularized concept is used, the following factors can be
used to assess deck area requirements for preliminary layout studies.
3. Seawater System:
A. Carbon Steel Service
Although Carbon Steel is fine for service in low velocity seawater at ambient
temperatures, the corrosion rate increases rapidly with temperature and agitation.

10-1

At 122 F (50 C) and above, the corrosion rate in agitated seawater is greater
than 50 mils/year.
At velocities over 15 ft/sec, turbulence may greatly accelerate the corrosion rate
by eroding away the protective film. This occurs frequently at heat exchanger
tube inlets, U bends, and piping elbows.
At more extreme velocities, erosion corrosion will occur. At 39 ft/sec, the
corrosion rate reaches over 200 mils, year.
B. For Seawater Waterflood systems:
Typical specifications to prevent formation plugging with solids, downhole
corrosion, and bacteria growth are as follows.
1. Solids Remove 97% of all solids greater than 5 microns size.
2. Oxygen Remove to a maximum level of 10 ppb(wt)
3. Sterilization Chlorination and/or UV sterilization required.
4. Portable Water systems:
a. Based on Ekofisk experience, provide the following potable water quantities for
preliminary design:
1.

200 to 250 liters (53 to 66 gallons) per day per person for personnel who live
on the platform.

2.

100 to 150 liters (26 to 40 gallons) per day per person for day workers and
visitors who do not live on the platform.

b. Based on Ekofisk experience, provide the following potable water storage


preliminary design:
1.

For platforms with potable water makers, provide a minimum of 2 days


storage.

2.

For platforms which depend solely on hauled potable water, provide a


minimum of 3 days storage.

10-2

Module type
Wellhead

B.

Area Ratio*
Set by well pattern/drilling
requirments
Separation
0.20 0.40
Gas Compression
0.15 0.20
Water Injection
0.20 0.25
PowerGeneration
0.20 0.30
Utilities
0.15 0.20
*Ratio of Major Equipment footprint area to total module area.
Water and Steam Systems
1. Approximate break point for steam pressure at which silica becomes a problem with
vaporization and deposition on turbine blades is at 500 psig.
2. The evaporation rate on a cooling tower is dependent on the amount of water being
cooled and temperature differential. For each 10 F temperature drop across the
tower, 1 % of the recirculation rate is evaporated. In other words, 0.001 times the
circulation rate in gpm times the temperature drop equals the evaporation rate is gpm.

C.

Economics
1. Capex Ratio Exponents
For Processing Plants and Ancillaries
Same No. of Units
COST 2=(SIZE OR CAPACITY 2/SIZE OR CAPACITY 1)0.5(COST1)
Unit number change required for new capacity.
USE 0.6 exponent
Infrastructure (Camps, Warehouses, Maintenance facilities)
USE 0.3 exponent
2. Capex Factors From Major Equipment Cost
Installed Cost
Onshore 2.5 x (Major equipment cost)
Offshore 5.0 x (Major equipment cost)
(excludes deck and jacket costs)
3. Annual Operating Costs
[excludes fuel and depreciation]
Onshore; 3% of Capital cost
Offshore; 5% of Capital Cost
4.

Capex (Total) Remote Area LNG Plants

10-3

D.

[One Train} $ 2x109 per 2x106 MTY [1990 BASIS]


Note: Cost Reductions via technology offset regulatory increases.
Use 5%/Yr esc. in general costs.
MTY = Metric Tonnes/Year
Hydrates
1. Hydrates generally form at 50 to 60 F.
2. Expect 1 F depression for each 1% methanol in liquid drainage. (Methanol content
may be estimated with a hydrometer)
3. Hydrate Control
Add a margin of 50% to calculate hydrate inhibitor injection rates.
4. Typical hydrate inhibitor concentrations:
MEG: 70 80 wt% at inlet and 60 wt% in solution outlet
MeOH: 98 wt% at inlet and 90 wt% in solution outlet
5. Glycol inhibitor loss estimate is 1 lb/MMSCF plus 200 ppm (v) in liquid
hydrocarbon.

E.

6. MeOH will melt hydrates already formed. MEG will not.


NGL Expander Plants
If the CO2 in the feed gas to the cryogenic plant is in excess of 0.25 mol %, be sure to
check for CO2 solidification in both the liquid and vapor phases immediately downstream
of the expander and in the top four stages of the demethanizer.

F.

Miscellaneous Plant Systems

G.

Instrument air As a preliminary estimate for instrument air requirements for feasibility
study design, use 0.5 to 0.75 scfm per control instrument.
Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Plants
1. For preliminary estimates of LNG plant design inlet volume for a premised LNG
delivery to ships for transport, use a 93 plant availability factor.

H.

2. Mercury occurring naturally in some natural gas streams is extremely corrosive to


aluminum heat exchangers used extensively LNG plants processes. Plan to check for
mercury in feed gas up front in any project.
Gas Processing Simulation Guidelines

I.

Include a 5 F margin from the sales contract hydrocarbon dewpoint temperature to


accommodate uncertainties in process simulator to predict dewpoint.
Offshore Pipeline Gas Specifications

10-4

J.

1.

Hydrocarbon dewpoint temperature sho uld be 10 20 F below minimum operating


temperature in pipeline for the operating pressure range to prevent liquid drop out.

2.

Water dewpoint temperature should be 10 20 F below minimum operating


temperature in pipeline for the operating pressure range to prevent free water drop
out.

3.

Maximum allowable platform discharge temperature is typically 90 125 F.

Offshore Crude Oil Specifications


1. Max RVP 10 psia for export to tanker/storage.
2. Salt content 70 to 200 mg/1 (sales spec to pipeline)
3. Water max 2 wt% (sales spec to pipeline)

K.

4. BS&W 0.5 vol% maximum ; 0.1 vol% average (sales spec to pipeline)
Wind Loadings

L.

Flat Surfaces P=0.004 x V2


Cylindrical Members P = 0.6 x 0.004 x V2
Where: P = Pressure in PSF
V = Velocity of wind MPH
Steam Leaks @ 100 psi

M.

Orfice
Steam
Size
Wasted/mo.
1
/2
835000
3
/8
470000
1
/4
210000
1
/8
52500
1
/16
13200
1
/32
3400
Composition of Air

N.

Air Composition ~ N2 78.07 mol%


02 20.99 mol%
Ar 0.94 mol%
Platform Deflection

Energy Loss / Month


Gas (scf) #2 Fuel oil
878347
7383
494737
4155
221053
1857
55263
464
13895
117
3579
30

Maximum deflection of platform due to wind and sea is:


deflection = Span / 400
Where: span = distance from cellar
deck to mud line, Ft.

10-5

O.

Kinetics

P.

For a second order reaction in a constant volume reactor, if 95% of the reactants react in
one time, it will require 20 more time units to react 95% of the remaining reactants.
Storage, Vessel Capacity

Q.

A.
Vessel Capacity: Capacity (gallons)=(Diameter, ft)2 +2) x Length, inches.
Pipeline Volume:

R.

(Diameter of pipe, inches)2 = Barrels/1000 feet (Results are approximately 3% high)


Pressure Vessels
In general, the maximum operating pressure (MOP) of a process pressure vessel is
established from the maximum internal or external pressure at which the vessel operates
while fulfilling its normal function.
In general, for vessels subject to internal pressure only, the maximum allowable working
pressure (MAWP) of a process vessel can be arrived at by adding the greater of 10% or
10 to 25 psi to the maximum operating pressure.

S.

T.

Economic L/D ratios for pressure vessels generally fall in the 2 to 5 range where L =
shell seam length and D = inside diameter, both in feet.
NACE Requirements
Material shall be selected to be resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) or the
environment should be controlled if the gas being handled is at a total pressure of 65 psia
or greater and if the partial pressure of H2 S in the gas is greater than 0.05 psia."
Pressure Waves (e.g. water hammer)
magnitude of PW in lbs f/in2 psi
PW = a x d x vd/(144 x g)
a = velocity of sound in the fluid fps
d = density of fluid, lb mass/ft3
vd = velocity decrease, i.e. velocity
before change less the velocity after change, FPS
g. = conversion factor = standard acceleration due to gravity, 32.174 fps2

10-6

U.

Insulation Types
Thermal Conductivity
(Btu/ (( hr ft 2 F)/in)

Surface burning characteristics


per ASTM E-84
Temperature

Insulating
Material

-100

Temperature
200
500
Other

range, F

Flame-spread Index

Fibrous Glass

0.20

0.26

0.50

-20 to 850

<25

Mineral Wool

0.35

0.52

60 to 1,900

Noncombustible
0
Noncombustible
<5

Cellular Glass

0.27

0.42+

Polyisocyanur
ate

Polystyrene

0.18

Polyurethane

0.14

Granular
Calcium
Silicate

Perlite

<50

Water
Absorbed
(submersion),
% by Volume
65 (high)

70 (high)
0
0

-290 to 1,200

0.14 at 75 F

-290 to 300

May be a fire risk


<20

0.23 at 75 F

-40 to 275

Combustible,
although sometimes
self-extinguishing

- (low)

0.25

-100 to 220

May be a fire risk

1.6 (low)

0.42+

0.55

60 to 1,500

Noncombustible
0

Noncombustible
0

0.47+

0.65

Smokedeveloped
Index

0.58

60 to 1,500

0.2
(considered
none)
0.7 (low)

75 (high)

16 (medium)

+Manufactures data

V.

Absolute Pressure of Atmosphere at Height H feet above Sea Level


P = P1 (1 0.00000687H)5.256
P1 = pressure at sea level pisa
Density: W = W1 (1-0.00000687H)4.256
W1 = density of air at sea level

10-7

Comments
Must have vapor barrier
in cold service, since it
is water absorbent.
General material.
Good workability
Deteriorates in a
alkaline
solution (e.g. 10%
NaOH). Poor abrasion
resistance.
Significant deterioration
in acids and in various
organics. Generally, is
replacement for
Excellent workability at
low temperatures
(below freezing point
of water)
Significant deterioration
in acids and various
organics,
but resists water and
vapors.
Excellent workability.
High water absorbency,
but will dry out. Good
workability
Good workability

MISCELLANEOUS REFERENCES
Process Design Handbook, Section 1.6.6, 1.6.7, Table 1.6.1 Pages 4 of 7, 5 of 7, 6 of 7.
GPSA Engineering Data Book, Section 13
J.M. Campbell, Gas Conditioning and Processing, Norman
Pressure Vessel Design For Process Engineers
Hydrocarbon Processing, May 1979, pg 181-191
How to Select Materials, Chemical Engineering, Nov 3, 1980, pg 86 to 131
PPCoN Process Personnel
NACE MR0175 Std Mal. Reg.

10-8

ONLINE VERSION