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# Experiment No:-

Date:-

Aim:

## To Determine Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence Impedances of an Alternator.

Apparatus Required:
S. No
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Apparatus
Rheostats

Type
Wire wound

Range
700/1A

Quantity
1

400/1A

1
1
1

Voltmeters

MI

52/5A
0-500V

Ammeters

MI
MI

0-250V
0-10A

1
1

MI

0-1A

MC
Digital
Digital/Analog

0-1A

1
1
1

Multimeter
Tachometer

0-10000RPM

Theory: For a power system during unbalanced operation, unsymmetrical faults such as single phase
to ground fault, phase to phase fault, double phase to ground fault, simple phase
representations leads to complicated calculations. The method of symmetrical components is
used for the analysis of unbalanced system.
The principle of symmetrical components is as follows. A set of n unbalanced phasors are
resolved into n sets of balanced phasors, each of which consists of n balanced vectors. These
balanced vectors are called symmetrical components of the original system phasors.

Symmetrical components of 3-phase system:An unbalanced systems of three vectors ( Va,Vb, Vc or Ia, Ib, Ic) can be resolved into
three balanced systems of vectors , the vectors of the resolved system are :
1. Positive sequence components:- [Va1, Vb1, Vc1 or Ia1,Ib1,Ic1] comprising three balanced
systems of vectors of the displaced mutually by 1200 and having the same phase sequence as
that of a original system.

## 2.Negative sequence components:- [Va2,Vb2,Vc2 or Ia2,Ib2,Ic2] comprising three balanced

systems of vectors of equal magnitude displaced mutually by 120 0 and having the opposite
phase sequence as that of a original system of vectors.
3. Zero sequence components:- [Va0, Vb0, Vc0 or Ia0, Ib0, Ic0] comprising three equal vectors
having zero phase displacement i.e., having same phase.
Symbolically, Subscript 1 is for the positive sequence entities. Subscript 2 is for the negative
sequence entities and subscript 0 is used for the zero sequence entities.
Va, Vb, Vc or Ia, Ib, Ic

-------

------

------

------

## Zero sequence components

Significance of the operator a:Letter a is commonly used to designate the operator that causes a counter-clockwise
rotation of 1200. It has unit magnitude and an angle of 1200. The vector operator a is defined
as
a =1ej2/3 =Cos(2/3)+jSin(2/3) = -0.5 + j0.866 ;
a2=1ej4/3 =Cos(4/3)+jSin(4/3) = -0.5 - j0.866 ;
a3=1ej2= 1+j0; and 1+a+a2 = 0.
The original unbalanced system of vectors can be resolved into their symmetrical components
or the respective symmetrical components can be added to get the original system of vectors.
Thus

and

Va= Va0+Va1+Va2

-------

[1]

Vb= Vb0+Vb1+Vb2

-------

[2]

Vc = Vc0+Vc1+Vc2

-------

[3]

--------

[4]

Ia= Ia0+Ia1+Ia2

Ib=Ib0+Ib1+Ib2

-------

[5]

Ic =Ic0+Ic1+Ic2

-------

[6]

From the equations, we can get symmetrical components of unbalanced systems of vectors.
Summarizing

Va0
1 1
Va 1 1 a
1 3
Va2
1 a 2

1 Va
a 2 Vb

a Vc

Va
1 1
Vb 1 a 2

Vc
1 a

Va 0
Vb
0
Vc0

a 2

In similar way,

Ia0
1 1
Ia 1 1 a
1
3
Ia2
1 a 2

1 Ia
a 2 Ib

a Ic

Ia
1 1
Ib 1 a 2

Ic
1 a

1
a

a 2

Ia0
Ib
0
Ic0

Zero sequence currents:In the three phase systems, when there is a neutral path for currents , then
IN=Ia+Ib+Ic
We get
Therefore

Ia+Ib+Ic =3*Iao
Iao=IN/3;

Therefore in the delta connected load, the line currents do not find return path. Hence line
currents do not have zero sequence components.
From balanced vector to symmetrical components:Positive sequence

Negative sequence

Zero sequence

Va1

Va2

Va0

Vb1=a2 Va1

Vb2=a Va1

Vb0=Va0

Vc1=a Va1

Vc2=a2 Va2

Vc0=Va0

## From the sets of the equations,

Va = Va0+Va1+Va2
Vb = Va0+a2Va1+aVa2
Vc = Va0+aVa1+a2Va2
In star connected system without neutral path or neutral grounding, zero sequence currents
are zero.

## Sequence impedances:The impedance offered by a rotating machine to positive sequence

component of current, differ from those offered to negative sequence components of currents.
The impedance offered by a circuit to positive sequence component current is called positive
sequence impedance of that circuit (Z1).The impedance offered by a circuit to negative
sequence component current is called negative sequence impedance of that circuit (Z 2). The
impedance offered by a circuit to zero sequence component current is called zero sequence
impedance of that circuit (Z0).

Sequence Impedances and networks of the alternator:The positive sequence network of 3-phase alternator consists of an e.m.f source Ea in series
with positive sequence impedance(Z1). Ea is the induced e.m.f of one phase, Z 1 is positive
sequence impedance Va1=Ea-Ia1Z1. The negative sequence network of a generator consists of
simply negative sequence impedance Z2 as there are no negative sequence e.m.fs induced by
alternator. Only negative sequence currents flows through negative sequence impedance and
the voltage drop in the negative sequence network is given by Va2= - Ia2 Z2
Zero sequence network of an alternator consists of the zero sequence
alternator per phase

impedance of

## Voltage equations: We observe that the currents of a particular sequence produces

voltage drop of line sequence. The equations are

Va1= Ea-Ia1*Z1;
Va2= -Ia2*Z2;
Va0= - Ia0*Z0;
Z0= Zgo+3*Zn;
Procedure:Measurement of Positive Sequence Impedance:1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram1.
2. Switch on the supply circuit after checking connections.
3. Bring the motor to rated speed by using motor field regulator.
4. By varying the field regulator of the alternator the open circuit voltage varies.
5. Vary the open circuit voltage until the rated voltage of the alternator is reached.
6. Tabulate the values.
7. Reduce the field current to a minimum value.
8. Now close the TPST switch, to make the armature terminals short circuited.
9. Vary the short circuit current until the rated current alternator current is reached.
10. Tabulate the values and Draw the open circuit and short circuit characteristics.
11. At any field current, measure open circuit voltage and short circuit current from
graph.
12. The ratio of open circuit voltage to short-circuit current gives the value of the
positive impedance of the alternator.
13. Positive sequence impedance

## (Z1) =Open circuit voltage / Short circuit current

Measurement of Negative Sequence Impedance:1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram2.
2. Switch on the DC supply to circuit after checking connections.
3. Bring the motor to the speed by using field regulator of motor.
4. Apply voltage to the alternator by using 1- variac till the ammeter reads the
rated current.
5. Note down the readings of voltmeter and ammeter.
6. Negative sequence impedance is given by Z2=V/(3I) ;
Measurement of Zero Sequence Impedance:1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram3.

## 2. Keep the field terminals of the alternator open circuited.

3. Apply reduced voltage to alternator through the 1- variac.
4. Note down the values of voltage (V) and current (I).
5. Zero sequence impedance is given by Z0=V/(3 I);
Precautions:1. Loose connections must be avoided.
2. TPST switch contact should come to touch in a simultaneous manner.
3. The single phase variac should be at minimum position before starting the
experiment.
4. Motor field regulator must be at minimum resistance position.
5. Connections must be checked thoroughly before giving supply.

S.no

Field
current
If Amps

Terminal
voltage
V volts

S. no

Field current
If Amps

Short circuit
current Isc in
Amps

S.no

Voltage V in
Volts

Current I in
Amps

Z2 = V
----3 I

## Average Z2= ___

Zero sequence impedance:-

S.no

Voltage V in
Volts

Current I in
Amps

Z0 = V
----3I
Average Z0= ___

Result:Positive, Negative and Zero sequence impedances of alternator are measured. Z 1=____,
_____pu; Z2=____, _____pu; Z0=____, _____pu;

Discussions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## What is meant by positive, negative, zero sequence currents?

Define symmetrical components transformation matrix.
What is meant by positive negative, zero sequence impedances?
What are the advantages of pu quantities?
List out the assumptions made in fault studies of power system network.
Draw the interconnection of sequence networks for all shunt faults on power system

network.
7. Draw zero sequence network of Y-G/ transformer.
8. What is the order of sequence impedances of (a) Turbo alternator (b) Hydro alternator.
9. What is short circuit MVA?