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Bolo is used for cutting tall

grasses and weeds and chopping
branches of trees

Hand trowel is used for

loosening the soil around the
growing plants and putting small
amount of manure fertilizer in
the soil.
Hand cultivator is used for
cultivating the garden plot by
loosening the soil and removing
weeds around the plant.

Pruning shears is for cutting

branches of planting materials
and unnecessary branches of

Shovel is used in removing

trash, digging loose soil, moving
soil from one place to another
and for mixing soil media.

Spading fork is used for

loosening the soil, digging out
root crops and turning over the
materials in a compost heap.

Pick-mattock is used for

digging canals, breaking hard
topsoil and for digging up
stones and tree stumps.

Rake is used for cleaning the

ground and leveling the topsoil.

Sprinklers for watering

seedlings and young plants

Hand fork is used for inter

row cultivation.

A disc harrow is a farm
implement that is used to till the soil
where crops are to be planted. It is
also used to chop up unwanted weeds
or crop remainders. It consists of
many carbon steeland sometimes the
longer lasting boron discs, which have
many varying concavities and disc
blade sizes and spacing and which are
arranged into two sections ("offset
disc harrow") or four sections
("tandem disc harrow").
A rice huller or rice husker is
an agricultural machine used to
automate the process of removing
the chaff (the outer husks) of grains
of rice. Throughout history, there
have been numerous techniques to
hull rice. Traditionally, it would be
pounded using some form of mortar
and pestle. An early simple machine
to do this is a rice pounder. Later
even more efficient machinery was
developed to hull and polish rice.
A rotavator is a very useful tool that
for a homeowner is used in the
garden or an allotment, and also in
fields by farmland owners. The
purpose of a rotavator is to break up
the soil so that planting (either of
crops or plants, mostly seeds) can
take place. They do not dig deeply
into the soil, but will turn the soil up
to about 9 in depth, although the
depth will depend largely on the size
of the machine and the type of soil it
is being used on.

Rice combine harvester is used for

the harvesting of rice or wheat. A
combine rice harvester can finish the
whole processes of rice or wheat
harvesting from harvesting, threshing
and grain cleaning. Using the
machine properly can not only
improves the working efficiency but
also can prolong its service life. In the
following, I will give you some
suggestions on how to use the
combine rice harvester properly.
A threshing machine is used to
separate the grain from the straw and
other light materials. It is, essentially,
a three-step process:

A corn dehusker is a machine that

husks corn- removes the outside of
the corn to reveal the kernels. A
cornhusker can be a worker that
removes the husk from corn,

A rice harvester produces rice at eight times the
speed of an unequipped farmer and four times
the speed of a sickle user if you can afford the
fuel. Without fuel, four people will be needed to
do the same job.

The function of a corn dehusker is to remove

the husk from the corn. This reveals the corn on
the cob.

Disk plows usually have three or more individually

mounted concave disks that are inclined backward to
achieve maximum depth. They are particularly adapted
for use in hard, dry soils, shrubby or bushy land, or on
rocky land. Disk tillers, also called harrow plows or oneway disk plows, usually consist of a gang of many disks
mounted on one axle (see harrow). Used after grain
harvest, they usually leave some stubble to help reduce
wind erosion and often have seeding equipment. Twoway (reversible) plows have disks or moldboards that can
be either opposed, so that one fills the trench made by
the other, or set to throw the soil entirely to the right or
Paddy Rice Seeder is for sowing germinated paddy
seed directly in wetland field. There is no need for
transplantation. It is a manually pulled implement. It
covers 8 rows of 20cm row-to-row spacing at a time. It is
made up of plastic materials. With an aim to fulfill the
wide needs of the agricultural sector, we are affianced in
offering supreme quality Paddy Seeder that is a
gardening equipment used to plant rice seeds.
A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a
high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of
hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or
construction. Most commonly, the term is used to
describe the distinctive farm vehicle. Agricultural
implements may be towed behind or mounted on the
tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of
power if the implement is mechanized. Another common
use of the term is for the power unit of a semi-trailer
truck. The first tractors, powered by steam engines, were
phased out followed by the internal combustion engine.
A disc harrow is a farm implement that is used
to till the soil where crops are to be planted. It is also
used to chop up unwanted weeds or crop remainders.
It consists of many carbon steeland sometimes the
longer lasting boron discs, which have many
varying concavities and disc blade sizes and spacing
(the choices of the later being determined by the final
result required in a given soil type) and which are
arranged into two sections ("offset disc harrow") or

four sections ("tandem disc harrow").

Growing and Shrinking Oceans

You are already familiar with the idea of divergent boundaries. Divergent
boundaries are the result of two tectonic plates that are pulling apart. When
this happens under the ocean, magma comes up to the surface, cools,
hardens, and forms new rock along the ocean floor. Older rock gets pushed
further and further away. This is called seafloor spreading and it causes
oceans to get bigger, while continents get pushed further and further apart.
So if new crust is being formed, why doesnt the Earth grow larger? Well,
thats because even while new rock is being created, older rock is being
destroyed at about the same rate. You learned that subduction is when one
tectonic plate (usually a thin oceanic plate) gets forced below another
tectonic plate (such as a thicker continental plate). As the subducted crust
gets pushed deeper and deeper below the Earth, it gets hotter and hotter
and eventually melts back into magma. Due to the processes of seafloor
spreading and subduction, which happen at the same time in different parts
of the Earth, rock is constantly being both created and destroyed. Because of

this, the Atlantic Ocean is growing larger and wider every year, while the
Pacific Ocean is sinking.

Atlantic Ocean is getting bigger and the Pacific smaller.By now we

know the continents move one centimeter a year in such a way that the
Atlantic Ocean is getting bigger and the Pacific smaller. Using research
vessels equipped with sonar, scientists have mapped the ocean floor and
found that continental drift is caused by a giant crack in the middle of the
Atlantic, called the mid-ocean ridge. Magma, molten mass from the earth's
core, is slowly leaking out above the earth's crust. When the hot magma
bubbles out it adds to the ocean floor and pushes the continents apart. As
the ocean floor changes, canyons, trenches or even islands form. As
structures in the sea change, ecosystems change. And as ecosystems
change, marine life adapts.

What is the theory of seafloor spreading?


Seafloor spreading is an oceanic process involving the formation of new oceanic crust
through the solidification of basaltic magma at mid-ocean ridges.This process is a
partial explanation for the process of Continental Drift.

The magma that forms these new plates emerges when oceanic plates part from one
another due to climatic or geological stresses. Convection currents in the relatively
weak and flexible upper mantle of Earth's crust are the driving cause of these stresses.

Rifts have the following features:

Most rift systems are triple-armed, meaning three fissures form.
Rifts begin as domes created by rising heat and pressure in the Earth's mantle.
Three-armed rifts spread until one arm dies and the remaining two extend to the
extent of the crust's plasticity.
Full developed rifts can split continental masses from one another and eventually
develop into new oceanic basins which will in time form oceans. Arabia and Africa are in
the process of splitting due to the formation of just such a rift, but they will not complete
this process for millions of years.
Existing rifts on the ocean floor map out the progress of continental masses and sea
floor during the millennia of Earth's existence. Africa's Western coast is home to just
such a concluded rift. The Earth is constantly being reshaped by this process.