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De La Salle University

Gokongwei College of Engineering


Civil Engineering Department

Experiment No. 1

Calibration of Weir of Hydrology Apparatus

Student Name: Sanchez, Kim R.


Student Number: 11318546
Professor: Engr. Maria Emilia P. Sevilla

Block: EH2
Date Performed: June 1, 2016

CRITERIA
1. The methodology and experimental set-up were described in detail.
2. The data were presented properly using tables/graphs.
3. The analysis of data and conclusions were sound and correct.
4. The theoretical equations were derived completely and used correctly.
5. The report used correct grammar & tense and presented in the proper format.

Score
Remarks:

RATING

I.

OBJECTIVES

This experiment aims:

To identify the characteristics and type of relationship between the flow rate (Q) and

Hydraulic Head (H) of the water exiting the rectangular weir.


To conduct several measurements at different flow rates to produce a calibration curve of

the rainfall apparatus.


To familiarize the basic functions of the rainfall apparatus for further experimentation.

II.

PROCEDURES
The flow of water beginning from the rotameter was then directed to the pipe

connecting valves C and D. These designated valves were then simultaneously unlocked
while Valve B was being closed. The water flowed towards the final chamber until it
overflows the weir. When the flow is steadied and calmed, the flowrate and height above the
weir was recorded accordingly per group. The procedure was repeated until all assigned flow
rates were accomplished.
III.

SAMPLE CALCULATION

Conversion of flow rate from lpm to m3/s:


3

2.5

IV.

l
1m
1 min
m

=0.417 104
min 1000l 60 s
s

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1. Experimental Data


1st Trial
lp
m

2
4
6
8

m3/s
0
0.33
3
0.66
7
1.00
0
1.33

2nd Trial
H
0

lpm

15

2.5

20.5

4.5

27
31.5

6.5
8.5

m3/s
0
0.41
7
0.75
0
1.08
3
1.41

3rd Trial
H
0

lp
m

16

23

29
33

7
9

m3/s
0
0.50
0
0.83
3
1.16
7
1.50

4th Trial
H
0

lpm

17

3.5

24

5.5

30
35

7.5
9.5

m3/s
0
0.58
3
0.91
7
1.25
0
1.58

H
0
19
25
30.5
35

10
12
14
16
18
20

3
1.66
7
2.00
0
2.33
3
2.66
7
3.00
0
3.33
3

37
41.5
47.5
51.5
55.5
59

10.
5
12.
5
14.
5
16.
5
18.
5
20.
5

7
1.75
0
2.08
3
2.41
7
2.75
0
3.08
3
3.41
7

39

11

43

13

48

15

53

17

56

19

61

21

0
1.83
3
2.16
7
2.50
0
2.83
3
3.16
7
3.50
0

3
1.91
7
2.25
0
2.58
3
2.91
7
3.25
0
3.58
3

11.
5
13.
5
15.
5
17.
5
19.
5
21.
5

39
44
49
54
59
62

40
45
50.5
56
59.5
63

Note: H is expressed in millimeters and flow rates are expressed in 10-4 m3/s
The diagram shown below is a graphical representation of the Experimental Data collected from
the activity.

Flow Rate (Q) vs Head (H)


4
3.5

f(x) = - 0x^3 + 0x^2 + 0.01x


R = 1

3
2.5

Flow Rate (m3/s)

2
1.5
1
0.5
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Head (mm)
Flow Rate vs Head

Polynomial (Flow Rate vs Head)

Figure 1. Rectangular Weir Calibration Curve


The main purpose of this experiment is to create a calibration curve for the
rainfall apparatus by collecting the data of the flow rate (Q) and head (H) produced by the
given rectangular weir. It must be conducted with utmost accuracy as this will serve as

the benchmark for future experiments. Minimizing errors could prove useful, most
especially in the graphing of the calibration curve.

From the data obtained in the process of the experiment, it is inferred from the
table above that there is a directly proportional relationship between the flow rate (Q) of
water from the rainfall apparatus and its equivalent head (H) of the water flowing from
the given rectangular weir as well. As the flow rate assigned is increased per test, the
head of the excess water pouring from the rectangular weir increased along with it. All
obtained results are consistent with what is projected on the graph of the calibration curve
with

the

equation

of

-8E-06x3

0.0012x2

0.0106x

R = 0.99851.

V.

CONCLUSIONS
After the experimentation was conducted, it was identified from the experimental
data that there is a directly proportional relationship between the height of the head (H)
of the water flowing from the weir and the flow rate (Q) within the rainfall apparatus.
This trend is particularly consistent with what is plotted in the graph of the calibration
curve that will be used for future reference in the coming experiments. Calibrating the
rectangular weir is important because it will serve as the benchmark in the future
laboratory tests. It is extremely vital that accurate and precise measurements are taken to
produce quality results in the succeeding experiments.

VI.

RECOMMENDATIONS
It is advised to be as responsive as possible in watching and observing the flow
rate. Human error will always be present to some degree but minimizing it could be
helpful in collecting precise and accurate data. Secondhand opinions in reading the
increments between flow rate is suggested to achieve better data and graphs. It is advised
to wait a few seconds for the water to stabilize after each flow rate increment to reduce

any possible calibration errors. It is best to do preliminary research and to study


beforehand to value the importance of the activity. The knowledge and information
gained from this experiment will prove to be useful in the future laboratory activities. If
possible, the acquisition of more equipment would prove beneficial so that students may
simultaneously perform the activity and not have to wait for or merge with other groups.
In computation, it is more efficient to make use of Microsoft excel and manipulate the
cells with formulas, this will save time and is less likely to be subjected to input error in
the calculator for manual solving.