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ACQUISITION

PROCESSING

Elastic impedance

PATRICK CONNOLLY, BP Amoco, Houston, Texas, U.S.

as partial offset volumes to exploit the AVO information

in the data. However, there has been significant asymmetry in the way these volumes could be calibrated and

inverted. The amplitudes of near-offset, or intercept, stacks

relate to changes in acoustic impedance and can be tied to

well logs using synthetics based on acoustic impedance

(AI) or inverted, to some extent, back to AI using poststack

inversion algorithms. However, there have been no simple analogous processes for far-offset stacks.

The symmetry can be largely restored using a function

I call elastic impedance (EI). This is a generalization of

acoustic impedance for variable incidence angle. EI provides a consistent and absolute framework to calibrate

and invert nonzero-offset seismic data just as AI does for

zero-offset data. EI, an approximation derived from a linearization of the Zoeppritz equations (Appendix, part 1),

is accurate enough for widespread application.

As might be expected, EI is a function of P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and incidence angle. To relate

EI to seismic, the stacked data must be some form of angle

stack rather than a constant range of offsets. There are several ways of constructing suitable data sets by either careful mute design or by linear combination of intercept and

gradient functions. (Part 2 of the Appendix reviews these

methods.)

EI was initially developed by BP in the early 1990s to

help exploration and development in the Atlantic Margins

province, west of the Shetlands, where Tertiary reservoirs

are typified by class II and class III AVO responses. Figure

1 shows a suite of logs from the Foinaven discovery well

drilled in 1992. The 30 elastic-impedance log, EI(30), is

broadly similar in appearance to the acoustic-impedance

log although the absolute numbers are lower; it is a prop-

At this well, the sands are predominantly class III and

so have slightly higher amplitudes at 30 than at normal

incidence. This can be more clearly seen in Figure 2 in

which the EI log has been scaled to have approximately

the same shale baseline as the AI log. When the sands are

class II, a more dramatic difference is evident between the

AI and EI logs.

The seismic data around Foinaven suffer from very

strong peg-leg multiples. Even after demultiple, the signal-to-noise ratio of the near-trace data is often poor, especially from the class II events, whereas the far-offset data

are generally of good quality. EI allows the well data to be

tied directly to the high-angle seismic which can then be

calibrated and inverted without reference to the near offsets.

Figure 3 shows part of the EI(30) log from another

Foinaven well overlain on an inverted 30 angle stack. The

data were inverted using a constrained sparse spike algorithm for which the EI log provided the basis for the constraints and was used to QC the result.

An EI log provides an absolute frame of reference and

so can also calibrate the inverted data to any desired rock

property with which it correlates. In the case of Foinaven,

a strong correlation was found between EI(30) and hydrocarbon pore volume, and this relationship was used to

estimate the in-place volumes for the field from the inverted

30 seismic volume.

Figure 4 shows a section from the inverted 30 volume

used to design the trajectory of the first high-angle development well. The oil sands correlated closely with the

areas of low elastic impedance. The EI volume was used

to design the trajectories of all subsequent development

wells.

Figure 1. Comparison of an AI curve with a 30 EI curve for the Foinaven discovery well 204/24a-2.

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applicable in all circumstances; however, the loss of accuracy is easy to calculate and minimize (Appendix, part 3).

In most situations, more general seismic data quality issues

and particularly uncertainty in the estimation of incidence

angle are probably larger than errors in the implied reflectivity from the EI values.

Estimating Poissons ratio from seismic data has

prompted much comment in the literature and was the subject of a workshop at SEGs 1998 Annual Meeting. One

approach is to invert a 90 angle stack (see part 2 of the

Appendix) which, in theory, has amplitudes that are

approximately proportional to changes in Poissons ratio.

However, the construction of quantitatively accurate

Poissons ratio stacks is notoriously difficult because of sensitivity to residual moveout and bandwidth variations.

EI can provide an optimum compromise. Part 4 of the

Appendix shows how one variant of EI has values equal

to AI at normal incidence and to (Vp/Vs)2 at 90 (this being

closely related to Poissons ratio) with a smooth transition

curve scaled so that the shale baseline is

approximately the same as the AI curve. This shows

the percentage decrease in impedance at the oil-sand

interface is greater than 30 at normal incidence, consistent with the class III response of these sands.

stack as is stable and then to calibrate or invert it using the

equivalent EI log.

Because of the difficulties and uncertainties of constructing angle stacks, a method of quality-controlling the

results using available well data is important. EI provides

a simple mechanism to produce synthetic seismograms for

variable incidence angle. A Vp term can be factored out of

the EI expression and the remaining angle-dependent

expression can be used in place of the density log in conventional synthetics software (equation 1.3). The Vp log is

then calibrated with a time-depth relationship in the usual

way.

Figure 5 shows near- and far-offset ties to a west of

Shetlands well. There is much variation of amplitudes

30 angle stack. The log was used to constrain a conventional poststack sparse spike inversion and to QC

the result.

Figure 4. A section through the inverted 30 volume, showing the path of the first development well. The location

of oil-bearing sands encountered by the well correlates with the areas of low elastic impedance (yellow).

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0000

with offset in this area, and the two angle stacks are quite

different. Despite this, both well ties are of good quality.

A principal benefit of EI within BP has been its value

as a communication and integration tool. EI allows AVO

information to be displayed in a way that can be understood more intuitively by nongeophysical specialists. It is

easily incorporated into petrophysical systems allowing

AVO information to be communicated throughout the

earth-science community. EI can be used to display rockproperty data, either from wireline or core measurements,

in a way that can be directly related to far-offset stacks.

Shear-wave data are now recorded routinely in many

wells so the calculation of, say, an EI(30) log within any

petrophysical package is straightforward. The combination

of an AI and EI curve is often simpler to relate to the seismic response than, say, Vs or Poissons ratio logs. An example is shown in Figure 6 that is a standard BP petrophysical

display from the Gulf of Mexico.

With this type of data established within a petrophysical database the EI concept can help with more general

rock-property studies. Figure 7 shows AI/EI crossplots of

data from 19 Gulf of Mexico wells for shales, brine, and

oil sands. By measuring average impedance values we

can quickly estimate the AVO response of various lithology combinations. This particular data set, for example,

shows that the percentage increase in amplitude from 030 for a shale/brine sand interface (~18%) is almost exactly

the same as for a shale/oil sand interface (~17%). So, for

Figure 5. Low- and high-angle synthetic ties for a west of Shetlands well. The left side of the display is a conventional AI synthetic match to a 10 angle stack. The right side is a 30 EI-based synthetic tied to a 30 angle stack.

Figure 6. Standard petrophysical display for a Gulf of Mexico well (MC619-1). The two right tracks show the AI

and EI(30) curves. In this example, the upper sand would be expected to generate little response at normal

incidence and a tough-peak pair at far offsets.

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However, looking at average values only tells part

of the story. Figure 8 shows simplified, Gaussian frequency curves of the AI and EI distributions of the three

lithologies.

EI(30) data are less than those of the AI data. The area of

overlap between the oil and brine-sand values at 30 is less

than half that at normal incidence. I find that many data

sets have this characteristic (i.e., that EI values are more

Figure 7. AI against EI(30) crossplots of data from 10 Gulf of Mexico wells for shales (left), brine sands (center), and

oil sands (right). Average AI and EI values can be read from the histograms and from these reflection coefficients

for any lithology combination at normal and 30 incidence. These data show almost the same percentage increase in

amplitude for a shale/brine-sand interface as a shale/oil-sand interface.

Figure 8. Gaussian curves equivalent to the histograms of Figure 7 showing the distribution of AI and EI(30) values

for the three lithologies. The normalized standard deviations for the shale, brine-sand, and oil-sand AI data are

0.15, 0.12, and 0.11. They are 0.10, 0.08, and 0.09 for the EI data.

Figure 9. The relationship between oil saturation and AI (left) and EI(30) (right) from core sample measurements

from the Foinanven Field.

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that most forms of amplitude analysis would be less

ambiguous at higher incidence angles than lower.

Finally, an example of using EI to display the results

of core measurement data. The Foinaven Field is the subject of a 4-D, time-lapse seismic experiment and various

core sample measurements have been made to calibrate

the results. Figure 9 shows the relationship between oil saturation, AI, and EI(30). Clearly, the far offsets are more sensitive to changing saturation than the near ones.

In summary EI is pragmatic technology. It allows at

least first-order AVO effects to be incorporated routinely

into seismic and rock-property analysis and interpreta-

in effort. This allows for routine extraction of quantitative

AVO information from large 3-D volumes. LE

Acknowledgments: The examples are the work of many people. Id especially acknowledge and thank current and former BP Atlantic Margins

colleagues Mike Cooper, Dave Cowper, Robert Hanna, Mike Currie, and

Dave Lynch and our joint venture partners Shell UK for support and

encouragement. Also Ed Meanley, Sue Raikes, Terry Redshaw, Stan

Davis, and Wayne Wendt for additional help and both Shell and BP

Amoco for permission to publish this paper.

Corresponding author: Patrick Connolly, connolpa@bp.com

Appendix

1) Derivation. Equation 1.1, a well known linearization of

the Zoeppritz equations for P-wave reflectivity, is accurate

for small changes of elastic parameters for subcritical

angles.

(1.1)

where

Note that had we used only the first two terms of (1.1),

then the above and following expressions differ only by

changing the tan2 to sin2. We substitute again lnx for

x/x;

and where

and similarly for the other variables (NB. For ease of notation, the bars will be omitted from the averaged Vs2/Vp2

ratios.)

We require a function f(t) which has properties analogous to acoustic impedance, such that reflectivity can be

derived from the formula given below for any incidence

angle

Call this function EI (elastic impedance), and use the alternative log derivation for reflectivity which is accurate for

small to moderate changes in impedance;

differential and logarithmic terms on both sides), setting

the integration constant to zero:

(1.2)

An alternative form, with a Vp term factored out, can be

used for generating synthetics (see main text).

(1.3)

2) Angle stacks. The ideal angle stack has amplitudes that

relate to a specific incidence angle over a long time window and has enhanced signal to noise. In other words it

should approximate as closely as possible a band-limited

constant angle reflectivity sequence. The construction of

an angle stack requires knowledge of the relationships

between offset and incidence angle and between angle

and so,

446

the s;

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but if we restrict ourselves to first-order approximations

then angle stacks can be calculated with little extra effort

beyond conventional stacking.

These approximations limit applicability to data for

which the two-term moveout and Dix equations are valid

and for which amplitudes are proportional to sin2, (where

is incidence angle). This effectively means layer-cake

geometry, offset less than depth and incidence angle less

than 30-35. We are also limiting ourselves to an isotropic

medium. This is probably the most severe limitation;

increasing anisotropy will distort raypaths and alter AVO

behavior. Correctly balanced, true prestack amplitudes

are also assumed.

The following expression relates incidence angle to offset given the above constraints.

Figure A1. Finite angle stack weighting functions.

(2.1)

where = incidence angle,

x = offset,

t0 = zero offset two way time

vi = interval velocity

vr = rms velocity

There are essentially two methods of constructing angle

stacks; the first uses linear combinations of intercept and

gradient, and the second uses averaging between appropriate muting functions. The former can also be reformulated as a weighted stack.

As is well known from Shueys classic paper, amplitudes are linear with sin2 up to about 30-35. Therefore,

using (2.1) we can estimate sin2 for each sample through

a CDP time slice and fit a regression line through the

amplitude values up to the maximum appropriate angle.

Numerous AVO attribute values can then be constructed

from this line: the intercept, the gradient, Poissons ratio

stack (the value at 0=90) or the value for any intermediate angle (called Finite Angle Stack within BP). This entire

process can be efficiently programmed to run almost as

quickly as a conventional stack.

Perhaps a more intuitive way to look at this process is

to rearrange it as a weighted stack. The simple linear

regression formula for intercept and gradient formula can

be rearranged as weighting functions as follows, where X

is sin2, Y is the equivalent amplitude value, and N is stack

fold.

function for any desired angle stack A().

one time slice to output a range of finite angle stacks from

0 (intercept) to 90 (Poissons ratio). This more closely

shows the similarity between this process and partial

stacking.

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stack and a midangle stack is similar to a far-offset stack.

Higher angle stacks are projections beyond the range of

recorded data which must exploit the difference between

near and far offsets. This will inevitably be very sensitive

to residual moveout and phase and bandwidth variations

which explains some of the difficulty in trying to estimate

Poissons ratio values from P-wave seismic data.

The second way to produce an angle stack is to design

an appropriate muting function. Equation 2.1 can be integrated with respect to x to give the average value of sin2

for a range of offsets stacked between x1 and x2.

(2.2)

Because amplitude is linear with sin2, the average amplitude of the stack will also correspond to this angle.

Either the outer or inner mute can be fixed and then

its pair calculated. For example, for a high-angle stack the

outer mute could be a 35 mute calculated from equation

2.1 possibly combined with the maximum offset-dependent upon acquisition geometry. The inner mute to provide

some target angle could then be calculated from equation

2.2. In practice a fixed angle can usually only be achieved

over some limited window. An example of this process is

shown in Figure A2. (Note that the final muting functions

should be smoothed to some extent.)

This second method of angle stack construction has the

advantage that only conventional stacking software is

required. Its disadvantages are that it assumes regular

geometry and is only capable of producing stacks at a limited range of angles. The regression approach is far more

flexible.

Of all the errors implicit in the EI/angle-stack approach

almost certainly the largest is the estimate of incidence

angle. Every effort should be made to minimize this and

certainly this should include reestimating the angles at each

velocity control point when constructing angle stacks.

3) Accuracy. The derivation of the EI formula (Appendix,

part 1) requires the Vs/Vp ratio in the exponentials be kept

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two-way-time (ms)

two-way-time (ms)

40000

35000

30000

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

16000

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

Figure A2. A typical stacking velocity function and its Dix interval equivalent. From these and equation 2.1, an

outer 35 mute to exclude the nonlinear AVO is derived. Then, from equation 2.2, an inner-trace mute is calculated

to give an average stack angle of 25.

constant for the entire time series (or constant within any

system in which absolute comparisons are being made).

This reduces the accuracy of the derived reflectivity compared with that obtained directly from equation 1.1 for

which the Vs/Vp ratio can be set to be the average across

each interface. Again substituting K for Vs2/Vp2, if K is

the difference between the true local value and the

constant value, then from equation 1.1 the error in the

reflection coefficient is

(3.1)

the error for the entire log. As an example, the error was

calculated for the 204/24a-2 data and is displayed in Figure

A3 as signal-to-noise for a range of K values.

This provides a mechanism to obtain the optimum K

value for any data set. In this example the signal-to-noise

of 12 should be more than adequate for most purposes.

For comparison the signal-to-noise from ignoring AVO

and using an AI approximation is 1.3 which would be

unacceptable for quantitative analysis. In general errors

introduced by the EI approximation will probably be much

smaller than those arising from the estimation of incidence

angle.

It is possible to derive a correction to an EI log such

that the derived reflectivity is accurate for a locally averaged K value rather than the constant value. The correction is, however, recursive, dependent on the overburden

and hence loses the prime advantage of the EI function

that it depends only on instantaneous local properties. If

K is the locally averaged value and K is the constant value

the following expression is calculated for each sample.

(3.2)

R is the ratio of the correction for the (i-1)th sample to the

ith sample so the correction works by calculating the running sum of this expression and then multiplying the EI

values by this factor (Figure A4).

Figure A3. The ratio of the rms level of the R(30)

reflectivity from (1.1) divided by the EI error term

from (3.1) for a range of K values for the 204/24a-2

data. The maximum signal-to-noise is about 12 and

corresponds to a K value of about 0.21.

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APRIL 1999

angle stacks (outlined in Appendix, part 2) are based on

the first order AVO equation whereas the EI derivation

(Appendix, part 1) is based on the second-order equation.

Below 30, this makes little difference, but if we wish to

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Figure A4. An example of the application of the EI correction (3.2) to the 204/24a-2 data. The effect of the correction

is small for this example.

calibrate higher-angle stacks constructed using the regression line projection method then we should use the first

order EI1 variation which Ill denote with the subscript. As

noted in Appendix 1, this is the same as the second-order

version but with the tangent in the Vp exponential term

changing to a sine.

(4.1)

Ive already shown that EI(0) = AI and from 4.1 we can

now see that if we let K = 0.25 then EI1(90) = (Vp/Vs)2. The

absolute levels of EI1(90) will depend on exactly which

value for K is being used but relative amplitudes should

always be approximately proportional to (Vp/Vs)2. And of

course (Vp/Vs)2 can be easily transformed into Poissons

ratio which in appearance is a very similar function.

Figure A5 shows a suite of EI 1 functions for the

204/24a-2 well with the gamma and log resistivity curves

for reference and showing comparisons with (Vp/Vs)2 and

Poissons ratio curves. The curve values have all been normalized. The optimized K value of 0.21 was used for the

EI calculations, but the EI1(90) is almost identical to the

(Vp/Vs)2 curve.

EI 1 curves therefore provide a smooth transition

between AI and (Vp/Vs)2 functions. In principle a corresponding angle stack could be constructed and inverted

for any desired angle but in practice these will become

increasingly unreliable at higher angles. The EI concept,

however, allows an optimum balance to be chosen.

(Vp/Vs)2 and a Poissons ratio curve for the 204/24a-2

well. Gamma and log resistivity included for reference. The EI1 curves form a continuum between an AI

and a (Vp/Vs)2 curve.

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