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Velocity Analysis

Chapter 6 Notes
Velocity Analysis
MENG 371
Dr. Keith Hekman
The American University in Cairo
Mechanical Engineering Department

&
4.2 Definitions
& dR &
Linear Velocity (V) V = dt = R
d 
=
Angular Velocity () =
dt
4.3& Velocity of a point
RPA = pei
&
&
&
VPA = VP = RPA
= pei i = pei (i )

( )

if point A is moving

All figures taken from Design of Machinery, 3rd ed. Robert Norton 2003
1

&
&
VP = V A + pei (i )

Graphical Velocity Analysis (3 & 4)


Given linkage configuration, 2, find 3 and 4
Know VA and direction of VB and VBA
(perpendicular to link)
V=r*w. Find the intersection point

Graphical Velocity Analysis (VC)


After finding 3 and 4, find VC
VC=VA+VCA
Recall that 3 was in the opposite direction as 2
VC

VBA
VB

VBA Direction
VBA

VA
VCA

VA
VB

Double Scale
VCA

VC

VB Direction

Instant Centers

Instant Centers

A point common to two bodies in plane motion,


which point has the same instantaneous velocity in
each body.
In ENGR 214 found instant center between links 1
and 3 (point on link 3 with no velocity
Also instant center
between links 2 and 4

Kennedys rule: any three links will


have three sets of instant centers and
they will lie on a straight line
The pins are instant centers
I13 is from links 1,2,3 and 1,3,4
I24 is from links 1,2,4 and 2,3,4

I13

I24

Instant Centers

Instant Centers
I13 has zero velocity since link 1
is ground
3 is the same all over link 3
Velocity relative to ground=r,
perpendicular to r
VA2=a2=VA3=-p3
From this,3 is in the opposite
direction as 2 since a and p are
VA2
in opposite directions, and
smaller in magnitude since p>a A

p
3

a
7

I13

I24 has the same velocity on link 2


and link 4
VI2=l22=VI4=l44
From this, 4 is in the same direction
as 2 since l2 and l4 are in same
directions, and smaller in magnitude
since l4>l2
l4

I24

VA3
8

VI4 V
I2

l2

Instant Centers Practice Problems

Analytical Velocity Analysis 4Bar


Given 2 find 3 and 4

A
B

O2

O4

Power=Tinin=Toutout
A
O4
O2

10

Analytical Velocity Analysis 4Bar


Write the vector loop equation
ae i 2 + be i 3 ce i 4 de i1 = 0

After solving the position


analysis, take the derivative

( )

( )

( )

ae i 2 i2 + be i 3 i3 cei 4 i4 = 0

Analytical Velocity Analysis 4Bar


i 2 ae i 2 + i 3be i 3 i 4ce i 4 = 0

Take knowns to one side


3be i 3 4cei 4 = 2 ae i 2

Take conjugate to get 2nd


equation
3be i 3 4ce i 4 = 2 ae i 2

i 2 ae i 2 + i 3bei 3 i 4cei 4 = 0

Put in matrix form

or

&
&
&
V A + V BA V B = 0

where
11

&
V A = i 2 aei 2
&
VBA = i 3bei 3
&
VB = i 4cei 4

cei 4 3 2 aei 2

=
cei 4 4 2 ae i 2
1
3 bei 3
cei 4 2 aei 2


Invert matrix
= i 3
ce i 4 2 ae i 2
4 be
bei 3
i 3
be

12

Analytical Velocity Analysis


Inverted Crank Slider

Given 2 find 3 and b dot

Analytical Velocity Analysis


Inverted Crank Slider

Given 2 find 3 and b dot


Write the vector loop equation
ae i 2 be i 3 cei 4 de i1 = 0

After solving the position


analysis, take the derivative
i 2 ae i 2 bei 3 i 3be i 3 i 4 cei 4 = 0

To get another equation


3 = 4 + or 3 = 4
so
13

14

Analytical Velocity Analysis


Inverted Crank Slider
be

i 3

+ i 3 be

i 3

+ ce

i 4

)= i ae
2

i 2

Analytical Velocity Analysis


Velocity of any Point on a Linkage
Write the vector for RP
R p = aei 2 + pei ( 3 + 3 )

Take conjugate to get second


equation

Take the derivative

be i 3 i 3 be i 3 + ce i 4 = i 2 ae i 2

Similarly

V p = i 2 aei 2 + i 3 pei ( 3 + 3 )

RS = sei ( 2 + 2 )

Put in matrix form


i 3

(
(

i 3

i 4

(
(

VS = i 2 sei ( 2 + 2 )

b i 2 aei 2
=
i
3 i 2 ae 2

e
i be + ce
i 3
i be i 3 + ce i 4
e
1
b ei 3
i bei 3 + cei 4 i 2 aei 2


= i 3

i be i 3 + ce i 4 i 2 ae i 2
15 3
e

bei 3 + i 3 be i 3 + cei 4 = i 2 ae i 2

RU = uei ( 4 + 4 )

VU = i 4uei ( 4 + 4 )

16

RP