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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise A, Question 1

Question:
Integrate the following with respect to x:
5
x

(a) 3 sec2 x +

x2

(b) 5ex 4 sin x + 2x3


(c) 2 ( sin x cos x + x )
(d) 3 sec x tan x

2
x

(e) 5ex + 4 cos x

(f)

1
2x

+ 2 cosec2 x

(g)

1
x

1
x2

2
x2

1
x3

(h) ex + sin x + cos x


(i) 2 cosec x cot x sec2 x
1
x

(j) ex +

cosec2 x

Solution:
(a)

5
2

3 sec2 x + x + 2 dx

3 sec2 x + x + 2x 2 dx

= 3 tan x + 5 ln | x |

2
x

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 3

(b) ( 5ex 4 sin x + 2x3 ) dx


=

5ex

5ex

+ 4 cos x +

2x4
4

+ 4 cos x +

x4
2

(c) 2 ( sin x cos x + x ) dx


= ( 2 sin x 2 cos x + 2x ) dx
= 2 cos x 2 sin x + x2 + C
(d)

3 sec x tan x x
dx

= 3 sec x 2 ln | x | +
(e)

5ex + 4 cos x 2 dx

= ( 5ex + 4 cos x 2x 2 ) dx
= 5ex + 4 sin x +
(f)

(g)

1
2 x dx
+
2
cosec
2x

=
=

2
x

1
2

+ 2 cosec2 x dx
2
x

ln | x | 2 cot x +

1
1
1
+
+
dx
x
x2
x3

+ x 2 + x 3 dx
x

= ln | x | +

x1
1

= ln | x |

1
x

x2
2

1
2x2

(h) ( ex + sin x + cos x ) dx


= ex cos x + sin x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 3 of 3

(i) ( 2 cosec x cot x sec2 x ) dx


= 2 cosec x tan x + C
(j)

1
x

e + x cosec2 x
dx

= ex + ln | x | +

cot x +

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise A, Question 2

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a)

1
1

+ 2 dx
2
cos x
x

(b)

sin x
x dx
+
2e
cos2 x

(c)

1+x
1 + cos x
+
dx
sin2 x

x2

(d)

1
1
+
dx
x
sin2 x

(e) sin x ( 1 + sec2 x ) dx


(f) cos x ( 1 + cosec2 x ) dx
(g) cosec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) dx
(h) sec2 x ( 1 cot2 x ) dx
(i) sec2 x ( 1 + ex cos2 x ) dx
1 + sin x
2 x sec x dx
+
cos
cos2 x

(j)

Solution:
(a)

1
1

+
dx
cos2 x
x2

= ( sec2 x + x 2 ) dx
= tan x

1
x

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

(b)

Page 2 of 3

sin x
x dx
+
2e
cos2 x

= ( tan x sec x + 2ex ) dx


= sec x + 2ex + C
(c)

1+x
1 + cos x
+
dx
2
sin x

x2

= ( cosec2 x + cot x cosec x + x 2 + x 1 ) dx


= cot x cosec x
(d)

1
x

+ ln | x | +

1
1
+
x dx
sin2 x

dx
cosec2 x + x

= cot x + ln | x | +

(e) sin x ( 1 + sec2 x ) dx


= ( sin x + sin x sec2 x ) dx
= ( sin x + tan x sec x ) dx
= cos x + sec x + C
(f) cos x ( 1 + cosec2 x ) dx
= ( cos x + cos x cosec2 x ) dx
= ( cos x + cot x cosec x ) dx
= sin x cosec x + C
(g) cosec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) dx
= ( cosec2 x + cosec2 x tan2 x ) dx
= ( cosec2 x + sec2 x ) dx
= cot x + tan x + C
(h) sec2 x ( 1 cot2 x ) dx
= ( sec2 x sec2 x cot2 x ) dx
= ( sec2 x cosec2 x ) dx
= tan x + cot x + C
(i) sec2 x ( 1 + ex cos2 x ) dx
= ( sec2 x + ex cos2 x sec2 x ) dx
= ( sec2 x + ex ) dx
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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

= tan x + ex +
(j)

Page 3 of 3

1 + sin x

+ cos2 x sec x
dx
2
cos x

= ( sec2 x + tan x sec x + cos x ) dx


= tan x + sec x + sin x + C
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 1

Question:
Integrate the following:
(a) sin ( 2x + 1 )
(b) 3e2x
(c) 4ex + 5
(d) cos ( 1 2x )
(e) cosec2 3x
(f) sec 4x tan 4x
(g) 3 sin

x
+
1
2

(h) sec2 ( 2 x )
(i) cosec 2x cot 2x
(j) cos 3x sin 3x

Solution:
(a) sin

2x + 1 dx = 2 cos 2x + 1
+

(b) 3e2xdx =

3 2x
2e

(c) 4ex + 5dx = 4ex + 5 +


(d) cos

1 2x
dx = 2 sin
1 2x
+

OR Let y = sin ( 1 2x )

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

then

dy
dx

= cos

cos

Page 2 of 2

1 2x

1 2x
dx = 2 sin
1 2x
+

(e) cosec2 3x dx =

1
3

cot 3x +

(f) sec 4x tan 4x dx =

1
4

sec 4x +

(g) 3 sin

1
x
+
1
dx
=

6
cos
x+1
+
2
2

(h) sec2 ( 2 x ) dx = tan ( 2 x ) +


OR Let y = tan ( 2 x )
then

dy
dx

(by chain rule)

2x

= sec2

1
2

cosec 2x +

C
(by chain rule)

sec2 ( 2 x ) dx = tan ( 2 x ) +
(i) cosec 2x cot 2x dx =

(j) ( cos 3x sin 3x ) dx


=

1
3

1
3

sin 3x +

1
3

cos 3x +

sin 3x + cos 3x
+

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 2

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a)

1
2x

dx
e 2 sin 2x 1

(b) ( ex + 1 ) 2 dx
(c) sec2 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) dx
1

(d)

3 2 cos ( 2 x )

dx
1

sin2 ( x )
2

(e) [ e3 x + sin ( 3 x ) + cos ( 3 x ) ] dx

Solution:
(a)

1
1
1

2x

dx = 2 e2x + 4 cos 2x 1
+
e 2 sin 2x 1

(b) ( ex + 1 ) 2 dx
= ( e2x + 2ex + 1 ) dx
=

1 2x
2e

+ 2ex + x +

(c) sec2 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) dx


= ( sec2 2x + sec2 2x sin 2x ) dx
= ( sec2 2x + sec 2x tan 2x ) dx
=

1
2

tan 2x +

1
2

sec 2x +

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Page 2 of 2

(d)

3 2 cos ( 2 x )

dx
1
2
sin ( x )

1
1
1

3 cosec2 2 x 2 cosec 2 x cot 2 x


dx

= 6 cot

1
1
x
+
4
cosec
x
+
2
2

(e) [ e3 x + sin ( 3 x ) + cos ( 3 x ) ] dx


= e3 x + cos ( 3 x ) sin ( 3 x ) + C
Note: extra minus signs from x terms and chain rule.
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 3

Question:
Integrate the following:
(a)

1
2x + 1
1

(b)

( 2x + 1 ) 2

(c) ( 2x + 1 ) 2
(d)

3
4x 1

(e)

3
1 4x

(f)

3
( 1 4x ) 2

(g) ( 3x + 2 ) 5
3

(h)

(i)

(j)

( 1 2x ) 3
6
( 3 2x ) 4
5
3 2x

Solution:
(a)

1
2x + 1

dx =

1
2

ln | 2x + 1 | +

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

(b)

Page 2 of 3

dx

( 2x + 1 ) 2

= ( 2x + 1 ) 2 dx
( 2x + 1 ) 1
1

1
2

1
2 ( 2x + 1 )

(c) ( 2x + 1 ) 2 dx
=

( 2x + 1 ) 3
3

( 2x + 1 ) 3
6

(d)

3
4x 1

dx =

(e)

3
1 4x

dx

=
=

3
4

3
4x 1

3
4

1
2

ln | 4x 1 | +

dx

ln | 4x 1 | +

OR Let y = ln | 1 4x |
then

dy
dx

1
1 4x

3
1 4x

dx =

Note: ln | 1 4x |
(f)

3
( 1 4x ) 2

3
4

(by chain rule)

ln | 1 4x | +

= ln | 4x 1 | because of |

| sign.

dx

= 3 ( 1 4x ) 2 dx
( 1 4x ) 1
1

3
4

3
4 ( 1 4x )

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

5 dx

(g) ( 3x + 2 )

(h)

3
2

dx =
3

( 1 2x )

( 3x + 2 ) 6
18

Page 3 of 3

( 1 2x ) 2
2

+C=

3
4 ( 1 2x ) 2

OR Let y = ( 1 2x ) 2
then

dy
dx


(i)

= 2 ( 1 2x ) 3
3
( 1 2x )
6

( 3 2x )

3
4

dx =
3
6
2

dx =
4

( 1 2x ) 2 +

( 3 2x ) 3
3

(by chain rule)


C

C=

1
( 3 2x ) 3

OR Let y = ( 3 2x ) 3
then

dy
dx


(j)

= 3 ( 3 2x ) 4
6
( 3 2x )

5
( 3 2x )

dx =

dx =

5
2

( 3 2x ) 3

ln | 3 2x | +

OR Let y = ln | 3 2x |
then

dy
dx

1
3 2x

5
3 2x

dx =

5
2

(by chain rule)

ln | 3 2x | +

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 4

Question:
Find the following integrals
(a)

3 sin
2x + 1
+ 2x + 1 dx

(b) [ e5x + ( 1 x ) 5 ] dx
(c)

1
1

+
+
1 + 2x
sin2 2x

(d)

( 3x + 2 ) 2 +

dx

1
( 1 + 2x ) 2
1

( 3x + 2 )

dx

Solution:
(a)

3 sin
2x + 1
+ 2x + 1 dx

3
2

cos

2x + 1
+ 2 ln | 2x + 1 | +

3
2

cos

2x + 1
+ 2 ln | 2x + 1 | +

C
C

(b) [ e5x + ( 1 x ) 5 ] dx
= e5x dx + ( 1 x ) 5 dx
=

1 5x
5e

1
6

(1x) 6+C

(from and )

OR Let y = ( 1 x ) 6
then

dy
dx

=6(1x) 5
1

( 1 x ) 5dx =
(c)

1
1

+
1 + 2x +
sin2 2x

1
6

(by chain rule)

(1x) 6+
1

( 1 + 2x ) 2

dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 2

cosec2 2x + 1 + 2x + ( 1 + 2x ) 2 dx

1
2

1
2

(d)

cot 2x +

1
2

ln | 1 + 2x | +

( 1 + 2x ) 1
1

cot 2x +

1
2

ln | 1 + 2x |

1
2 ( 1 + 2x )

( 3x + 2 ) 2 +

1
( 3x + 2 )

1
2

dx

= [ ( 3x + 2 ) 2 + ( 3x + 2 ) 2 ] dx
=

( 3x + 2 ) 3
9

( 3x + 2 ) 1
3

( 3x + 2 ) 3
9

1
3 ( 3x + 2 )

C
C

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise C, Question 1

Question:
Integrate the following:
(a) cot2 x
(b) cos2 x
(c) sin 2x cos 2x
(d) ( 1 + sin x ) 2
(e) tan2 3x
(f) ( cot x cosec x ) 2
(g) ( sin x + cos x ) 2
(h) sin2 x cos2 x
(i)

1
sin2 x cos2 x

(j) ( cos 2x 1 ) 2

Solution:
(a) cot2 x dx = ( cosec2 x 1 ) dx
= cot x x + C
(b) cos2 x dx =
=

1
2x

1
4

1
2

1 + cos 2x
dx

sin 2x +

(c) sin 2x cos 2x dx =

C
1
2

sin 4x dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

1
8

cos 4x +

Page 2 of 3

(d) ( 1 + sin x ) 2 dx = ( 1 + 2 sin x + sin2 x ) dx


But cos 2x = 1 2 sin2 x
sin2 x =

1
2

1
2

cos 2x

( 1 + sin x ) 2 dx =
=

3
2x

2 cos x

1
4

sin 2x +

1
3

+
2
sin
x

cos 2x dx
2
2

(e) tan2 3x dx = ( sec2 3x 1 ) dx


=

1
3

tan 3x x +

(f) ( cot x cosec x ) 2 dx = ( cot2 x 2 cot x cosec x + cosec2 x ) dx


= ( 2 cosec2 x 1 2 cot x cosec x ) dx
= 2 cot x x + 2 cosec x + C
(g) ( sin x + cos x ) 2 dx = ( sin2 x + 2 sin x cos x + cos2 x ) dx
= ( 1 + sin 2x ) dx
=x

1
2

cos 2x +

(h) sin2 x cos2 x dx =


=

1
4

1
4

=
=

(i)

1
8x

2
1
sin
2x
dx
2

sin2 2x dx
1
1

cos 4x
dx
2
2

1
1

cos
4x
dx
8
8

1
sin2 x cos2 x

1
32

sin 4x +

=
(

1
sin 2x ) 2
2

= 4 cosec2 2x

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1
sin2 x cos2 x

Page 3 of 3

dx = 4 cosec2 2x dx

= 2 cot 2x +

(j) ( cos 2x 1 ) 2 dx = ( cos2 2x 2 cos 2x + 1 ) dx


=

1
cos
4x
+
2 cos 2x + 1
dx
2
2

3
1

cos
4x
+
2 cos 2x
dx
2
2

1
8

sin 4x +

3
2x

sin 2x +

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise C, Question 2

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a)

1 sin x
dx
cos2 x

(b)

1 + cos x
dx
sin2 x

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

cos 2x
cos2 x
cos2 x
sin2 x

dx

dx

( 1 + cos x ) 2
sin2 x
( 1 + sin x ) 2
cos2 x

dx

dx

(g) ( cot x tan x ) 2dx


(h) ( cos x sin x ) 2dx
(i) ( cos x sec x ) 2dx
cos 2x

(j)

1 cos2 2x

dx

Solution:
(a)

1 sin x
dx =
cos2 x

= tan x sec x +

dx
sec2 x tan x sec x

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(b)

1 + cos x
dx =
sin2 x

= cot x cosec x +
(c)

cos 2x
cos2 x

dx =

cosec2 x + cot x cosec x dx

2 cos2 x 1
cos2 x

Page 2 of 3

dx

= ( 2 sec2 x ) dx
= 2x tan x + C
(d)

cos2 x
sin2 x

dx = cot2 x dx

= ( cosec2 x 1 ) dx
= cot x x + C
(e) I =

( 1 + cos x ) 2
sin2 x

dx =

1 + 2 cos x + cos2 x
sin2 x

dx

= ( cosec2 x + 2 cot x cosec x + cot2 x ) dx


But cosec2 x = 1 + cot2 x cot2 x = cosec2 x 1
I = ( 2 cosec2 x 1 + 2 cot x cosec x ) dx
= 2 cot x x 2 cosec x + C
(f) I =

( 1 + sin x ) 2
cos2 x

dx =

1 + 2 sin x + sin2 x
cos2 x

dx

= ( sec2 x + 2 tan x sec x + tan2 x ) dx


But sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x tan2 x = sec2 x 1
I = ( 2 sec2 x 1 + 2 tan x sec x ) dx
= 2 tan x x + 2 sec x + C
(g) ( cot x tan x ) 2dx = ( cot2 x 2 cot x tan x + tan2 x ) dx
= ( cosec2 x 1 2 + sec2 x 1 ) dx
= ( cosec2 x 4 + sec2 x ) dx
= cot x 4x + tan x + C
(h) ( cos x sin x ) 2dx = ( cos2 x 2 cos x sin x + sin2 x ) dx
= ( 1 sin 2x ) dx
=x+

1
2

cos 2x +

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Page 3 of 3

(i) ( cos x sec x ) 2dx = ( cos2 x 2 cos x sec x + sec2 x ) dx


=

1
1

cos
2x
+
2 + sec2 x
dx
2
2

3
1
2 x dx
cos
2x

+
sec
2
2

=
(j)

1
4

sin 2x
cos 2x

cos2 2x

3
2x

+ tan x +

dx =

cos 2x
sin2 2x

dx

= cot 2x cosec 2x dx
=

1
2

cosec 2x +

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise C, Question 3

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a) cos 2x cos x dx
(b) 2 sin 5x cos 3x dx
(c) 2 sin 3x cos 5x dx
(d) 2 sin 2x sin 5x dx
(e) 4 cos 3x cos 7x dx
(f) 2 cos 4x cos 4x dx
(g) 2 cos 4x sin 4x dx
(h) 2 sin 4x sin 4x dx

Solution:
(a) cos 3x + cos x = 2 cos

3x + x
2

cos 2x cos x dx =
=

1
2

1
6

1
2

1
2

sin x +

= 2 cos 2x cos x

cos 3x + cos x
dx

sin 3x + sin x
+
3

sin 3x +

3x x
2

cos

(b) sin 8x + sin 2x = 2 sin 5x cos 3x


2 sin 5x cos 3x dx = ( sin 8x + sin 2x ) dx
=

1
8

cos 8x

1
2

cos 2x +

(c) sin 8x sin 2x = 2 sin 3x cos 5x


2 sin 3x cos 5x dx = ( sin 8x sin 2x ) dx

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1
8

1
2

cos 8x +

cos 2x +

Page 2 of 2

(d) cos 7x cos 3x = 2 sin 5x sin 2x


2 sin 2x sin 5x dx = ( cos 3x cos 7x ) dx
=

1
3

sin 3x

1
7

sin 7x +

(e) cos 10x + cos 4x = 2 cos 7x cos 3x


4 cos 3x cos 7x dx = 2 ( cos 10x + cos 4x ) dx
=2
=

1
5

1
sin
10x
+
sin
4x
+
4
10

sin 10x +

1
2

sin 4x +

(f) cos 8x + cos 0x = 2 cos 4x cos 4x


i.e. cos 8x + 1 = 2 cos 4x cos 4x
2 cos 4x cos 4x dx = ( 1 + cos 8x ) dx
1
8

=x+

sin 8x +

(g) sin 8x + sin 0x = 2 sin 4x cos 4x


2 cos 4x sin 4x dx = sin 8x dx
=

1
8

cos 8x +

(h) cos 8x cos 0x = 2 sin 4x sin 4x


i.e. cos 8x 1 = 2 sin 4x sin 4x
2 sin 4x sin 4x dx = ( 1 cos 8x ) dx
=x

1
8

sin 8x +

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise D, Question 1

Question:
Use partial fractions to integrate the following:
(a)

3x + 5
(x+1) (x+2)

(b)

3x 1
( 2x + 1 ) ( x 2 )

(c)

2x 6
(x+3) (x1)

(d)
(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

3
(2+x) (1x)
4
( 2x + 1 ) ( 1 2x )
3(x+1)
9x2 1
3 5x
( 1 x ) ( 2 3x )
x2 3
(2+x) (1+x) 2
5 + 3x
(x+2) (x+1) 2
17 5x
( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x ) 2

Solution:
(a)

3x + 5
(x+1) (x+2)

A
x+1

B
x+2

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Page 2 of 5

3x + 5 A ( x + 2 ) + B ( x + 1 )

x= 1

x= 2

2=A
1= B

3x + 5
(x+1) (x+2)

B=1

1
2

+
x + 2 dx
x+1

dx =

= 2 ln | x + 1 | + ln | x + 2 | + C
= ln [ | x + 1 | 2 ] + ln | x + 2 | + C
= ln | ( x + 1 ) 2 ( x + 2 ) | + C
(b)

3x 1
( 2x + 1 ) ( x 2 )

B
x2

3x 1 A ( x 2 ) + B ( 2x + 1 )

x=2

x=

1
2

5 = 5B
5
2

1
2 ln

B=1

3x 1
( 2x + 1 ) ( x 2 )

A
2x + 1

5
2A

1
1

+
x 2 dx
2x + 1

dx =

| 2x + 1 | +

ln | x 2 | +

= ln | ( x 2 ) \ 2x + 1 | +
(c)

2x 6
(x+3) (x1)

x=1

A
x+3

B
x1

4 = 4B

B= 1

12 = 4A

2x 6
(x+3) (x1)

dx =

(d)

(x+3)
x1

(2+x) (1x)

x=1

A=3

1
3

dx
x
+
3
x

= 3 ln | x + 3 | ln | x 1 | +
= ln

2x 6 A ( x 1 ) + B ( x + 3 )

x= 3

A=1

A
(2+x)

B
1x

3A(1x) +B(2+x)

x= 2

3 = 3B

3 = 3A

B=1

A=1

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1
+
dx.
2
+
x
1

dx =

(2+x) (1x)

Page 3 of 5

= ln | 2 + x | ln | 1 x | +
2+x
+
1x

= ln

(e)

4
( 2x + 1 ) ( 1 2x )

C
A
2x + 1

B
1 2x

4 A ( 1 2x ) + B ( 2x + 1 )

1
2

x=

4 = 2B

1
2

x=

4 = 2A

B=2

( 2x + 1 ) ( 1 2x )

A=2

2
2

+
dx
2x
+
1
1

2x

dx =

= ln | 2x + 1 | ln | 1 2x | +
2x + 1
+
1 2x

= ln

(f)

3(x+1)
9x2 1

3(x+1)
( 3x 1 ) ( 3x + 1 )

1
3

x=
1
3

x=

2 = 2B

4 = 2A

3(x+1)

9x2 1

A
3x 1

B
3x + 1

2
3 ln

| 3x 1 |

1
3 ln

( 3x 1 )
3x + 1

3 5x
( 1 x ) ( 2 3x )

1
3 ln

B= 1

A=2

2
1

dx
3x

1
3x
+
1

dx =

| 3x + 1 | +

A
1x

C
B
2 3x

3 5x A ( 2 3x ) + B ( 1 x )

x=

3x + 3 A ( 3x + 1 ) + B ( 3x 1 )

(g)

2
3

1
3

1
3B

B= 1

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x=1

2= A

3 5x
( 1 x ) ( 2 3x )

( 2 3x )
= ln
(1x)

1
3 ln

(h)

x2 3
2

(2+x) (1+x)

x= 2

2=C
1 = 1A

Coefficient of x2
x2 3

5 + 3x
(x+2) (x+1) 2

(1+x) 1
1

2
1+x

A=1

A
x+2

x= 2

2=C

Coefficient of x2

2+x

2
(1+x)

dx

B
x+1

C
(x+1) 2

1=A

5 + 3x
(x+2) (x+1)

C=2

A= 1

0=A+B
dx =
2

2
x+1

x+1 +
x+2

B=1

1
1

x+2 + x+1 +

= ln | x + 2 | + ln | x + 1 |
= ln

B=0

5 + 3x A ( x + 1 ) 2 + B ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1 ) + C ( x + 2 )

x= 1

(1+x) 2

C= 2

2 dx =

(2+x) (1+x)

= ln | 2 + x | +

1=A+B

= ln | 2 + x | 2

(i)

B
1+x

x2 3 A ( 1 + x ) 2 + B ( 2 + x ) ( 1 + x ) + C ( 2 + x )

x= 1

A
2+x

1
2

dx
1

x
2

3x

| 2 3x | +

A=2

dx =

= 2 ln | 1 x | +

Page 4 of 5

2
x+1

2
(x+1) 2

dx

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(j)

17 5x
( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x ) 2

B
2x

C
(2x) 2

17 5x A ( 2 x ) 2 + B ( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x ) + C ( 3 + 2x )

x=2

x=

3
2

7 = 7C

Coefficient of x2

( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x )

2
2 ln

= ln

49
2

17 5x

A
3 + 2x

Page 5 of 5

C=1

49
4 A

A=2

0 = A 2B

B=1

2
1

+
2x +
3 + 2x

dx =
2

| 3 + 2x | ln | 2 x | +

1
3 + 2x
+
2x +
2x

1
2x

1
(2x)

dx

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise D, Question 2

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a)

2 ( x2 + 3x 1 )
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )

(b)

x3 + 2x2 + 2
x ( x + 1 ) dx
x2

(c)

x2 4

(d)

(e)

dx

dx

x2 + x + 2
3 2x x2
6 + 3x x2
x3 + 2x2

dx

dx

Solution:
(a)

2 ( x2 + 3x 1 )
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )

x= 1

A
x+1

B
2x 1

2x2 + 6x 2 ( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 ) + A ( 2x 1 ) + B ( x + 1 )

x=

1+

1
2

6 = 3A

3
2

3
2B

2 ( x2 + 3x 1 )
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )

dx =

= x + 2 ln | x + 1 | +

1
2 ln

B=1
2
1

1 + x + 1 + 2x 1 dx

| 2x 1 | +

= x + ln | ( x + 1 ) 2\ 2x 1 | +
(b)

x3 + 2x2 + 2
x(x+1)

A=2

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x3 + 2x2 + 2
x(x+1)

A
x

B
x+1

x3 + 2x2 + 2 ( x + 1 ) x ( x + 1 ) + A ( x + 1 ) + Bx

x=0

2=A

x= 1

(c)

2x
x(x+1)

x+1+

x+1+

A=2

3= B

x3 + 2x2 + 2
x ( x + 1 ) dx

B= 3

2
3

x + 1 + x x + 1 dx

x2
2

+ x + 2 ln | x | 3 ln | x + 1 | +

x2
2

+ x + ln
(x+1)

x2
x2

B
x+2

4 = 4A

4 = 4B

x2

x2

A=1

B= 1

1
1

1 + x 2 x + 2 dx

dx =

= x + ln | x 2 | ln | x + 2 | +
= x + ln
x2 + x + 2
3 2x

x=1

x2

x2
x+2

x2 + x + 2
(3+x) (1x)

1+

A
3+x

B
1x

x2 + x + 2 1 ( 3 + x ) ( 1 x ) + A ( 1 x ) + B ( 3 + x )
4 = 4B

x= 3

x2 ( x 2 ) ( x + 2 ) + A ( x + 2 ) + B ( x 2 )

x= 2

A
x2

1+

x=2

(d)

Page 2 of 3

8 = 4A

x2 + x + 2
3 2x

dx
x2

B=1

A=2

2
1

1 + 3+x + 1x
dx

= x + 2 ln | 3 + x | ln | 1 x | +
= x + ln

(3+x)
1x

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(e)

6 + 3x x2
x3

2x2

6 + 3x x2

x2

(x+2)

6 = 2B

x= 2

6 + 3x
x3
3
x

4 = 4C

Coefficient of x2

B
x2

C
x+2

6 + 3x x2 Ax ( x + 2 ) + B ( x + 2 ) + Cx2

x=0

A
x

Page 3 of 3

x2

2x2

dx =

B=3

C= 1

1=A+C

A=0

x + 2 dx
x2

ln | x + 2 | +

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise E, Question 1

Question:
Integrate the following functions:
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

x
x2

+4

e2x
e2x + 1
x
( x2 + 4 ) 3
e2x
( e2x + 1 ) 3
cos 2x
3 + sin 2x
sin 2x
( 3 + cos 2x ) 3

(g) xex

(h) cos 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) 4


(i) sec2 x tan2 x
(j) sec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x )

Solution:
(a) y = ln | x2 + 4 |

dy
dx

1
x2 + 4

2x

(chain rule)

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x
x2

+4

1
2

dx =

Page 2 of 3

ln | x2 + 4 | +

(b) y = ln | e2x + 1 |

dy
dx

e2x

e2x
e2x + 1

+1

e2x 2

1
2

dx =

(chain rule)

ln | e2x + 1 | +

(c) y = ( x2 + 4 ) 2


or

dy
dx

= 2 ( x2 + 4 ) 3 2x
x

x2

1
4

dx =
3

+4)
1

4 ( x2 + 4 ) 2

(chain rule)

( x2 + 4 ) 2 +

(d) y = ( e2x + 1 ) 2


or

dy
dx

= 2 ( e2x + 1 ) 3 e2x 2
e2x

( e2x + 1 )

1
4

3 dx =

1
4 ( e2x + 1 ) 2

(chain rule)

( e2x + 1 ) 2 +

(e) y = ln | 3 + sin 2x |

dy
dx

1
3 + sin 2x

cos 2x
3 + sin 2x

dx =

cos 2x 2
1
2

(chain rule)

ln | 3 + sin 2x | +

(f) y = ( 3 + cos 2x ) 2


or

dy
dx

= 2 ( 3 + cos 2x ) 3
sin 2x

( 3 + cos 2x )

dx =
3

1
4 ( 3 + cos 2x ) 2

1
4

sin 2x
2

( 3 + cos 2x ) 2 +

(chain rule)

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Page 3 of 3

2
(g) y = ex

2
= ex 2x

dy
dx

xex dx =

1 x2
2e

(chain rule)
+

(h) y = ( 1 + sin 2x ) 5

dy
dx

= 5 ( 1 + sin 2x ) 4 cos 2x 2

cos 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) 4 dx =

1
10

(chain rule)

( 1 + sin 2x ) 5 +

(i) y = tan3 x

dy
dx

= 3 tan2 x sec2 x

sec2 x tan2 x dx =

1
3
3 tan x

(chain rule)
+

(j) sec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) = sec2 x + sec2 x tan2 x


sec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) dx = ( sec2 x + sec2 x tan2 x ) dx
= tan x +

1
3

tan3 x +

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise E, Question 2

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a) ( x + 1 ) ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4 dx
(b) cosec2 2x cot 2x dx
(c) sin5 3x cos 3x dx
(d) cos x esin x dx
(e)

e2x
e2x + 3

(f) x (

x2

dx
3

+1)

dx

(g) ( 2x + 1 ) \ x2 + x + 5 dx
(h)

2x + 1
\ x2 + x + 5

dx

(i)

sin x cos x
dx
\ cos 2x + 3

(j)

sin x cos x
dx
cos 2x + 3

Solution:
(a) y = ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 5

dy
dx

= 5 ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4

2x + 2

= 5 ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4 2 ( x + 1 )

x+1
( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4 dx = 10 ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 5 +

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Page 2 of 3

(b) y = cot2 2x

dy
dx

= 2 cot 2x

cosec2 2x
2

= 4 cosec2 2x cot 2x
cosec2 2x cot 2x dx =

1
4

cot2 2x +

(c) y = sin6 3x

dy
dx

= 6 sin5 3x cos 3x 3

sin5 3x cos 3x dx =

1
18

sin6 3x +

(d) y = esin x

dy
dx

= esin x cos x

cos x esin x dx = esin x +

(e) y = ln | e2x + 3 |

(f) y = (

dy
dx

e2x + 3

x2

+3

e2x 2

1
2

dx =

ln | e2x + 3 | +

+1)
=

x(

x2

(g) y = (

e2x

e2x

dy
dx

x2

5
2

x2

+1)

dx =

1
5

+1)

2x = 5x (
(

x2

x2

+1)

+1)

+x+5)

2x + 1

dy
dx

2x + 1 \ x2 + x + 5 dx = 3 ( x2 + x + 5 )

(h) y = (

x2

3
2

( x2 + x + 5 )

3
2

+x+5)

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dy
dx

1
2

( x2 + x + 5 )

Page 3 of 3

1
2

2x + 1

1 ( 2x + 1 )
2 \ x2 + x + 5

2x + 1

dx = 2 (

\ x2 + x + 5

x2

+x+5)

(i) y = ( cos 2x + 3 )

dy
dx

sin 2x
\ cos 2x + 3

2 sin x cos x
\ cos 2x + 3

sin x cos x
\ cos 2x + 3 dx

1
2

( cos 2x + 3 )

1
2

1
2

2
sin 2x

( cos 2x + 3 )

(j) y = ln | cos 2x + 3 |

dy
dx

2 sin 2x
cos 2x + 3

4 sin x cos x
cos 2x + 3

sin x cos x
cos 2x + 3 dx

1
cos 2x + 3

sin 2x
2

1
4

ln | cos 2x + 3 | +

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise F, Question 1

Question:
Use the given substitution to find the following integrals:
(a) x\ 1 + x dx; u = 1 + x
(b)

x
\1+x

(c)

1 + sin x
cos x

dx; u = 1 + x
dx; u = sin x

(d) x ( 3 + 2x ) 5 dx; u = 3 + 2x
(e) sin3 x dx; u = cos x

Solution:
(a) u = 1 + x

du = dx and x = u 1

x(1+x)
= (u
=

2 5
2
5u

2
5

OR =
=

2
15

3
2

) du

2 3
2
3u

(1+x)
2
15

dx = ( u 1 ) u 2 du

C
2
3

(1+x)

(1+x)
3

(1+x)

(b) u = 1 + x

x
\1+x

3 1+x
5
+

3x 2
+

du = dx and x = u 1

dx =

u1
1

du

u 2

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= (u
=

2 3
2
3u

2
3

OR =
=

2
3

) du

2u

(1+x)
2
3

2(1+x)

(1+x)

1 + sin x
cos x

1+u

du
dx

dx =

= cos x

dx =

du
cos x

1 + u du
cos x cos x

du

1 sin2 x
1+u

x2
+

1+x3
+

(1+x)

(c) u = sin x

Page 2 of 3

du

1 u2
(1+u)
(1u) (1+u)

1
1u

du

du

= ln | 1 u | + C
= ln | 1 sin x | + C
(d) u = 3 + 2x

du = 2 dx and x =

x ( 3 + 2x ) 5 dx =

u3
2

u 3 5 du
2 u
2

6
3u5
u
4
du
4

=
=

u7
28

3u6
24

u7
28

u6
8

( 3 + 2x ) 7
28

+
+

C
C

( 3 + 2x ) 6
8

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(e) u = cos x

Page 3 of 3

du = sin x dx

sin3 x dx = ( 1 u2 ) du
= ( u2 1 ) du
=

u3
3

cos3 x
3

OR =

u+

cos x +

cos x
3

+
cos2 x 3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise F, Question 2

Question:
Use the given substitution to find the following integrals:
(a) x\ 2 + x dx; u2 = 2 + x
2
x(x4)

(b)

dx; u = x

(c) sec2 x tan x\ 1 + tan x dx; u2 = 1 + tan x


(d)

\ x2 + 4
dx; u2
x

= x2 + 4

(e) sec4 x dx; u = tan x

Solution:
(a) u2 = 2 + x

2u du = dx and x = u2 2

x\ 2 + x dx = ( u2 2 ) u 2u du
= ( 2u4 4u2 ) du
=

2u5
5

2
5

(b) u = x

4u3
3

C
5

(2+x)

du
dx

4
3

(2+x)
1 1
2
2x

C
dx
x

= 2 du

and x 4 = u2 4
2
x(x4)

I=
4
u2 4

u=2

A
u2

dx =

2
u2 4

2 du =

4
u2 4

du

B
u+2

4=A(u+2) +B(u2)

4 = 4A

A=1

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u= 2

4 = 4B

Page 2 of 3

B= 1

1
1

du
u

2
u
+
2

I=

= ln | u 2 | ln | u + 2 | +
x2
+
x+2

= ln

(c) u2 = 1 + tan x

C
2u du = sec2 x dx

sec2 x tan x\ 1 + tan x dx


= ( u2 1 ) u 2u du
= ( 2u4 2u2 ) du
=

2u5
5

2
5

2u3
3

( 1 + tan x )

\ x2 + 4
dx
x

C
5

(d) u2 = x2 + 4

u2
x2

2
3

( 1 + tan x )

2u du = 2x dx

u
x

udu
x

= dx

udu
x

du

u2
u2 4

= (1+

du

4
u2

) du but

4
u2

A
u+2

B
u+2

4
A(u+2) +B(u2)
u=2: 4
= 4A , A = 1
u = 2 : 4 = 4B , B = 1
1
1

1 + u 2 u + 2 du

= u + ln | u 2 | ln | u + 2 | +
=\

x2

2
\x +42
+ 4 + ln
+
\ x2 + 4 + 2

(e) u = tan x

C
C

du = sec2 x dx

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sec4 x dx = sec2 x sec2 x dx


= ( 1 + u2 ) du
=u+

u3
3

= tan x +

tan3 x
3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise F, Question 3

Question:
Evaluate the following:
(a) 05x\ x + 4 dx

(b) 0 3 sec x tan x\ sec x + 2 dx


1
dx;
1+\x1

(c) 25

(d) 0

sin 2
1 + cos

use u2 = x 1

u = 1 + cos

d; let

(e) 01x ( 2 + x ) 3 dx
(f) 14

1
x ( 4x 1 )

dx; let

u= x

Solution:
(a) u2 = x + 4 2u du = dx and x = u2 4
Also u = 3 when x = 5
and u = 2 when x = 0.
05x\ x + 4 dx = 23 ( u2 4 ) u 2u du
= 23 ( 2u4 8u2 ) du
=

8 3 3
2 5
u

3u 2
5

8
2

243

27

3
5

64
64

3
5

= 25.2 8.53
= 33.73
= 33.7 (3 s.f.)
(b) u2 = sec x + 2

2u du = sec x tan x dx

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Also u = 2 when x =

and u = 3 when x = 0.

0 3 sec x tan x\ sec x + 2 dx = 32u 2u du


= 322u2 du
=

2 3
2
u
3
3

16

16
3

33
3

23

(c) u2 = x 1 2u du = dx
Also u = 2 when x = 5
and u = 1 when x = 2.
25
= 12

1
1 + \ x 1 dx

= 12

1
1+u

2u du

2u
u + 1 du

= 12 2 u + 1 du

= [ 2u 2 ln | u + 1 | ] 12
= ( 4 2 ln 3 ) ( 2 2 ln 2 )
= 2 + 2 ln

2
3

(d) u = 1 + cos

du = sin d or du = sin d

Also u = 1 when =

and u = 2 when = 0.

sin 2

I = 0 2 1 + cos d = 0
Use to reverse limits:
I = 12

2 sin cos
1 + cos

d = 21

2(u1)
u

du

2u 2
u du

= 12 2 u
du

= [ 2u 2 ln | u | ] 12
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= ( 4 2 ln 2 ) ( 2 2 ln 1 )
= 2 2 ln 2

(e) u = 2 + x du = dx and x = u 2
Also u = 3 when x = 1
and u = 2 when x = 0.
01x ( 2 + x ) 3 dx = 23 ( u 2 ) u3 du
= 23 ( u4 2u3 ) du
=

5
2 4 3
u

4u 2
5

81
243

2
5
211
5

16
32

2
5

32.5

= 42.2 32.5
= 9.7
1

(f) u = x

du =

1 1
2
2x

dx

dx
x

= 2 du

and 4x 1 = 4u2 1
Also u = 2 when x = 4
and u = 1 when x = 1.
I = 14
2
4u2 1

u=

1
x ( 4x 1 )

A
2u 1

dx = 12

1
4u2

2 du

B
2u + 1

2 = A ( 2u + 1 ) + B ( 2u 1 )
1
2

u=

2 = 2A

1
2

I = 12

A=1

2 = 2B
1
2u 1

1
2u + 1

1
ln | 2u 1 |
2

2u 1 2
1
ln
2
2u + 1 1

1
2

B= 1

du

ln | 2u + 1 |

2
1

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=
=

1
3
ln

2
5
1
2

ln

Page 4 of 4

1
1
ln
2
3

9
5

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 1

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a) x sin x dx
(b) xex dx
(c) x sec2 x dx
(d) x sec x tan x dx
(e)

x
sin2 x

dx

Solution:

du
dx

= sin x

(a) u = x
dv
dx

=1
v = cos x

x sin x dx = x cos x cos x 1 dx


= x cos x + cos x dx
= x cos x + sin x + C
(b) u = x
dv
dx

du
dx

= ex

=1

v = ex

xex dx = xex ex 1 dx
= xex ex +
(c) u = x
dv
dx

= sec2 x

C
du
dx

=1
v = tan x

x sec2 x dx = x tan x tan x 1 dx


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= x tan x ln | sec x | +

(d) u = x
dv
dx

du
dx

= sec x tan x

Page 2 of 2

=1

v = sec x

x sec x tan x dx = x sec x sec x 1 dx


= x sec x ln | sec x + tan x | + C
(e) u = x
dv
dx

du
dx

= cosec2 x

x
sin2 x

=1

v = cot x

dx = x cosec2 x dx

= x cot x cot x 1 dx
= x cot x + cot x dx
= x cot x + ln | sin x | + C
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 2

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a) x2 ln x dx
(b) 3 ln x dx
(c)

ln x

dx

x3

(d) ( ln x ) 2 dx
(e) ( x2 + 1 ) ln x dx

Solution:
(a) u = ln x
dv
dx

x2

du
dx

x3
3

x2 ln x dx =
=

x3
3

x3
3

ln x
ln x

(b) u = ln x

dv
dx

=3

x3
3

v=

x3
9

1
x

ln x

x3
3

1
x dx

x2
3 dx

+
du
dx

1
x

v = 3x

3 ln x dx = 3x ln x 3x

1
x dx

= 3x ln x 3 dx
= 3x ln x 3x + C
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(c) u = ln x
dv
dx


=
=
=

du
dx

x3
ln x
x3
ln x
2x2
ln x
2x2
ln x
2x2

=1

dx =

x2
2

ln x
2

2x

1
2x2

1
x dx

1 3
dx
2x

+
+

1
x

v=

(d) u = ( ln x ) 2
dv
dx

Page 2 of 3

x2
2 ( 2)
1

4x2

C
du
dx

= 2 ln x

1
x

v=x

I = ( ln x ) 2 dx = x ( ln x ) 2 x 2 ln x

1
x dx

= x ( ln x ) 2 2 ln x dx
Let J = 2 ln x dx
u = ln x

dv
dx

=2

du
dx

1
x

v = 2x

J = 2x ln x 2x

1
x dx

= 2x ln x 2x +

I = x ( ln x ) 2 2x ln x + 2x +
(e) u = ln x
dv
dx

x2

+1

du
dx

1
x

v=

x3
3

+x
3

x
2

x +1
ln x dx = ln x
+x

3

x
+ x ln x
3

3
1
x

+
x

x dx
3

2
x

+ 1 dx
3

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3
x3
x

+ x ln x 9 x +
3

Page 3 of 3

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 3

Question:
Find the following integrals:
(a) x2e x dx
(b) x2 cos x dx
(c) 12x2 ( 3 + 2x ) 5 dx
(d) 2x2 sin 2x dx
(e) x22 sec2 x tan x dx

Solution:
(a) u = x2
dv
dx

=ex

du
dx

= 2x
v= ex

I = x2e x dx = x2e x e x 2x dx
= x2e x + 2xe x dx
Let J = 2xe x dx
u = 2x
dv
dx

du
dx

=ex

=2
v= ex

J = e x 2x ( e x ) 2 dx
= 2xe x + 2e x dx
= 2xe x 2e x + C
I = x2e x 2xe x 2e x +
(b) u = x2
dv
dx

= cos x

du
dx

= 2x
v = sin x

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I = x2 cos x dx = x2 sin x 2x sin x dx


Let J = 2x sin x dx
u = 2x

du
dx

=2

dv
dx

= sin x

=
=

J = 2x cos x ( cos x ) 2 dx
2x cos x + 2 cos x dx
2x cos x + 2 sin x + C
I = x2 sin x + 2x cos x 2 sin x + C

(c) u = 12x2
dv
dx

v = cos x

du
dx

= 24x

= ( 3 + 2x ) 5

I=

12x2

v=

( 3 + 2x )

5 dx

( 3 + 2x ) 6
12

( 3 + 2x )
12x2
12

24x

( 3 + 2x ) 6
12

dx

= x2 ( 3 + 2x ) 6 2x ( 3 + 2x ) 6 dx
Let J = 2x ( 3 + 2x ) 6 dx
u = 2x

du
dx

( 3 + 2x ) 7
14

v=

J = 2x

=2

( 3 + 2x ) 7
14

=x

( 3 + 2x ) 7
7

=x

( 3 + 2x ) 7
7

dv
dx

= sin 2x

du
dx

( 3 + 2x ) 7
14

( 3 + 2x ) 8
7 16

I = x2 ( 3 + 2x ) 6 x
(d) u = 2x2

= ( 3 + 2x ) 6

( 3 + 2x ) 7
7

dv
dx

2 dx

dx
C

( 3 + 2x ) 7
7

( 3 + 2x ) 8
112

= 4x
v=

1
2

cos 2x

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I=

2x2 sin 2x dx

2x2
2

Page 3 of 3

cos 2x

2 cos 2x
4x dx

= x2 cos 2x + 2x cos 2x dx
Let J = 2x cos 2x dx
u=x
dv
dx

du
dx

= 2 cos 2x

=1
v = sin 2x

J = x sin 2x sin 2x dx
= x sin 2x +

1
2

cos 2x +

I = x2 cos 2x + x sin 2x +
(e) u = x2
dv
dx

du
dx

1
2

cos 2x +

= 2x

= 2 sec x sec x tan x

v = sec2 x

I = x2 2 sec2 x tan x dx = x2 sec2 x 2x sec2 x dx


Let J = 2x sec2 x dx
u = 2x
dv
dx

= sec2 x

du
dx

=2
v = tan x

J = 2x tan x 2 tan x dx
= 2x tan x 2 ln | sec x | + C
I = x2 sec2 x 2x tan x + 2 ln | sec x | +

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 4

Question:
Evaluate the following:
(a) 0ln 2xe2x dx

(b) 0 2 x sin x dx

(c) 0 2 x cos x dx
ln x

(d) 12

x2

dx

(e) 014x ( 1 + x ) 3 dx
1

(f) 0x cos

dx

(g) 0 3 sin x ln | sec x | dx


Solution:
(a) u = x
dv
dx

du
dx

= e2x

=1
1 2x
2e

v=

1 2x
ln 2
ln 2 1 e2x dx
e

2
2
0
0

0ln 2xe2x dx =

=
=

1 2 ln 2

e
ln 2

4
2

1 2 ln 2
e

ln 2

= 2 ln 2

4
4

1 2x ln 2
e
4
0

1 0
e
4

1
4

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3
4

= 2 ln 2
(b) u = x
dv
dx

Page 2 of 4

du
dx

= sin x

=1
v = cos x

0 2 x sin x dx = [ x cos x ] 0

2 cos 2

0
+ 0

cos x
dx

cos x dx

= 0 + [ sin x ] 0

sin 2

sin 0

=1

du
dx

= cos x

(c) u = x
dv
dx

=1
v = sin x

0 2 x cos x dx = [ x sin x ] 0
=



sin
2
2

(d) u = ln x
dv
dx

=x2

12
=

du
dx

ln x
x2

1
2

cos 0

1
x

v= x1

dx =

ln x 2

2 1
x

1 x

ln 2

0 2 sin x dx

0
[ cos x ] 0

cos 2

x1
dx

ln 1
1

1
+ 12 2 dx

ln 2 + [ x 1 ] 12

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=
=

1
2

1
2

1 ln 2

(e) u = x
dv
dx

ln 2 +

Page 3 of 4

du
dx

=1

=4(1+x) 3

v= (1+x) 4

014x ( 1 + x ) 3 dx = [ x ( 1 + x ) 4 ] 01 01 ( 1 + x ) 4 dx

1 24

= 16

(1+x)
5

1
0

1
5

31
5

= 16

= 16 6.2
= 9.8
(f) u = x
dv
dx

du
dx

= cos

=1

1
x
4

0x cos

4x

v = 4 sin

dx =

4 sin 4

4
2

16 cos 4

4
2

16
2

OR =

4 2
2

x
4

1
4x sin 4 0 04 sin
x
dx

0
+


16 cos 4 x

16 cos 0

16
16 2
2

16

= 2 2 + 8 2 16
(g) u = ln | sec x |
dv
dx

= sin x

du
dx

= tan x

v = cos x

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0 3 sin x ln | sec x | dx =
cos x ln | sec x | ] 0

+ 0

cos x tan x dx
=

cos 3 ln
sec 3


cos 0 ln
sec 0
+ 0

sin x dx
=

1
2

ln 2 + 0 +

1
2

ln 2 +

1
2

cos x ] 0

1 ln 2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 1

Question:
Use the trapezium rule with n strips to estimate the following:
(a) 03ln ( 1 + x2 ) dx ; n = 6

(b) 0 3 \ ( 1 + tan x ) dx; n = 4


1

(c) 02

\ ( ex + 1 )

dx; n = 4

(d) 11cosec2 ( x2 + 1 ) dx ; n = 4
(e) 0.11.1\ cot x dx; n = 5
Solution:
(a)

0 0.5 1
1.5 2
2.5 3
ln ( 1 + x2 ) 0 0.223 0.693 1.179 1.609 1.981 2.303

I = 03ln ( 1 + x2 ) dx
I

1
2

0.5

0 + 2.303 + 2

0.223 + 0.693 + 1.179 + 1.609 + 1.981


=

1
4

13.673

= 3.41825
= 3.42 (3 s.f.)
(b)

12

12

12

\ 1 + tan x 1 1.126 1.256 1.414 1.653

I = 0 3 \ 1 + tan x dx
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1
2

12


1 + 1.653 + 2 1.126 + 1.256 + 1.414

10.245

24

Page 2 of 3

= 1.3410...
= 1.34 (3 s.f.)
x

(c)

1
\

ex

+1

0.5

1
\ ex + 1
1
2

~
I
1
4

1.5

0.707 0.614 0.519 0.427 0.345

I = 02

dx

0.5


0.707 + 0.345 + 2
0.614 + 0.519 + 0.427

4.172

= 1.043
= 1.04 (3 s.f.)
(d)

x
cosec2

x2

1 0.5 0
0.5 1
+ 1 ) 1.209 1.110 1.412 1.110 1.209

I = 11cosec2 ( x2 + 1 ) dx
~
I

1
4

1
2

0.5


1.209 2 + 2 1.110 + 1.412 + 1.110

9.682

= 2.42 (3 s.f.)
(e)

x
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1
\ cot x 3.157 1.798 1.353 1.090 0.891 0.713

I = 0.11.1\ cot x dx
~
I

1
2

0.2

3.157 + 0.713 + 2
1.798 + 1.353 + 1.090 + 0.891

1
10

14.134

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= 1.41 (3 s.f.)
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 2

Question:
(a) Find the exact value of I = 14x ln x dx.
(b) Find approximate values for I using the trapezium rule with
(i) 3 strips
(ii) 6 strips
(c) Compare the percentage error for these two approximations.

Solution:
(a) I = 14x ln x dx
u = ln x
dv
dx

=x

I=

du
dx

v=

1
x

1 2
2x

1 2
4
4 1 x2 1 dx
x
ln
x

x
1 2
2
1

= 8 ln 4

2
x 4
4 1

= 8 ln 4

4 4

= 8 ln 4

15
4

(b) (i)
x
12
3
4
x ln x 0 1.386 3.296 5.545

I
=

1
2
1
2


5.545 + 2
1.386 + 3.296

14.909
= 7.4545 = 7.45 (3 s.f.)

(ii)
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x
1 1.5 2
2.5 3
3.5 4
x ln x 0 0.608 1.386 2.291 3.296 4.385 5.545

I
=

1
2
1
4

0.5


5.545 + 2 0.608 + 1.386 + 2.291 + 3.296 + 4.385

29.477
= 7.36925 = 7.37 (3 s.f.)

(c) % error using 3 strips:


% error using 6 strips:

[ 7.4545 ( 8 ln 4 3.75 ) ] 100


8 ln 4 3.75

= 1.6 % 1 d.p.

[ 7.376925 ( 8 ln 4 3.75 ) ] 100


8 ln 4 3.75

= 0.4 % 1 d.p.

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 3

Question:
(a) Find an approximate value for I = 01ex tan x dx using
(i) 2 strips
(ii) 4 strips
(ii) 8 strips.
(b) Suggest a possible value for I.

Solution:
(a) (i)
0 0.5 1
ex tan x 0 0.901 4.233
x

1
2

~
I

0 + 4.233 + 2 0.901
= 4 6.035
= 1.509

0.5

(ii)
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
ex tan x 0 0.328 0.901 1.972 4.233

1
2

~
I
=

1
8

0.25


4.233 + 2 0.328 + 0.901 + 1.972

10.635
= 1.329

(iii)
x

0 0.125 0.25 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1


ex tan x 0 0.142 0.328 0.573 0.901 1.348 1.972 2.872 4.233

~
I

1
2

1
8

4.233 + 2


0.142 + 0.328 + 0.573 + 0.901 + 1.348 + 1.972 + 2.872

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1
16

Page 2 of 2

20.505
= 1.282

(b) Halving h reduces differences by about 3 :

So an answer in the range 1.25 1.27 seems likely.


(Note: Calculator gives 1.265)
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 4

Question:
(a) Find the exact value of I = 02x\ ( 2 x ) dx.
(b) Find an approximate value for I using the trapezium rule with
(i) 4 and
(ii) 6 strips.
(c) Compare the percentage error for these two approximations.

Solution:
(a) u2 = 2 x 2u du = dx and x = 2 u2
Also u = 0 when x = 2
and u = 2 when x = 0.
I = 20 ( 2 u2 ) u ( 2u ) du
= 0 2 ( 2 u2 ) 2u2 du
= 0 2 ( 4u2 2u4 ) du
=

3
2u5 2
4u
5
3
0

242
422

3
5

16 2
15

(b) (i)
x
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
x\ 2 x 0 0.612 1 1.061 0
1
2

~
I
=

1
4

0.5


0 + 2 0.612 + 1 + 1.061

5.346
= 1.3365 = 1.34 (2 d.p.)

(ii)

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x\ 2 x 0 0.430 0.770 1 1.089 0.962 0


1
2

~
I
=

1
6

1
3


0 + 2 0.430 + 0.770 + 1 + 1.089 + 0.962

8.502
= 1.417 = 1.42 (2 d.p.)

16
2 1.3365
15

(c) (i) % error with 4 strips =

16
2
15

100 = 11.4 %

16 2
1.417
15

(ii) % error with 6 strips =

16
2
15

100 = 6.1 %

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 1

Question:
The region R is bounded by the curve with equation y = f ( x ) , the x-axis and
the lines x = a and x = b. In each of the following cases find the exact value of:
(i) the area of R,
(ii) the volume of the solid of revolution formed by rotating R through 2
radians about the x-axis.
(a) f

x
= 1 + x ; a = 0, b = 1

(b) f ( x ) = sec x ; a = 0, b =

(c) f ( x ) = ln x ; a = 1, b = 2
(d) f ( x ) = sec x tan x ; a = 0, b =

(e) f ( x ) = x\ 4 x2 ; a = 0, b = 2

Solution:
(a) (i) Area = 01

2
1+x

dx =

2 ln | 1 + x | ] 01 =

2 ln 2

2 ln 1

Area = 2 ln 2

(ii) Volume = 01

= 01

4
(1+x) 2

(1+x)

= 4
1

2
1+x

2
dx

dx
1

1
0

1
1+x

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4

2

Page 2 of 4

= 2

(b) (i) Area = 0 3 sec x dx


=

ln | sec x + tan x | ] 0

= [ ln ( 2 + 3 ) ] [ ln ( 1 ) ]
Area = ln ( 2 + 3 )

(ii) Volume = 0 3 sec2 x dx

= tan x ] 0

=[ ( 3) (0) ]
= 3
(c) (i) Area = 12ln x dx
u = ln x

du
dx

dv
dx

v=x

=1

Area =

1
x

x ln x ] 12 12x x dx

= ( 2 ln 2 ) ( 0 ) [ x ] 12
= 2 ln 2 1
(ii) Volume = 12 ( ln x ) 2 dx

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u = ( ln x ) 2
dv
dx

=1

du
dx

= 2 ln x

Page 3 of 4

1
x

v=x

2
2
2
V=
x ( ln x ) ] 1 2 1 x ln x x dx

= { [ 2 ( ln 2 ) 2 ] ( 0 ) { 2 12ln x dx
from (i)
But 12ln x dx = 2 ln 2 1
V = 2 ( ln 2 ) 2 2 ( 2 ln 2 1 )

(d) (i) Area = 0 4 sec x tan x dx


=

sec x ] 0

= ( 2) (1)
Area = 2 1

(ii) Volume = 0 4 sec2 x tan2 x dx


3
tan x
=
3 0

1
=

(e) (i) Area = 02x\ 4 x2 dx


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Let y = ( 4 x2 )
dy
dx

Area =

3
2

Page 4 of 4

3
2

(4

x2

3 ( 4 x2 )

2x
= 3x ( 4 x2 )

3
2

2
=
0

1
2

3 23
=

8
3

(ii) Volume = 02x2 ( 4 x2 ) dx


= 02 ( 4x2 x4 ) dx
x5 2
4 3
=
x 5
3
0

=
=

32
32

5
3

64
15

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 2

Question:
Find the exact area between the curve y = f ( x ) , the x-axis and the lines x = a
and x = b where:
(a) f

x
=

(b) f

x
=

4x + 3
( x + 2 ) ( 2x 1 )
x
(x+1) 2

; a = 1, b = 2

; a = 0, b = 2

(c) f ( x ) = x sin x ; a = 0, b =

(d) f ( x ) = cos x\ 2 sin x + 1 ; a = 0, b =

(e) f ( x ) = xe x ; a = 0, b = ln 2

Solution:
(a)

4x + 3
( x + 2 ) ( 2x 1 )

B
2x 1

4x + 3 A ( 2x 1 ) + B ( x + 2 )

x=

A
x+2

1
2

5=

x= 2

B=2

5 = 5A

area = 12

5
2B

4x + 3
( x + 2 ) ( 2x 1 )

A=1

dx

= 12
+ 2x 1
dx
x+2

= [ ln | x + 2 | + ln | 2x 1 | ] 12
= ( ln 4 + ln 3 ) ( ln 3 + ln 1 )
= ln 4 or 2 ln 2
(b)

x
(x+1) 2

A
(x+1) 2

B
x+1

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Page 2 of 3

xA+B(x+1)

Compare coefficient of x:
Compare constants:
area = 02

1
x+1

= 02

1=B

0=A+B
x

(x+1) 2

A= 1

dx

dx

B=1

(x+1)

ln | x + 1 | + x + 1 02

ln 3 + 3

ln 1 + 1

2
3

= ln 3

(c) Area = 0 2 x sin x dx


u=x
dv
dx

du
dx

= sin x

2 cos 2

sin x ] 0

=0+
=

v = cos x

x cos x ] 0

area =
=

=1

cos x
dx

0
+ 0

cos x dx

sin 2 0

=1

(d) Area = 0

cos x\ 2 sin x + 1 dx
3

Let y = ( 2 sin x + 1 )

dy
dx

area =

3
2

2
1

( 2 sin x + 1 )

1
( 2 sin x + 1 )
3

2 cos x = 3 cos x ( 2 sin x + 1 )


3
2

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1
2
3

22
3

221
3

1
1
3

3
2

Page 3 of 3

1
3

(e) Area = 0ln 2xe x dx


u=x
dv
dx

du
dx

=ex

=1
v= ex

area = [ xe x ] 0ln 2 0ln 2 ( e x ) dx


= ( ln 2 e ln 2 ) ( 0 ) + 0ln 2 e x dx
= ln 2

1
2

1
2

ln 2 +

1
2

ln 2

1
2

e x ] 0ln 2

e ln 2

1
2

e0

+1

1 ln 2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 3

Question:
The region R is bounded by the curve C, the x-axis and the lines x = 8 and x = + 8.
The parametric equations for C are x = t3 and y = t2. Find:
(a) the area of R,
(b) the volume of the solid of revolution formed when R is rotated through 2 radians
about the x-axis.
Solution:
(a) Area = x = 8x = 8y dx
x = t3 dx = 3t2 dt
Also t = 2 when x = 8
and t = 2 when x = 8.
area = 22t2 3t2 dt
= 223t4 dt
=

5
3t
2
5

96

96

192
5

(b) V = x = 8x = 8y2 dx
= 22t4 3t2 dt
= 223t6 dt
7
3t
2
=
7 2

=
=

3 128

3 128
7

768
7

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 4

Question:
The curve C has parametric equations x = sin t, y = sin 2t, 0

(a) Find the area of the region bounded by C and the x-axis.
If this region is revolved through 2 radians about the x-axis,
(b) find the volume of the solid formed.

Solution:

t=

2 y dx
(a) Area = t = 0
x = sin t dx = cos t dt

area = 0

sin 2t cos t dt

= 0 2 2 cos2 t sin t dt
=

3 cos3 t 0

2
3

(b) V = t = 0

t=

y2 dx

= 0

sin2 2t cos t dt

= 0 2 4 cos3 t sin t sin t dt


u = sin t
dv
dt

= 4 cos3 t sin t

du
dt

= cos t

v = cos4 t

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V=
sin t cos4 t ] 0

Page 2 of 2

cos5 t dt

=0

cos5 t dt

= 0 2 ( cos2 t ) 2 cos t dt
= 01 ( 1 y2 ) 2 dy

Let y = sin t

dy = cos t dt

= 01 ( 1 2y2 + y4 ) dy
5

y 1
2

= y 3 y3 + 5

=
=

2
1

1 3 + 5

8
15

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 1

Question:
Find general solutions of the following differential equations. Leave your
answer in the form y = f ( x ) .

1+y
1 2x

(a)

dy
dx

(b)

dy
dx

= y tan x
dy
dx

(c) cos2 x
(d)

dy
dx

(e) x2

= y2 sin2 x

= 2ex y
dy
dx

= y + xy

Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

(b)

1+y
1 2x

1
1+y

dy =

1 2x dx

= x x2 +

ln | 1 + y |

2
1+y=e(xx + C)

1 + y = A ex x ,

y = A ex x 1

dy
dx

C
( A = eC )

= y tan x

1
y

dy = tan x dx

ln | y |

= ln | sec x | +

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ln | y |

y = k sec x

(d)

= ln | k sec x | ,

dy
dx

= y2 sin2 x

y=

(c) cos2 x

dy
dx

y2

dy =

cos2 x

dx

dy = tan2 x dx =
2

1
y

= tan x x +
1
tan x x +

( C = ln k )

sec2 x 1
dx

= 2ex y = 2exe y

i.e.

1
ey

dy = 2ex dx

ey dy = 2ex dx

ey = 2ex +

y = ln

(e) x2

sin2 x

1
y

Page 2 of 3

dy
dx

( 2ex +

1+x

= y + xy = y

1
y dy

= x2+

ln | y |

ln | y | ln | x |

ln

y
x

y
x

eC

y
x

1
x

dx

= x 1 + ln | x | +

C)

= Ae

y = Axe

=C

=C

1
x

1
x

1
x
1
x

C
e =A

1
x

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 2

Question:
Find a general solution of the following differential equations. (You do not need
to write the answers in the form y = f ( x ) .)
(a)

dy
dx

= tan y tan x

(b) sin y cos x


(c)

dy
dx

x cos y
cos x

dy
2
1

y
1 + x2
=
x

dx

(d) cos y sin 2x


dy
dx

(e) ex + y

dy
dx

=x

= cot x cosec y

2 + ey

Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

= tan y tan x
1
tan y

dy = tan x dx

cot y dy = tan x dx

ln | sin y |

sin y = k sec x

(b) sin y cos x

dy
dx

sin y
cos y

= ln | sec x | +

dy =

tan y dy = x sec2 x dx
ln | sec y |

( ln k = C )

x cos y
cos x

C = ln | k sec x |

cos2 x

dx

= x sec2 x dx

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u=x
dv
dx

(c)

du
dx

= sec2 x

Page 2 of 3

=1
v = tan x

ln | sec y |

= x tan x tan x dx

ln | sec y |

= x tan x ln | sec x | +

dy

2
1 + x2
=
x
1

dx

1 y2

1
1y

A
1y

dx

B
1+y

1 = 2A

y= 1

( 2 )
1y +

1
2

ln

1+y

1+y
1y

(d) cos y sin 2x

dy
dx

cos y
cosec y

1
2

1
2

B=

1
2

x
dx
dy =
1 + x2

ln | 1 y |

= ln | 1 + x2 | +
=k

1
2

dx = ln | f ( x ) | +

1+y
1y

1
)
2

ln | 1 + y |
f (x)
f(x)

(using

A=

1 = 2B

1 + x2

1A(1+y) +B(1y)

y=1

dy =
2

1 + x2

ln | 1 + x2 | +

C)
2C

ln k = 2C

= cot x cosec y
dy =

cot x
sin 2x

sin y cos y dy =

dx

cos x
sin x 2 sin x cos x

dx

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1
2

sin 2y dy =

1
4

cos 2y =

or cos 2y = 2 cot x +
dy
dx

(e) ex + y

exey

u=x
dv
dx

=x

ey
2 + ey

=ex

cot x +

2 + ey

dy = xe x dx
du
dx

ln | 2 + ey |

1
2

cosec2 x dx

2 + ey

=x
dy
dx

1
2

Page 3 of 3

=1
v= ex
= xe x + e x dx

ln | 2 + ey |

= xe x e x +

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 3

Question:
Find general solutions of the following differential equations:
(a)

dy
dx

= yex

(b)

dy
dx

= xey

(c)

dy
dx

= y cos x

(d)

dy
dx

= x cos y

(e)

dy
dx

1 + cos 2x
cos y

(f)

dy
dx

1 + cos 2y
cos x

Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

= yex

(b)

1
y dy

ln | y |

= ex dx
= ex +

dy
dx

= xey

e y dy = x dx

ey=

1
ey

dy = x dx

1 2
2x

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(c)

dy
dx

Page 2 of 2

= y cos x
1
y dy

= cos x dx

ln | y |

= sin x +

or y = Aesin x
(d)

dy
dx

= x cos y

sec y dy = x dx

dy
dx

x2
2

1 + cos 2x
cos y

1
cos y

sec y dy = ( 1 + cos 2x ) dx

dy
dx

dy =

1 + cos 2x dx

ln | sec y + tan y |

(f)

dy = x dx

ln | sec y + tan y |

(e)

1
cos y

=x+

1
2

sin 2x +

1 + cos 2y
cos x

1
1 + cos 2y

1
2

1
2

tan y = sin x +

1
2 cos2 y

dy = cos x dx

dy = cos x dx

sec2 y dy = cos x dx
C

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 4

Question:
Find particular solutions of the following differential equations using the given
boundary conditions.
(a)

dy
dx

= sin x cos2 x; y = 0, x =

(b)

dy
dx

= sec2 x sec2 y; y = 0, x =

(c)

dy
dx

= 2 cos2 y cos2 x; y =

,x=0

dy

1 x2
= xy + y ; x = 0.5, y = 6

dx

(d)

(e) 2

dy
2 ; x = 5, y = 1
1+x
=
1

y
2

dx

Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

= sin x cos2 x
dy = sin x cos2 x dx
y=

cos3 x
3

C
(

y = 0, x =

y=
(b)

dy
dx

1
24

1
3

0=

1
)
8
3

C=

1
24

cos3 x

= sec2 x sec2 y

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dy = sec2 x dx

cos2 y dy = sec2 x dx

1
1

+
cos 2y
dy = sec2 x dx
2
2

1
2y

sec2 y

1
4

sin 2y = tan x +

or sin 2y + 2y = 4 tan x +
y = 0, x =

0=4+

k= 4

sin 2y + 2y = 4 tan x 4
(c)

dy
dx

= 2 cos2 y cos2 x
1

dy = 2 cos2 x dx

sec2 y dy = ( 1 + cos 2x ) dx

cos2 y

x = 0,

y=

tan y = x +
(d)

1
2

tan y = x +

1
2

sin 2x +

1=0+

sin 2x + 1

dy
1 x2
= xy + y

dx
dy

1 x2
=

dx

x+1 y

1
y

dy =

1
y

dy =

1+x
(1x) (1+x)

1
y

dy =

1
1x

ln | y |

x = 0.5,
ln | y |

1+x
1 x2

dx
dx

dx

= ln | 1 x | +

y=6

ln 6 = ln

= ln 3 ln | 1 x

1
2

C = ln 3

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or y =

(e) 2

Page 3 of 3

3
1x

dy
1+x
= 1 y2
dx

1y

1 y2

dy =
2

A
1y

1
1+x

dx

B
1+y

2A(1+y) +B(1y)

y=1

y= 1

2 = 2A

2 = 2B

A=1

1
1

1
+
dy
=

1y
1 + x dx
1+y

ln | 1 + y | ln | 1 y |

ln

1+y
1y

1+y
1y

1+y
1y

=k
1
2

x = 5, y =

B=1

= ln | 1 + x | +

C = ln k

= ln | k ( 1 + x ) |

1+x

3
2

1
2

= 6k

k=

1
2

1+x
2

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Exercise K, Question 1

Question:
The size of a certain population at time t is given by P. The rate of increase of P
dP
dt

is given by

= 2P. Given that at time t = 0, the population was 3, find the

population at time t = 2.

Solution:
dP
dt

= 2P
1
P

dP = 2 dt

ln | P |

P = Ae2t

t = 0, P = 3

= 2t +

3 = Ae0

A=3

P = 3e2t
When t = 2, P = 3e4 = 164
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Exercise K, Question 2

Question:
The number of particles at time t of a certain radioactive substance is N. The
substance is decaying in such a way that

dN
dt

N
3

Given that at time t = 0 the number of particles is N0, find the time when the
1

number of particles remaining is 2 N0.


Solution:
dN
dt

N
3
1
N

ln | N |

N = Ae
t = 0, N = N0
N = N0

1
3t

=
1

A = N0

ln 2 =

1
3t

t = 3 ln 2 or 2.08

N0

N0 = Ae0

1
2

N=

1
2

1
3 dt

dN =

=e

1
3

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Exercise K, Question 3

Question:
The mass M at time t of the leaves of a certain plant varies according to the
differential equation

dM
dt

= M M2.

(a) Given that at time t = 0, M = 0.5, find an expression for M in terms of t.


(b) Find a value for M when t = ln 2.
(c) Explain what happens to the value of M as t increases.

Solution:
dM
dt

= M M2
1

M(1M)

dM = 1 dt but

A
M

B
1M

A ( 1 M ) + BM

M=0: 1
M=1: 1

= 1A , A = 1
= 1B , B = 1

1
+
dM = 1dt
M
1

ln | M | ln | 1 M |

ln

1
M(1M)

M
1M

= Ae0

= Aet

(a) t = 0, M = 0.5
M=

=t+

=t+

et

etM

0.5
0.5

M=

A=1

et
1 + et

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(b) t = ln 2

M=

(c) t

M=

eln 2
1+

eln 2
1

et+1

Page 2 of 2

2
1+2

1
1

2
3

=1

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Exercise K, Question 4

Question:
The volume of liquid Vcm3 at time t seconds satisfies
15

dV
dt

= 2V 450.

Given that initially the volume is 300 cm3, find to the nearest cm3 the volume
after 15 seconds.
Solution:
15

dV
dt

1
2V 450 dV

1
2

ln | 2V 450 |

= 2V 450
=

1
15 dt

1
15 t

2V 450 = Ae 15 t
t = 0, V = 300 150 = Ae0

A = 150

2V = 150e 15 t + 450
t = 15 2V = 150e 2 + 450
150
2

e
+3

V=

V = 75 ( 3 + e 2 ) = 235

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Exercise K, Question 5

Question:
The thickness of ice x mm on a pond is increasing and

dx
dt

1
20x2

, where t is

measured in hours. Find how long it takes the thickness of ice to increase from 1
mm to 2 mm.

Solution:
dx
dt

1
20x2

x2 dx =

1 3
3x

t
20

t = 0, x = 1

x=2

t=

C
1
3

20 ( x3 1 )
3

1
20 dt

=C

=t

140
3 or

81

20
3

t=

46

2
3

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Exercise K, Question 6

Question:
The depth h metres of fluid in a tank at time t minutes satisfies

dh
dt

= k h,

where k is a positive constant. Find, in terms of k, how long it takes the depth to
decrease from 9 m to 4 m.
Solution:
dh
dt

= kh

dh = k dt

h 2

1
2

dh = k dt

2h 2 = kt + C
t = 0, h = 9 2 3 = 0 +

C=6

2h
or t =
h=4

6 = kt

62h
k

t=

622
k

2
k

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Exercise K, Question 7

Question:
The rate of increase of the radius r kilometres of an oil slick is given by
k
r2

dr
dt

, where k is a positive constant. When the slick was first observed the radius

was 3 km. Two days later it was 5 km. Find, to the nearest day when the radius
will be 6.
Solution:
dr
dt

k
r2

r2 dr = k dt

1 3
3r

= kt +

t = 0, r = 3
kt =

49
3 t

1 3
3r

or t =
r=6

27
3

t = 2, r = 5

C
=C

C=9

9
2k =

1 3
3r

125
3

k = 16

1
3

r3 27
49

t=

63 27
49

= 3.85... = 4 days

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Exercise L, Question 1

Question:
3

It is given that y = x

48
,
x

x > 0.

(a) Find the value of x and the value of y when

dy
dx

= 0.

(b) Show that the value of y which you found is a minimum.


3

The finite region R is bounded by the curve with equation y=x

48
,
x

the lines

x = 1, x = 4 and the x-axis.

(c) Find, by integration, the area of R giving your answer in the form p + q ln r,
where the numbers p, q and r are to be found.

Solution:
3

(a) y = x
dy
dx

=0

48x 1

(b)

2
3

x = 4, y = 23 + 12 = 20

x = 4 , y = 20

dx2

48x 2

x2

d2y

3 1
2
2x

48

3 1
2
2x

dy
dx

48 = 32

3 1
2
4x

+ 96x 3 > 0 for all x > 0

20 is a minimum value of y

(c) Area = 14 x

3
2

48
x

dx

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2
x
5

32 + 48 ln 4

62
5

+ 48 ln | x |

4
1

2
+0
5

+ 48 ln 4

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Exercise L, Question 2

Question:
The curve C has two arcs, as shown, and the equations
x = 3t2, y = 2t3,
where t is a parameter.

(a) Find an equation of the tangent to C at the point P where t = 2.


The tangent meets the curve again at the point Q.
(b) Show that the coordinates of Q are ( 3 , 2 ) .
The shaded region R is bounded by the arcs OP and OQ of the curve C, and the line PQ, as shown.
(c) Find the area of R.

Solution:
(

(a)

dy
dx

=
(

dy
)
dt
dx
)
dt

P is (12, 16)
tangent is

6t2
6t

=t

y 16 = 2 ( x 12 )

or

y = 2x 8

(b) Substitute x = 3t2, y = 2t3 into the equation for the tangent
2t3 = 6t2 8

t3 3t2 + 4 = 0

(t2) 2(t+1) =0

t = 1 at Q ( 3 , 2 )

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(c)

Area of R = A1 T1 + A2 + T2
A1 + A2 = y dx = t = 1t = 22t3 6t dt = 1212t4 dt
=

12 5
2=
t
5
1

T1 =

1
2

16 8 = 64

T2 =

1
2

12=1

12 32

12

5
= 79.2

area of R = 79.2 64 + 1 = 16.2


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Exercise L, Question 3

Question:
(a) Show that ( 1 + sin 2x ) 2

1
2

3 + 4 sin 2x cos 4x .

(b) The finite region bounded by the curve with equation y = 1 + sin 2x, the x-axis, the yaxis and the line with equation x =

is rotated through 2 about the x-axis.

Using calculus, calculate the volume of the solid generated, giving your answer in terms
of .

Solution:
(a) ( 1 + sin 2x ) 2 = 1 + 2 sin 2x + sin2 2x
= 1 + 2 sin 2x +

1 cos 4x

1
2

3
2

+ 2 sin 2x

1
2

1
2

3 + 4 sin 2x cos 4x

cos 4x

(b) V = y2 dx = 0

( 1 + sin 2x ) 2 dx

3 + 4 sin 2x cos 4x dx

3x 2 cos 2x 4 sin 4x 0

1
3

2 cos 4 sin 2

+2+2
2

3 + 8


020

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Exercise L, Question 4

Question:
This graph shows part of the curve with equation y = f ( x ) where
f

x
e0.5x + x , x > 0.

The curve has a stationary point at x = .


(a) Find f ( x ) .
(b) Hence calculate f ( 1.05 ) and f ( 1.10 ) and deduce that
1.05 < < 1.10.
(c) Find f ( x ) dx .
The shaded region R is bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the lines x = 2 and
x = 4.
(d) Find, to 2 decimal places, the area of R.

Solution:
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(a) f

Page 2 of 2

1 1
1

x
= 2e 2x 2

(b) f ( 1.05 ) = 0.061... < 0


f ( 1.10 ) = + 0.040... > 0
Change of sign root in interval (1.05, 1.10)
(c)

1
0.5x
e
+ x
dx = 2e0.5x + ln | x | +

(d) Area = 24y dx


= [ 2e0.5x + ln | x | ] 24
= ( 2e2 + ln 4 ) ( 2e1 + ln 2 )
= 2e2 2e1 + ln 2
= 10.03 (2 d.p.)
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Exercise L, Question 5

Question:
(a) Find xe x dx.

(b) Given that y =


ex

dy
dx

at x = 0, solve the differential equation

x
sin 2y

Solution:
(a) I = xe x dx
u=x
dv
dx

du
dx

=ex

=1
v= ex

I = xe x ( e x ) dx
i.e. I = xe x e x +
(b) ex

dy
dx

x
sin 2y

sin 2y dy = xe x dx

x = 0, y =

1
2

1
2

cos 2y = xe x e x +

0=01+

C=1

cos 2y = xe x + e x 1

or cos 2y = 2 ( xe x + e x 1 )
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Exercise L, Question 6

Question:
The diagram shows the finite shaded region bounded by the curve with equation
y = x2 + 3, the lines x = 1, x = 0 and the x-axis. This region is rotated through 360
about the x-axis.
Find the volume generated.

Solution:
V = 01y2 dx = 01 ( x2 + 3 ) 2 dx
= 01 ( x4 + 6x2 + 9 ) dx
=

1 5

x + 2x3 + 9x 01
5

+2+9

56
5

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Exercise L, Question 7

Question:
(a) Find

1
x(x+1)

dx

(b) Using the substitution u = ex and the answer to a, or otherwise, find


1
1 + ex

dx.

(c) Use integration by parts to find x2 sin x dx.

Solution:
(a)

1
x(x+1)

1
x

1
x(x+1)

1
x+1
1
1

dx
x
x
+
1

dx =

= ln | x | ln | x + 1 | +
= ln
(b) I =

x
+
x+1
1
1+

ex

1
(1+u)

I=
+

u = ex

dx

1
u

du = ex dx

du = ln
+
1
+
u

or

ln
x
1+e

(c) I = x2 sin x dx
u = x2
dv
dx

du
dx

= sin x

= 2x
v = cos x

I = x2 cos x ( cos x ) 2x dx
= x2 cos x + 2x cos x dx
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Let J = 2x cos x dx

u = 2x
dv
dx

= cos x

du
dx

=2
v = sin x

J = 2x sin x 2 sin x dx
= 2x sin x + 2 cos x + C
I = x2 cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x +

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Exercise L, Question 8

Question:
(a) Find x sin 2x dx.
(b) Given that y = 0 at x =

, solve the differential equation

dy
dx

= x sin 2x cos2 y.

Solution:
(a) I = x sin 2x dx
u=x
dv
dx

= sin 2x

I=
=
(b)

dy
dx

du
dx

=1
v=

1
2 x cos 2x

1
2 x cos 2x

1
4

1
2

cos 2x

1
2

cos 2x dx

sin 2x +

= x sin 2x cos2 y
sec2 y dy = x sin 2x dx
tan y =

y = 0, x =

tan y =

1
2 x cos 2x

0=0+

1
2 x cos 2x

1
4

1
4

sin 2x +

1
4

sin 2x

C=

1
4

1
4

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Exercise L, Question 9

Question:
(a) Find x cos 2x dx.
1

(b) This diagram shows part of the curve with equation y = 2x 2 sin x. The
shaded region in the diagram is bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line
with equation x =

. This shaded region is rotated through 2 radians about the

x-axis to form a solid of revolution. Using calculus, calculate the volume of the
solid of revolution formed, giving your answer in terms of .

Solution:
(a) I = x cos 2x dx
u=x

du
dx

=1

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dv
dx

= cos 2x

I=
=

x
2

x
2

v=

sin 2x
1
4

sin 2x +

1
2

1
2

sin 2x

sin 2x dx

cos 2x +

Page 2 of 2

(b) V = 0 2 y2 dx = 0 2 4x sin2 x dx
cos 2A = 1 2 sin2 A 2 sin2 x = 1 cos 2x

V = 0 2 2x
1 cos 2x
dx

= 0 2x dx 2 0 2 x cos 2x dx
2

= [

x2

] 0

3
4

3
4

1
x

sin
2x
+
cos 2x 0
2
2
4

sin

+
cos

4
4

0+ 4

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Exercise L, Question 10

Question:
A curve has equation y = f ( x ) and passes through the point with coordinates
( 0 , 1 ) . Given that f

x
= 2 e2x 6x ,

(a) use integration to obtain an expression for f(x),


(b) show that there is a root of the equation f ( x ) = 0 , such that
1.41 < < 1.43.
Solution:
(a) f

x
= 2 e2x 6x

x
= 4 e2x 3x2 +

0
= 1

1=

C
1
4

0+

C=

5
4

1
5

x
= 4 e2x 3x2 4

(b) f ( 1.41 ) = 0.07... < 0


f ( 1.43 ) = + 0.15... > 0
Change of sign root in interval (1.41, 1.43).
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Exercise L, Question 11

Question:
f

x
= 16x

1
2

2
,
x

x > 0.

(a) Solve the equation f ( x ) = 0 .


(b) Find f ( x ) dx .
(c) Evaluate 14f ( x ) dx , giving your answer in the form p + q ln r, where p, q
and r are rational numbers.

Solution:
1

(a) f x
=0

16x

2
x

16x

x=

=2
1
8
1
3 1 2
\ 8
= 4

(b)

=
(c) 1
=

16x

32 3
2
3 x

1
2

2
x

dx =

2 ln | x | +

x
dx =

4f

32
x
3

16x 2
3
2

2 ln | x | +

C
3
2

32
23 2 ln 4

2 ln | x |

4
1

32

0
3

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224
3

Page 2 of 2

2 ln 4

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Exercise L, Question 12

Question:
Shown is part of a curve C with equation y = x2 + 3. The shaded region is
bounded by C, the x-axis and the lines with equations x = 1 and x = 3. The
shaded region is rotated through 360 about the x-axis.
Using calculus, calculate the volume of the solid generated. Give your answer as
an exact multiple of .

Solution:
V = 13y2 dx = 13 ( x2 + 3 ) 2 dx
= 13 ( x4 + 6x2 + 9 ) dx
=

1 5

x + 2x3 + 9x 13
5

243
+ 54 + 27

242
+ 81 11
5

1

+2+9
5

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= 118.4
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Exercise L, Question 13

Question:
(a) Find x ( x2 + 3 ) 5 dx
(b) Show that 1e

2
e

1
x

ln x dx = 1
2

(c) Given that p > 1, show that 1p

1
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )

dx =

1
3

ln

4p 2
p+1

Solution:
(a) Let y = ( x2 + 3 ) 6
dy
dx

= 6 ( x2 + 3 ) 5 2x
1
12

x ( x2 + 3 ) 5 dx =
1

(b) I = 1e

x2

u = ln x
dv
dx

v=

=
=1

1
x
1
x

1
1

x ln x 1e 1e
2
dx

I=
=

du
dx

x2

ln x dx

( x2 + 3 ) 6 +

1
e

0
+

1 e

2
e

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(c)

1
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )

A
x+1

Page 2 of 2

B
2x 1

1 A ( 2x 1 ) + B ( x + 1 )

1
2

x=

x= 1

1=

3
2B

1 = 3A

1
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )

B=

2
3

dx =

1
1
ln
|
2x

1
|

3 ln | x + 1 |
3

1
2x 1 p
ln
3
x+1 1

2p 1
1
ln

3
p+1
1
3

ln

2
3

p
1 2x 1

1
3

A=

1
3

+ x + 1 dx

p
1

1
1
ln
2
3

4p 2
p+1

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 14

Question:
2

5x 8x + 1
A
B

x + x1 +
2
2x ( x 1 )

C
(x1) 2

(a) Find the values of the constants A, B and C.


(b) Hence find f ( x ) dx .
5
32

3
24

dx = ln
(c) Hence show that 49f x

Solution:
2

5x 8x + 1
A
B

(a) f x

x + x1 +
2
2x ( x 1 )

x=0

1 = 2A

x=1

2 = 2C

Coefficients of x2:

(b) f x dx =

1
2

C= 1

1
2

2
x + x1

ln | x | + 2 ln | x 1 | +

1
2

A=

5 = 2A + 2B

1
x1

B=2

1
(x1) 2

(c) 49f x dx =

(x1) 2

5x2 8x + 1 2A ( x 1 ) 2 + 2Bx ( x 1 ) + 2Cx

dx

2 ln | x | + 2 ln | x 1 | +

1
x1

9
4

ln | x ( x 1 ) 2 | + x 1 49

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ln 3 64
+ 8

= ln

1
1
3 64
+

8
3
29

= ln

32
3

Page 2 of 2

ln
29
+ 3

5
24

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 15

Question:
The curve shown has parametric equations
x = 5 cos , y = 4 sin , 0 < 2.

(a) Find the gradient of the curve at the point P at which =

(b) Find an equation of the tangent to the curve at the point P.


(c) Find the coordinates of the point R where this tangent meets the x-axis.
The shaded region is bounded by the tangent PR, the curve and the x-axis.
(d) Find the area of the shaded region, leaving your answer in terms of .

Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

dy
d

d
dx

4 cos
5 sin

gradient of tangent at P =
(b) P =

5
,
2

4
2

4
5

equation of tangent is

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4
2

(c) At R, y = 0

4
5

x=

Page 2 of 2

5
2

or

52
2

52
2

y22=

4
5

5
2

4
2

=5

=52

R is ( 5 2 , 0 )
(d)

A1 + A2 =

1
2

A1 = y dx =

= 10 0

52

04 sin

5
2

4
2

1
2

5
2

5 sin
d

1 cos 2 d

= [ 10 5 sin 2 ] 0
=

5
2

A2 = 5 A1 = 5

5
= 10 2.5
2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 16

Question:
(a) Obtain the general solution of the differential equation
dy
dx

= xy2, y > 0.

(b) Given also that y = 1 at x = 1, show that


y=

2
3 x2

, 3<x< 3

is a particular solution of the differential equation.


The curve C has equation y =

2
3 x2

, x 3, x 3

(c) Write down the gradient of C at the point (1, 1).


(d) Deduce that the line which is a tangent to C at the point (1, 1) has equation
y = x.
(e) Find the coordinates of the point where the line y = x again meets the curve
C.

Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

= xy2

or y =

1
y2

dy = x dx

1
y

x2
2

(b) y = 1, x = 1

k = 2C

2
x2

1=

2
1+ k

k= 3

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y=

Page 2 of 2

2
3 x2

for x2 3 and y > 0, i.e. 3 < x < 3


(c) When x = 1, y = 1

dy
dx

is 1

(d) Equation of tangent is y 1 = 1 ( x 1 ) , i.e. y = x.


(e) x =

2
3

x2

x3 + 3x = 2 or x3 3x + 2 = 0

(x1) 2(x+2) =0

y = x meets curve at ( 2 , 2 ) .
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 17

Question:
The diagram shows the curve C with parametric equations
x = a sin2 t, y = a cos t, 0

1
,
2

where a is a positive constant. The point P lies on C and has coordinates


3
a
4

1
a
2

(a) Find

dy
dx

, giving your answer in terms of t.

(b) Find an equation of the tangent to C at P.


(c) Show that a cartesian equation of C is y2 = a2 ax.
The shaded region is bounded by C, the tangent at P and the x-axis. This shaded
region is rotated through 2 radians about the x-axis to form a solid of
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revolution.

(d) Use calculus to calculate the volume of the solid revolution formed, giving
your answer in the form ka3, where k is an exact fraction.
Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

dy
dt

dt
dx

M=

y= x+

sin2 t
or

1
2a

sec t

cos2 t

= 1

x 4a

5
4a

=1

x
a

y2
a2

=1

y2 = a2 ax

(d) volume = cone


cone =

1
2

= 1

1
2
2

tangent is y

(c)

1
1

3
a
,
a
,
so
cos
t
=
2
2
4

(b) P is

or

a sin t
2a sin t cos t

a
4

1
3

ay2 dx

a
4

ay2 dx

a3
3
1 2 5

a
a

a
=
24
4
2
4

a
2

a x 2 x2

a
3
=
a 2

a
4

a3
9 3
3 3
a 32 a
= 32
4

3
a3
a3
a
Volume =
32
= 96
24

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 18

Question:
(a) Using the substitution u = 1 + 2x, or otherwise, find
4x

( 1 + 2x )

1
,
2

dx, x >
2

(b) Given that y =


( 1 + 2x ) 2

dy
dx

when x = 0, solve the differential equation


x

sin2 y

Solution:
(a) I =

4x
( 1 + 2x ) 2

dx

u = 1 + 2x

du
2

I=
=

= dx and 4x = 2 ( u 1 )
2(u1)

du
2

u2

u 2 du
u

= ln | u | +

1
u

= ln | 1 + 2x | +
(b) ( 1 + 2x ) 2

dy
dx

C
1
1 + 2x

x
sin2 y
x

sin2 y dy =

4 sin2 y dy =

( 2 2 cos 2y ) dy = I

( 1 + 2x ) 2

dx

4x
( 1 + 2x ) 2

dx

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2y sin 2y = ln | 1 + 2x | +

x = 0, y =

C=

Page 2 of 2

1
1 + 2x

1 = ln 1 + 1 +

2y sin 2y = ln | 1 + 2x | +

1
1 + 2x

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 19

Question:
The diagram shows the curve with equation y = xe2x,

1
2

The finite region R1 bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line x =

1
.
2
1
has
2

area A1.
The finite region R2 bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line x =

1
has
2

area

A2.

(a) Find the exact values of A1 and A2 by integration.


(b) Show that A1: A2 = ( e 2 ) : e.

Solution:
(a) xe2x dx
u=x

du
dx

=1

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dv
dx

= e2x

xe2x dx =
A1 =
=
=

1
4

A2 =
=
=

(b)

A1
A2

v=

1 2x
2e

1 2x
2 xe

1 2x
2 e dx

1 2x
1 2x
xe

4e
2

1

0 4

Page 2 of 2

1 2x
2 xe

1 2x
4e

10
2

1
1

4e 1 4e 1

1 2e 1

1 2x
1 2x
xe

4e
2
0

1 1
1 1
e

4e
4

1
2

0 4

1
4
1
( 1 2e 1 )
4

1
4

= 1 2e 1 =

e2
e

A1: A2 = ( e 2 ) : e
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 20

Question:
Find x2e x dx.
Given that y = 0 at x = 0, solve the differential equation

dy
dx

= x2e3y x.

Solution:
I = x2e x dx

u = x2
dv
dx

=ex

du
dx

= 2x
v= ex

I = x2e x ( e x ) 2x dx
= x2e x + 2x e x dx
J = 2xe x dx
u = 2x
dv
dx

du
dx

=ex

=2
v= ex

J = 2xe x ( e x ) 2 dx
= 2xe x 2e x + k
I = x2e x 2xe x 2e x +
dy
dx

= x2e3y x = x2e x e3y

e 3y dy = x2e x dx

1 3y
3e

x = 0, y = 0

1 3y
3e

= x2e x 2xe x 2e x +

1
3

= 2+

= x2e x + 2xe x + 2e x

C=

C
5
3

5
3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 21

Question:
The curve with equation y = e3x + 1 meets the line y = 8 at the point (h, 8).
(a) Find h, giving your answer in terms of natural logarithms.
(b) Show that the area of the finite region enclosed by the curve with
y = e3x + 1, the x-axis, the y-axis and the line x = h is 2 +

equation

1
3

ln 7.

Solution:
(a) 8 = e3x + 1
1
3

x=

7 = e3x

ln 7, i.e. h =

1
3

ln 7

(b)

Area = 0 3 ln7y dx
1

dx
= 0 3 ln7 e3x + 1

1 3x

e +x 0
3

1
3

ln 7

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1 ln 7
e
+
ln 7

3
3

1
3

7 + ln 7
3

1
3

6 + ln 7

=2+

1
3

Page 2 of 2

1
+0
3

ln 7

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 22

Question:
(a) Given that
x2
x2

B
x1

A+

C
,
x+1

find the values of the constants A, B and C.


(b) Given that x = 2 at t = 1, solve the differential equation
dx
dt

=2

x2

, x > 1.

You need not simplify your final answer.

Solution:
(a)

x2
x2

B
x1

A+

x2 A ( x 1 ) ( x + 1 ) + B ( x + 1 ) +

x=1

1 = 2B

x= 1

B=

1 = 2C

C=

A=1

dx
dt

=2

1=A

C(x1)

1
2

Coefficients of x2:
(b)

C
x+1

1
2.

( x2 1 )
x2
x2
x2 1

x+

dx = 2 dt

1+

1
2

ln

1
)
2

x1

x1
x+1

1
)
2

x+1

= 2t +

dx = 2t

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x = 2, t = 1
x+

1
2

ln

2+

x1
x+1

1
2

ln

1
3

= 2t +

Page 2 of 2

=2+
1
2

ln

C=

1
2

ln

1
3

1
3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 23

Question:
The curve C is given by the equations
x = 2t, y = t2,
where t is a parameter.
(a) Find an equation of the normal to C at the point P on C where t = 3.
The normal meets the y-axis at the point B. The finite region R is bounded by the
part of the curve C between the origin O and P, and the lines OB and OP.
(b) Show the region R, together with its boundaries, in a sketch.
The region R is rotated through 2 about the y-axis to form a solid S.
(c) Using integration, and explaining each step in your method, find the volume
of S, giving your answer in terms of .

Solution:
(a)

dy
dx

dy
dt

dt
dx

2t
2

= t.

at P (6, 9) gradient of normal is


equation of normal is y 9 =

(b) x = 2t, y =

t2

y=

1
3

1
3

x6

or

y=

1
3x

+ 11

x2
4

B is (0, 11)

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(c) volume = cone + 09x2 dy


cone =

1
3

62 2 = 24

09x2 dy = t = 0t = 34t2 2t dt = 038t3 dt


= [ 2t4 ] 03 = 2 81 = 162
Volume of S = 186
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 24

Question:
Shown is part of the curve with equation y = e2x e x. The shaded region R is
bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line with equation x = 1.
Use calculus to find the area of R, giving your answer in terms of e.

Solution:
Area = 01 ( e2x e x ) dx
=

1 2x

e + e x 01
2

1 2

e +e1

1
2

+1
2

2
2

e + e 3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 25

Question:
(a) Given that 2y = x sin x cos x, show that

dy
dx

= sin2 x.

(b) Hence find sin2 x dx.


(c) Hence, using integration by parts, find x sin2 x dx.

Solution:
(a) 2y = x sin x cos x

dy
dx

dy
dx


cos2 x + sin x
sin x
= 1 cos2 x + sin2 x

=1

= sin2 x

(using sin2 x = 1 cos2 x)

(b) sin2 x dx = y + C1
=

x
2

1
2

sin x cos x + C1

(c) x sin2 x dx
u=x
dv
dx

du
dx

=1

= sin2 x v =

x2
2

x2
4

x sin2 x dx

x2
2

1
2 x sin x cos x

1
2 x sin x cos x

x2
4

1
2 x sin x cos x

1
8

1
4

1
x

sin x cos x dx
2
2

sin 2x dx

cos 2x + C2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 26

Question:
The rate, in cm3 s 1, at which oil is leaking from an engine sump at any time
t seconds is proportional to the volume of oil, V cm3, in the sump at that instant.
At time t = 0, V = A.
(a) By forming and integrating a differential equation, show that
V = Ae kt
where k is a positive constant.
(b) Sketch a graph to show the relation between V and t.
Given further that V =

1
A
2

at t = T,

(c) show that kT = ln 2.

Solution:
(a)

dv
dt

= k V

1
V

dV = k dt

ln | V |

= kt +

V = A1e kt
t = 0, V = A V = Ae kt

( A1 = A )

(b)

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(c) t = T, V =

1
2A

1
2A

Page 2 of 2

= Ae kT

ln 2 = kT
kT = ln 2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 27

Question:
This graph shows part of the curve C with parametric equations
x = ( t + 1 ) 2, y =

1 3
t
2

+ 3, t

1.

P is the point on the curve where t = 2. The line S is the normal to C at P.

(a) Find an equation of S.


The shaded region R is bounded by C, S, the x-axis and the line with equation
x = 1.
(b) Using integration and showing all your working, find the area of R.

Solution:

(a)

dy
dx

dy
dt

dt
dx

3 2
t
2

2(t+1)

3t2
4(t+1)

At P (9, 7) gradient of normal is


equation of line S is

43
3 22

= 1

y7= 1(x9)

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i.e. y = x + 16

or

Page 2 of 2

y + x = 16

(b) Area = x = 1x = 9y dx + area of triangle shown below

1 3

t
+
3
2

x = 1x = 9y dx = t = 0t = 2

= 02 ( t4 + t3 + 6t + 6 ) dt
=

6t2
1 4
1 5

t + 4 t + 2 + 6t 02
5

16

32
+
+34+62

5
4

t+1
dt

= 34.4
Area = 34.4 +

1
2

72 = 58.9

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 28

Question:
Shown is part of the curve C with parametric equations
x = t2, y = sin 2t, t 0.
The point A is an intersection of C with the x-axis.
(a) Find, in terms of , the x-coordinate of A.
(b) Find

dy
dx

in terms of t, t > 0.

(c) Show that an equation of the tangent to C at A is 4x + 2y = 2.


The shaded region is bounded by C and the x-axis.
(d) Use calculus to find, in terms of , the area of the shaded region.

Solution:
(a) At A, y = 0

sin 2t = 0

2t = 0 or

t=

2
A is
, 0
or
, 0
4
2

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(b)

dy
dx

2 cos 2t
2t

cos 2t
t

(c) Gradient of tangent at A is

cos

equation of tangent is
y = 2x +

)
2

Page 2 of 2

y0=

)
2
2

x 4

22
4

or 2y + 4x = 2

(d) Area = y dx = t = 0t =
u=t
dv
dt

du
dt

sin 2t 2t dt

=1

= 2 sin 2t v = cos 2t

Area = [ t cos 2t ] 0
=

+ 2

0
+

dt
cos 2t

sin 2t 0
2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 29

Question:
Showing your method clearly in each case, find
(a) sin2 x cos x dx,
(b) x ln x dx.
Using the substitution t2 = x + 1, where x > 1, t > 0,
(c) Find

x
dx.
\x+1
x
dx.
\x+1

(d) Hence evaluate 03


Solution:
(a) Let y = sin3 x

dy
dx

1
3

sin2 x cos x dx =

= 3 sin2 x cos x
sin3 x +

(b) x ln x dx
u = ln x
dv
dx

=x

du
dx

v=

(c) t2 = x + 1
I=
=

1 2
2x

1 2
2 x ln x

x ln x dx =
1 2
2 x ln x

1
x

x2
4

1 2
2x

1
x

dx

2t dt = dx

x
\ x + 1 dx
t2 1
t

2t dt

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Page 2 of 2

= ( 2t2 2 ) dt

(d) 03
=

2 3
3t

2
3

2
3\

2t +

C
3

(x+1)
x+1

x
\ x + 1 dx

2\ x + 1 +

x2
+

x2
\ x + 1 03
3

4
8

3
= 3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 30

Question:
(a) Using the substitution u = 1 + 2x2, find x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 dx.

(b) Given that y =


dy
dx

at x = 0, solve the differential equation

= x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 cos2 2y.

Solution:
(a) u = 1 + 2x2
So x ( 1 +

(b)

dy
dx

2x2

du = 4x dx
5 dx

u5
4 du

x dx =
u6
24

+ C1 =

( 1 + 2x2 ) 6
24

+ C1

= x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 cos2 2y

sec2 2y dy = x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 dx

1
2

y=

du
4

tan 2y =

,x=0

tan 2y =

( 1 + 2x2 ) 6
24
1
2

1
24

( 1 + 2x2 ) 6
12

11
12

+ C2
+ C2

C2 =

11
24

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 31

Question:
Find x2 ln 2x dx.

Solution:
I = x2 ln 2x dx

u = ln 2x
dv
dx

x2

I=
=

x3
3

x3
3

du
dx

v=

x3
3

ln 2x

x3
3

x3
3

ln 2x
ln 2x

x3
9

1
x

1
x

dx

x2
3 dx

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 32

Question:
Obtain the solution of
x

dy

x+2
= y , y > 0, x > 0,

dx

for which y = 2 at x = 2, giving your answer in the form y2 = f ( x ) .

Solution:
x

dy
x+2
=y

dx
1
y dy

1
x(x+2)

1
x(x+2)

A
x

B
x+2

1 A ( x + 2 ) + Bx

x=0

1 = 2A

x= 2

1 = 2B

So ln y =
1
2

( 2 )

1
2

ln | x |

y=\

B=

1
)
2

1
2
1
2

dx

x+2

ln | x + 2 | +

C = 2 ln k

kx
x+2

x = 2, y = 2

y=\

A=

dx

8x
x+2

or

2=\
y2 =

2k
4

42=k

8x
x+2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 33

Question:
(a) Use integration by parts to show that

0 4 x sec2 x dx =

1
2

ln 2.
1

The finite region R, bounded by the curve with equation y = x 2 sec x, the line
x=

and the x-axis is shown. The region R is rotated through 2 radians about

the x-axis.
(b) Find the volume of the solid of revolution generated.
1

(c) Find the gradient of the curve with equation y = x 2 sec x at the point where
x=

Solution:

(a) I = 0 4 x sec2 x dx
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u=x
dv
dx

du
dx

= sec2 x

=1
v = tan x

I = [ x tan x ] 0
=

0 4 tan x dx

0
[ ln | sec x | ] 0


ln 2

1
2

(c)

At x =


ln 1

2
4 y dx

Using (a)
dy
dx

ln 2

(b) V = 0

Page 2 of 2

V=

1 1
2
2x
dy
4 dx

= 0 4 x sec2 x dx
2
4

ln 2 = 1.38 (3 s.f.)

sec x + x 2 sec x tan x

1
2

2+

21=\

+\

= 2.05 (3

s.f.)
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 34

Question:
Part of the design of a stained glass window is shown. The two loops enclose an
area of blue glass. The remaining area within the rectangle ABCD is red glass.
The loops are described by the curve with parametric equations
x = 3 cos t, y = 9 sin 2t, 0 t < 2.
(a) Find the cartesian equation of the curve in the form y2 = f ( x ) .
(b) Show that the shaded area enclosed by the curve and the x-axis, is given by

0 2 A sin 2t sin t dt, stating the value of the constant A.


(c) Find the value of this integral.
The sides of the rectangle ABCD are the tangents to the curve that are parallel to
the coordinate axes. Given that 1 unit on each axis represents 1 cm,
(d) find the total area of the red glass.

Solution:
(a) x = 3 cos t
y = 9 sin 2t

y = 18 cos t sin t

y = 6x sin t

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cos t =
cos2 t

x
3,

sin2 t

y
6x

sin t =
=1

Page 2 of 3

x2
9

y2
36x2

=1

i.e. 4x4 + y2 = 36x2


or y2 = 4x2 ( 9 x2 )
(b)

Area = y dx
= t=

t = 09 sin 2t

3 sin t dt

= 27 0 2 sin 2t sin t dt

(c) 27 0 2 sin 2t sin t dt = 54 0 2 sin2 t cos t dt


=

3
54 sin t
3

= ( 18 1 ) ( 0 )
= 18
(d) Area of blue glass is 18 4 = 72

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Area of rectangle = 108


Area of red glass = 108 72 = 36 cm2
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