Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

# UNIT-3

PART-A
1. List the loads normally acting on a shaft?
Axial thrust.
2. Write dow n the expression for the power transmitted by a shaft.
P=2 NT/60
Where
N-speed in rpm
T-Torque in N-m
P-pow er transmitted in Watts.
3. Write the polar m odulus value of a rectangle.
It is the ratio betw een the polar moment of inertia and distance of extreme layer or the
shaft from neutral axis.
Zp=(bd2 + b3)/6
4. Give torsion formula.
T/J = G/l = /R
5. Define torsional rigidity.
Product of rigidity modulus and polar moment of inertia is called torsional rigidity
Torsional rigidity = JG
Where,
J=Polar moment of inertia
G=modulus of rigidity.
6. State any four assumptions involved in sim ple theory of torsion.
The material of the shaft is homogeneous, perfectly elastic and obeys Hookes law .
Tw ist is uniform along the length of the shaft.
The stress does not exceed the limit of proportionality.
Strain and deformations are small.
7. What do you m ean by the term shear flow?
It is defined as the gradient of shear stress through the body.
8. What do you m ean by strength of a shaft?
The maximum torque that a shaft can transmit is called strength of the shaft.
9. Define polar m odulus or torsional section modulus of a section.
It is the ratio betw een polar moment of inertia and radius of the shaft.
Zp = J/R
Where
Zp=polar modulus
J=polar moment of inertia
10. Express the strength of a solid shaft.
Strength of a solid shaft,
C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

T = x x d3 / 16
11. Define section m odulus and w hat is its value for a circular section of diam eter d?
It is the ratio of moment of inertia of the section and the distance of extreme layer from
the neutral axis.
12. What do you m ean by torsional stiffness?
Torsional rigidity or stiffness of the shaft is defined as the product of modulus of rigidity
G and polar moment of inertia of the shaft
Torsional rigidity = GJ = T x (L/).
13. What do you m ean by equivalent twisting m oment? Give the relation.
When a shaft is subjected to tw isting and bending moment, the resultant tw isting
moment is called equivalent tw isting moment. It is denoted by Te.
Equivalent tw isting moment, Te = (T2 + M2) 1/2
14. What Is com posite shaft.
Sometimes a shaft is made up of composite section i.e., one type of shaft is sleeved
over other types of shaft. At the time of sleeving, the tw o shafts are joined together, that
the composite shaft behaves like a single shaft.
15. Distinguish between closed coil helical spring and open coil helical spring.
Closed coil helical spring
Open coil helical spring
The spring w ires are coiled very closely,
The w ires are coiled such that there is a
each turn is nearly at right angles to the
gap betw een the tw o consecutive turns.
axis of helix.
Helix angle is less than 10o
Helix angle is large (>10o)
16. What are the uses of leaf spring?
They are used in railw ay w agons, coaches and road vehicles.
They are used to absorb shocks w hich give unpleasant feeling to the passenger.
17. State any tw o functions of springs.
To measure forces in spring balance, meters and engine indicators.
To store energy.
18. What is a leaf spring?
The laminated carriage springs are called leaf springs.
They are tw o types, namely (i) semi-elliptical type and (ii) quarter-elliptical type.
19. What is m eant by stiffness of spring or spring rate?
The spring stiffness or spring constant is defined as the load required per unit deflection
of the spring.
K= W/
Where
deflection
20. What is spring index?
The ratio of mean or pitch diameter to the diameter of w ire for the spring is called the
spring index.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

PART-B

1. A hollow shaft w ith diam eter ratio 3/5 is required to transm it 450 kW at 120 rpm .
The shearing stress in the shaft m ust not exceed 60 N/m m 2 and the tw ist in a
length of 2.5 m is not to exceed 1o. Calculate the m inim um external diam eter of
the shaft. Take C = 80 kN/m m 2.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

2. A solid alum inium shaft 1m long and 100 m m diam eter is to be replaced by hollow
steel shaft of the same length and same external diameter. The angle of tw ist per
unit torsional m oment over total length is same for both the shafts. If the m odulus
of rigidity of steel is thrice that of alum inium, find the inner diam eter of the steel
shaft.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

3. A solid circular shaft transm its 75 kW pow er at 200 rpm . Calculate the shaft
diam eter, if the tw ist in the shaft is not to exceed 1 o in 2 m eters length of the shaft,
and shear stress is lim ited to 50 N/m m 2. Take m odulus of rigidity, G = 1x10 5
N/m m 2.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

4. A solid steel shaft is subjected to a torque of 45 kN-m . If the angle of tw ist 0.5
degrees per m eter length of the shaft and the shear stress is not to be allow ed to
exceed 90 MN/m 2, find (i) suitable diam eter for the shaft (ii) Find m axim um shear
stress, and (iii) m axim um shear strain in the shaft. Take G = 80 GN/m 2.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

5. Derive the torsion equation for a solid circular shaft of diam eter d and length l
w hich is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque of intensity T at the free end.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

6. A hollow steel shaft of diam eter ratio 3/8 has to transm it 500 kW of pow er at 1000
rpm . If the tw ist in a length of 2 m is not to exceed 1o and the m axim um shearing
stress is not to exceed 60 Mpa, find the m inim um external diam eter required to
satisfy the above requirem ents. Take G = 80 GPa.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

7. A hollow steel shaft of 100 m m internal diam eter and 150 m m external diam eter is
to be replaced by a solid alloy shaft. If the polar m odulus has the sam e value for
both, calculate the diam eter of the latter and ratio of their torsional rigidities.

## 8. A hollow shaft of 55 m m external diam eter and 35 m m internal diam eter is

subjected to a torque of 2.5 kN-m to produce and angular tw ist of 0.6 o m easured
over a length of 0.3 m of shaft. Calculate the value of m odulus of rigidity.
Calculate also the m axim um pow er w hich could be transm itted by the shaft at
2000 rpm , if the m axim um allow able shearing stress is 70 Mn/m m 2.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

9. A steel shaft of diam eter 200 m m runs at 300 rpm . The steel shaft has a 30 m m
thick bronze bushing shrunk over its entire length of 8 m . If the m axim um
shearing stress in the steel shaft is not to exceed 12 MPa. Take G steel = 84 GPa,
Gbronze = 42 GPa. Determ ine (i) Torsional rigidity of the shaft, (ii) Pow er of the
engine.

## 10. A bar of m agnesium alloy 28 m m in diam eter w as tested on a guage length of 25

cm in tension and in torsion. A tensile load of 5 tonnes produced an extension of
0.4 m m and a torque of 1250 kg-cm produced as twist of 1.51 degrees. Determ ine
the (i) Youngs m odulus, (ii) Modulus of rigidity, (iii) Bulk m odulus, and (iv)
Poissons ratio for the m aterial under test.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

11. A hollow steel shaft 10 cm external diam eter and 5 cm internal diam eter transm its
800 kW at 5000 rpm and is subjected to an end thrust of 40000 N. Find the
bending m oment hat be safely applied to the shaft if the greater principal stress is
not to exceed 100 N/m m 2.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

12. Tw o shafts of the sam e m aterial and of sam e lengths are subjected to a sam e
torque, if the first shaft is of a solid circular section and the second shaft is of
hollow circular section, w hose internal diam eter is 2/3 of the outside diam eter and
the m axim um shear stress developed in each shaft is the sam e, com pare the
w eights of the shafts.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

13. Find the angle of tw ist per m etre length of a hollow shaft of 100 m m external
diam eter and 60 m m internal diam eter, if the shear stress is not to exceed 35 MPa.
Take m odulus of rigidity G = 85 GPa.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

14. What do you m ean by strength of the shaft? Com pare the strength of solid and
hollow circular shaft.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

15. Find the diam eter of a solid shaft to transm it 90 kW at 160 rpm , such that the
shear stress is lim ited to 60 N/m m 2. The m aximum torque is likely to exceed the
m ean torque by 20 %. Also find the perm issible length of the shaft, if the tw ist is
not to exceed 1o over the entire length. Take rigidity m odulus as 0.8 x 105 N/m m 2.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

16. Determ ine the dim ensions of a hollow circular shaft w ith a diam eter ratio of 3:4
w hich is to transm it 60 kW at 200 rpm . The m axim um shear stress in the shaft is
lim ited to 70 MPa and the angle of tw ist to 3.8o in a length of 4 m . For the shaft
m aterial, the m odulus of rigidity is 80 GPa.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

17. An open coiled helical spring of w ire diam eter 12 m m , m ean coil radius 84 m m ,
helix angle 20 degrees carries an axial load of 480 N. Determ ine the shear stress
and direct stress developed at inner radius of the coil.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

18. Derive a relation for deflection of a closely coiled helical spring subjected to an
axial dow nw ard load W.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

19. Tw o coils m ade of the sam e m aterial and 12 m m dia w ire w ith 10 coils each are
placed co-axially. If the m ean diam eter of the outer coil is tw ice that of the inner
coil, determine the coil sizes to support a load of 1 kN. Assum e E 190 GPa, = 0.3
and = 120 MPa. The inner and outer spring coil radius can be taken as 42.8 m m
and 85.6 m m , determ ine the resultant deflection.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

20. Derive an expression for deflection, bending stress and shear stress induced an
open coiled helical spring subjected to an axial load W.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

21. A close-coiled helical spring has a stiffness of 12 N/m m . Its length w hen fully
com pressed, with adjacent coils touching each other is 400 m m . Taking m odulus
of rigidity of the spring m aterial as 80 GPa, determine the w ire diam eter and m ean
coil diam eter if their ratio is 0.1. Find the m axim um load that can be applied
before the spring becomes solid i.e., adjacent coils touch, if the gap betw een any
tw o adjacent coils is 2 m m . What is the corresponding m aximum shear stress in
the spring?

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

22. A close-coiled helical spring is m ade of a round steel w ire. It carries an axial load
of 150 N and is to just get over a rod of 36 m m . The deflection in the spring is not
to exceed 26 m m . The m axim um allow able shearing stress developed in the
spring w ire is 200 N/m m 2 and G = 80,000 N/m m 2. Find the m ean coil diam eter,
w ire diam eter and num ber of turns.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

23. A close coiled helical spring of 100 m m m ean diam eter is m ade of 10 m m diam eter
ro0d and has 20 turns. The spring carries an axial load of 200 N. Determ ine the
shearing stress. Taking the value of m odulus of rigidity as 84x10 9 N/m 2, determine
the deflection when carrying this load. Also calculate the stiffness of the spring
and frequency of free vibrations for a m ass hanging from it.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

24. A close-coiled helical spring is m ade of a round steel w ire. It carries an axial load
of 150 N and is to just get over a rod of 36 m m . The deflection in the spring is not
to exceed 25 m m . The m axim um allow able shearing stress developed in the
spring w ire is 200 N/m m 2 and G = 80,000 N/m m 2. Find the m ean coil diam eter, w ire
diam eter and num ber of turns.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

25. In a close-coiled helical spring, the diam eter of each coil is to be 12 tim es the
diam eter of the spring and the m aximum shear stress is not to exceed 75 N/m m 2.
Maxim um perm issible deflection under a load of 500 N is 12 cm . Taking shear
m odulus as 8 x 104 N/m m 2, determine the num ber of coils, diam eter of the coil and
energy stored in the spring.

## C.K.GOPALAKRISHNAN, AP/MECH, MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TRICHY

26. A close coiled helical spring is require d to absorb 2250 joules of energy.
Determ ine the diam eter of the w ire, the m ean coil diam eter of the spring and the
num ber of coils necessary if (i) the m aximum stress is not to exceed 400 MPa, (ii)
the m axim um com pression of the spring is lim ited to 250 m m and (iii) the m ean
diam eter of the spring is 8 tim es the w ire diam eter. For the spring m aterial,
rigidity m odulus is 70 GPa.