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Puritanism(T.U.L.I.P.

)1620
Inmanyrespects,theAmericancharacterfromthebeginninguntiltodayhasbeenshapedby
themoral,ethical,andreligiousconvictionsofthePuritans.

ThefirstgroupofEnglishPuritans
landedin1620,onthetipofCapeCod,
justbeforeChristmas.
ThisisknownasthePlymouthColony
TheFlagshipMayflowerarrivesin
1620ledbyWilliamBradford.
ThesettlerswereknownasPilgrims
andSeparatists
"TheMayflowerCompact"waswritten
bythesesettlers.Thisdocument
providessocial,religious,and
economicfreedom,whilestill
maintainingtiestoGreatBritain

ThesecondgroupofNew
Englandsettlerswereknown
asTheMassachusettsBay
Colony
TheFlagshipArbellaarrives
in1630leadbyJohn
Winthrop
Thesettlersaremostly
Puritans.
"TheArbellaCovenant"
clearlyestablishesareligious
andtheocraticsettlement,
freeoftiestoGreatBritain.

WhowerethePuritans?
PuritansisabroadtermreferringtoanumberofProtestantgroupsthat,beginninginabout
1560,soughttopurifytheChurchofEngland,whichwasalmostinseparablefrom
Englandsgovernment.
PuritanReasonsforleavingEngland
ForthePuritans,religionwasfirstofallapersonalinnerexperience.
Theydidnotbelievethattheclergyandthegovernmentshouldorcouldactasan
intermediarybetweentheindividualandGod.
PuritansalsosufferedpersecutioninEngland
BasicPuritanBeliefs
TotalDepravitythroughAdamandEve'sdisobedienceandfallfromgrace,everyperson
isbornsinfulthisisknownastheconceptofOriginalSin.AdamandEvessinhaddamned
mostpeopleforalleternity.Humanswereinherentlyevilandhadtostruggletoovercome
sin(Reuben).
UnconditionalElectionIncontrasttomostmodernChristianity,individualshadno
abilityto"save"themselves.God"saves"thosehewishesonlyafewareselectedfor
salvationconceptofpredestination.Onlyaselectfewknownastheelectwouldbesaved.
PersonalsalvationdependssolelyonthegraceofGodnotonindividualefforts(Reuben).
Theelectdonotgetablankcheckthough."Theelectwouldnecessarilyconsistofgood
Christians,possessedoftheHolySpirit"(Richard7).Contrarytopreviousdoctrine,
PuritanismarguedthatGod'sgracemadepeopletobefaithfulanddogoodintheworldNOT
thathavingfaithanddoinggoodcouldearnyousalvationandgrace(Richard7).Whiletoday
manyofuswillviewthisasunfair,MartinLutherarguedthathumanitylacksthecapacityto
judgeit'screator(Richard8).
LimitedAtonement
IncontrasttomostmodernChristianity,Puritansdidnotbelievethatbelievingand
acceptingChristasasaviorwasenoughtosaveasoul.AccordingtothePuritans,Jesusdied
forthechosenonly,notforeveryone.JesusChristhadonlybeensenttoearthtosave
particularpredestinedpeopledubbed"theelect"or"saints"(Reuben).
IrresistibleGraceGod'sgraceisfreelygiven,itcannotbeearnedordenied.Graceis
definedasthesavingandtransfiguringpowerofGod.Itwasdifficulttoknowforcertainif
oneissavedordamned,sothePuritanstriedtobehaveinasexemplaryamanneraspossible
(Ruben)."Anindividual'sveryattempttopresenthisgoodworkstoGodasmeritingsalvation

corruptedthemintodamningsymbolsofarrogance(Richard10).Noonecouldneverbe
certainbutthereweretwoprincipalindicatorsofthestateofyoursoul

InnerGrace:
AccordingtothePuritans,individualsweresavedbythegraceofGod,andthe
faithfulcouldfeelthisgracearrivinginanintenselyemotionalfashion.Thismaybe
considered"anemotional,lifetransformingattachmenttoChrist,notamere
intellectualbelief"(Richard9).Thefeelingoftheindividualbeingchangedand
feelingmoreinharmonywithGod'swillisadirectexpressionofinnergrace.This
didnottranslateinto"Godmademedoit"butanythinggoodanindividualdidcould
onlybeattributedtoGod.
OuterGrace:
TheinnerarrivalofGodsgracewasdemonstratedbyyouroutwardbehavior.After
receivinggrace,youwererebornasamemberofthecommunityofsaints,andyou
behavedlikeasaint.Thismighttranslateintohaving"faithinJesusChrist"andthe
"performanceofgoodworkswasanunavoidableconsequenceoffaith"(Richard9).
Thesegoodworkswillbe"anoverflowofgratitudeandlove"andanyonethatdid
notactonthisinnerexperiencewouldobviouslylacktruefaith(Richard9).

Perseveranceofthe"saintsortheelectWiththeideathatGod'sgracewasan
innerandouterexperiencethequestionarouse.Whatexactlyarememberofthefaith
supposedtohavingfaithin?Theanswertothisquestionliesintheideaofsolascriptura
(scripturealone).Thisisofcoursefollowedbythequestionofwhoisbestsuitedtointerpret
thescripture.Accordingtoearlyreformersisasimplisticbutcomplicatedone:"eachbeliever
mustinterprettheBibleforhimself"(Richard14).Thisdidn'tmeanthateveryonecouldlead
acongregation,somuchaseveryonewasencouragedtoreadthescriptureandseek
guidance.Achurchandofficialsweresillnecessarytohelpbelievers,butinthiscasethey
shouldbeseenas"servants[...]nottyrannicalmasters."ThoseelectedbyGodhavefull
powertointerpretthewillofGodtohelplead.(Reuben).

"theindividualbelieverhadtheauthoritytointerpretScriptureforhimself[...]a
hierarchicalclergy[was]necessarytoassisttheuneducatedmassesininterpretationand
tomaintainorder."(Richard19)
PuritanAdditionalIdeas:
TypologythebeliefthatGod'sintentionsarepresentinhumanactionandinnatural
phenomenonGod'swrathandrewardarealsopresentinnaturalphenomenalikeflooding,
bountifulharvest,theinvasionoflocusts,andthelightningstrikingahome.Failureto
understandtheseintentionsarehumanlimitations.Puritansbelievedincyclicalorrepetitive
historytheyuse"types"MosesprefiguresJesus,Jonah'spatienceisreflectedinJesus'
ordealonthecross,andMoses'journeyoutofEgyptisplayedoutinthePilgrims'crossingof
theAtlantic.

ManifestDestinythehistoricalbeliefthattheUnitedStateswasordainedanddestinedby
thegodofChristianitytoexpandacrosstheNorthAmericancontinent,fromtheAtlantic
seaboardtothePacificOcean.Ithasalsobeenusedtoadvocateandjustifyotherterritorial
acquisitions.

Backslidingthebeliefthat"saved"believers,thosewithvisiblesignsofgrace,canfallinto
temptationandbecomesinners(ortheunregenerated).Topreventthis,believerswere
expectednottobecomesmug,doconstantsoulsearching,beintrospective,andpray
constantly.
Satanwasparticularlyinterestedinsnaringsuchbelievers.
Adaptedfrom:
Reuben,PaulP."Chapter1:EarlyAmericanLiteratureto1700ABriefIntroduction."PAL:Perspectivesin
AmericanLiteratureAResearchandReferenceGuide.Richard,CarlJ."TheProtestantReformation:TheCrucible
ofAmericanTheism."TheBattlefortheAmericanMind.NewYork:Rowman&LittlefieldPublishers,inc.Print.