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THE GLOBE July- August 2016 Student Writings from IEI WRITING TWO My Favorite Season By

THE

GLOBE

July- August 2016

Student Writings from IEI

THE GLOBE July- August 2016 Student Writings from IEI WRITING TWO My Favorite Season By Bashayr

WRITING TWO

My Favorite Season

By Bashayr Bahattab (Saudi Arabia)

I like the winter season. Winter comes after fall. I like winter because it rains showers in my country. The farm grows and the snow falls. I like to play in the snow and make a snowman. The winter is very cold. Birds migrate to warmer places. I enjoy drinking milk and coffee in the winter. This season has long nights and short mornings. I love the cold.

My Best Room

By Rayan Almutairi (Saudi Arabia)

My bedroom is the best room in my house. I have a bed and desk in my room. The color of my room is black and white because these are my favorite colors. When you open the door and look left, there is a black and white wall. Beside you is the bed, and in the corner I have the desk. When you look right, I have a TV and video games. I like my room.

you look right, I have a TV and video games. I like my room. Bad Day
you look right, I have a TV and video games. I like my room. Bad Day

Bad Day / Good Day

By Fayi Alkhamsi (Saudi Arabia)

One bad day, I went to the hospital. I broke my leg last year. I was sick and went to the doctor. Another time, I burned my hand. I had an emergency. I had an accident. A good day is sleeping, talking to my mom, being in Saudi Arabia, watching movies, eating khabsa, cooking good food, cleaning my room, and playing football.

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mom, being in Saudi Arabia, watching movies, eating khabsa , cooking good food, cleaning my room,

About IEI

By Mohammed Shiban (Saudi Arabia)

The International English Institute is very distinct. It is nice for the students. At IEI, we have teacher Beth. I love teacher Beth because she teaches grammar, reading, and writing. We have students from all countries. We also have beautiful trips with students. In conclusion, IEI has good teachers.

Do Guns Keep People Safe?

By Ahmed Alhazmi (Saudi Arabia)

First, guns are good for good people because they know how to use guns correctly. Sometimes people use guns to kill someone or steal something from a store or someone’s car. Finally, guns are dangerous when they hurt other people. Second, guns are very important for the police. A police officer knows how to use the guns and the police help people when somebody fights or steals from another person. Third, when you go to the forest, you should have a gun, because it is very dangerous. The forest has a lot of animals; maybe you see an animal and you don’t have food. You need to kill this animal but how can you shoot this animal to eat it without a gun? Finally, guns can be helpful and dangerous.

without a gun? Finally, guns can be helpful and dangerous. Do Guns Keep People Safe? By

Do Guns Keep People Safe?

By Jihad Alayuni (Saudi Arabia)

I agree that people keep guns because it is important to protect myself, my family, and my things. Also, it is important for police to have guns. In addition, some people have guns to hunt animals. It is important that anybody who wants to keep a gun has a license to carry a gun. However, I also disagree that people keep guns because this makes neighborhoods unsafe. I hate this. Also, I can’t go anyplace because the road is not safe anymore. Also, guns are dangerous for children—boys and girls. Anybody who has a gun for an evil reason is immature and closed-minded.

are dangerous for children—boys and girls. Anybody who has a gun for an evil reason is

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WRITING THREE

.

Scary and Exciting Time

By Abbas Alalshalab (Saudi Arabia)

We have in my country Damam, in Saudi Arabia, a kind of play with car above the dsert. But it’s not a game for children because it’s very dangerous. In addition, a lot of people watch. Some men go every Friday. So, I went with my friends every Friday. But one day in the afternoon, they came to my house and they asked me, “Do you want to go to the desert with us? I answered, “No, I don’t. I am sorry.” They asked me, “Why don’t you want to go to the desert?” I answered, “Because I am busy with my family.” I said to them, “Good luck for you.” Then they left me, and their faces were sad because I didn’t go with them. After two hours, one friend called me and he asked me, “Where are you?” I told him “In the grocery store.” He told me, “We had an accident in the desert! Come to us.” And I was scared. He told me, “Don’t be scared.” Next, I went to the desert. I met my friends, and I saw they were fine. But their car broke, because the car fell in the desert. Finally, we thank god, and we learn to never play dangerous games again.

thank god, and we learn to never play dangerous games again. Arrived to Nashville By Zainab
thank god, and we learn to never play dangerous games again. Arrived to Nashville By Zainab

Arrived to Nashville

By Zainab Alkhayat (Saudi Arabia)

My trip to Nashville was difficult. I went to the U.S. because I wanted to learn English. A lot of people have dreams, so the dream it’s very important in the life because if you imagine it you can make it happen. So, my first dream was to come to the U.S. when I was in high school. That time, I came from Bharin, and my husband went by airplane from K.S.A. because there wasn’t a ticket. On the first trip I went to Paris by airplane, and this was a second dream for me. Next, I filled out an application at the reception for entering the U.S. But I didn’t speak English very well. Also, the man who worked there didn’t understand me. He talked with a female worker from Jordan and spoke Arabic with her because he wanted to help me. After that, I arrived in Nashville. My husband wrote a letter because he was afraid about me. He wrote, “This is my wife and she doesn’t speak English very well. I will arrive in Nashville after one hour, so can you take care of her for one hour because I’m so afraid for my wile. I will look for her.” And I sat in the waiting room. Finally, I saw my husband at the airport. I was so glad to see him. I can say this was the best experience for me because I did everything by myself.

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My Husband

By Jana Alqasir (Saudi Arabia)

My husband is a very talented man. He is very

intelligent. He is studying at university now. I am going to talk about him. First, he has a round face and a straight nose. Second, he has brown eyes and

a

beard. I like his beard and I sometimes touch it. He

is

twenty-five years old. Usually, he wears beautiful

clothing. Then I can tell you what I like in my husband. After I got married, my husband asked me, “Do you want to go to Smokey Mountains?” I said, “Yes, I do.” So we went to Smokey Mountains. One day I stayed in the cottage alone. My husband was with his friend. Then I felt so bad and I went outside. When I stood on the doorstep, I saw a big bear and I felt very scared. I went over to my husband and asked him, “Please come to me, I feel scared.” He said, “I’m on my way, don’t worry!” So my husband came to me, and I told him what happened. So I want to say, I can’t live without my husband because when I am with him I feel safe. Last, my husband is a very good friend. He helps me all the time. He wants me to complete my studies with him. He sometimes cooks with me in the kitchen. Also, he makes special food. I don’t have anything more to say, just: My husband, I love you forever.

anything more to say, just: My husband, I love you forever. My Trip By Dalal Alshamrani
anything more to say, just: My husband, I love you forever. My Trip By Dalal Alshamrani

My Trip

By Dalal Alshamrani (Saudi Arabia)

I will never forget July 7, 2015. On this day, we went to the lake in San Diego, California on Saturday at 5:00 p.m. That day was very difficult for me and my family. At first, we went to the office to rent a boat. Then my husband rented a boat for us. The price was about $100. I was so happy when I went on the boat because this was the first time for me. At the time, my family and me talked with each other; it was fun and amazing. But after three hours, suddenly the boat broke down. Me and my family were very scared. Then I asked my husband, “What happened?” He said, “I have no idea!!!” In this moment, the sun was about to set. We were very afraid. Then my husband said, “We should find a solution to stay alive!” Then I asked him, “What can we do now? We need some idea to save ourselves.” After that, he said, “I have an idea.” I asked him, “What? Pease do something to help us.” He said, “Okay, my idea is I want to swim to the office. But before I swim, I want to give some advice for you and our children.” I said, “Sure, what?” Then he said, “Please take care of yourself and our children.” I told him, “Don't worry, but please hurry.” However, we waited and waited for him. I was afraid, and I felt he was very late. An hour later, I saw my husband from far away. He came back with another boat to take us with him. When we saw him on the boat, we were very, very happy. Finally, this was the most adventurous day for me and my family. The day we went to the lake was very hard for us. So I will never forget this day.

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New Home

By Doris Martinez Martinez (Honduras)

Almost a year ago, my family lived in a small house. This home was for rent, and we enjoyed our lives, but I wanted a big home and I wanted to own it. My husband told me, “Some day we will buy a big home.” I said, “Yeah, my love.” After that, we bought a big home. We cleaned the new house. It had five rooms and a a bonus room. After that, we moved into the new home with. All my family was very happy to go live in a big house. I was very happy because I liked my new home. We have lived for a long time in that home. The neighbors are very friendly, and the area is very safe. I love my home because I bought the house of my dreams.

I love my home because I bought the house of my dreams. Accepted by the University

Accepted by the University

I bought the house of my dreams. Accepted by the University By Renad Subahi (Saudi Arabia)

By Renad Subahi (Saudi Arabia)

I remember a time when I had a very exciting day. First, last year in my country K.S.A. my best friend from high school called me, and she was very happy. Second, she said to me, “Quickly, open the university website and open your account.” I exclaimed, “Why?! Now is vacation!” Third, she said to me, “Because I was accepted into the university in business administration. Look, were you accepted or not?” After that, I opened the university website and opened my account. I was very surprised because it was written on the website under my account, “Congratulations! You are accepted to the university in medicine.” Last, I cried a lot because I was very happy for my acceptance to the university. Finally, I told my parents and all my family I was accepted to university, and they rejoiced with great joy. So now, I finished my first year. I will go back when the fall semester starts. So, I’m happy for that.

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WRITING FOUR

Two$of$my$favorite$movies $

By Michiko Watanabe (Japan)

There%are%many% movies%in%the%world.%Many%people%watch%movies%at%theater% or%their%home.%I%seldom%watch%movies,%but%I%like%Titanic%and%Frozen.%Titanic%and%Frozen% are%alike%and%different%in%many%ways. %

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There%are%several%similarities%between%Titanic%and%Frozen.%First,%both%o f%them% are%famous%and%popular.%Not%only%Americans%but%also%people%all%over%the%world%know% and%watch%these%movies.%In%addition,%the%DVDs%were%put%on%sale%and%people%have% watched%them%many%times.%Moreover,%both%movies%used%good%songs.%Songs%in%movies% are%ver y%popular%as%well%and%sold%explosively%in%Japan.%Whenever%I%listen%these%songs,%I% remember%these%movies.%Finally,%strong%girls%appear%in%both%movies.%In%Titanic,%Rose,% who%was%a%daughter%of%an%upper%class%family,%fell%in%love%with%Jack,%who%was%a%poor%

arti st.%She%was%lively%because%she%stood%the%front%of%ship%and%took%her%hand%off%and%she% became%a%nude%model.%On%the%other%hand,%in%Frozen,%Elsa,%who%was%the%older%sister,% could%use%magic%and%Anna,%who%was%the%younger%sister,%was%brave%and%loved%Elsa. %

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There%a re%also%differences%between%Titanic%and%Frozen.%For%example,%Titanic%is%a%live J action%movie.%In%contrast,%

Frozen%is%an%animation%movie.%Images%of%Titanic,%especially%a%scene%that%a%ship%sank%to%the%bottom%of%the%sea,%were%impressiv e.% In%Frozen,%the%charact ers%were%drawn%very%expressively.%Additionally,%Titanic%is%a%sentimental%story.%Jack%died,%and%they%didn’t% get%married.%On%the%other%hand,%Frozen%has%a%happy%ending.%Anna%helped%Elsa,%and%Anna%got%married%to%a%man%who%she%loved.% Though%the%results%are%diff erent,%both%stories%are%very%fun.%Furthermore,%Titanic%is%popular%with%adults.%On%the%contrary,% Frozen%is%popular%with%children.%I%think%because%Titanic%is%love%story.%It%is%popular%with%adults,%and%because%Frozen’s%main% characters%are%princesses,%it%is%po pular%with%children.%Actually,%a%lot%of%children%dress%as%princesses%in%Japan. %

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The%similarities%and%differences%between%Titanic%and%Frozen%are%numerous.%I%think%not%only%stories%but%also%songs% are%very%good.%Therefore,%I’d%like%to%recommend%to%watch%movie s%and%listen%music. %

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Bkra

By Almaha Alfadhel (Saudi Arabia)

Bkra is the beginning of a new day, a new life. When the sun shines and the new day comes, you can see yourself as another person. You can see your future. It is mean bkra is coming. Bkra the beginning a new hope and a new experience to go through. I can define bkra as how people see bkra bad and happy.

When I talk about bkra, I feel happy because give me hope. Can I change my self or another people. It gives other the ambition and happiness. Some dream of changing their future, jobs or their lives. Some they feel their heart are reborn in the bkra. Many of the plans and expectations are waiting for bkra.

Many of the plans and expectations are waiting for bkra. Some people do not like bkra

Some people do not like bkra because they see bkra mystery in their self. They cannot feel comfortable. They are afraid about future and afraid about tomorrow. Some people are afraid from death and afraid lost his dream.

In summary bkra can be defined in two ways: bad and happy. Writing about bkra needs a big book to talk about hope, happiness and mystery. Bkra is beautiful word in world.

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Favorite movies

By Carina Martinez Pacheco (Honduras)

There are many kinds of movies. Most the people enjoy comedy, romantic and action movies. My favorite kind of movies are romantic and comedy. Home Alone and Pretty Woman are my favorite movies. There are many similarities and differences between Home Alone and Pretty Woman.

There are many similarities between Home Alone and Pretty Woman. Both movies have actors who experience difficulties. The boy in Home Alone feels alone without his family. The woman in Pretty Woman feels sad that she is a prostitute. Additionally, there is good music in both movies. Both movies also have good endings. Home Alone

ends with the family together, and Pretty Woman ends with a couple in love.

There are also difference between Home Alone and Pretty Woman. The movie Home Alone is comedy while Pretty Woman is a romantic movie. The boy in Home Alone is very funny and the character in Pretty Woman is in love. Additionally, Home Alone is a movie about a couple. The boy in Home Alone is being chased by robbers; however, the woman is looking for a relationship.

robbers; however, the woman is looking for a relationship. There are many differences and similarities between
robbers; however, the woman is looking for a relationship. There are many differences and similarities between

There are many differences and similarities between Pretty Woman and Home Alone. When you are thinking about which movie you want to see, you need to decide if you want to see a funny or Romantic movie. It doesn’t matter what you decide, because both movies are great.

Causes of Ending a Friendship

By Tsutomu Katori (Japan)

We have many friends through working or learning. However, friendship is not continued forever. There are three main causes of ending a friendship moving, disputes, and business.

Firsts cause is a move. We sometimes have to move because of graduation or quitting the job, in spite of wanting to stay in the same area. If we move to a different area, we would not be able to meet them easily. Of course, we can use our mobile phones or e-mail, but it is difficult to tell them everything. As a consequence, a friendship is not continued.

Second cause is a dispute. We often talk with our friends, but we sometimes make our friends angry as a result of different opinions or cultures. For example, if we go to travel, someone would prepare everything before traveling. On the other hand, the other one would prepare nothing. As a result, they have a dispute. Generally, we make it up with our friends. However, we rarely can’t make it up with our friends. Hence, a friendship is ending.

The third cause is business. We have a lot of things to do in our life. We are always too busy. Also, we often precede the work or family. If we have a big business chance, we usually precede the business. Therefore, we often don’t contact our friends. Then, someone things that it is necessary to have friends. This is ending a friendship.

In conclusion, there are three main causes of ending a friendship:

moving, disputes, and business. In contrast, we can’t live without help, so the friendship is an essential thing to live. I think that it is important to care about friends and not to get angry about small things in order to continue our friendships.

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that it is important to care about friends and not to get angry about small things

Focus And Shrek

By Nada Alzahrani (Saudi Arabia)

All the people like to watch movies because they make them feel happy, and they enjoy them. The movies sometimes teach us lessons. However, sometimes is not useful. There are many kinds of the movies action, romance, horror, and educational. My favorite kind are romance. There are many similarities and differences between them.

There are many similarities between Focus and Shrek. Of course both make the viewer enjoy. Both Focus and Shrek have fun. Furthermore, it make viewer emotional. For instance, I am very sensitive when I see the movies than in the film crying, or parting, or anything I will cry. Also, both there is love, I things all the film it has love, moreover, all the women are affected with love stories.

There are many differences between Focus and Shrek. First, Focus issued on 2015. It is new. Furthermore, Shrek was issued on 2001. Shrek is Disney film. It talks about a wonderful fictional story. Often Shrek is for children and adults; however I think Focus is for adults because there is stealing, and killing, All of them do not benefit to the child watched.

In conclusion, there are many similarities and differences between the films. Beautiful thing is we watch movies in the free time because it sometimes is useful, and we enjoy in our free times, like what I write in my paragraph.

enjoy in our free times, like what I write in my paragraph. The Reasons for Ending

The Reasons for Ending a Friendship

By Atheer Alghamdi (Saudi Arabia)

There is a lot of bad qualities that cause the relationships ends. However, there’s a limit to what you can handle from anyone. Moreover, there are many reasons that a person ends a friendship: lying, selfishness, and contradictive interests.

One of the biggest causes of ending a friendship is lying. One reason why people lie is because they want to be better than what they are exactly, and when they make something bad, they can’t tell the truth. For example, if your friend stole your thought in a project, then when you ask him, he doesn’t tell you the truth. Actually, this behavior will make you angry. Consequently, you will end the friendship.

Another reason for ending a friendship is selfishness. When someone wishes all the best for himself, so he tries to be a great person, and no one likes him. For example, your friend is at work when trying to be better than you to get a promotion, and he doesn’t want you to have it. This thing will make you feeling so bored, and you don’t want to work with him anymore; as a result, you have to end a friendship.

The last reason for ending a friendship is contradictive interests. When there is a big difference in personalities between two people, so this will be different in ideas, interests, or behaviors; therefore, it will cause the end of the relationship between them.

All in all, lying, selfishness, and contradictive interests are three causes for ending a friendship. You can’t avoid having bad people in your life, but you should be careful before starting any relationships. However, inside every person are good qualities you have to look for.

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be careful before starting any relationships. However, inside every person are good qualities you have to
Me Before You and Civil War By Nami Eiamwattanasin (Thailand) There are many types of
Me Before You and Civil War By Nami Eiamwattanasin (Thailand) There are many types of

Me Before You and Civil War

By Nami Eiamwattanasin (Thailand)

There are many types of movies such as sci-fi, history, horror, and romantic. Each movie is interesting or boring; that depends on personal style. I like both romantic movies and action movies, so I choose Me Before You and Civil War. They are similar and different in several ways.

There are many similarities. Me Before You shows value of humans and how to cheer those up who are upset. Additionally, Civil War shows it, too. Both Me Before You and Civil War are interesting because they have long stories, but I am exited all time when I watch. They are easy to understand. Many famous actors played in these movies. For instance, Emilia Clacke played Game Of Thrones and Sam Clafin played in Hunger Games. Both of them are actors from Me Before You. Likewise, Civil War has many famous actors such as Robert Downey Jr.,who played Iron Man, and Chris Evans, who played Captain America.

There are also many differences. Me Before You is a romantic movie. In contrast, Civil war is sci-fi action movie. Me Before You is about the relationship between couple, but Civil War is the relationship between friends. Civil War is only imagination; it can’t be real. In real life, we don’t have people who have special powers like superhero in a movie. On the other hand, the story of Me Before You can occur in someone’s life. Maybe there are people who are disabled, and they decide to kill themselves because they think they are useless.

All in all, I absolutely love both of them the most. Me Before You and Civil War are similar because they give good life lessons, are easy to understand and have many famous actors. They are different because of the kinds of movies, relationship between actors and the reality of movie. You shouldn’t miss watching both of them!

End of Friendship

By Marsela Albrahimi (Albania)

Everyone has lived the end of a long friendship. This end makes us with different feelings and thoughts. Therefore, the effects of ending a long friendship are disappointment, depression, and loneliness.

All of us have felt the disappointment after the end of a big friendship. The disappointment is a triangle of feelings. For example, that person who you call best friend, you confide to her all your inner secrets about yourself and your family, too. Likewise, you give to her the most important feeling “love.” As a result, you understand and you learn that person is fake. After all that you take the biggest disappointment in your whole life. The disappointment makes you to not have anymore confidence to nobody.

Another effect of ending a long friendship is the depression. That makes me and everyone of us sad and in a bad psychological situation, too. For instance, the no sincerity between friends broke everything nice. Consequently, the end of friendship gives you a depression, for you feel angry with yourself for the wrong choices in your life. The depression makes me to do a self-criticism about many questions in my mind like why I chose her for a friend or why she acted like that to me. All the questions after a depression have the same result: distrust.

questions after a depression have the same result: distrust. And the third effect of ending a

And the third effect of ending a friendship is the loneliness. After all that, you feel alone, and you don’t want nobody that moments and that days, too. For example, the loneliness gives us a spiritual blow and unhappiness for we don’t believe nobody anymore after that. Therefore, we feel so bad and sad in the same time. Everyone of us after all this situation he want to be loneliness, for he want to find himself and his quiet inside his heart.

As you can see, the disappointment, the depression, and the loneliness are three effects of ending a long friendship. As a result, everyone of us doesn’t want that feelings in our life. The best thing we can do is to be really careful in our choices for the best friend because the people say “Show me your friend to tell me who you are.”

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Coffee

By Sakinah Alminyan (Saudi Arabia)

Everyone wants to relax. Coffee brings people energy . They can drink it with cake or in the morning. I like the smell of coffee. Coffee can be divided in two ways: hot coffee and cold coffee.

I drink hot coffee in the morning to focus on school. My favorite hot coffee is Cappuccino. In addition, I like coffee when there’s image on the top.

I like cold coffee also. my favorite is Ice Mocha Farappuccino from Starbucks. It’s cold and refreshing in the summer. I like the smell coffee; it’s like magic when I am tired. I wake up. I went to a coffee shop near my house, and I saw the man who made coffee professionally. It was interesting.

the man who made coffee professionally. It was interesting. In summary, coffee can be divided in

In summary, coffee can be divided in to ways: hot coffee and cold coffee. If I had to choose, I would choose cold coffee. I like it because more refreshing.

WRITING FIVE

The Difference between Theocracy system and Islamic system By Abdlalah Filfilan (Saudi Arabia)

For a long time people have thought that the Islamic system is similar to the Theocracy system. This is a complete misunderstanding. These are two separate systems. First what does Theocracy mean? It is a kind

of rule or set of laws derived from religion any religion, also the leaders in this system are clerics. The word theocracy is derived from Greek It is formed from two parts; theo means religion, cracy means rule or law. This word came from philosopher Josephus because the known systems at that time were Monarchy, Aristocracy and Anarchism, but he found a new system used in Judaism thereupon he named it Theocracy (1). The Islamic system: is a kind of rule or set of laws based on Islamic law. This

not separate from every day life.

includes three aspects inside both of these systems: behavior of the leader, quality of the system and the role of the people. I chose the Papal system from Christendom to represent Theocracy and Islamic Caliphate (especially in the time of Omar I and Omar II they were of the

Caliphs) To represents the Islamic system. Unfortunately, the Islamic Caliphate time included around 1400 years, but the best of these years with idealism of justice and religious tolerance, only lasted 35 years. Since then there have been intermittent periods of this justice and tolerance in Islamic history.

My argument to support this thought

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have been intermittent periods of this justice and tolerance in Islamic history. My argument to support

First, the behavior of leaders between Theocracy and Islamic is different. For example, if you read the history of the Papacy you will find almost all of those leaders think of themselves as impeccable they think they lead the people along with their land in the name of God. They think of themselves as incapable of mistakes. Why? Because they think their authority comes from Jesus Christ then in the final analysis every thing from Papacy is correct (2). In contrast, if you read the biography of Omar I you will find something very different. He never thought of himself as correct. For example, although the authenticity of this story or not , it can give us some different idea. One day he wanted to force his opinion on his people about the( Dowry system) to be minimum or something against of Islam law so during his speech one of the women objected to this order because there is no minimum on this issue. Then he thought to himself:’’ yes she’s correct she reminded me something I forgot”(3) so, leader in the Islamic system is fallible and they are Clerics together with the World.

Second, the quality of theocracy and Islamic systems are different. For instance, the Pope had Indulgences that he gave to only the good person or who ever he wanted and the people gave him the clerics-Taxpayers (4). Also the Pope lives in the best place some time with the king, so what about the public did they care: are they ok or not? They didn’t care about (public) poor or those without money. On the other hand let’s examine the biography of Omar II during his rule his empire was the distance from France’s borders to China’s borders and his soldiers never found any poor (5). The public were rich or not poor. Why? Because this is the result of a good application of the Caliphate system which is based on the Islamic religion that is different than the Theocracy system. So there was no class system in the Islamic empire all people were equal in dealing and rights also the leader lived not in the best castle or big house with a personal guard but he was the same as normal person at his job he was applying the Islamic rule without thinking himself as the best person.

Third, the role of the people in the theocracy is different from the Islamic system. Think about the Pope he is able to isolate who ever he doesn’t love but no one is able to isolate him. Why? Because he thinks himself rules of God’s name, so no one be able to isolate him. However, in the Islamic system the public chooses their leader as it happened with the first Caliph. His name was Abu Bakr and people must choose the religious person with the best mind to lead them. Furthermore, the Islamic system has consultation with people.

In conclusion, we see more and more differences between Theocracy system and Islamic system such as the behavior of the leader, the quality of these systems and the role of the people. In my opinion, by reading both of these histories we can know what happened? Look at the French Revolution why did the people stand up? They rebelled against a corrupt religious system from the Theocracy system. Unfortunately we have extremist groups

trying to restore the Caliphate system such as ISIS.

system will come again a little bit before Jesus Christ and he will lead us by the Islamic system not Christendom

because we believe Jesus is not Christian he is simply Muslim and a great Prophet. So my message to ISIS the Islamic Caliphate will come not by your deeds but by good deeds and Peace; By the Peace you can lead the world. Also, my message to those who adopt or embrace Theocracy or democracy or whatever system is: don’t judge the Islamic system by false applications that come from ignorant Muslims.

They have a wrong way because we believe the Caliphate

(1)Against Apion by: Flavius Josephus, Book II,chapter17.Gatenberg.org. (2)Pleasing magazine: published in December1978-issue640-Page 684. (3)By the narrator Abu Yala from Interpretation Ibn Kathir chapter 1. Page 464. (4)Wetterau,Bruce.World history.New York:Henry Holt and company.1994. (5)Money Book By Abu Obeid Al Qasim Ibn Salam.

company.1994. (5)Money Book By Abu Obeid Al Qasim Ibn Salam. An Excellent Leader By Vinh Phuc

An Excellent Leader By Vinh Phuc Phan (Viet Nam)

Nowadays, people need to work together to get their job done and to work as a team. The most important thing to do first is to choose a leader. So, there are three characteristics of an excellent leader you should be looking for: honesty, carefulness, and understanding.

The first thing is honesty. A person who is honest can build the trust with one another. And with trust people will do anything needed to be a success. Building trust can be very hard, but it is necessary because without trust nobody can work hard and the work cannot be done. So, the top characteristic of an excellent leader is honesty.

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The second is a person who always takes care of everything even if it is something small. Having this characteristic is very good for your team because sometimes people do their job but forget to check it again. If it is small and very important it can destroy all of your work. So a careful person can see what might happen and how to fix it. No one can achieve success without mistakes; however, and excellent leader needs to be careful and identify the mistake as soon as possible.

Lastly, understanding the people on their teach is the best quality of an excellent leader. When you take care of everybody you take care of every aspect of your work. Having understanding can even solve the small problems not in the workplace. With heartfelt understanding of others a person will be an excellent leader.

In sum, if you are looking for an excellent leader there are three characteristics you should consider: honesty, carefulness, and understanding.

The Benefits of Electronic Eyes

By Shengcong Wang (China)

Electronic eyes are a kind of camera that is built in intersections. This camera can record crossing the line, speeding, parking problems, and running over the read line: thus, electronic eyes are in wide spread use in China due to the need to reduce traffic accidents by our government. There are several benefits of electronic eyes: reducing traffic accidents, improving social security, and maintaining surveillance.

improving social security, and maintaining surveillance. The first benefit is reducing traffic accidents. It is

The first benefit is reducing traffic accidents. It is impossible that all drivers make the self-conscious effort to drive safely. For example, if drivers see the police are working, they will be cautious while driving. If the police are not working, they might be crossing the line, speeding, or causing parking problems. Some other people might have objections to electronic eyes because they make them nervous when they are driving. In fact, traffic accidents have been declining in recent years after the installation of electronic eyes. Electronic eyes not only reduce accidents but also protect lives.

The second benefit of electronic eyes is improving social security. These eyes have many functions. The first function is to monitor some important areas so that police work can be decreased. Also, electronic eyes can take a picture and record a suspect’s face. Thus, we can use those cameras to trace suspects and save on the cost of hiring more security personnel. Electronic eyes are useful not only to protect people’s lives but also save the government money.

The last benefit is maintaining surveillance. Most importantly, after our government installed electronic eyes traffic accidents have decreased. In addition, suspects may know that they are being supervised, so they will give up committing a crime, and that decreases crime. Finally, police need to punish those who make mistakes or cause accidents, but sometimes drivers argue that they were not guilty. Consequently, electronic eyes can record the truth as evidence that reduces arguments and provides safety for citizens.

Installing electronic eyes is effective because of these three benefits: reducing traffic accidents, improving social security, and maintaining surveillance. In my opinion, I am in agreement with the use of these eyes because they help reduce traffic accidents and protect our lives.

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Innovations to Make IEI Better by Salesio Macuacua (Mozambique)

In my opinion IEI is a good school with structured programs and experienced professionals, but I think that some innovations should be implemented to make it a better school.

First of all, although IEI has a website, I think that it should be improved because it is the first contact with the school by citizens from all over the world that are looking for a school abroad to learn English. For instance, the website should be updated regularly and the information on it should be translated into many languages.

information on it should be translated into many languages. In addition, the social meetings should be

In addition, the social meetings should be improved by creating collaborations with local tourist agencies to provide weekend events for the students at good prices. It would be important for the students’ practice with English.

Finally, IEI should always avoid when possible putting students who speak the same language in the same class. This is important because it will force students to speak only English in the class and help to develop their skills.

In conclusion, IEI has already established a good teaching program, but it can improve by addressing all ideas that were stated previously.

How to Become an Excellent Leader

by Junying Pan (China)

What does being a leader mean? It means he or she is able to lead a company to success. A leader is the soul of the people. A good leader is not just a nice person sometimes he/she needs to be mean. In addition, an excellent leader should be nice, smart, mean, and know how to forgive.

First if all we can talk about the positive side like being nice, smart, and forgiving. Being a nice person is like a door to let people come close to you and contact and develop good relationships with your coworkers. Next is being smart. Being smart can help you gain more knowledge every single day and understand how the company works. The last aspect is forgiving others. Everyone is damaged including the leader. We can try to get close to perfect, but no one is 100% perfect. Maybe the leader will make some mistakes during work, but other people will, too. Forgive those whom you work with.

other people will, too. Forgive those whom you work with. On the other hand, if you

On the other hand, if you want to be an excellent leader you also need some distinctive negative qualities, too. In my opinion, a leader should be a mean person. In a company, we do not want to see these employees begging all the time. They should know what their jobs are. At this time, a mean leader is very necessary. The leader can build a good environment for work and control the direction of the work.

Last of all, we can say a good leader should have two sides. Both of these and their qualities are useful.

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The Consequences of Having a Child When You Are a Teenager or Young

By Sara Valenzuela Gonzalez (Colombia)

a Teenager or Young By Sara Valenzuela Gonzalez (Colombia) Having a child as a teenager is

Having a child as a teenager is a common theme in many countries. When giving birth as a teenager or young person there are consequences on your life and effects for the government. This essay discusses four consequences: financial, professional, emotional, and opportunistic.

First, the financial burden is not one of the most important consequences but if you have a lot of money you can find the answer for many problems. The governments compile statistics about this phenomenon because of the effects that they have on a country. Citizens with dependents contribute less in taxes than people without a child. In addition, there are fewer professionals and less development. One of the statistics shows that some 16 million teenagers from 15 to 19 years old and 1 million younger than 15 years old have a child each year. The majority of these teens are from low income or developing countries. Also, the cost of having a child is very expensive because you need someone to take care of your child if you work or study, and the basic needs are the same.

Second, education is the most important part because our future depends on this and the teenagers sometimes haven’t left high school or they haven’t begun the university yet. Also, they can get to help from their parents but not always. The parents are ready to help with whatever they can. Consequently, the mother can study and get a good job. Education affects our third consequence which is emotional.

Third, this consequence is about one’s feelings that other people are ready to judge them although this situation is not their problem. It is important to find support in different groups like the family, a psychologist, the church, websites, government programs and others. As a consequence, you don’t have to be alone. This action of being alone can have terrible effects on your decisions. Listening to advice will help person take the best way for her situation.

Finally, with my last advice you will have many opportunities to make a good future for your child, whether you are alone or with an accompanying person. It’s essential to think about the goals that you want to complete and adjust your time lines.

In conclusion, we should think more about our actions because all of them have consequences for yourself, different people like your family, other organizations like the government, and society. My advice is first, learn and listen to your parents, teachers, and people who can teach good things and give good advice because they have lived longer and have a lot of more experience. Second, make many goals for the future and make a timeline to follow.

How to Make Animation

By Bobby Dong (China)

Animation is really popular now, it has become an industry and a part of people’s lives. You might not realize it, but really, you can see it everywhere. For example, you might have seen ads with a dog who talks, and that’s animation. So, however, the animation industry starts growing bigger and bigger. And today, we are going to talk about: how animation is made.

No matter how long the animation is, it takes a lot of different jobs to produce it. You might feel like animation doesn’t take too much work, you know, there is animation movies anywhere, the animation movies are anywhere, that’s true. But that doesn’t mean it’s easy to make one. Animation is a jobs that takes a lot of work, time and money. After I explain all of the steps, you are going to think differently about the animation that you see everyday. It’s such a hard thing to explain because there are a lot of steps and all of them are important. However, let’s get started.

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First of all, you need a story. Well, everyone knows that, but do you know how important it is? It’s easy to write a story, but it’s hard to write a good one. For animation, you need a story that makes people feel whatever you want them to feel. Then how to make them feel whatever you want them to feel, well, you need to build a world that makes people feel like there is really such a place, then how to build a nice world? Make a lot of characters with different traits, and how many character you need for a story? Around 50. So, now you see how much work it takes, but, this is only the first step, let’s keep moving on.

Second is to make a sketch of the entire story, sometimes this takes more time than making a story, because the sketches have to show every little detail, the character’s faces, what they are doing, what they are thinking. If an animation team don’t have a guy who can make a good sketch, the making of the animation is going to become harder and take more time. So, if they don’t have a nice sketch, making animation is going to become a big challenge for a team.

At the same time, another team is working on something else. That thing is called “Modeling”, which builds model of the characters, a story might only have 1 or 2 protagonists, but do you know how many costars they have? Thousand of them. Do they need models? Yep, they do! Now you see how much work it is.

On the other hand, at the same time, there is one more team, yes, one more team building the “background”, such as a little village, a volcano, a temple and all the things like that. There is probably only few place for a story, but that doesn’t mean it was easy to make them, the light and all the little details change every second, and you have to work on every little detail, so I guess this is not the most exciting part for animation making.

And then they need to make other things which is called “movement”, it’s really interesting that when they are building the model, they make the muscles and bones, and when you are creating movement, you also need movement for muscles and bones, because they find out if you have muscles and bones moving, that makes the character look cooler and more realistic.

Then the thing is dubbed, the voice actor needs the voice that can match the character, you cannot let a little girl become a muscle man’s voice character can you? If you can’t find the voice that can match, that’s pretty much just unfortunate, because that might take years to find the voice you need, and the public time of that animation might just be postponed and postponed over and over again.

And then a trailer is made that can make people feel like they should watch this movie. Making a trailer is not that hard but you have to think which part can make people want to watch it. However, it should not tell people the whole story, and this is not easy to do.

After all of this work the movie is ready to go public!

So, as you see, making animation is not as easy as you think.

After all of this work the movie is ready to go public! So, as you see,

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The Importance of Self-Motivation in Life

By Ana L. Garcia (El Salvador)

“You are what you think about all day long” (Dr. Robert Schuller).

Self-motivation is of great help to achieve success in your goals and objectives. According to the Business Dictionary, self-motivation is “An ability to do what needs to be done without influence from other people or situation”. Indeed, self-motivation plays a vital part in our life because it pushes us to act or behave in particular ways in a situation.

One of the reasons why some people are motivated is because they have positive thinking through self- control and awareness of their thoughts in certain situations. For example, if you have a negative thought about whether or not you will pass an exam or class in college or have other difficult problems, you should think positively and talk with yourself: “I can do it”, “I believe in myself and I’ll put 100% of hard work into this situation”. On the other hand, you can’t change the world, but you can change how you perceive it and how you react to it, and that can change how you feel-think about the situations in your life.

Self-motivation results from confidence, if you are a person who thinks that you are incapable you are your own enemy in regards to achieving your goals. When we were children, most of the time our parents or teachers pushed us to be confident in ourselves. In addition, confidence helps you to think about how you feel about the ability to do a task without any influence from other people and you become more independent.

The second advantage of self-motivation is feeling at peace with your life through accepting something negative and trying to push it away. My mother claims that “the worst day lasts 24 hours, don’t drown in a glass of water”. This claim helps me to be self-motivating when I have a bad and long day. Furthermore, to be at peace is not comparing yourself with others. You are unique and the only person you should compare yourself to is your previous self. It's only if you've improved that matters; not how anyone else is doing. (wikihow-beselfmotivated).

To sum up, self-motivation is an important part for our life because it improves our confidence and also helps us to feel at peace with ourselves. One of the main causes to being motivated is thinking positive. Therefore, if you are self-motivated, you will improve your thoughts in life.

Sources:

1. www.quotesgram.com/motivational-quotes/ “Dr. Robert Schuller”

2. www.wikihow.com/Be-Self-Motivated

Sources: 1. www.quotesgram.com/motivational-quotes/ “Dr. Robert Schuller” 2. www.wikihow.com/Be-Self-Motivated 16

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The importance of time off

By Ferro Gutierrez, Laura

Sometimes people do not see the importance of time off and many people think when they are resting they are wasting time, but sometimes the time off is the secret to increased productivity.

Now people are taking more importance about time off, some for health, others for productivity and others only to rest or to disconnect. Those days it is very common to see how companies implement “active breaks”, now the world is changing and cares more about the health of its employers and individuals well- being and therefore common well-being.

You spend the first years of your life learning, then the others years working and at the final you can retire and “enjoy the life”, do what you really want to do but never had time before, but what happen if we start to enjoy our life now and we take time off for us and for the things we love?

All those companies that are implementing the use of free time for their employers are actually much more productive than many others companies for example, Stefan Sagmeister closes his Graphic Design company “Sagmeister.inc” in New York for a period of one year every seven years. As a result in the first time he closed for a year, he returned back fresher, and with new ideas, new concepts and experienced in other things that he can apply in his own business. Danny Gilbert, wrote his book “stumbling happiness” on a sabbatical period, so, in that point of view, a time off is also a productive period. Ferrian Adriá is a an important chef and has a famous restaurant “El bullin”, he open during seven months and then he close for five months, he plan the productivity of his restaurant to have these work period and recess. 3M is one of the biggest companies applying this; they give their engineers 15% of their time to do what they want. One engineer developed one of the most famous products of 3M in his free time, The post it. Google gives 20% of the time to theirsoftware engineers to spend in their personal projects. (Sagmeiste) Those are big examples from big companies that are demonstrating the importance of free time.

Minda Zellin says that does not matter how much we love our job, or how important it is, but also the time off is every bit as important, because is necessary to recharge our batteries, and be more productive, that helps to expand our creativity. It also allows us to live fuller and more meaningful lives.

Scientific American magazine, public an article tittle “You need more downtime than you think” and there Michael Taft, a freelance writer and meditation trader talk about the culture in a normal day in modern America, and how the workers in America have to with more information than they can process, he say, that American workers just cannot deal with it all.

Now, countries like Finland are understanding the meaning of “time off” in different ways, for example they are apply that in the education, in the schools, and as a result, the students from Finland are one of the better students in the world, Michael Moore, show us this in his documentary about the success in the education in Finland, the secret is, the students have a lot of time off, they have time to be kids, so they learn about how to enjoy their life’s, they are not going to the schools to prepare for some government test, they are free to choose whatever they want. The schools only have 20 hours per week, and they do not have homework, so they can learn more about others things, about the life,

In conclusion, time off means better health, mental and physical. You have the time to learn about new things and because that, you become more creative and you have new ideas for your business, for your job, your life. Sometimes we are saturate with a lot of information that probably we do not need, and a time off help us to clarify ideas and to renew. ¿How much salary is costing you your life?

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we do not need, and a time off help us to clarify ideas and to renew.

WRITING SIX

WRITING SIX How Has Japanese Fashion Influenced Global Style? I. Introduction By Hana (Japan) Fashion is

How Has Japanese Fashion Influenced Global Style?

I.

Introduction

By Hana (Japan)

Fashion is an essential part of our lives. We wear clothes not only for keeping the body

temperature but also for various purposes, such as a traditional ceremony, an expression of personality

and a school dress code. Clothes have taken root in our daily lives for a long time, and there are a bunch of

styles of clothes, that are fashion. A lot of people care about fashion for their appearances. If the role of

clothes were just to keep our bodies comfortable, fashion would be much simpler like some parts of cloth

that covers our bodies. However, we can find enormous kinds of clothes at malls, shops on the street and

online. It is because people enjoy fashion in many ways beyond the original purpose. Some people,

perhaps most, are attracted to the latest fashion trends and eager to follow them. In particular, Paris

collection releases the latest fashion trends from all over the world twice a year, so designers and people

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who are susceptible to fashion pay close attention to the event. Fashion is regardless of countries. Each

country has its own characteristic of fashion trend; on the other hand, nowadays, fashion has spread

globally in rapid speed. In the first decade of the 20 th century, Orientalism became popular, and many

designers have gained inspiration from fashion in Oriental nations (Dunne). Among them, Japan is one of

the largest fashion countries that attract people’s attention from other countries owing to the uniqueness

of Japanese fashion. This research paper will investigate how Japanese fashion has influenced global style

and then consider the outlook of global influence of Japanese fashion in the future.

II. Global Influence of Japanese Fashion

a) Traditional Arts and Fashion

Japanese traditional arts and fashion can be found in designs of clothes all over the

world, such as origami and cherry blossom. Among them, kimono is a typical example of Japanese

traditional fashion that has an international influence. In Japan, it is seen that a lot of tourists from

other countries are wearing kimono as a memory of their trip. It shows that kimono is known as

Japanese fashion to the world. Speaking of the spread of kimono in the world, it is in the 1860s that

kimono started to gain attention in Europe and the United States. It spread out as one of Japanese

exotica in paintings, museums and magazines in the 1860s and 1870s because the obvious luxury of

kimono was highly evaluated in the West. In addition, operas and plays in which Japanese costume

was used were performed in France and Paris, and it accelerated the growth of kimono. It was

sometimes used in the formal Japanese style, tightly overlapping, while sometimes in the Western

style by opening to the front side of the body that was different from the Japanese way to wear. In

1880s, kimono was put into the practical use, not using as an exotica. Some people often wore the

wide -sleeved robe of kimono, called ‘kimono sleeve’, as fashionable dress at home. In contrast to

Western -style sleeve, whose armhole is curved to fit the shoulder and arm, Kimono sleeve has a

straight and deep armhole. This style influenced Western fashion in the 20 th century (Fukai). In recent

years, many trendy clothes that designers made with inspiration from kimono have emerged in global

fashion collections. For example, American fashion designers, Richie Rich and Traver Rains used silk

and fabric from kimono for their spring 2004 collection after they lived in Kyoto, Japan, and were

inspired by traditional Japanese arts and fashion (Willingham). Accordingly, Japanese traditional arts

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and fashion, especially kimono, has been taken in ideas of global fashion from 19 t h century to now. Its

exotic style could make designers and people in other countries fascinated.

b) Street Fashion

Street fashion in Japan cannot be ignored when this research paper talks about Japanese fashion.

One of the most well-known places for Japanese street fashion is Harajuku. There are a large number of

shops and boutiques in Takeshita Street, which is the main fashion street in Harajuku. Most items there are

unique and different from general popular fashion. It is not produced by the professional designers, but by

teenagers, especially high school girls. They enjoy fashion in their own styles; therefore, they have had a

great power to influence other teens and fashion market trends in Japan (Kawamura). Recently, this street

fashion also has influenced people in other countries. It is Kyary Pamyu Pamyu, a Japanese fashion artist

and singer, who triggered a boom of street fashion to the world. The music video of her debut song,

PonPonPon, attracted attention around the world soon after it was uploaded to Youtube in July, 2011. The

reason why she charms a lot of people is her creative fashion sense that she has cultivated in Harajuku.

Unique stuffs appear in her music videos, such as a room filled with cute toys, a dancing brain and huge

eyelashes. “She is a combination of dance music and Harajuku fashion,” her producer explains (Oi). She is

not afraid of being different from others because she has a confidence about what she likes. This style

makes many people overseas interested in Japanese street fashion. To sum up, Japanese street doesn’t

appeal to all tastes because of its novelty; however, it strongly fascinates some part of people around the

world.

III. Need for Japan to Realize Their Potential

Although it was discussed above how Japanese fashion had drawn a global attention, Japanese

fashion brands have an issue in order to expand their industry to the world. They don’t realize that they

create fashionable trends and ideas that could influence global fashion in spite of the fact that they have

gone to many places all over the world. They are not interested in international market, so they don’t have

enough resources and knowledges to spread their brands overseas (Tabuchi). Then how these Japanese

fashion brands build their business in global market? They can learn know-how from the case of UNIQLO

overseas expansion. They used the effective marketing strategies to build a global brand. First of all, they

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changed an official language from Japanese to English. The Employees must speak English at all business

meeting with foreigners and write all e-mail in English. In addition, they have employed a large number of

foreign workers. Next, they took some campaigns with the online advertising to grab the world’s attention.

One of these campaigns is the ‘Uniqlock’ in 2007. It used “spliced clips of well-choreographed dancing and

catchy lounge music.” It was successful because dance is understood globally without the obstacle of

language. The following campaign was the ‘Uniqlo jump’ in 2008 for the autumn/winter collection. Via

YouTube and the official site, they distributed the films that were put a lot of photos of UNIQLO’s

employees jumping in the new collection. Finally, they opened UNIQLO stores around the world (Thorniley).

The important point was that they expanded their stores abroad after building the steady recognition of

their brand. Thus, Japanese fashion brands has capacity to go overseas. It is necessary to realize their

worldwide potential. They should turn their eyes to the world and take practical measures to follow the

UNIQLO’s marketing steps.

IV.

Conclusion

In sum above, Japanese fashion culture has affected the international trends for a long time in

many ways, ranging from the traditional, professional and street fashion to the cartoon characters.

Japanese fashion makes people around the world impressed because it is greatly new and creative for

overseas. Moreover, the high-quality of clothes could be an advantage to spread its fashion out of

Japan. Nevertheless, some don’t know how much they influence global fashion. They should not

underestimate their potential. It is essential for them to realize that they have a possibility to go

overseas. From now on, global fashion will enlarge thanks to globalization so that fashion from various

countries will influence more and more each other. In order to ride on this wave of global fashion, it

would be the important key to understand global fashion trend and appeal the uniqueness and quality

of Japanese fashion to the world.

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Work Cited

Clifford, Stephanie. "As U.S. Retailers Retreat, a Japanese Chain Sees an Opening."

The New York Times. 22 May 2012. Web. 09 Aug. 2016.

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Aug. 2016. <http://www.fastcodesign.com/3025913/how-do-fashion-trends-start>.

English, Bonnie. Japanese Fashion Designers: The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake,

Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo. Oxford: Berg, 2011. Print.

Firstretailing.com. 09 Aug. 2016. <http://www.fastretailing.com/eng/group/shoplist/>.

Fitzpatrick, Michael. "Hello Kitty at 40: The Cat That Conquered the World." BBC. 18

Aug. 2014. Web. 09 Aug. 2016. <http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140815-how-hello-kitty-invaded-

the-world>.

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Aug. 2016. <http://www.kci.or.jp/research/dresstudy/pdf/e_Fukai_Japonism_in_Fashion.pdf>.

Kawamura, Yuniya. "Japanese Teens as Producers of Street Fashion." SAGE, 2006. Web.

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Oi, Mariko. "J-Pop and the Global Success of 'kawaii' Culture." BBC. 21 Oct. 2014. Web.

09 Aug. 2016. <http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20130603-cute-culture-and-catchy-pop>.

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Blog. 16 Aug. 2013. Web. 09 Aug. 2016. <https://www.thetrendspotter.net/2013/08/hello-kitty-and-

peter-alexander-collaboration.html>.

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Willingham, Mandy. "U.S. Designers Turn to Japan for Ideas" Japan Times RSS. 20 Jan.

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to-japan-for-ideas#.V6qtaY9OLIU>.

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WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF ABORTION?

By Sonja (Austria)

1. Introduction

Abortion – this word evokes many reactions. It is an emotional topic

because almost everyone is concerned directly or indirectly to it. Many

people believe that abortion is safe and simple to solve an unintended

pregnancy. There is also the belief that abortion helps women in their

independence. Nevertheless, there are people who suffer from experiencing

an abortion quietly or loudly. Their voice is not loud because their pain is

connected with guilt and shame. Therefore, if someone has a different

experience where is the platform for their struggling? The goal of this paper

is to share their methodology used and which results are there. Are there

any effects of abortion? And if yes, what are they?

At first, we need definitions about the term abortion and the effects of having

an abortion called post-abortion-syndrom (PAS).

of having an abortion called post-abortion-syndrom (PAS). 1.1. Definitions of Abortion Definitions of abortion are

1.1. Definitions of Abortion

Definitions of abortion are from the deVeber Institute: "Abortion means the termination of pregnancy with

the death of the embryo or fetus. A spontaneous abortion is the unintended delivery and death of a

child in utero with a gestational age younger than 24 weeks, known as a ‘miscarriage’. An induced

abortion is the intentional termination of pregnancy and death of the child in utero either by surgical or

medical means. Medical abortions: abortions induced using a combination of medicines. Surgical

abortions: the most common form of induced abortions, using surgical instruments such as a curette or

suction device (aspirator) depending on the stage of pregnancy. Late term abortion: one performed at

or after twenty weeks gestation; which generally refers to the abortion of a baby that is dead at the time

of birth." (deVeber Institute 411)

In this paper we focus on induced and late term abortion.

1.1.2. Post-Abortion-Syndrom (PAS)

The term Post-Abortion-Syndrom was formed first from Dr. Vincent Rue. He emphasizes that abortion

can cause stressful and traumatic effects. He underlys that it is possible that the decision to elect

abortion can generate significant resulting psychosocial distress. He argues that abortion brings relief at

first to eliminate the unwanted pregnancy, but other women experience posttraumatic stress disorder

(PTSD). The combination of abortion and dysfunctional behaviors and emotional reactions should be

termed “Postabortion Syndrom” (PAS)” (Rue 1995). He compares the ‘symptoms’ of PAS and those

which are said to be characteristic of PTSD. PTSD was first named by psychiatrists who saw the

symptoms of soldiers coming back from the Vietnam war. There were flashbacks, denial, lost memory of

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the event, avoidance of the subject. According to these criteria, the abortion experience is defined as a

stressor, sufficiently traumatic so as to cause the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and impacted

grieving. Thus, PAS is presented as a form of a specific psychiatric condition, PTSD. (Rue, 20).

5. Conclusion - Statistics versus Narrative Stories - Objective Research Possible?

Abortion is a controversial topic. It is hard to find a causal link between abortion and their effects with

only numbers. But the book of deVeber Institute mentions that the professional literature ignored the

experiences of many post-abortive women. It´s obvious researchers must fulfill scientific standards. But

in the psychological matter, it´s not helpful to operate with statistics. Because people often don´t see the

connection of their behavior and abortion. We must decide if it is helpful to have the stories and for

experts to see psychological disorder in the behavior.

The stories of post-abortive women the Institute collected revealed that their psychological pain has a

wide variety of issues. Women may become depressed or anxious, and they may also engage in harmful

behaviour in an attempt to suppress the pain. But all of these expressions are linked with guilt. So what

the authors of the book want to explain is that post-abortion studies can never accurately measure the

experiences of many women. Many struggles of the women after abortion are not represented in the

statistical studies of abortion and yet these women exist. The Institute collected stories, testimonies, and

affidavits. They did not have mental health problems before their abortion as many researchers suggest.

Moreover, the increase in the rate of depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide among women

who have had an abortion is drastic and incontrovertible.(deVeber Institute, 283)

The question for follow up research should be to look for motives for having an abortion and

subsequently, how to support women and men in their stressful situation.

Works Cited

Lanfranchi, Angela, I. J. Gentles, Elizabeth Ring-Cassidy, and Elizabeth Ring-Cassidy. Complications:

Abortion's Impact on Women. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Lee, Ellie. "Psychological Issues - The Context for the Development of 'Post-Abortion Syndrome'" Psychological Issues - The Context for the Development of 'Post-Abortion Syndrome' Pro+choice Forum Psychology & Reproductive Choice, May 2001.

Major, Brenda, et all. "Psychological Responses of Women After First-Trimester Abortion." Home. N.p., 2000. Web.

Major, Brenda. "Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence." American Psychologist 64

(2009): 863-890. Web.

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Why People Love Roller Coasters

By Rawan (Saudi Arabia)

Introduction

A roller coaster is an amusement ride that is designed to stimulate the human sensory system. The users of roller coasters are subjected to high speed in which the size, time and rate of change of speed is controlled. A roller coaster is an amusement ride that has been enhanced for amusement parks and other contemporary theme parks. In most cases, roller coasters have a considerable number of cars in which the riders sit and are controlled. In a roller coaster, a train is formed when two or more cars are joined together by a hook. However, some roller coasters operate with single cars only. Amusement parks fitted with roller coasters provides a family-based surrounding which gives the consumer unique products and services (Burgan 4).

What Is a Roller Coaster ?

Amusement parks all over the world have many types of rides. Roller coasters are the fastest rides in most amusement parks. Some roller coasters can travel at a speed of about 100 miles per hour (161 km/hr.). Today, more than 1,000 coasters exist throughout the world. Among the 1000 coasters, more than half of them are located on the Northern parts of America. At times, roller coasters are called scream machines because the riders usually scream as they enjoy riding the coasters (Burgan, 5). Consequently, the rides on roller coasters can be exciting and at the same time scary. There are two main types of coasters; the wooden and steel coasters. A wooden coasters track is supported by beams which are wooden posts. Piles (steel posts) give support to a steel coaster’s track. The tracks are made up of a series of metal or wooden sections which are always on top of a roller coaster’s beams or piles.

Engineering And Design Of A Coaster

The first ever roller coaster was constructed in Russia in the 1600s. The forerunners of the current roller coasters were big blocks of ice fashioned into sleds. The huge blocks of ice had straw or fur placed on the icy seat to make the passenger comfortable. The pioneers used sand to help reduce the speed of the sled at the end of the ride to keep it from crashing down; the technique applied was based on the law of friction (Weisenberger, 28). During the later years, more enhanced wooden sleds were constructed; they had iron runners to increase the thrill and speed of the rides. It is argued that the origin of coasters started in the Russian ice sleds in the early years of the 17 th century (this is shown in figure 1.1). It is not yet clear as to who invented the first roller coaster on wheels. Other people have believed that it is the Russians, while others assumed that it was the French that came up with the first ever roller coaster with wheels. However, it is true that Russia was the first country that came up with the idea of roller coasters.

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Figure 1.1 Various enhancements were made on roller coasters and by the year 1817. The

Figure 1.1

Various enhancements were made on roller coasters and by the year 1817. The Belleville coaster in France was the first one to have cars that were locked to the track. The cars were constructed in such a way that the axle of every car was fixed into an open area that was twisted towards the side of the track. The first ever complete and looping coaster was situated in the Frascati gardens in France, Paris. Franscati Gardens had a hill that was about 43 feet tall and about a 13 feet width loop. In later years, America’s amusement park history started in 1875 on Coney Island. Most railway companies had come up with various ways in which they could keep passenger usage high during the weekends. Therefore, they set up parks at the end the rail lines and introduced various weekend and summer activities. Carousels made the first rides of these parks. However, the first gravity switchback train was unveiled in the year 1884; it was the first realistic roller coaster in the United States of America (Throgmorton and Throgmorton, 28).

United States of America (Throgmorton and Throgmorton, 28). Figure 1.2 In the mountains of Pennsylvania the

Figure 1.2

In the mountains of Pennsylvania the Haunto Tunnel was located (shows in figure 1.2) which was mainly created as a means of transporting coal down the mountain through a 2,330 foot track. Later on in the year 1883, the railroad started to carry passengers rather than coal. The railroad was more or less like a run a way train rather than a modern roller coaster. In most cases, it is considered the pioneer of modern roller coasters (Sandy).

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Riders of roller coasters sit in the cars of most roller coasters. The cars are usually connected to one another to form a mini-train. The cars are usually made of metals that are coated with plastic. All the cars that form the roller coaster have benches or seats on which the riders sit on while they are enjoying their ride. The cars may have lap bars or shoulder harnesses on which the riders hold while riding on the coaster. The roller coaster cars are designed in such a way that they have three sets of wheels. The wheels are attached to a track’s rails and the rails lie on the top of the tracks. The rails are formed by a pair of steel bars that are located at the edges of tracks. One set of a car’s wheels goes through the top of the rails and another set runs in line with the rails. The last set of wheels runs underneath the rails (Burgan, 7).

The two types of coasters (wooden and steel coasters) can be out-and-back or at times referred to as twister coasters. The out-and-back coasters have elongated and straight tracks with few turns. The tracks are constructed in such a way that they form a long oval shape. On the other hand, tracks on twister coasters are wrapped over and under themselves. Besides, they usually have many sharp turns. A circuit is the entire length of a roller coaster’s track, and it may include twists, turns and inversions. A loop is one type of the inversion and most loops usually form circular shapes. Also, a corkscrew is another type of twist and most sections of the tracks are twisted into spirals (Burgan, 8).

In most instances, the roller coaster circuits start with a lift hill. Usually, a chain pulls cars up the steep hill. Once all the cars have arrived at the top of the hill, the chain releases the cars while they are at the top of the hill. Then, gravity pulls all the cars down the hill. Gravity force is the force that pulls all objects and items down to the surface of the earth. At all amusement parks, it has been observed that riders usually enjoy traveling up the hill and then down the lift hill. Notably, the cars reach their highest speeds when they are near the bottom of the hill. The circuits usually have a considerable number of hills after the lift hill. However, the lift hill is usually the tallest of all these hills (Burgan, 9).

G-Force Enjoyment On A Coaster:

G-force refers to the total force of reaction that is being inflicted on us at any specific point in time. It is usually expressed in terms of the gravitational force that various individuals experience when doing various activities. The gravitational reaction force might come from the floor that we are standing on or a seat, or any other thing that is holding us up on the surface of the earth. The G-force and the force of gravity are not the same. However, the force of gravity on the surface of the earth is used as a reference point for measuring the G-force from acceleration to deceleration. When a person is sitting down, the force that is keeping him or her attached to the seat is the force of gravity. The amount of the force is estimated to be ‘1G’. Studies reveal that the G-force increases if a person is in a roller coaster that is moving at a high speed while at the same time accelerating. Consequently, as the person pulls more Gs, their body weight increases proportionally (Eager, 32).

The body of the rider feels a continuous increase in speed in a fascinating way. At the time when a roller coaster is accelerating, the actual force that is acting on the rider is the seat that is pushing your body forward. However, due to the rider’s body inertia, he/she feels a force in front of him/her and therefore pushing him/her into the seat. The rider always feels the push of acceleration that is coming from the opposite direction of the real force that is accelerating the rider. A roller coaster puts all this into good use as it continuously changes its acceleration

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and its location on the ground; thus making the forces of gravity and the increase in speed interacts in various fascinating ways. When the rider drops down a steep hill, the force of gravity pulls him/her down but the force acceleration seems to pull you in the opposite direction. Therefore, these forces cancel each other ;out thus, making the rider feels some sense of weightlessness. In the event that the rollercoaster moves downward fast enough, the upward acceleration force outweighs the downward force of gravity, thus making the rider feel like he/she is being pulled upward (Eager, 32). The reverse is true.

The Effect Of Adrenaline Hormone On A Coaster:

The increase in G-forces increases the secretion of a naturally occurring hormone known as adrenaline hormone. Consequently, the rider’s sense of awareness is enhanced. The rider becomes more active and alert; the body reacts in a physical manner searching for safety or defense. The secretion of adrenaline makes the body of the rider make a number of physical changes. The physical changes include an enhanced heartbeat (pulse rate) and faster breathing (Eager, 32). All these physical changes are meant to prepare the body of the rider for any possible action in order to defend him or herself.

The secretion of adrenaline leads to the secretion of another feel-good chemical known as dopamine. It makes people feel contented after a delicious meal; for instance, after achieving a goal that has been sought for long (Eager, 33).

The Future Of Roller Coasters

The future of roller coasters depends on the number of technological advancements that will come up to make various changes which will make roller coasters more thrilling and joyful. Technology will transform the main objective of the amusement thrill ride. It will enhance the global competition to invent the fastest, highest and most scary roller coasters that the world has ever known and experienced. People from diverse backgrounds enjoy riding on roller coasters throughout the world.

Conclusion

For this research, we have learned when the G-Force increases the adrenaline junkies increase, and the sense of the riders become more active. Also, the hormones secretion makes people feel a sense of thriss. Because of all these factors, I understand why people enjoy rollercoasters.

Works Cited

David, Eager. Australasian Parks and Leisure - Spring 2013r, University of Technology, Sydney

Burgan, Michael. The World's Wildest Roller Coasters. Mankato, Minn.: Capstone Books, 2001. Print.

Throgmorton, Todd H and Throgmorton, Samantha K Roller Coasters (2015). Print.

Wiesenberger, Nick. Coasters 101. Leipzig: Amazon Distribution, 2013. Print.

Sandy, A. (n.d.). www.ultimaterollercoaster.com. Retrieved October 08, 2010.

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How Do Beauty Pageants Affect Children?

By Sylvia (Venezuela)

History

Beauty pageants became part of the American society in the 1920’s. Child beauty pageants began in 1960’s.

Child beauty pageants consist of modeling sportswear, evening attire, dance and talent. The children are judged

based on individuality in looks, capability, poise, perfection and confidence. The children are divided into age

groups so the competition is objective for the participants. There are no laws concerning beauty pageants in New

York, Texas, Massachusetts, Arkansas, California, Vermont and Maine therefore beauty pageants possibly have

exploitation of young girls.

Beauty pageants originated as a marketing tool in 1921 by an Atlantic City hotel owner who wanted the city’s

tourists to remain in town longer. A local reporter started the infamous term, still used today by saying, “lets call her

‘Miss America’!” Pageants were introduced into the lives of Americans and became a major event.

As the years progressed, pageants served as political, educational and entertaining events. Pageants offered

scholarships and helped beneficial programs. Marking a racial breakthrough, in 1983 Vanessa Williams became the

first African-American titled Miss America (Nussbaum, K).

Background Info and Positive Effects

In Universal Royalty Pageant, the country’s largest child beauty pageant, all contestants receive an award for

participating. There are sixty contestants from the age of zero to thirty years old, all divided in different age groups.

There’s a minimum cost of $545 to enter the pageant, another $395 is needed for the maximum options of this

pageant. The average cost of the pageant is about $655 which includes the formal wear, sports wear and dance

(Nussbaum, K).

The grand supreme winner receives one thousand dollars in cash, a ten-inch crystal crown, a six-foot trophy,

supreme entry paid in full to nationals, a tote bag, satin rhinestone banner, teddy bear, bouquet of long stem red

roses, gifts, video of the pageant, and photo on advertisement of beauty pageant (Nussbaum, K).

Negative Effects

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Preparing for the pageant requires time and patience, preparation last around an hour and forty-five minutes,

make-up around an hour. Different performances for every pageant require some participants to practice for about

seven hours a week. Stage mothers say it is worth all the trouble and effort since it instills happiness, poise in front

of a crowd, confidence, pride and sense of accomplishments (Nussbaum, K).

William Pinsof, a clinical psychologist and president of the Family Institute at Northwestern University said,

“Being a little Barbie doll says your body has to be a certain way and your hair has to be a certain way. In girls,

particularly, this can unleash whole complex of destructive self-experiences that can lead to eating disorders and all

kinds of body distortions in terms of body image”.

Pageants often contribute to psychological problems that may manifest as disorders later in life, and participants

grow up in an atmosphere in which they learn superficial, damaging values. The pressures of competition, tensions

between contestants, and being subjected to judgment can have many emotional repercussions.

Self-esteem

issues, feelings of inferiority, paranoia, dissimulation, and anxiety can develop in these girls. The habitual pageant

loser may suffer self-doubt and confidence issues. Subconsciously, they learn that appearance is most important,

and that pressuring others to be perfect is acceptable (Wonderlich, A. 2005).

Also, moms and makeup artists take drastic measures in preparing pageants girls, subjecting them to spray

tans, waxes, teeth bleaching, fake fingernails, partial dentures, and layers and heavy make-up. Parents also hire

coaches, who charge hourly rates to polish kids. After hours of primping, these girls look much older than they

actually are and more doll-like than human. Rather than being recognized for their uniqueness and special

differences, girls are forced to match a certain imagined, unnatural idea of beauty.

In addition to these set of values, pageants also cultivate dependency. Decisions are frequently made for these

girls because they are so young, including the decision to even compete in pageants. Sadly, often mothers get very

pushy and live vicariously through their daughters (Lieberman, L).

Competing in pageants often detracts from family life, and leaves little time for young girls to simply act their

age or pursue other activities. Serious competitors spend many weekends away from home, and pageants costs

can cause financial strains among family members. The large time investment in pageants reduces time spent with

friends, exercising, or resting. Young girls need opportunities to enjoy their childhood and the ability to pursue other

interests, having time simply to be themselves. It is silly to demand that beauty pageants be banned, due to their

popularity and the lives and industry that have been built up around them, but certain changes could lower their

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negative impacts. Raising the minimum age limit for the contestants would reduce the likelihood of their being

forced into pageants, giving them an opportunity to decide for themselves.

In a famous T.V show called “Toddlers and Tiaras” it can be seen how these children sustain a dramatic

transformation of their appearance and conduct to win, all for the approval of the pageants judges and their

competitive stage mothers who live vicariously through their children’s accomplishments and who excessively push

their children to succeed. For all events, participants model or dance, and maintain eye contact with judges while

they are wearing attire appropriate to the category. For the beauty category, girls do what most stage mothers call

a sassy walk on stage by moving their hips and crossing one leg in front of the other. Winking by the audience,

blowing kisses, acting coy, using other movements or sexually encoded facial expressions that look flirtatious and

feminine are standard. The girls are judged by personality, energy, pose, and stage presence rather than physical

appearance but the most important criterion is if the participants enjoy what they are doing (Hodel, C).

Conclusion

Society needs to begin to condemn children’s pageants, but there is still an unusual need for significant

changes. This great need is given evidence by research, lots of lives, and the suffering of many. Pageants

contribute to psychological problems and disorders, as well as family troubles and an abnormal childhood, and

encourages the exploitation of children. They inculcate harmful values, cultivating shallowness, conformity, and

appearance-obsession in young girls.

Some people might think and can feel that seeing these girls performing can be funny or they can feel pride for

seeing they’re daughter on that stage, but they don’t think of the repercussions years after for those girls who

maybe just wanted to have a normal childhood instead of becoming a teenager so early, some of them really want

that but others don’t. All the effects that these pageants can cause it is disturbing, and they should be a concern in

the families and in the society.

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Citation

Hodel, Christina. "Performing the Ultimate Grand Supreme: Approval, Gender and Identity in Toddlers & Tiaras."

Girlhood Studies 7.2 (2014): n. pag. Web.

Lindsay, Lieberman, Protecting Pageant Princesses: A Call for Statutory Regulation of Child Beauty Pageants, 18

J.L & Pol’y (2010).

Nussbaum, Kareen. "Children and Beauty Pageants." A Minor Consideration Website. Web. 3 Dec. 2012.

<http://www.minorcon.org/pageants.html>.

Wonderlich, Anna L., Diann M. Ackard, and Judith B. Henderson. "Childhood Beauty Pageant Contestants:

Associations with Adult Disordered Eating and Mental Health." Eating Disorders 13.3 (2005): 291-301. Web.

Associations with Adult Disordered Eating and Mental Health ." Eating Disorders 13.3 (2005): 291-301. Web. 33

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