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Ministry of Jesus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the Christian gospels, the ministry of


Jesus begins with his baptism in the
countryside of Roman Judea and
Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends
in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with
his disciples.[1] The Gospel of Luke (3:23)
states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age"
at the start of his ministry.[2][3] A chronology
of Jesus typically has the date of the start of
his ministry estimated at around AD 2729
and the end in the range AD 3036.[2][3][4][5]
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when
after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee

Jesus commissioning the Twelve Apostles depicted by


Ghirlandaio, 1481.

from his time in the Judean desert.[6] In this


early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and
eventually form the core of the early Church[1][7] as it is believed that the Apostles dispersed from
Jerusalem to found the Apostolic Sees. The Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8
includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in
Galilee.[8][9] The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to
go to Jerusalem.[10][11]
In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea.[12][13][14][15] As
Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the
Sea of Galilee (actually a fresh water lake) along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was
baptized.[16][17][18]
The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal
entry into Jerusalem.[19] The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods,
devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.[20]

Contents
1 Overview
2 Baptism and early ministry
3 Ministry in Galilee
3.1 Early Galilean ministry
3.2 Major Galilean ministry
3.3 Final Galilean ministry
4 Judea and Perea to Jerusalem
4.1 Later Judean ministry

4.1 Later Judean ministry


4.2 Later Perean ministry
5 Final ministry in Jerusalem
6 See also
7 References

Overview
The gospel accounts place the beginning of
Jesus' ministry in the countryside of Roman
Judea, near the River Jordan.[1]
The gospels present John the Baptist's
ministry as the precursor to that of Jesus and
the Baptism of Jesus as marking the
beginning of Jesus' ministry, after which
Jesus travels, preaches and performs
miracles.[1][21][22]
Jesus's Baptism is generally considered the
beginning of his ministry and the Last
Supper with his disciples in Jerusalem as the
end.[1][21] However, some authors also
consider the period between the Resurrection
and the Ascension part of the ministry of
Jesus.[23]
Luke 3:23 states that Jesus was "about 30
years of age" at the start of his ministry.[2][3]
There have been different approaches to
estimating the date of the start of the
ministry of Jesus.[2][24][25][26] One approach,
based on combining information from the
Judea and Galilee at the time of Jesus.
Gospel of Luke with historical data about
Emperor Tiberius yields a date around 28-29
AD/CE, while a second independent approach based on statements in the Gospel of John along with
historical information from Josephus about the Temple in Jerusalem leads to a date around AD 27
29.[3][4][24][25][27][28]
In the New Testament, the date of the Last Supper is very close to the date of the crucifixion of Jesus
(hence its name). Scholarly estimates for the date of the crucifixion generally fall in the range AD 3036.[29][30]
The three Synoptic gospels refer to just one passover during his ministry, while the Gospel of John refers
to three passovers, suggesting a period of about three years.[21][31] However, the Synoptic gospels do not
require a ministry that lasted only one year, and scholars such as Kstenberger state that the Gospel of

John simply provides a more detailed account.[21][22][32]


During the ministry of Jesus, the tetrarch ruling over Galilee and Perea in this period was Herod Antipas,
who obtained the position upon the division of the territories following the death of Herod the Great in 4
BC.[33]

Baptism and early ministry


The gospels present John the Baptist's ministry as the
precursor to that of Jesus and the Baptism of Jesus as
marking the beginning of Jesus' ministry.[1][21][22]
In his sermon in Acts 10:37-38, delivered in the house of
Cornelius the centurion, Apostle Peter gives an overview of
the ministry of Jesus, and refers to what had happened
"throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the
baptism which John preached" and that Jesus whom "God
anointed with the Holy Spirit and with power" had gone
about "doing good".[34]
John 1:28 specifies the location where John was baptizing as
"Bethany beyond the Jordan".[35][36] This is not the village
Bethany just east of Jerusalem, but the town Bethany, also

Part of the Madaba Map showing


Bethabara (), calling it the
place where John baptised.

called Bethabara in Perea.[36] Perea is the province east of the Jordan, across the southern part of
Samaria, and although the New Testament does not mention Perea by name, John 3:23 implicitly refers
to it again when it states that John was baptising in Enon near Salim, "because there was much water
there".[35][36] First-century historian Flavius Josephus also wrote in the Antiquities of the Jews (18 5.2)
that John the Baptist was imprisoned and then killed in Machaerus on the border of Perea.[37][38]
Luke 3:23 and Luke 4:1 indicate possible activities of Jesus near the Jordan River around the time of his
baptism, as does the initial encounter with the disciples of John the Baptist in John 1:35-37, where "two
disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus".[39][40][41] Assuming that there were two incidences
of Cleansing of the Temple, which was located in Jerusalem, a possible reference to an early Judean
ministry may be John 2:13-25.[42][43][44]

Ministry in Galilee
Early Galilean ministry
The Early Galilean ministry begins when Jesus goes back to Galilee from the Judean desert, after
rebuffing the temptation of Satan.[6] In this early period, Jesus preaches around Galilee and, in Matthew
4:18-20, his first disciples encounter him, begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the
early Church.[1][7]

The Gospel of John includes Marriage at Cana as the first miracle of Jesus taking place in this early
period of ministry, with his return to Galilee.[45][46] A few villages in Galilee (e.g. Kafr Kanna) have
been suggested as the location of Cana.[47][48]
The return of Jesus to Galilee follows the arrest of John the Baptist.[49] The early teachings of Jesus
result in his rejection at his hometown when in Luke 4:16-30 Jesus says in a Synagogue: "No prophet is
acceptable in his own country" and the people reject him.
In this early period, Jesus' reputation begins
to spread throughout Galilee. In Mark 1:2128 and Luke 4:31-37, Jesus goes to
Capernaum, where people are "astonished at
his teaching; for his word was with
authority", in the Exorcism at the Synagogue
in Capernaum episode, which is followed by
healing the mother of Peter's wife.[50][51]
Luke 5:1-11 includes the first Miraculous
draught of fishes episode in which Jesus tells
Peter, "now on you will catch men". Peter
leaves his net and, along with him, James
and John, the sons of Zebedee, follows Jesus
as disciples thereafter.[52][53][54]
This period includes the Sermon on the
Mount, one of the major discourses of Jesus
in Matthew, and the Sermon on the Plain in
the Gospel of Luke.[7][55] The Sermon on the
Mount, which covers chapters 5, 6 and 7 of
the Gospel of Matthew, is the first of the
Five Discourses of Matthew and is the
longest piece of teaching from Jesus in the
New Testament.[55] It encapsulates many of
the moral teaching of Jesus and includes the
Beatitudes and the widely recited Lord's
Prayer.[55][56]

Towns in Roman controlled Judea and Galilee (in red) and


Decapolis ( in black). Perea is the area south of Pella on the
eastern side of River Jordan.

The Beatitudes are expressed as eight


blessings in the Sermon on the Mount in
Matthew, and four similar blessings appear in the Sermon on the Plain in Luke, where they are followed
by four woes that mirror the blessings.[57] The Beatitudes present the highest ideals of the teachings of
Jesus on mercy, spirituality and compassion.[57][58]

Marriage at Cana

Synagogue in
Capernaum

First disciples &


Sermon on the Mount
Miraculous catch of fish

Major Galilean ministry


The Major Galilean ministry, also called the Great Galilean ministry, begins in Matthew 8, after the
Sermon on the Mount and refers to activities up to the death of John the Baptist.[8][9]
The beginnings of this period include the The Centurion's Servant (8:5-13) and Calming the storm
(Matthew 8:23-27), both dealing with the theme of faith and fear. When the Centurion shows faith in
Jesus by requesting a "healing at a distance", Jesus commends him for his exceptional faith.[59] On the
other hand, when his own disciples show fear of a storm on the Sea of Galilee, Jesus instructs them to
have more faith, after he orders the storm to stop.[60][61]
In this period, Jesus is still gathering the twelve apostles,
and the Calling of Matthew takes place in Matthew 9:9.[62]
The conflicts and criticism between Jesus and the Pharisees
continue, e.g. they criticize Jesus for associating with
"publicans and sinners", whereby Jesus responds: "It is not
the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come
to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."
Commissioning the twelve Apostles relates the initial
selection of the twelve Apostles among the disciples of
Jesus.[63][64] Jesus goes out to a mountainside to pray, and
after spending the night praying to God, in the morning he
calls his disciples and chooses twelve of them.[65]
In the Mission Discourse, Jesus instructs the twelve apostles
who are named in Matthew 10:2-3 to carry no belongings as
they travel from city to city and preach.[8][9] Separately,
Luke 10:1-24 relates the Seventy Disciples, where Jesus
appoints a larger number of disciples and sends them out in
pairs with the Missionary's Mandate to go into villages

The Calling of Matthew by Vittore


Carpaccio, 1502

before Jesus' arrival there.[66]


In Matthew 11:2-6 two messengers from John the Baptist arrive to ask Jesus if he is the expected
Messiah, or "shall we wait for another?"[67] Jesus replies, "Go back and report to John what you hear
and see: The blind receive sight, the lame walk".[68] Following this, Jesus begins to speak to the crowds

about the Baptist.[69]


This period is rich in parables and teachings and includes the Parabolic discourse, which provides many
of the parables for the Kingdom of Heaven, beginning in Matthew 13:1.[70][71] These include the
parables of The Sower, The Tares, The Mustard Seed and The Leaven, addressed to the public at large,
as well as The Hidden Treasure, The Pearl and Drawing in the Net.[71]

Calming the storm

Twelve Apostles

Seventy Disciples

Baptist's Messengers

Final Galilean ministry


The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of
John the Baptist, and includes the Feeding the 5000
and Walking on water episodes, both in Matthew
14.[10][11] After hearing of the Baptist's death, Jesus
withdraws by boat privately to a solitary place near
Bethsaida, where he addresses the crowds who had
followed him on foot from the towns, and feeds
them all with "five loaves and two fish" supplied by

Walking on water, by Veneziano, 1370.

a boy.[72]
Following this, the gospels present the Walking on water episode in Matthew 14:22-23, Mark 6:45-52
and John 6:16-21 as an important step in developing the relationship between Jesus and his disciples, at
this stage of his ministry.[73] The episode emphasizes the importance of faith by stating that, when he
attempted to walk on water, Peter began to sink when he lost faith and became afraid. At the end of the
episode, the disciples increase their faith in Jesus, and, in Matthew 14:33, they say: "Of a truth thou art
the Son of God".[74]
Major teachings in this period include the Discourse on Defilement in Matthew 15:120 and Mark 7:1
23 where, in response to a complaint from the Pharisees, Jesus states: "What goes into a man's mouth
does not make him 'unclean,' but what comes out of his mouth, that is what makes him 'unclean.'".[75]
Following this episode, Jesus withdraws into the "parts of Tyre and Sidon" near the Mediterranean Sea,
where the Canaanite woman's daughter episode takes place in Matthew 15:2128 and Mark 7:24-30.[76]
This episode is an example of how Jesus emphasizes the value of faith, telling the woman: "Woman, you
have great faith! Your request is granted."[76] The importance of faith is also emphasized in the
Cleansing ten lepers episode in Luke 17:11-19.[77][78]

In the Gospel of Mark, after passing through Sidon, Jesus enters the region of the Decapolis, a group of
ten cities south east of Galilee, where the Healing the deaf mute miracle is reported in Mark 7:31-37.
After the healing, the disciples say: "He even makes the deaf hear and the mute speak." The episode is
the last in a series of narrated miracles which builds up to Peter's proclamation of Jesus as Christ in
Mark 8:29.[79]

Judea and Perea to Jerusalem


Later Judean ministry
In this period, Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem by going around Samaria, through Perea and on
through Judea to Jerusalem. At the beginning of this period, Jesus predicts his death for the first time,
and this prediction then builds up to the other two episodes, the final prediction being just before Jesus
enters Jerusalem for the last time, the week of his crucifixion.[80][81] In Matthew 16:2128 and Mark
8:3133, Jesus teaches his disciples that "the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the
elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and after three days rise again.[82]
Later in this period, at about the middle of each of
the three Synoptic Gospels, two related episodes
mark a turning point in the ministry of Jesus: the
Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of
Jesus.[12][13][14][15] These episodes begin in
Caesarea Philippi, just north of the Sea of Galilee, at
the beginning of the final journey to Jerusalem
which ends in the Passion and Resurrection of
Jesus.[83] These episodes mark the beginnings of the
gradual disclosure of the identity of Jesus as the
Messiah to his disciples; and his prediction of his
own suffering and death.[12][13][83][84][85]

Pietro Perugino's depiction of the "Giving of the


Keys to Saint Peter" by Jesus, 1492

Peter's Confession begins as a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples in Matthew 16:13, Mark 8:27
and Luke 9:18. Jesus asks his disciples: But who do you say that I am? Simon Peter answers him: You
are the Christ, the Son of the living God.[83][86][87] In Matthew 16:17, Jesus blesses Peter for his answer,
and states: "flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven." In blessing
Peter, Jesus not only accepts the titles Christ and Son of God, which Peter attributes to him, but declares
the proclamation a divine revelation by stating that his Father in Heaven had revealed it to Peter.[88] In
this assertion, by endorsing both titles as divine revelation, Jesus unequivocally declares himself to be
both Christ and the Son of God.[88][89]
In the Gospel of Matthew, following this episode, Jesus also selects Peter as the leader of the Apostles,
and states that "upon this rock I will build my church".[33] In Matthew 16:18 Jesus then continues: "That
thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church". The word "church" (ekklesia in Greek) as
used here, appears in the Gospels only once more, in Matthew 18:17, and refers to the community of
believers at the time.[90]

Later Perean ministry

Following the proclamation by Peter, the account of the Transfiguration of Jesus is the next major event
and appears in Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:2-8 and Luke 9:28-36.[13][84][85][85] Jesus takes Peter and two
other apostles with him and goes up to a mountain, which is not named. Once on the mountain, Matthew
(17:2) states that Jesus "was transfigured before them; his face shining as the sun, and his garments
became white as the light." At that point, the prophets Elijah and Moses appear and Jesus begins to talk
to them.[84] Luke is specific in describing Jesus in a state of glory, with Luke 9:32 referring to "they saw
his glory".[91] A bright cloud appears around them, and a voice from the cloud states: "This is my
beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him".[84]
The Transfiguration not only supports the identity of Jesus
as the Son of God, (as in his Baptism), but the statement
"listen to him" identifies him as the messenger and mouthpiece of God.[92] The significance is enhanced by the
presence of Elijah and Moses, for it indicates to the apostles
that Jesus is the voice of God, and, instead of Elijah or
Moses, he should be listened to, by virtue of his filial
relationship with God.[92] 2 Peter 1:16-18 echoes the same
message: at the Transfiguration, God assigns to Jesus a
special "honor and glory" and it is the turning point at which
God exalts Jesus above all other powers in creation.[93]
Many of the episodes in the Later Judean ministry are from
the Gospel of Luke but, in general, these sequence of
episodes in Luke do not provide enough geographical
information to determine Perea, though scholars generally
assume that the route Jesus followed from Galilee to
Jerusalem passed through Perea.[18] However, the Gospel of
John does state that he returned to the area where he was
baptized, and John 10:40-42 states that "many people
believed in him beyond the Jordan", saying "all things

A sixth century mosaic of the Raising of


Lazarus, church of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo,
Ravenna, Italy.

whatsoever John spake of this man were true".[16][17][18]


The area where Jesus was baptised is inferred as the vicinity of the Perea area, given the activities of the
Baptist in Bethabara and non in John 1:28 and 3:23.[35][36]
This period of ministry includes the Discourse on the Church, in which Jesus anticipates a future
community of followers and explains the role of his apostles in leading it.[70][94] It includes the parables
of The Lost Sheep and The Unforgiving Servant in Matthew 18, which also refer to the Kingdom of
Heaven. The general theme of the discourse is the anticipation of a future community of followers, and
the role of his apostles in leading it.[94][95]
Addressing his apostles in 18:18, Jesus states: "what things soever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound
in heaven; and what things soever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven". The discourse
emphasizes the importance of humility and self-sacrifice as the high virtues within the anticipated
community. It teaches that in the Kingdom of God, it is childlike humility that matters, not social
prominence and clout.[94][95]

At the end of this period, the Gospel of John includes the Raising of Lazarus episode in John 11:1-46, in
which Jesus brings Lazarus of Bethany back to life four days after his burial.[19] In the Gospel of John,
the raising of Lazarus is the climax of the "seven signs" which gradually confirm the identity of Jesus as
the Son of God and the expected Messiah.[96] It is also a pivotal episode which starts the chain of events
that leads to the crowds seeking Jesus on his Triumphal entry into Jerusalem - leading to the decision of
Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin to plan to kill Jesus (Crucifixion of Jesus).[97]

Final ministry in Jerusalem


The final ministry in Jerusalem is
traditionally called the Passion and begins
with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem
early in the week that includes the Last
Supper, and liturgically marked by Holy
Week.[19][98][99][100][101][102] The gospels
pay special attention to the account of the
last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem,
and the narrative amounts to about one third
of the text of the four gospels, showing its
theological significance in Christian thought
in the Early

Church.[20][103]

Flevit super illam (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet,


1892.

Before arriving in Jerusalem, in John 12:911, after raising Lazarus from the dead, crowds gather
around Jesus and believe in him, and the next day the
multitudes that had gathered for the feast in Jerusalem
welcome Jesus as he descends from the Mount of Olives
towards Jerusalem in Matthew 21:1-11, Mark 11:1-11, Luke
19:28-44 and John 12:12-19.[98][99][100][104] In Luke 19:4144 as Jesus approaches Jerusalem, he looks at the city and
weeps over it, foretelling the suffering that awaits the
city.[98][100][105]
In the three Synoptic Gospels, entry into Jerusalem is
followed by the Cleansing of the Temple episode, in which
Jesus expels the money changers from the Temple, accusing
them of turning the Temple to a den of thieves through their
commercial activities. This is the only account of Jesus

Jesus enters Jerusalem and the crowds


welcome him, by Giotto, 14th century.

using physical force in any of the Gospels.[44][106][107] The


synoptics include a number of well known parables and sermons such as the Widow's mite and the
Second Coming Prophecy during the week that follows.[98][99]
In that week, the synoptics also narrate conflicts between Jesus and the elders of the Jews, in episodes
such as the Authority of Jesus Questioned and the Woes of the Pharisees, in which Jesus criticizes their
hypocrisy.[98][99] Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve apostles, approaches the Jewish elders and performs
the "Bargain of Judas" in which he accepts to betray Jesus and hand him over to the elders.[108][109][110]
Matthew specifies the price as thirty silver coins.[109]

In Matthew 24, Mark 13 and Luke 21, Jesus provides a Discourse on the End Times, which is also called
the Olivet Discourse because it was given on the Mount of Olives.[70] The discourse is mostly about
judgment and the expected conduct of the followers of Jesus, and the need for vigilance by the followers
in view of the coming judgment.[111] The discourse is generally viewed as referring both to the coming
destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, as well as the End Times and Second Coming of Christ, but the
many scholarly opinions about which verses refer to which event remain divided.[95][111]
A key episode in the final part of the ministry of Jesus is the Last Supper, which includes the Institution
of the Eucharist. In Matthew 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:19-20 during the last supper, Jesus
takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the disciples, saying:
"This is my body which is given for you". He also gives
them wine to drink, saying this is his blood. In
1 Corinthians 11:2326, Paul the Apostle refers to
it.[112][113][114][115] John 14-17 concludes the Last Supper
with a long, three chapter sermon known as the Farewell
discourse which prepares the disciples for the departure of
Jesus.[116][117]

Casting out the money changers by Giotto,


14th century.

Woes of Pharisees

Bargain of Judas

Last Supper &


Eucharist

Farewell discourse

See also
Chronology of Jesus
Jesus in Christianity
Life of Jesus in the New Testament
Miracles of Jesus

Parables of Jesus
The gospel

References
1. ^ a b c d e f g Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 978-1-4051-0901-7 pages 16-22
2. ^ a b c d The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament
(http://books.google.com/books?id=gMG9sFLAz0C&pg=PA140#v=onepage&q=Jesus%20%22public%20ministry%22&f=false) by Andreas J.
Kstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 140
3. ^ a b c d Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Chronos, kairos, Christos:
nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0-931464-50-1
pages 113-129
4. ^ a b Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible states that Jesus began his ministry "ca 28 AD" at "ca age 31". In
Chronos, kairos, Christos: Paul L. Maier specifically states that he considers the Temple visit date in John at
"around 29 AD/CE", using various factors that he summarizes in a chronology table. Maier's table considers
28 AD/CE to be roughly the 32nd birthday of Jesus, and at http://www.mtio.com/articles/aissar30.htm Paul
Meir clearly states that 5 BC was the year of birth of Jesus. Paul N. Anderson dates the temple incident at
"around 26-27 AD/CE" Jerry Knoblet estimates the date as around AD 27 AD/CE. In their book, Robert
Fortna & Thatcher estimate the date at around AD/CE 28. Kstenberger & Kellum (page 140) make the same
statement as Maier, namely that the 32nd birthday of Jesus was around 28 AD/CE when his ministry began.
5. ^ Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 08308-2699-8 pages 19-21
6. ^ a b The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris ISBN 0-85111-338-9 page 71
7. ^ a b c The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages
117-130
8. ^ a b c A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993ISBN page 324
9. ^ a b c The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages
143-160
10. ^ a b Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 97-110
11. ^ a b The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 165180
12. ^ a b c The Christology of Mark's Gospel by Jack Dean Kingsbury 1983 ISBN 0-8006-2337-1 pages 91-95
13. ^ a b c d The Cambridge companion to the Gospels by Stephen C. Barton ISBN 0-521-00261-3 pages 132-133
14. ^ a b Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 121-135
15. ^ a b The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 189207
16. ^ a b Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 137
17. ^ a b The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 211229

18. ^ a b c Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9
page 929
19. ^ a b c Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 155-170
20. ^ a b Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0-8010-2684-9 page 613
21. ^ a b c d e The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament
(http://books.google.com/books?id=gMG9sFLAz0C&pg=PA141#v=onepage&q=%22only%20one%20Passover%22&f=false) by Andreas J.
Kstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 141143
22. ^ a b c Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3
page 224-229
23. ^ New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 page 154
24. ^ a b Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 Amsterdam University Press ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 249
25. ^ a b Jack V. Scarola, "A Chronology of the nativity Era" in Chronos, kairos, Christos 2 by Ray Summers,
Jerry Vardaman 1998 ISBN 0-86554-582-0 pages 61-81
26. ^ Luke 1-5: New Testament Commentary by John MacArthur, Jr. 2009 ISBN 978-0-8024-0871-6 page 201
27. ^ The Riddles of the Fourth Gospel: An Introduction to John by Paul N. Anderson 2011 ISBN 0-8006-0427X page 200
28. ^ Herod the Great by Jerry Knoblet 2005 ISBN 0-7618-3087-1 page 184
29. ^ Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 08308-2699-8 pages 19-21
30. ^ Paul's early period: chronology, mission strategy, theology by Rainer Riesner 1997 ISBN 978-0-80284166-7 page 19-27 (page 27 has a table of various scholarly estimates)
31. ^ An introduction to the New Testament by Albertus Frederik Johannes Klijn 1997 ISBN 90-04-06263-7
pages 45-46
32. ^ New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pages 132-136
33. ^ a b The people's New Testament commentary by M. Eugene Boring, Fred B. Craddock 2004 ISBN 0-66422754-6 page 212
34. ^ Who is Jesus?: an introduction to Christology by Thomas P. Rausch 2003 ISBN 978-0-8146-5078-3 page
35. ^ a b c Big Picture of the Bible - New Testament by Lorna Daniels Nichols 2009 ISBN 1-57921-928-4 page
12
36. ^ a b c d John by Gerard Stephen Sloyan 1987 ISBN 0-8042-3125-7 page 11
37. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 583
38. ^ Behold the Man: The Real Life of the Historical Jesus by Kirk Kimball 2002 ISBN 978-1-58112-633-4
page 654
39. ^ Jesus of Nazareth by Duane S. Crowther 1999 ISBN 0-88290-656-9 page 77
40. ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 page 92
41. ^ A Summary of Christian History by Robert A. Baker, John M. Landers 2005 ISBN 0-8054-3288-4 pages 67
42. ^ International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1982 ISBN 0-8028-3782-4 page
1026
43. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9
pages 333-344
44. ^ a b The Bible knowledge background commentary by Craig A. Evans 2005 ISBN 0-7814-4228-1 page 49

45. ^ H. Van der Loos, 1965 The Miracles of Jesus, E.J. Brill Press, Netherlands page 599
46. ^ Dmitri Royster 1999 The miracles of Christ ISBN 0-88141-193-0 page 71
47. ^ Jesus and archaeology by James H. Charlesworth 2006 ISBN 0-8028-4880-X pages 540-541
48. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 212
49. ^ The Gospel according to Mark by James R. Edwards 2002 ISBN 0-85111-778-3 page 43
50. ^ Reading Luke by Charles H. Talbert 2002 ISBN 1-57312-393-5 pages 61-62
51. ^ John Clowes, 1817 The Miracles of Jesus Christ published by J. Gleave, Manchester, UK page 31
52. ^ John Clowes, The Miracles of Jesus Christ published by J. Gleave, Manchester, UK, 1817, page 214,
available on Google books
53. ^ The Gospel of Luke by Timothy Johnson, Daniel J. Harrington, 1992 ISBN 0-8146-5805-9 page 89
54. ^ The Gospel of Luke, by Joel B. Green 1997 ISBN 0-8028-2315-7 page 230
55. ^ a b c The Sermon on the mount: a theological investigation by Carl G. Vaught 2001 ISBN 978-0-91895476-3 pages xi-xiv
56. ^ "Beatitudes." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford
University Press. 2005
57. ^ a b The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Jn Majernk, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005
ISBN 1-931018-31-6, pages 63-68
58. ^ A Dictionary Of The Bible by James Hastings 2004 ISBN 1-4102-1730-2 page 15-19
59. ^ The Gospel according to Matthew: an introduction and commentary by R. T. France 1987 ISBN 0-80280063-7 page 154
60. ^ Michael Keene 2002 St Mark's Gospel and the Christian faith ISBN 0-7487-6775-4 page 26
61. ^ John Clowes, 1817 The Miracles of Jesus Christ published by J. Gleave, Manchester, UK page 47
62. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by R. T. France 2007 ISBN 0-8028-2501-X page 349
63. ^ The first gospel by Harold Riley, 1992 ISBN 0-86554-409-3 page 47
64. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page
48
65. ^ The life of Jesus by David Friedrich Strauss, 1860 published by Calvin Blanchard, page 340
66. ^ Luke by Sharon H. Ringe 1995 ISBN 0-664-25259-1 pages 151-152
67. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Rudolf Schnackenburg 2002 ISBN 0-8028-4438-3 page 104
68. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page
459
69. ^ Harmony of the Gospels by G. T. Elihai 2005 ISBN 1-59781-637-X page 94
70. ^ a b c Preaching Matthew's Gospel by Richard A. Jensen 1998 ISBN 978-0-7880-1221-1 pages 25 & 158
71. ^ a b Matthew by Charles H. Talbert 2010 ISBN 0-8010-3192-3 (Discourse 3) pages 162173
72. ^ Robert Maguire 1863 The miracles of Christ published by Weeks and Co. London page 185
73. ^ Merrill Chapin Tenney 1997 John: Gospel of Belief ISBN 0-8028-4351-4 page 114
74. ^ Dwight Pentecost 2000 The words and works of Jesus Christ ISBN 0-310-30940-9 page 234
75. ^ Jesus the miracle worker: a historical & theological study by Graham H. Twelftree 1999 ISBN 0-83081596-1 page 79
76. ^ a b Jesus the miracle worker: a historical & theological study by Graham H. Twelftree 1999 ISBN 0-83081596-1 pages 133-134
77. ^ Berard L. Marthaler 2007 The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology ISBN 0-89622-537-2
page 220

78. ^ Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-310-28101-6 page 235
79. ^ Lamar Williamson 1983 Mark ISBN 0-8042-3121-4 pages 138-140
80. ^ St Mark's Gospel and the Christian faith by Michael Keene 2002 ISBN 0-7487-6775-4 pages 24-25
81. ^ The temptations of Jesus in Mark's Gospel by Susan R. Garrett 1996 ISBN 978-0-8028-4259-6 pages 74-75
82. ^ Matthew for Everyone by Tom Wright 2004 ISBN 0-664-22787-2 page 9
83. ^ a b c The Collegeville Bible Commentary: New Testament by Robert J. Karris 1992 ISBN 0-8146-2211-9
pages 885-886
84. ^ a b c d Transfiguration by Dorothy A. Lee 2005 ISBN 978-0-8264-7595-4 pages 21-30
85. ^ a b c The Content and the Setting of the Gospel Tradition by Mark Harding, Alanna Nobbs 2010 ISBN 9780-8028-3318-1 pages 281-282
86. ^ Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R.
Bauer 1999 ISBN 0-664-25752-6 page xvi
87. ^ The Gospel of Mark, Volume 2 by John R. Donahue, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN 0-8146-5965-9 page
336
88. ^ a b One teacher: Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel by John Yueh-Han Yieh 2004 ISBN 3-11018151-7 pages 240-241
89. ^ Jesus God and Man by Wolfhart Pannenberg 1968 ISBN 0-664-24468-8 pages 53-54
90. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Rudolf Schnackenburg 2002 ISBN 0-8028-4438-3 pages 7-9
91. ^ Transfiguration by Dorothy A. Lee 2005 ISBN 978-0-8264-7595-4 pages 72-76
92. ^ a b Metamorphosis: the Transfiguration in Byzantine theology and iconography by Andreas Andreopoulos
2005 ISBN 0-88141-295-3 pages 47-49
93. ^ The Bible knowledge background commentary: John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation by Craig A. Evans
ISBN 0-7814-4228-1 pages 319-320
94. ^ a b c Behold the King: A Study of Matthew by Stanley D. Toussaint 2005 ISBN 0-8254-3845-4 pages 215216
95. ^ a b c Matthew by Larry Chouinard 1997 ISBN 0-89900-628-0 page 321
96. ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament
(http://books.google.com/books?id=gMG9sFLAz0C&pg=PA312#v=onepage&q=%22seven%20signs%22&f=false) by Andreas J. Kstenberger,
L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 312313
97. ^ Francis J. Moloney, Daniel J. Harrington, 1998 The Gospel of John Liturgical Press ISBN 0-8146-5806-7
page 325
98. ^ a b c d e The people's New Testament commentary by M. Eugene Boring, Fred B. Craddock 2004 ISBN 0664-22754-6 pages 256-258
99. ^ a b c d The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke, Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003
ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 page 381-395
100. ^ a b c The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Jn Majernk, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005
ISBN 1-931018-31-6 pages 133-134
101. ^ The Bible knowledge background commentary: John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation by Craig A. Evans
ISBN 0-7814-4228-1 pages 114-118
102. ^ Matthew 21:1-11, Mark 11:1-11, Luke 19:28-44 John 12:12-19
103. ^ Preaching Through the Christian Year, Year C by Fred B. Craddock, John H. Hayes, Carl R. Holladay,
Gene M. Tucker 1994 ISBN 1-56338-100-1 page 172

104. ^ John 12-21 by John MacArthur 2008 ISBN 978-0-8024-0824-2 pages 17-18
105. ^ Mercer Commentary on the New Testament by Watson E. Mills 2003 ISBN 0-86554-864-1 pages 10321036
106. ^ The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN 0-8028-3785-9 page
571-572
107. ^ The Fourth Gospel And the Quest for Jesus by Paul N. Anderson 2006 ISBN 0-567-04394-0 page 158
108. ^ Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:10-11, Luke 22:1-6
109. ^ a b All the Apostles of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 0-310-28011-7 page 106-111
110. ^ The Synoptic Gospels and the Book of Acts by Doremus Almy Hayes 2009 ISBN 1-115-87731-3 page 88
111. ^ a b The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris 1992 ISBN 0-85111-338-9 pages 593-596
112. ^ Matthew 26:20, Mark 14:17, Luke 22:21-23 John 13:1
113. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 180-191
114. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, 2005 ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5 pages 5256
115. ^ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 pages 465477
116. ^ John by Gail R. O'Day, Susan Hylen 2006 ISBN 978-0-664-25260-1, Chapter 15: The Farewell Discourse,
pages 142-168
117. ^ The Gospel according to John by Herman Ridderbos 1997 ISBN 978-0-8028-0453-2 The Farewell Prayer:
pages 546-576

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Categories: Jesus in the Bible
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