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Design Flow Rates

How are we to size the discharge pipe serving a range of sanitary


fitting? It is unlikely that they will all be in use simultaneously.
In order to size pipes, we need a method of determining how many we
should allow for (ie diversity factor) and what is the risk that more
than this could be used simultaneously.

example
if there were 6 wash hand basins in a range, what would be the chance
that any two (but no more than two) were discharging waste water at
the same time?

Say that discharge from a basin takes 30 seconds and that each basin is
used every 5 minutes, (300s).
Then the probability (p) that any one basin we randomly select is
discharging = 30/300 = 0.1.
We usually call this the usage ratio.
And the probability that this basin is not discharging = (1-p) = 0.9

The probability that two basins selected randomly will both be


discharging simultaneously = p2 = 0.01
The probability that none of the remaining four will not be discharging
= (1-p)4 = 0.94 = 0.656

permutations
There are n!/(r! x (n-r)!) ways in which we can select any r objects from
a group of n objects.
So, there are 6!/(2!x(6-2)!) = 15 ways of selecting any two basins from a
group of six.

So the probability that any 2 (but only 2) will be discharging simultaneously =


probability of 2 discharging
x
probability of 4 not discharging
x
number of ways any 2 can be selected from 6
= 0.01 x 0.656 x 15 = 0.0984

We can repeat the process for all other numbers discharging


simultaneously...
probability
probability
number
that between that more
discharging
number of probability proability probability none and m than m will
simultaneously permutations
all
all not
exactly m
will be
be
(m)
possible
discharging discharging discharging discharging discharging
0
1
1
0.531441
0.531441
0.531441
0.468559
1
6
0.1
0.59049
0.354294
0.885735
0.114265
2
15
0.01
0.6561
0.098415
0.98415
0.01585
3
20
0.001
0.729
0.01458
0.99873
0.00127
4
15
0.0001
0.81
0.001215
0.999945
5.5E-05
5
6
0.00001
0.9
0.000054
0.999999
1E-06
6
1
0.000001
1
0.000001
1
0

probability
probability
number
that between that more
discharging
number of probability proability probability none and m than m will
simultaneously permutations
all
all not
exactly m
will be
be
(m)
possible
discharging discharging discharging discharging discharging
0
1
1
0.531441
0.531441
0.531441
0.468559
1
6
0.1
0.59049
0.354294
0.885735
0.114265
2
15
0.01
0.6561
0.098415
0.98415
0.01585
3
20
0.001
0.729
0.01458
0.99873
0.00127
4
15
0.0001
0.81
0.001215
0.999945
5.5E-05
5
6
0.00001
0.9
0.000054
0.999999
1E-06
6
1
0.000001
1
0.000001
1
0

RISK

probability
probability
number
that between that more
discharging
number of probability proability probability none and m than m will
simultaneously permutations
all
all not
exactly m
will be
be
(m)
possible
discharging discharging discharging discharging discharging
0
1
1
0.531441
0.531441
0.531441
0.468559
1
6
0.1
0.59049
0.354294
0.885735
0.114265
2
15
0.01
0.6561
0.098415
0.98415
0.01585
3
20
0.001
0.729
0.01458
0.99873
0.00127
4
15
0.0001
0.81
0.001215
0.999945
5.5E-05
5
6
0.00001
0.9
0.000054
0.999999
1E-06
6
1
0.000001
1
0.000001
1
0

Binomial probability
The probability that any m from n identical basins will be discharging
simultaneously is given by

n!
m
nm
p (1 p )
m!(n m)!

and the probability that no more than m will be discharging


simultaneously

mm
m 0

n!
m
nm
p (1 p )
m!(n m)!

Approximate solution
We usually want to know how many fittings will be discharging simultaneously
based on a stated risk factor say 1% (0.01).
An approximate solution is
M = np + 1.8{2np(1-p)}1/2
where M is the number of fittings in use simultaneously out of a total of n such that
this number M will not be exceeded for more than 1% of the time.
(1% is usually taken to be acceptable - for other risk factors, values other than 1.8
are used)

Usage ratios
These are based on frequency of use and time being used.
So we can take into account application:
Eg toilets in an apartment building or an office or a motorway service
station

Sizing discharge branch pipe or stack


So if we know the discharge flow rate of waste water per fitting (L/s),
we can calculate a design peak flow rate for M fittings based on an
acceptable level of risk.
Example
A discharge stack in an office buildings serves ten floors, at each floor a range
of 5 WCs are connected to the stack.
Determine design flow rates in each of the WC branch discharge pipes and
the discharge stack. Take p = 0.05 and discharge rate as 2.3L/s per WC.

M = np + 1.8{2np(1-p)}1/2
Branch discharge pipe: n = 5, p=0.05

M = 5x0.05+1.8{2x5x0.05(0.95)}1/2 = 1.5 (say 2)


Flow rate = 2 x 2.3 = 4.6L/s
Discharge stack: n = 50, p=0.05

M = 50x0.05+1.8{2x50x0.05(0.95)}1/2 = 9.8 (say 10)


Flow rate = 10 x 2.3 = 23L/s

So, we are designing each discharge branch pipe on the basis of 2 out
of 5 WCs discharging simultaneously.
We are sizing discharge stack on the basis of 10 out of 50 WCs
discharging simultaneously.
The diversity factor increases in the direction of flow.
Note that for 1% of the time, more than this number of WCs will be
discharging.
What are the implications? Is this acceptable?

Sizing hot and cold pipes


Can use exactly the same procedure to size the cold water or hot water
pipes serving the sanitary fittings
but note that usage ratio (p) will be different (that is based on time
valve or tap is operating rather than the time waste water takes to
discharge!)

limitations
Binomial Theorem only applicable to identical fittings
How do we deal with a discharge pipe or stack that serves different
types of sanitary fittings?

Design volume flow rates Discharge Units


o Based on a modified Binomial Theorem plus Experience
o Each type of sanitary appliance is allocated a Discharge Unit value (DU). This value will
depend upon:
Volume of water usually discharged and time taken to discharge
Frequency of use of the
Type of sytem used (I, II, III or IV)

o DUs can be summed for all or any part of the sanitary pipework system and then
converted back into a design volume flow rate that allows for diversity
o Note that still based on an acceptable level of risk!

Discharge Units (BS EN 112056:2 2000)


Sanitary
appliance

Wash basin

Note that DU is
dimensionless

DU for Type III


systems

Shower (no plug)

0.4

Bath

1.3

Single urinal
Sink

Examples:
1. Branch pipe serving a single wash basin,
intermittent use (k=0.5)
Q = 0.5 x 0.3 = 0.27 L/s

0.3

0.4

2. Branch pipe serving 4 WCs, frequent use (k=0.7)


Q = 0.7 x [4x1.5] = 1.7 L/s

1.3

6L WC

1.5

Design Flow Rate, Q (L/s) = k(DU)

Where k is frequency factor:


intermittent

Dwelling, office

k=0.5

congested

For public use

k=1.0

frequent

Hospital, school, hotel

k=0.7

3. Discharge Stack serving 10 wash basins, 8 WCs,


3 urinals and 2 sinks, congested use (k=1.0)
Q = 1.0 x [10x0.3+8x1.5+3X0.4+2x1.3] = 4.3 L/s

Discharge Units (BS EN 12056:2 2000)

25

k=0.5

20

k=0.7

k=1.0

Q (L/s)

15
10
5
0

100

200

(DU)

300

400

500

Sizing of discharge branches and discharge stacks (BS EN 12056)


Discharge Stacks for all system types (I, II, III and IV) based on Discharge Units
Discharge Branches for system types I, II and IV also sized based on Discharge Units
Discharge Branches for type III sized on the number and type of sanitary fittings

Limits on Design of branches types I, II, III for single wash basin*
Ventilated
Branch?

System
Type

Unventilated

Minimum
Diameter (mm)

50

III

32

II

Ventilated

1.0

1.7

2.2(1)

0(2)

No limit

1.5

50

10.0

III

32

H
P

Maximum
drop H (m)

1.0

10.0

30

Minimum
gradient
(S/P) (%)

4.0

50

II

Maximum pipe
length L (m)

1.5

3.0

3.0

Maximum
number
bends in
branch pipe
3

0.5

3.0

No limit

1.8*

3.0

3.0

No limit

* Assumes congested use

(1) Based on P=1.7m. Gradient must be


increased as P is reduced (see
ADH1)
(2) As vertical 30mm pipe likely to run
full bore and cause loss of seal

Limits on Design of branches in type III system for a wash basin range(*)
Ventilated
Branch?

Unventilated

Ventilated

Maximum
Minimum
number of
branch
Basins in range Diameter
(mm)

Maximum
branch pipe
length (m)

Gradient
range (%) (3)

32

1.7

1.8 to 8.7

5(spray taps)(1)

32

4.5

1.8 to 4.4

50

4.0

1.8 to 4.4

0
0

No limit

No limit

1.8 to 2.2

3.0

5(spray taps)(1)

32

No limit

1.8 to 4.4

50

7.0

10.0

1.8 to 4.4

1.8 to 2.2

(*) Based on Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide, 2002 Tables 3 and 4
Basins must not be provided with plugs that would allow basins to be filled
Each basin to be separately ventilated
Shorter pipes should have larger gradients
Can increase number of bends by increasing pipe to 40mm diameter

3.0

50

0(4)

No limit

32

Maximum
number
bends in
branch pipe

10(2)

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Maximum
drop of
vertical
pipe (m)

2(4)

No limit

Limits on Design of Discharge Stacks


Size determined by design volume flow rate (using DUs)
and
method of ventilating the stack primary or secondary

Primary and Secondary Ventilated Discharge Stacks


Discharge
stack open to
atmosphere at
top

Primary ventilated

A common vent
pipe is connected
near top of
discharge stack, and
at each floor,
preferably to WC
branch

Secondary ventilated

Maximum hydraulic capacity (L/s) of discharge stacks (all system types)


BS EN 12056:2, 2000 and Type III (ADH1 2013)
Primary Ventilated

Secondary Ventilated

Discharge
Stack
Diameter
(Nominal
mm)

Square
entries
(L/s)

Swept
entries
(L/s)

Square
entries
(L/s)

Swept
entries(3)
(L/s)

Vent pipe
diameter
(mm)

70

1.5

2.0

2.0

2.6

50

90

2.7

3.5

3.5

4.6

50

125

5.8

7.6

7.6

10.0

70

200

16

21.0

27.3

100

60

80(1)
100(2)
150

0.5
2.0
4.0

9.5

0.7
2.6
5.2

12.4

21.0

0.7
2.6
5.6

12.4

0.9

50

3.4
7.3

18.3

(1) Minimum size where WCs are connected for system type II
(2) Minimum size where WCs are connected for system types I, III and IV
(3) ADH1 2013 gives max permissible flow rates similar to this column

ADH1
(L/s)
-

50

3.4

50

7.2

80

Limits on branch connections to stack


There are restrictions on how discharge branches may be connected to the stack
This is to reduce pressure fluctuations in the stack and also to prevent cross flow between branches
BS EN 12056 and ADH1 give details

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