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GOOD PRACTICES FLEXIBILITY

THE BEAUTY OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

THE BEAUTY OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • Participative methods

    • Involvement in the field

  • Relationship between data and theory

    • Interpretative, creative, imaginative, and embodied

THE BEAUTY OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Participative methods Involvement in the field Relationship between data and theory

A PERSONAL REFLECTION

A PERSONAL REFLECTION
A PERSONAL REFLECTION Teaching research methods Focussing on methods And on teaching Formalisation of methods

Teaching research methods
Focussing on methods

  • And on teaching Formalisation of methods

A PERSONAL REFLECTION Teaching research methods Focussing on methods And on teaching Formalisation of methods
A PERSONAL REFLECTION Teaching research methods Focussing on methods And on teaching Formalisation of methods
A PERSONAL REFLECTION Teaching research methods Focussing on methods And on teaching Formalisation of methods

CONCEPTS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ( BLUMER, 1954 )

CONCEPTS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ( BLUMER, 1954 )

Definitive concepts in Quantitative research

Imposes theory on social world

Common features of phenomena

Indicators and variables

 

Sensitizing concepts in Qualitative research

General sense of

Discovery of

Gradually

reference and

varied forms of a

narrowing down

guidance

phenomenon

CONCEPTS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ( BLUMER, 1954 ) Definitive concepts in Quantitative research Imposes theory on

THEORY-LED OPERATIONALIS ATION

RESEARCH QUESTION

THEORY-LED OPERATIONALIS ATION RESEARCH QUESTION SUB Q 2 SUB Q 1 SUB Q 3 H 1

SUB Q 2

SUB Q 1

THEORY-LED OPERATIONALIS ATION RESEARCH QUESTION SUB Q 2 SUB Q 1 SUB Q 3 H 1
THEORY-LED OPERATIONALIS ATION RESEARCH QUESTION SUB Q 2 SUB Q 1 SUB Q 3 H 1

SUB Q 3

H 1
H 1
H 2
H 2
H 3
H 3
THEORY-LED OPERATIONALIS ATION RESEARCH QUESTION SUB Q 2 SUB Q 1 SUB Q 3 H 1

CONCEPT

THEORY-LED OPERATIONALIS ATION RESEARCH QUESTION SUB Q 2 SUB Q 1 SUB Q 3 H 1

DIMENSION 2

DIMENSION 1

DIMENSION 3 INDICATOR 4

VARIABLE 4
VARIABLE 4
THEORY-LED OPERATIONALIS ATION RESEARCH QUESTION SUB Q 2 SUB Q 1 SUB Q 3 H 1
INDICATOR 1 INDICATOR 2 INDICATOR 3 VARIABLE 1 VARIABLE 2 VARIABLE 3
INDICATOR 1
INDICATOR 2
INDICATOR 3
VARIABLE 1
VARIABLE 2
VARIABLE 3

CONCEPTS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ( BLUMER, 1954 )

CONCEPTS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ( BLUMER, 1954 )

Definitive concepts in Quantitative research

Imposes theory on social world

Common features of phenomena

Indicators and variables

 

Sensitizing concepts in Qualitative research

General sense of

Discovery of

Gradually

reference and

varied forms of a

narrowing down

guidance

phenomenon

CONCEPTS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ( BLUMER, 1954 ) Definitive concepts in Quantitative research Imposes theory on

ITERATIVE

KNOWLEDGE

PRODUCTION

FLEXIBILITY means OPEN FOR SERENDIPITY

FLEXIBILITY means OPEN FOR SERENDIPITY

ACCIDENTAL FINDINGS

UNANTICIPATED,

ANOMALOUS

STRATEGIC

AND

FLEXIBILITY means OPEN FOR SERENDIPITY ACCIDENTAL FINDINGS UNANTICIPATED, ANOMALOUS STRATEGIC AND

CRAFTOWN

CRAFTOWN a suburban housing community of 700 families a surprisingly large proportion of residents were active
  • a suburban housing community of 700 families
    a surprisingly large proportion of residents were active in voluntary organisation

CRAFTOWN a suburban housing community of 700 families a surprisingly large proportion of residents were active
“More teenagers to baby sit here”

“More teenagers to baby sit here”

  • Social cohesion: not more teenagers

CRAFTOWN a suburban housing community of 700 families a surprisingly large proportion of residents were active

but more intimately known and socially existing Robert K. Merton, 1948

but more intimately known and socially existing Robert K. Merton, 1948
but more intimately known and socially existing Robert K. Merton, 1948
 
but more intimately known and socially existing Robert K. Merton, 1948

THE SERENDIPITY PATTERN

THE SERENDIPITY PATTERN

An un-expected and anomalous finding elicited the investigator’s curiosity, and conducted him along an unpremediated by-path which led to a fresh hypothesis.

(Merton,1948: p. 509)

THE SERENDIPITY PATTERN An un-expected and anomalous finding elicited the investigator’s curiosity, and conducted him along

GOOD PRACTICES TRIANGULATION

TRIANGULATION

TRIANGULATION

TRIANGULATION
TRIANGULATION
TRIANGULATION
? ? ? ? ?
?
?
?
?
?
? ? ? ? ?

TYPES OF TRIANGULATION

TYPES OF TRIANGULATION Methodology / Data Collection / Data Analysis Theory Researchers / Coders / Interviewers
  • Methodology / Data Collection / Data Analysis

  • Theory

  • Researchers / Coders / Interviewers / Observers

  • Respondents / Informants ! Respondent Validation / Member Checks

Denzin, 1970

Denzin, 1970
Denzin, 1970
Denzin, 1970

FOUR CONCEPTS OF TRIANGULATION

FOUR CONCEPTS OF TRIANGULATION
  • Triangulation as validity-checking
    Indefinite triangulation

  • Triangulation as seeking complementary information

  • Triangulation as epistemological dialogue or juxtaposition

Hammersley (2008 )

Hammersley (2008 )
Hammersley (2008 )
Hammersley (2008 )

CRITIQUE ON TRIANGULATION

CRITIQUE ON TRIANGULATION
  • Different methods, but a single truth?
    Context-bound

  • Testing effect, observer effect

CRITIQUE ON TRIANGULATION Different methods, but a single truth? Context-bound Testing effect, observer effect

TRIANGULATION

TRIANGULATION

Purpose:

Verification, falsification, reflection, intersubjectivity, deepening and widening

TRIANGULATION Purpose: Verification, falsification, reflection, intersubjectivity, deepening and widening

GOOD PRACTICES ABDUCTION

ABDUCTI ON ‘The surprising fact, C, is observed; 
 But if A were true, C would

ABDUCTI ON

ABDUCTI ON ‘The surprising fact, C, is observed; 
 But if A were true, C would

‘The surprising fact, C, is observed; But if A were true, C would be a matter of course, Hence, there is reason to suspect that A is true.’

(1931) The Collected Papers Vol. V.:Pragmatism and Pragmaticism par 189

Charles Sanders Pierce (1839-1914)

Charles Sanders Pierce (1839-1914)
Charles Sanders Pierce (1839-1914)
Charles Sanders Pierce (1839-1914)

PAUL IS DEAD

PAUL IS DEAD The accident Wednesday morning at 5 o’clock, November 9 , 1966 Car Crash

The accident

PAUL IS DEAD The accident Wednesday morning at 5 o’clock, November 9 , 1966 Car Crash
  • Wednesday morning at 5 o’clock, November 9 th , 1966

  • Car Crash! Austin Healey

  • Manager: Brian Epstein

  • Replaced by Look-a-like ! William (Shears) Campbell

PAUL IS DEAD The accident Wednesday morning at 5 o’clock, November 9 , 1966 Car Crash

PAUL IS DEAD

PAUL IS DEAD The discovery The student Tim Harper Russ Gibb Fred Labour The DJ The

The discovery

PAUL IS DEAD The discovery The student Tim Harper Russ Gibb Fred Labour The DJ The

The student

Tim Harper Russ Gibb Fred Labour

The DJ

The reviewer

The conclusion Culpability of John, Ringo & George

PAUL IS DEAD The discovery The student Tim Harper Russ Gibb Fred Labour The DJ The

“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears

“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew

...

“He blew his mind out in a car. He didn't notice that the lights had changed. A crowd of people stood and stared. They'd seen his face before, nobody was really sure if he was from the house of Lords.”

“Somebody calls you, you answer quite slowly” “Wednesday morning at 5 o'clock as the day begins.” “And life flows in within you and without you.” “And you're on your own, you're in the street.

“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew
“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew
“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew
“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew
“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew
“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew
“Let me introduce to you, the one and only Billy Shears ” 
 ... “He blew

REVOLUTION #9

REVOLUTION #9
REVOLUTION #9

REVOLUTION #9 TURN ME ON, DEAD MAN.

REVOLUTION #9 TURN ME ON, 
 DEAD MAN.
REVOLUTION #9 TURN ME ON, 
 DEAD MAN.

INTERESTING STORY, BUT NONSENSE

APPEAL OF CONSPIRACY THEORY

APPEAL OF CONSPIRACY THEORY ‘The surprising fact, C, is observed; WOW, The album hints to a

‘The surprising fact, C, is observed;

WOW, The album hints to a funeral

But if A were true, C would be a matter of course,

If the Beatles feel guilty for concealing Paul's death, and they use clues to reveal their conscience, their hint to a funeral is of course.

Hence, there is reason to suspect that A is true.’

Hence, there are grounds to think that Paul is dead.

Hence, there is reason to suspect that A is true.’ 
 Hence, there are grounds to
 
‘The surprising fact, C, is observed; WOW, The album hints to a funeral But if A
‘The surprising fact, C, is observed; WOW, The album hints to a funeral But if A

PROBLEMS WITH CONSPIRACY THEORIES

PROBLEMS WITH CONSPIRACY THEORIES Abduction is legitimate and creative, but remains a guess Conspiracy theories: Wild
  • Abduction is legitimate and creative, but remains a guess
    Conspiracy theories:

    • Wild interpretations are presented as "facts"

    • Wrong induction and wrong deduction

      • Cherry picking & Confirmation bias General rule is bent until it fits

PROBLEMS WITH CONSPIRACY THEORIES Abduction is legitimate and creative, but remains a guess Conspiracy theories: Wild
PROBLEMS WITH CONSPIRACY THEORIES Abduction is legitimate and creative, but remains a guess Conspiracy theories: Wild

Rebuttal is cover-up

Rebuttal is cover-up
Rebuttal is cover-up
Rebuttal is cover-up

MANY GREAT IDEAS ARE BUILT ON ABDUCTION

MANY GREAT IDEAS ARE BUILT ON ABDUCTION
  • The method of Max Weber:

  • The Protestant ethic and the birth of capitalism (1930).

MANY GREAT IDEAS ARE BUILT ON ABDUCTION The method of Max Weber: The Protestant ethic and

GOOD PRACTICES FOCUS ON DETAILS AND CONTEXT

FOCUS ON DETAILS

FOCUS ON DETAILS
FOCUS ON DETAILS
FOCUS ON DETAILS

EMPHASIS ON DETAILED DESCRIPTION

EMPHASIS ON DETAILED DESCRIPTION
EMPHASIS ON DETAILED DESCRIPTION but, beware for ‘descriptive excess’ 
 ( Lofland & Lofland, 1995 )

but, beware for ‘descriptive excess’ (Lofland & Lofland, 1995)

EMPHASIS ON DETAILED DESCRIPTION but, beware for ‘descriptive excess’ 
 ( Lofland & Lofland, 1995 )

FOCUS ON CONTEXT

FOCUS ON CONTEXT
FOCUS ON CONTEXT
FOCUS ON CONTEXT

WHOSE CONTEXT?

WHOSE CONTEXT?
  • Where does context start?

  • Where does context end?

WHOSE CONTEXT? Where does context start? Where does context end?

GOOD PRACTICES LOOK FOR CONTRADICTION

DO NOT ONLY LOOK FOR EVIDENCE, ...

DO NOT ONLY LOOK FOR EVIDENCE, ...

BUT LOOK FOR COUNTER EVIDENCE

DO NOT ONLY LOOK FOR EVIDENCE, ... BUT LOOK FOR COUNTER EVIDENCE
DO NOT ONLY LOOK FOR EVIDENCE, ... BUT LOOK FOR COUNTER EVIDENCE

DEVIANT CASES

DEVIANT CASES
  • Deviant cases that provide additional support

  • Deviant cases that require modification of theory

  • The deviant case is simply exceptional

Perakylaä,

¨

¨

199 7

Perakylaä, ¨ ¨ 199 7
 
Perakylaä, ¨ ¨ 199 7
Perakylaä, ¨ ¨ 199 7

COMPREHENSIVE DATA TREATMENT

COMPREHENSIVE DATA TREATMENT

Anecdotalism

Silverman (2015)

Do not ‘“sample” the cases that happen to fit the

argument’

Ten Have (1998: 8)

COMPREHENSIVE DATA TREATMENT Anecdotalism Silverman (2015) Do not ‘“sample” the cases that happen to fit the

GOOD PRACTICES REFLEXIVITY

REFLEXIVITY

REFLEXIVITY
  • Personal

  • Method

  • Theory

REFLEXIVITY Personal Method Theory
REFLEXIVITY Personal Method Theory

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: PERSONAL

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: PERSONAL
  • Confessional tales vs realist tales

  • Confession serves various purposes:

    • Downgrading authority

    • Claiming authority

Van Maanen, 1988

Van Maanen, 1988
Van Maanen, 1988
Van Maanen, 1988

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: METHOD

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: METHOD
  • Reflexivity (via memos) as a reminder for working

hypotheses, procedures, interpretation and

abduction.

  • “Their documentation is part of the

transformation of data from personal experience

and intuition to public and accountable

knowledge” (Coffey &Atkinson, 1996)

  • Compare with Audit trail (Halpern, 1983)

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: METHOD Reflexivity (via memos) as a reminder for working hypotheses, procedures, interpretation and

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: THEOR Y

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: THEOR Y
  • Display of theoretical orientations, assumptions and prejudices.

  • More ambitious than methodological memos

  • Is this possible? (Seale, 1999)

REFLEXIVITY AS CONFESSION: THEOR Y Display of theoretical orientations, assumptions and prejudices. More ambitious than methodological