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SOLIDS CONTROL

Mechanical separation of
solids from drilling fluids

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Solids control is
an important
part of
maintaining
drilling fluids
Without solids
control,
chemical
treatment and
dilution can get
very expensive
2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Solids Contamination Can Lead to Hole Problems

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Nature of Solids
Size
Density

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
One Micron is one Millionth of a Meter

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Micron Relationships Familiar Items
Item
Pollen
Milled Flour
Talcum Powder
Human Hair
Human Eye site
Finger Sensitivity

Size in Microns
10 - 100
1 - 80
5 - 50
30 - 200
40
20

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Common particle size definitions


for drill solids
Cutting
Sand
Silt
Colloidals

500 microns and larger


74 to 500 microns
2 to 74 microns
0 to 2 microns

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Low Specific Gravity Solids


Bentonite
Sand
Lignite
Dense Lime

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2.4
2.6
1.1
2.9

Solids Control

High Specific Gravity Solids


Barite
Bargain
Densimix

4.2
4.9
5.0

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Benefits of solids control


Reduced total solids
+ Reduced dilution requirements
+ Reduced average particle size
= Reduced cost

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
High total solids
reduces the
sweep action of
the mud thus
decreasing the
bits penetration
rate

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Dilution ends up
with excess
volume
Solids control
ends up with
lower volumes

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Benefits of solids control


Faster drilling
+ Lower mud bills
+ Less pump and downhole
equipment wear
+ Prevention of differential
pressure sticking
= Reduced cost
2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Methods of mechanical
solids separation
Vibratory screening
Centrifugal force

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Solids control equipment


Shale shakers
Desanders and desilters
Mud cleaners
Centrifuges

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Flow line cleaner


2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Common screen mesh


M. G.
Mesh

Micron
Opening

Wire
Diameter

% Open
Area

10
20

1910
841

0.0258
0.0162

56.3
46.2

40
60

380
234

0.0104
0.0075

36.0
30.5

80
100

177
140

0.0055
0.0045

31.4
30.3

120
150

118
105

0.0037
0.0026

30.5
37.9

200

74

0.0021

33.6

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

The API will soon replace


screen mesh sizes with a
permeability number, which
should reduce some of the
confusion about screen size

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Pyramid screens
increase the
surface area to
handle the same
volume with a
finer screen

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Very fine screens are used to process smaller
volumes of mud as from a mud cleaner

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
In desanders,
desilters and
centrifuges,
centrifugal force
is used to
separate drill
solids

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Desanders use
larger diameter
cones and
desilters use
smaller diameter
cones

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Cone
Size ID
4
5
6
8
10
12

Capacity Cut Point


gpm
microns
50
70-80
100-150
150-250
400-500
400-500
2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

15-20
20-25
25-30
30-40
30-40
40-60

Solids Control
Desanders have
larger and fewer
cones

Desilters have
smaller and
more cones to
handle the same
volume
2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
If they are
working
properly, there
should be a
spay discharge
from the bottom
(underflow) of
the cone with
high drill solids
content

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
For desanders and
desilters to work
properly, the volume
and pressure must be
correct
If the volume is too
small, mud will run from
the bottom
If the volume is too high,
all the mud and solids
will leave through the
top
2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
RIG UP IN AN UNWEIGTED MUD SYSTEM

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Discontinue use of desander


and desilter when
Weight material has been added
Liquid phase is expensive unless
treating the liquid phase with a
centrifuge

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
In a weighted mud system, a mud
cleaner can be used to process the mud

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
The desilter removes barite and drill solids.
The screen allows barite and some drill solids
to be returned to the system and drill solids
discarded

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Mud cleaners are often used in
combination with a centrifuge

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
RIG UP IN A WEIGTED MUD SYSTEM

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
In a weighted mud system, the
centrifuge can be used to reduce the
viscosity of the drilling mud by
discharging some of the colloidal
liquids

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

Centrifuge application
Control viscosity in weighted
muds
Dry the solids discharge in
closed pit system

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Colloidal-Liquid discharge in weighted mud
Return solids to the mud system

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
CENTRIFUGE IN A WEIGTED MUD

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
Solids discharged in closed pit system
Liquids are returned to mud or sent to
disposal

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control
CENTRIFUGE IN A CLOSED PIT SYSTEM

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Solids Control

2001 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved