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Cooling System

Prepared to Complete the task Subjects of Machinery Basic Design

By :

Raihan Dzaky / 4214101441

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER


ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, East Java

CONTENTS

Cover .............................................................................................................. 1
Table of Content ............................................................................................. 2
Preface 3
Background4
The Problems of the Paper.5
The Purposes of the Paper..6
The Benefits of the Paper...6
The Definition of Cooling System.6
The Types of Cooling System7
The Parts which Cooled by Cooling System.15
The Disorders in Cooling System..16
The Maintenance of Cooling System.16
The Rules of Cooling System.17
The Design of Cooling System..18
The Detail of Calculation..19
References.. 37

PREFACE
Let us say praise be to God who has mercy and is blessing us and let's not forget the
great prophet beloved blessings on the Prophet Muhammad that have brought us from a
world of ignorance into a world of natural science as it is today, so that I can finish the task
with care and substantial report about the detention and propeller of the course lecturers Mr.
Dr. Semin Sanuri, S.T, M.T
The task of this report covers the aspects contained in the course of Machinery Basic
Design. Hopefully this report will help enhance the knowledge and experience to readers,
especially to students JTSP to be reading which can increase our knowledge.
I realize that in the preparation of this report is less than perfect, both in terms of the
preparation of the study, and writing. Hence my criticism and constructive suggestions,
particularly from the course lecturers Mr. Dr. Semin Sanuri, S.T, M.T in order to become a
reference in the provision of the author in order to better future.

Surabaya, April 15 20
3

A. Backgrounds
Although there is an abundance of free sea water available, marine diesel engines do
not use it directly to keep the hottest parts of the engine cool. This is because of the corrosion
which would be caused in the cooling water spaces, and the salts which would be deposited
on the cooling surfaces interfering with the heat flow.
Instead, the water circulated around the engine is fresh water ( or better still, distilled
water) which is then itself cooled using sea water. This fresh water is treated with chemicals
to keep it slightly alkaline ( to prevent corrosion) and to prevent scale formation. Of course, if
distilled water, which some ships can make from sea water using evaporators, is used then
there is a reduced risk of scale formation.
The cooling water pump which may be engine driven or be a separate electrically
driven pump pushes the water around the circuit. After passing through the engine, where it
removes the heat from the cylinder liners, cylinder heads, exhaust valves and sometimes the
turbochargers, it is cooled by seawater and then returns to the engine. The temperature of the
cooling water is closely controlled using a three way control valve. If the water is allowed to
get too cold then it will cause thermal shocking which may lead to component failure and will
also allow water and acids to condense on the cylinder bores washing away the lubricating
film and causing corrosion. If it gets too hot then it will not remove the heat effectively
causing excessive wear and there is a greater danger of scale formation. For this reason the
cooling water outlet temperature is usually maintained at about 78-82C. Because it is at a
higher temperature than the cooling water used for other purposes (known as the LT cooling),
the water for cooling the engine is known as the HT (High Temperature) cooling water.
Cooling can be achieved by using a dedicated cooler or by mixing in some of the
water from the LT cooling circuit. The LT cooling water is then cooled in the sea water
coolers. The temperature is controlled using cascade control which monitors both the inlet
4

and outlet temperatures from the engine. This allows a fast response to any change in
temperature due to a change in engine load.
To make up for any leaks in the system there is a header tank, which automatically
makes up any deficiency. Vents from the system are also led to this header tank to allow for
any expansion in the system and to get rid of any air (if you are familiar with a domestic
central heating system then you will see the similarities). The header tank is relatively small,
and usually placed high in the engine room. It is deliberately made to be manually
replenished, and is fitted with a low level alarm. This is so that any major leak would be
noticed immediately. Under normal conditions, the tank is checked once per watch, and if it
needs topping up, then the amount logged.
The system will also contain a heater which is to keep the cooling water hot
when the engine is stopped, or to allow the temperature to be raised to a suitable level prior to
starting. Some ships use a central cooling system, whereby the same cooling water is
circulated through the main engine(s) and the alternator engines. This system has the
advantage whereby the engines which are stopped are kept warm ready for immediate
starting by the engines which are running.
B. The Problems of the Paper
1. How cooling system works ?
2. How to calculate and design the cooling system ?

C. The Purposes of the Paper


1. Knowing about the works of fuel oil system.
2. Knowing how to calculate and design the cooling system.
D. The Benefits of the Paper
1. To readers, to develop their knowledge and overcome their problems on the future.
2. To writer, to finish his task on Machinery Basic Design Subject.
E. Definition of Cooling System.
5

Engine mounted on a vessel designed to work with maximum efficiently and walk
for hours to walk ever. The loss of the most frequent and maximum energy from the engine is
in the form of thermal energy. to eliminate the excessive heat energy must use cooling media
(Cooler) in order to avoid functional disturbance or damage to the machine engine. For that,
the cooling water system installed on the ship.

F. The types of Cooling System


1. Direct Cooling System.
a. Definiton
A separate cooling system in the sense that each part supplied refrigerated cooler itself
own, direct the coolant fluid with seawater. Direct cooling system uses the cooling medium
only ie with seawater cooling media. The process of cooling by means of: sea water taken
from the valve kingstone through a filter to pump sea water, and sea water is circulated to all
machine parts requiring cooling through lube oil cooling and air conditioning for cool the
cylinder head, cylinder walls and valves gas release later sea water pumped overboard.
Filters are held on the tube sea water and sea chest serves as the entry of foreign objects such
as sand and dirt or dust from the seawater that can cause blockage of the cooling channel.
6

b. The Components
1. Pump :
Sea water pump serves to suck seawater and pressing water into the system,
then circulated in order to perform cooling. In general, the motor vessel using
centrifugal type seawater pump, which is driven by means of pulleys (belt), so that
the pump shaft will rotate in the same direction. Motors of this type usually use
this type of piston pumps and pump installation should not be higher than the
water supply tank, but the pump must be lower than the water level in the tank, so
that sea water can get into the end of the suction pipe. There are two types of
pumps that can be used to circulate the cooling water which is kind of a piston or
plunger pumps and centrifugal pumps.

2. Impeller :
Impeller is sort of a hollow disc with curved blades in it and mounted on the
shaft, which is driven by an electric motor, steam engine or steam turbine or other
pengerak. Channels on the side of the impeller near the shaft is connected to the
suction channels, and a liquid (water), oil, etc.) into the rotating impeller through
the channel and for rotary motion of the impeller, the fluid will follow the rotary
motion of this and due to the centrifugal force that occurs , water came away from
the center, and into the space between the outer circumference of the impeller and
the pump house and headed to the outlet. A narrow part called the tongues in
determining the fluid pressure arising in the room out, because if the tongues have
worn it between the outer edge of the impeller with a house getting bigger, and the
7

liquid is pressurized will come back again into the suction channel through the
room worn earlier , Because based on the speed of the pump can not suck itself, so
that the pump should be placed under the surface of the water being pumped.

3. Oil Cooler
Lubricating oil is a medium that serves to cool the engine parts that rub against
and circulating in the lubrication system inside the motor. Points of heat exchange
using shell and tube type (shell and tube) for heat exchange with the water as a
cooling medium in which there is the copper pipes that fed the sea water as
coolant medium, while around pipes flowing lubricating oil cooled.

4. Cooling Water Pipe

Cooling water channels typically use pipes made of steel, and galvanized part
in it. This pipe passed the cooling water, wherein the flow and speed in
accordance with the cross sectional area of the pipe to the cooling requirements.

1. Seachest
2. Valve
3. Filter

7. Thermometer
8. Main Engine
9. Exhaust Pipe
4. Pump
5. Safety Valve
6. Coolant Tank

c. The Advantages :

Maintenance easier
The initial cost is cheaper.
In the specifications for engine cooling system MAN & BW coolant is used to cool
the lubricating oil, jacket water, air conditioning rinse.
9

d. The Disadvantages :
Material requires corrosion resistant components.
Greater maintenance costs
If there is one component damage will cause other components disturbed function.
2. Indirect Cooling System
a. Definition
Indirect cooling system uses two cooling medium, which is used is fresh water
and sea water. Fresh water is used to cool the motor parts, while the sea water used to
cool fresh water, after the sea water directly pumped overboard and fresh water
circulates in a closed cycle. This cooling system has a higher efficiency and can cool
the motor parts evenly.
b. The Components
1. Expansion Tank
The water in the cooling system will expand when the temperature rises so
that there will be excess water, and excess water will be placed in the highest
place in the cooling water channel so that the pressure on the system always
remains and prevent pockets of steam / air in the cooling system.

2. Heat Exchanger
This tool serves to cool the fresh water that circulates in the cooling system. In
diesel motors used in ships, fresh water cooling devices usually shaped shell and
tube (shell and tube) with seawater as a coolant medium.

10

3. Fresh Water Circulation Pumps


This pump serves to suck and swallow fresh water that circulates in the
cooling system. The pumps are typically used are centrifugal pumps.

4. Cooling Plumbing
This pump serves to suck and swallow fresh water that circulates in the
cooling system. The pumps are typically used are centrifugal pumps.

11

A. Tubs of fresh water


B. cooling vessel
C. Fresh water pump
D. Pumps for sea water
E. Filters
F. Exhaust air to
G. Channel suppliers to the low water level
H. Channel supplier for the high water level / snoring
c. The Advantages

Only one heat exchanger that is cooled by seawater and only one heat exchanger in

overhaul
The entire heat exchanger cooled by fresh water and materials used are cheaper.
Only slightly corrosive pipe installations
Reduced maintenance for refrigeration components
Extra utility tool

d.The Disadvantages

There are 3 sets of cooling water pump (seawater, freshwater low temperature, and

jacket water temperature)


Set up costs are expensive.
12

G. The Parts which Cooled by Cooling System.


The cooling system of combustion engine will undergo removal of heat through the
cooling water, is a very big influence on the useful heat in the combustion in the
cylinder.
Hot on the main engine is largely the result of the combustion process in the cylinder.
Combustion will take place in the combustion chamber so that if the combustion
process takes place, the cylindrical portion will be very hot. As for the bottom of the
cylinder, heat transfer to the cooling medium is not directly but through the piston and
piston rings.
If the cooling is not good then the temperature of each cylinder will go up. These
circumstances will cause damage to the cylinder and the combustion chamber, resulting
in estrangement due to overheating. Besides, the lubricating oil will evaporate and burn
consequently disrupted the performance of the engine. Based on the above description,
the parts that need to be cooled is as follows:
1. Cylinder
2. Cylinder head
3. Valve
4. Bearings
5. Places that arise due to frictional heat is the cylinder head and the cylinder wall.
H. Disorders in Cooling System
Letting Fan-Belt
Blockage of pipes and ducts cooling (in the coats of water) by crusts.
Restrict airflow is sucked by a fan on the radiator surface by dust or dirt
Changing the design and installation of the cooling fan.
Cooling Water Tank vacancy in Freshwater.
Freshwater in the tank Fast Out.

I. Cooling System Maintenance

13

Cooling system maintenance can be done by following the procedures in accordance


with instructions from the factory manufacture the machine itself. According Wiranti
Arismunandar and Koichi Tsuda (1983), cooling system maintenance can be done in the
following way:
2.

1. Check the cooling water is still there or not


In order for the cooling process can take place properly, clean the engine of the crust or
dirt every 250 hours or twice a year by opening the discharge tap and clean water input.
J. The Rules of Cooling System
A. GL part 1 chapter 2 Section 11 sub-section I At least two sea chests are to be provided. Wherever possible, the sea chests are

to be arranged as low as possible on either side of the ship.


It is to be ensured that the total seawater supply for the engines can be taken from

only one sea chest


B. GL part 1 chapter 2 Section 11 sub-section I-5
Main propulsion plants are to be provided with main and stand-by cooling

water pumps
The main cooling water pump may be attached to the propulsion plant. It is to
be ensured that the attached pump is of sufficient capacity for the cooling
water required by main engines and auxiliary equipment over the whole

speed range of the propulsion plant


Main and stand by cooling water pumps are each to be of sufficient capacity

to meet the maximum cooling water requirements of the plant


Ballast pumps or other suitable seawater pumps may be used as stand by

cooling water pump


C. GL part 1 chapter 2 Section 11 sub-section K-1
Fresh water cooling system are to be so arranged that the engines can be

sufficiently cooled under all operating conditions


As far as possible, the temperature controls of main and auxiliary engines as

well as of different circuits are to be independent of each other.


D. GL part 1 chapter 2 Section 11 sub-section K-4

14

Main and stand-by cooling water pumps are to be provided for each fresh

water cooling system.


Main cooling water pumps may be driven directly by the main or auxiliary
engines which they are intended to cool provided that a sufficient supply of
cooling water is assured under all operating conditions.

E. The Design of Cooling System.

F. Detail of Calculation
1. Expansion Tank
The expansion tank should be equipped with an inspection hatch, a level gauge, a
low level alarm and necessary means for dosing of cooling water additives.

15

So, the volume of expansion tank is:


V = 50% x Total System Volume
= 50% x 0,51 x 2 = 0.51 m3
Planned dimension of expansion tank is:
V=LxWxH
= 1 x 0,5 x 1,5 = 0.75
m3
2. Air Venting
Air may be entrained in the system after an overhaul, or a leak may continuously add
air or gas into the system. The engine is equipped with vent pipes to evacuate air
from the cooling water circuits. The vent pipes should be drawn separately to the
expansion tank from each connection on the engine.
3. Drain Tank
It is recommended to collect the cooling water with additives in a drain tank, when
the system has to be drained for maintenance work. A pump should be provided so
that the cooling water can be pumped back into the system and reused. Concerning
the water volume in the engine, see chapter Technical data. The water volume in the
LT circuit of the engine is small.

So, the

volume of drain tank is:


So, the volume of drain tank is:
V = 2 x Concerning Water Volume in the Engine
= 2 x 0,51 = 1.02 m3

4. Transfer Pump
Time to transfer the cooling water from the drain tank is:
T = 20minutes
= 0.333333333 hour
After estimate the time to transfer the cooling, the capacity of pump can be
calculated by following formula:
Q = V/t = 3.06 m3/h
16

Head of pump can be calculated by this following step.


a.

Head Static
Head static is the difference height of suction and discharge side. The suction side is
taken from drain tank, and the discharge side is the expansion tank.

b.

Hs = 7.309 m
Head Pressure
Head pressure is the difference pressure of suction and discharge side. The design
pressure of both side is same, so the head pressure is 0.

c.

Hp = 0 m
Head Velocity
Head velocity is the difference velocity of suction and discharge side.

d.

Hv = 0 m
Head Losses
Head losses is the sum of the losses at the suction side and the discharge side. It is
estimated that the losses at the suction side is 4 m, and the losses at discharge side is

e.

4 m. So, the total head losses is 8 m.


Head Total
H = Hs + Hp + Hv + HL = 15.309 m
So, the minimum requirement pump specification is:

f.

H = 15.309 m
Q = 3.06 m3/h
Pump Selection
Equipment : Transfer Pump
Merk
: EVERGUSH
Type
: XA3226-42.2
Capacity
:7
m3/h
Head
: 17 m
Rotation
: 1450 rpm
Power
:3
HP

5. Fresh Water Central Cooler


The fresh water cooler can be of either plate, tube or box cooler type. Plate coolers
are most common. Several engines can share the same cooler. It can be necessary to
17

compensate a high flow resistance in the circuit with a smaller pressure drop over the
central cooler. The flow to the fresh water cooler must be calculated case by case
based on how the circuit is designed.
In case the fresh water central cooler is used for combined L T and HT water flows in
a parallel system the total flow can be calculated with the following formula:
Where:
q
qLT : Nominal LT pump capacity [m3/h]
Tout : HT water temperature after engine
Tin : HT water temperature after cooler
: Heat dissipated to HT water
So, the value of total fresh water flow is:
q

: Total fresh water flow [m3/h]


=
=
=
=

80
91
38
640

m3/h
oC
oC
kW

: 90.375 m3/h

6. Sea Water Pump


The sea water pumps are always separate from the engine and electrically driven.
The capacity of the pumps is determined by the type of coolers and the amount of
heat
to

be

dissipated.
So, the capacity of sea water pump is:
Q : 1,5 x Fresh Water Flow
: 135.56 m3/h
The pressure of pump is 1,4 bar. Then choose the pump.
Equipment No. : Sea Water Pump
Merk :
IRON PUMP
Type :
CN(X) 125/250
Capacity :
140
m3/h
Head :
17
m
Rotation :
1500 rpm
Power :
6.6
kW
18

7.

HT Stand By
Pump
Stand-by pumps should be of centrifugal type and electrically driven. Required
capacities and delivery pressures are stated in Technical data.
Wartsila 32 Project Guide 9.3.1. Stand By Pump, Page 99
The capacity of stand by pump is = 80 m3/h
The pressure of stand by pump is = 4 bar
Equipment No.
:
HT
Merk

: EVERGUSH

Type

: XA8040-437

Capacity

: 85

m3/h

Head

: 42

Rotation

: 1450 rpm

Power

: 50

Stand

By

Pump

HP

8. LT Stand By Pump & LT Cooling Water Pump


Stand-by pumps should be of centrifugal type and electrically driven. Required
capacities and delivery pressures are stated in Technical data.
Wartsila 32 Project Guide 9.3.1. Stand By Pump, Page 99

19

The capacity of stand by pump is

80

m3/h
The pressure of stand by pump is

bar

So, the pump selection is:


Equipment : LT Stand By Pump
Merk

: EVERGUSH

Type

: XA8040-437

Capacity

: 85

m3/h

Head

: 42

Rotation

: 1450 rpm

Power

: 50

HP

9. Calculation of Preheater
It is recommended to heat the HT water to a temperature near the normal operating
temperature. The heating power determines the required time to heat up the engine
from cold condition. The minimum required heating power is 5 kW/cyl, which
makes it possible to warm up the engine from 20 C to 60...70 C in 10-15 hours. The
required heating power for shorter heating time can be estimated with the formula
below. About 2 kW/cyl is required to keep a hot engine warm.
Wartsila 32 Project Guide 9.3.12. Preheating, Page 102
The power of the preheater can be calculated by this following formula.

Where:

20

P : Preheater output [kW]


T1 : Preheating temperature(60...70 C)

70

oC

T0 : Ambient temperature [C]

25

oC

M eng: Engine weight [ton]

43.5

ton

VLO : Lubricating oil volume [m3]

m3

0.51

10

k eng : Engine specific coefficient

kW

n cyl : Number of cylinder


So, the power of preheater output is:
P = 42.39 kW

VFW : HT water volume [m3]


t

: Preheating time [h]

m3

The heating surface area gained from the LMTD formula.


Where:
TA TB = 45

oC

TA / TB = 2.8
So, the value of LMTD is : LMTD = 43.71 C
After got the LMTD value, will gained the heating surface area.
A = H/(K-LMTD)
Where :
A = Heating surface area [m2]
H = Heating Coil Output (42,39 kW) = 36473.231 kcal/h
K = 1000 kcal/mhC
So, the heating surface area is:
A = 38.14 m2
After got the heating surface area, select the heat exchanger.
Merk =
Funke ViFlow CPS

21

10. Calculation of Preheater Pump

The capacity of
the pump is:
Q = 0,4 x 8 = 3.2
m3/h
The pressure of the pump is:
P = 0.8
bar
So, the selection pump for preheater pump is:
Equipment

: Preheater Pump

Merk

: EVERGUSH

Type

: XA3213

Capacity

:4

m3/h

Head

:9

Rotation

: 1450 rpm

Power

:1

HP

11. Fresh Water Generator


22

Good quality tap water can be


used, but shore water is not
always suitable. It is
recommended to use water
produced by an onboard
evaporator . Fresh water
produced by reverse osmosis
plants often has higher chloride
content than permitted. Rain
water is unsuitable as cooling water due to the high content of oxygen and carbon
dioxide.

12. Pipe's

Diameter

a.

Transfer

Pump's

Diameter
Q=

3.06 m3/h

0.00085

23

m3/s
v = 2.5
m/s
So, the pipe's diameter is:
A = Q / v = 0.000340

m2

A = x d/4
d

= ((4 x A) / 3,14)

= 0.021
m = 21 mm
The pipe is located in the machinery space, so the minimum wall thickness of main
pipe is at group N. The minimum thickness value of group N:
Pipe outside diameter (da) = from 20
Thickness

= 2.0

mm

mm

Germanischer Lloyd Chapter 2 Section 11, Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps, Table
11.5 and Table 11.6
The selected pipe based on DIN for main pipe:
Inside Diameter
Outside Diameter

= 23
= 25

mm

mm

Thickness
= 2,0 mm
DIN 2448 Carbon Steel Pipe's Catalog
b. Sea Water Pump's Pipe Diameter
Q = 135.56 m3/h
= 0.037656295

m3/s

v = 2.5
m/s
So, the pipe's diameter is:
A =Q/v
= 0.015063 m2
A = x d/4
d = ((4 x A) / 3,14)
= 0.139

=139 mm
The pipe is located in the machinery space, so the minimum wall thickness of main
pipe is at group N. The minimum thickness value of group N:
24

Pipe outside diameter (da)

= from 133.0 mm

Thickness
= 3.6 mm
Germanischer Lloyd Chapter 2 Section 11, Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps, Table
11.5 and Table 11.6
The selected pipe based on DIN for main pipe:
Inside Diameter
= 159,05 mm
Outside Diameter
= 163,90 mm
Thickness
= 4,85 mm
DIN 2440 Galvanized Pipe Catalog

c. HT Main Pump & HT Stand By Pump Diameter


Q = 80.00 m3/h = 0.022222222 m3/s
v = 2.5
m/s
So, the pipe's diameter is:
A =Q/v
= 0.008889 m2
A = x d/4
d = ((4 x A) / 3,14)
= 0.106 m =106
mm
The pipe is located in the machinery space, so the minimum wall thickness of main
pipe is at group N. The minimum thickness value of group N:
Pipe outside diameter (da) = from 88.9
mm
Thickness
= 2.9 mm
Germanischer Lloyd Chapter 2 Section 11, Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps, Table
11.5 and Table 11.6
The selected pipe based on DIN for main pipe:
Inside Diameter
= 110,7
mm
Outside Diameter
= 114,3
mm
Thickness
= 3,6 mm
DIN 2448 Carbon Steel Pipe's Catalog
d. LT Main Pump & LT Stand By Pump Diameter
Q : 80.00 m3/h

0.022222222 m3/s

v : 2.5
m/s
So, the pipe's diameter is:
A = Q / v : 0.008889 m2
A = x d/4
25

= ((4 x A) / 3,14)
= 0.106 m= 106
mm
The pipe is located in the machinery space, so the minimum wall thickness of main
pipe is at group N. The minimum thickness value of group N:
Pipe outside diameter (da)= from 88.9
mm
Thickness
= 2.9
mm
Germanischer Lloyd Chapter 2 Section 11, Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps, Table
11.5 and Table 11.6
The selected pipe based on DIN for main pipe:
Inside Diameter
Outside Diameter

= 110,7
= 114,3

mm

mm

Thickness
= 3,6 mm
DIN 2448 Carbon Steel Pipe's Catalog
SUMMARY
Volume of Expansion Tank = 0,75
m3
Volume of Drain Tank
= 1,02
m3
Transfer Pump Specification:
Merk
= EVERGUSH
Type
= XA3226-42.2
Capacity
=7
m3/h
Head
= 17
m
Sea Water Pump Specification:
Merk
= IRON PUMP
Type
= CN(X) 125/250
Capacity
= 140
m3/h
Head
= 17
bar
Main HT & Stand-by Pump HT Specification:
Merk
= EVERGUSH
Type
= XA8040-437
Capacity
= 85
m3/h
Head
= 42
m
Main LT & Stand-by Pump LT Specification:
Merk
= EVERGUSH
Type
= XA8040-437
Capacity
= 85
m3/h
Head
= 42
m
Separator Pre-Heater in Specification:
Merk
= Funke ViFlow CPS
Heat Exchange Area
= 38,14
m2
Preheater Pump Specification:
Merk
= EVERGUSH
Type
= XA3213
26

Capacity
=4
m3/h
Head
=9
m
Transfer Pump Pipes Specification:
Inside Diameter
= 23
mm
Outside Diameter
= 25
mm
Thickness
= 2,0
mm
Standard
= DIN 2448 Carbon Steel Pipes Catalogue
Sea Water Pump Pipes Specification:
Inside Diameter
= 159,05
mm
Outside Diameter
= 163,90
mm
Thickness
= 4,85
mm
Standard
= DIN 2440 Galvanized Pipes Catalogue
HT Main Pump & HT Stand-by Pump Pipes Specification:
Inside Diameter
= 110,7
mm
Outside Diameter
= 114,3
mm
Thickness
= 3,6
mm
Standard
= DIN 2448 Carbon Steel Pipes Catalogue
LT Main Pump & LT Stand-by Pump Pipes Specification:
Inside Diameter
= 110,7
mm
Outside Diameter
= 114,3
mm
Thickness
= 3,6
mm
Standard
= DIN 2448 Carbon Steel Pipes Catalogue
H. Conclusion
Indirect cooling system has two cooling stages . Freshwater cooling the main engines
and fresh water is cooled by sea water through the media heat exchanger ( Heat Exchanger ) .
Circulation of cool fresh water in the main engine and auxiliary pump fresh water in the fresh
water tank capacity in fresh water and then cooled by seawater entering through seachest and
assisted circulation by pumping sea water .
There are filters to filter sea water to prevent dirt into the seawater circulation
system .The heat exchange between sea water and fresh water occurs at medium heat
exchanger , type of heat exchanger is a shell and tube where fresh water flows through small
tubes in the media and seawater flows zig zag in the media caused by skating in that a shell

27

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Kent, James A. Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry (1983) Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company ISBN 0-442-20164-8 pp.492-493
Payne, F. William. User's Guide to Natural Gas Technologies. ISBN 0-585-19376-2.
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