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InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume4Issue6,December2014

doi:10.14355/ijes.2014.0406.01

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InvestigationalAnalysisofTwoSpecially
DesignedHeatExchangersusedinHybrid
SolarWaterSystem
V.N.Palaskar*1,S.P.Deshmukh2
*1

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,2DepartmentofGeneralEngineering

*1

VeermataJijabaiTechnologicalInstituteMumbaiIndia,2InstituteofChemicalTechnologyMumbaiIndia

*1

Email:vnpalskar@vjti.org.in;2Email:sp.deshmukh@ictmumbai.edu.in

Abstract
Hybridphotovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)solarwatersystemisa
combined solar photovoltaic module and solar thermal
collector, forming a device that generates electrical and
thermal energy from a single integrated unit. The overall
performance of any hybrid system depends on selection of
heat exchanger configurations i.e. shape, size; and its
materials.Thispaperoffersdesignandperformanceanalysis
of two specially designed configurations namely oscillatory
and spiral flow heat exchangers used in hybrid solar water
system. The investigational results like performance
efficiencies of photovoltaic, thermal, and combined PV/T
system for both heat exchangers over a range of operating
conditions are discussed and assessed for latitude of
Mumbai.Thefinalresultsshowedthat,forsamewaterflow
rate; copper spiral flow heat exchanger generated 68.20%
combined PV/T efficiency and aluminium oscillatory flow
heat exchanger produced 65.30% combinedPV/T efficiency.
At peak PV power point condition; the PV power and
efficiency produced by both heat exchangers were found
equal.
Keywords
Solar Photovoltaic Module; Solar Thermal Collector; Single
IntegratedUnit;HeatExchangerConfigurations;Oscillatoryand
SpiralFlowHeatExchangers

Introduction
Solar photovoltaic (SPV) module absorbs solar
radiation to generate electricity. Solar radiations
absorbed by module also increase its operating
temperature. The cooling of PV module improves
generation of electrical power and its efficiency
reasonably. Generally; PV module is cooled by
circulating cold water through the heat exchanger
fixed at the bottom of the module. Such heat
exchanger is known as PV absorber surface. In a
hybridphotovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)solarwatersystem,
simple PV module and thermal units are mounted

together to enable simultaneous conversion of solar


energy to electrical and thermal energy. The hybrid
PV/Tsolarsystemgenerateshigherenergyoutputper
square meter of its surface; and could prove cost
effective than conventional PV modules if the cost of
thermalcomponentislow.
JinHee Kim and JunTae Kim (2012) studied two
hybrid PV/T water collectors with different heat
exchanger surfaces namely; sheet & tube and fully
wetted type PV absorbers. Experimental work and
calculations confirmed that combined PV/T efficiency
ofthesystemroseto65%and60.6%respectivelyusing
different heat exchangers in hybrid system.
Comparison of the performance of both absorber
surfaces using unglazed and glazed PV module
designs revealed that; an unglazed PV module
produced more electrical energy and glazed PV
modulegeneratedmorethermalenergy.
Investigational study was performed on oscillatory
flowheatexchangerusedinhybridPV/Twatersystem
to predict its performance for latitude of Mumbai
(Palaskar and Deshmukh, 2013a). The performance
efficiencies of photovoltaic, thermal, and combined
PV/T hybrid water system over range of operating
conditions were discussed and analyzed during the
studies. The final results of this system at solar
radiation of 918 W/m2 and cooling water mass flow
rate of 0.035 kg/sec showed considerable
improvements in the performance of the system with
combinedPV/Tefficiencyof53.7%andPVefficiency
of11.7%.Duringtheexperimentalprocess,operating
temperature of cooled module was found decreased
by27%ascomparedtouncooledmodule.
Seven types of heat exchangers, namely, direct flow,
oscillatoryflow,serpentineflow,webflow,spiralflow,
parallelserpentine flow, and modified serpentine

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parallel flow, were designed and their performances


werestudiedusingsimulationtechniques(Othmanet
al., 2008). Simulation results of these systems showed
that,theheatexchangerwithspiralflowarrangement
producedhighestthermalefficiencyof50.12%withPV
moduleefficiencyof12.8%.

In a review articles during 2012, 2013b Palaskar and


Deshmukh have commented on research literature,
development, and selection of various PV absorber
designs;materialsanduseofconcentratorsforhigher
energy output of hybrid solar systems. The review
article commented that the overall system
performance of hybrid system could be improved
considerablybyapplyingabovementionedtechniques.
It was concluded that the spiral flow heat exchanger
made of copper and fitted with reflectors produced
higher combined PV/T efficiency than simple hybrid
systems. It was also revealed that such system will
havebettercommercialviabilityinfuture.

Kostic et al. (2008) have carried out experimental


studies using sheet and tube type of heat exchanger
and PV/T water collector system fitted with a pair of
flat aluminum concentrators. In these studies, it was
observed that the aluminum sheet concentrators
mounted at 100 and 560 to the vertical plane of PV
module produced 8.6% and 39% more electrical and
thermal energy than simple PV module. Aluminum
foil concentrators used in the system produced 17.1%
more PV energy and 55% more thermal energy than
uncooledPVmodule.

In this study; design and performance analysis of


aluminum oscillatory and copper spiral flow heat
exchangers used in hybrid system are compared on
thebasisofvarioustechnicalparametersforlatitudeof
Mumbai. The first hybrid system was developed by
fitting oscillatory flow heat exchanger at bottom side
of module. This type of heat exchanger was designed
and fabricated using aluminium square tubes.
Aluminiumtubeswereusedforthisstudyforitsgood
thermal conductivity and ease of fabrication. The
second hybrid PV/T system was fabricated using
spiral flow heat exchanger. This heat exchanger was
designed and fabricated using copper square tubes.
Copper tubes were used for this study due to high
thermal conductivity of copper and ease of its
manufacturing. The investigational results like
performance efficiencies of photovoltaic; thermal and
combined PV/T systemfor both heat exchangers over
a range of operating conditions are discussed and
assessedinthisexperimentalwork.

The overall performance of a simple PV module was


found improved when it was cooled directly by
passing water on its top surface during experiments
(Hosseini, et al., 2011). The flowing water film
absorbed heat from module and converted it to hot
waterthatwasusedforlowtemperatureapplications.
Cooling of module resulted in improving overall
efficiency of combined system compared to
conventional module. The experimental results
showed that electrical performance of the combined
system was 33% higher than conventional module
whenthePVmodulewascooledusingflowingfilmof
cooledwater.
Three PV/T water collector systems, namely; direct
flow; parallel flow and split flow were designed and
their thermal performances were compared
experimentally for various tilts of hybrid system
(Kamaruzzaman, et al., 2011). Experimental Results
and analysis of the work found that split flow PV/T
system produced 51.4% thermal power which was
marginally higher compared to 50.8 % and 50.6%
thermalefficienciesofothertwosystems.

Materials and Methods


CommercialPVModulewithExperimentalStand
TataBpIndiamadecommercialPVmodulewithrated
capacityof180wattswasusedtoconductexperiments
on uncooled and cooled PV module for both heat
exchangers. The rectangular module with its length
and width of 1.587m and 0.79m respectively was
having area of 1.25m2. Open circuit voltage and
current at STC of the module were 44.8volts and 5.40
amps respectively. As per technical specifications of
the module at STC its efficiency found was 14.52% at
standardtestconditions.Photovoltaicmodulewithall
itspartswasmountedonmildsteelstandfacingSouth
direction on the terrace of the main building of the
Institute.

ExperimentswereperformedbyTripanagnostopoulos
etal.,2003onhybridPV/Tsystems,withandwithout
glazing,and,withandwithoutreflectors,operatingat
temperatures of 250C, 350C, and 450C respectively. It
was found that PV/T system, with glazing and flat
reflectors and operating at 250C system temperature;
generated maximum annual electrical energy (167.98
kWh/ m2 y) with electrical efficiency of 10.21% and;
maximum annual thermal energy (831.75 kWh/m2 y)
withthermalefficiencyof50.57%.

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InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume4Issue6,December2014

giveninTable1.Figure1showscompletedrawing
of PV module and heat exchanger assembly with
importantdimensionsandnecessaryfeaturessuch
asentryforwaterinletandoutletofheatexchanger
etc.Thehydraulicleaktestwasconductedonheat
exchanger using water pump to locate and
eliminateminuteleakagesinjointsandpassagesof
water flow; before it was finally assembled to
performexperimentalwork.Theactualinstallation
of an oscillatory flow PV absorber surface at
bottomsideofmoduleisshowninfigure2.

PhotovoltaicHeatExchangerDesignsandFabrications
1)

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OscillatoryFlowHeatExchanger

The combined efficiency of PV/T system depends


on material and arrangements of heat exchanger
mountedatbottomofmodule.Adetailedliterature
review and simulation based results of circular
stainless steel oscillatory flow PV absorber surface
(Othman et al., 2008) were studied with
experimental work using different materials and
shapes of tubes. The aluminium square section
tubewasusedtoprovidegoodsurfacecontactand
thermal conductivity to absorb heat from the
module and cooling it to reasonable temperature.
The circular stainless steel tubes were replaced
with aluminium square tubes to provide larger
surfacetosurfacecontactforbetterheatabsorption
ratefromthebottomofmodule.
TABLE1HEATEXCHANGERCHARACTERISTICS

SizeofsquareAluminiumtube
Pitchbetweentwoconsecutivesquaretubes
Totallengthofheatexchanger
PVmodulebottomareaoccupiedbyheat
exchanger

12x12x1mm
34mm
36mts
37%

FIG.2INSTALLATIONOFOSCILLATORYFLOWPVABSORBER
SURFACEATBOTTOMSIDEOFPVMODULE

2)

Thecogenerationefficiencyofphotovoltaic/thermal
water system depends on material and
configurations of PV heat exchanger mounted at
bottom side of module. After a detailed literature
review and analysis of simulation based results
(Othmanetal.,2008)ofstainlesssteelsquarespiral
flow PV absorber surface were analyzed with
experimental work by using copper tube material.
The copper square section tube provides good
surface contact and high thermal conductivity
comparedtostainlesssteelmaterialtoabsorbheat
from module and cools it at reasonable
temperature.

FIG.1PVMODULEANDHEATEXCHANGERASSEMBLYWITH
IMPORTANTDIMENSIONSANDNECESSARYFEATURES

To achieve maximum combined efficiency of


hybrid system; spiral flow PV absorber
arrangement was used with square hollow tubes.
The manufacturing and assembly of copper spiral
flowPVabsorbersurfacewassimpleascompared
to other types of flows and its materials. The
detailed heat exchanger specifications are given in
table 2. Figure 3 shows detailed drawing of PV
module and heat exchanger assembly with
importantdimensionsandnecessaryfeaturessuch
as water inlet and outlet of heat exchanger. The

To attain highest combined PV/T efficiency,


oscillatoryflowPVabsorbersystemwasusedwith
hollow tubes of square cross section. The
manufacturing and assembly of aluminium
oscillatoryflowPVabsorbersurfacewassimpleas
comparedtoothertypesofheatexchangers.Itwas
lightinweightandcosteffectivecomparedtoother
types of configurations and materials. The
characteristic details of the heat exchanger are

SpiralFlowHeatExchanger

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hydraulic leak test conducted on heat exchanger


helped to locate and eliminate minute leakages in
joints and passages of water flow; before its final
assembly. This test helped to ensure proper
circulation of water at certain pressure and flow
throughtheheatexchangersealingtheleakagesof
theheatexchanger.Theactualinstallationofspiral
flow PV absorber surface on bottom side of PV
moduleisshowninfigure4.

measure ambient temperature and temperatures on


the top and bottom side of PV module during
experimental process. A 16 channel temperature data
logger was used to scan and record thermocouple
temperaturesautomaticallyatspecifiedtimeperiod.A
DC voltmeter and ammeter were used to measure
voltage and current at various loading conditions. A
DC load bank of 36 Volts and 180 Watt capacity was
used to measure voltage and current across load
appliedtoPVmoduleduringexperimentalprocess.A
500LPHrotameterwasusedtomeasureflowrateof
water at the inlet of the oscillatory flow PV absorber
surface. Dial type temperature gauges were used to
measure water temperature at the inlet and outlet of
the heat exchanger to calculate thermal power.
Electrical water pump was used to circulate water
through heat exchanger surface absorbing heat and
cooling the PV module during tests. The complete;
assembled experimental setup with all components is
showninfigure5forbothheatexchangers.

TABLE2HEATEXCHANGERCHARACTERISTICS

SizeofsquareCoppertube
Pitchbetweentwoconsecutivesquaretubes
Totallengthofheatexchanger
PVmodulebottomsideareaoccupiedbyheat
exchanger

12x12x1.25mm
37mm
31.5mts.
32%

FIG.5HYBRIDSOLARWATERSYSTEMWITHMEASURING
INSTRUMENTS

FIG.3PVMODULEANDHEATEXCHANGERASSEMBLYWITH
IMPORTANTDIMENSIONSANDNECESSARYFEATURES

ExperimentalObservations
In this experimental work, overall performances of
twospeciallydesignedheatexchangersusedinhybrid
solarsystemwerecomparedandanalysedforlatitude
of Mumbai. Experiments were performed during
monthsofMarchtoMay2014.Theexperimentswere
performed using same slopes with different water
flow rates for 7 hours per day to study required
electrical and thermal energy output and efficiencies
ofthecombinedPV/Tsolarsystem.
To determine the performances of both heat
exchangersofhybridsystemsoveradayatactualtest
conditions, experiments were conducted daily
between 9.30 AM and 4.30 PM. In general,
performance of hybrid system depends on two key
factorsnamely;intensityofsolarradiationandrisein
module temperature. The intensity of solar radiation
was fluctuating during the day. The rise in module

FIG.4INSTALLATIONOFSPIRALFLOWPVABSORBER
SURFACEATBOTTOMSIDEOFPVMODULE

MeasuringInstruments
A Dynalab Pyranometer was used to measure global
and diffuse radiations on horizontal surface during
experiments. Ktype thermocouples were used to

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InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume4Issue6,December2014

temperature was directly proportional to solar


radiation. To determine the effect of these factors on
performance of hybrid systems practically, different
readingssuchasglobalanddiffuseradiations,voltage
andcurrentatcorrespondingloadingconditionswere
recordedata30minutesinterval.Ktypetemperature
sensorswithdataloggerwereusedtoscanandrecord
the ambient temperature and the temperatures at top
and bottom of the module at an interval of 1 minute
duringexperimentalprocess.

IT=ItxAPV(3)
It=Igxrg(4)
Where: Ig is global radiation measured by
pyranometer on horizontal surface (W/m2) and APV is
theareaofPVmodule(m2).
Tiltfactor(rg)forglobalradiationandelevationangle
()ascalculatedfollows:
rg=sin(+)/sin(5)
=90+(6)

Experiments on both heat exchangers used in hybrid


system were performed maintaining same module
slopesofhybridsystemforallexperimentaldays.The
experiments were conducted for different water flow
ratethroughheatexchangerforeachdaytodetermine
the exact performance of hybrid systems in terms of
electrical; thermal; combined etc; for both heat
exchangers at peak PV power point. For different
water flow rates required data was collected as per
procedure described in the above paragraph. The
water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the
hybridsystem,recordedata30minuteinterval,were
used to calculate the thermal power, combined PV/T
efficiency and performance ratio for both heat
exchangers.

Where: and are the latitude of location (0) and


declinationangle(0)respectively.
Electrical efficiency ( PV) and thermal efficiency ( T)
ofhybridsystem(%)arefoundbyfollowingequations:
=PPV/IT(7)

PV

=PT/IT(8)

Combined photovoltaic and thermal (PV/T) efficiency


and performance ratio (%) of hybrid solar system are
calculatedasunder:
=

PV/T

PV

(9)

PR=PPV/PSTC(10)
Where: PSTC is the electrical power produced by
module(W)atstandardtestcondition.

EquationsusedtoCalculateTechnicalParameters
DifferentequationsfrombookssuchasSukhatmeand
Nayak(2008);Solanki(2011)andDuffieandBeckman
were used to calculate different technical parameters
such as photovoltaic power, thermal power, input
solar power, performance ratio, photovoltaic, thermal
andcombinedPV/TefficiencyforlatitudeofMumbai
areexplainedindetailasunder.

Results and Discussion


PerformanceAnalysisofOscillatoryandSpiralFlow
HeatExchangersusedinHybridSolarSystem
The cooling of module with oscillatory flow heat
exchanger resulted in the rise of open circuit voltage
(40.60 Volts) and voltage (32.40 Volts) at peak PV
powerpointofthemoduleat1PMascomparedtoun
cooledmodule.Duetocoolingeffect;enhancementin
electricalpower(146.12W);performanceratio(81.20%)
and efficiency (13.30 %) were observed as shown in
figures 6 and 7 respectively. By utilizing waste heat
energy of module from bottom side; hybrid solar
system generated 572 W of thermal power at cooling
water flow rate of 0.042 Kg/sec. This PV/T system
worked with combined efficiency of 65.3 % as shown
infigure10.

Electrical power (PPV) and thermal power (PT)


producedbyhybridsystematATCconditions(W)are
givenby:
PPV=VxI(1)
PT= xCPx(TweTwi)(2)
Where: V and I are voltage (V) and current (Amp)
produced by module of hybrid system. and CP are
massflowrate(kg/sec)andspecificheatofwater(J/kg
0K).TweandTwiarewaterinletandoutlettemperature
ofheatexchanger(0K).

The cooling of module with spiral heat exchanger


resulted in increase in open circuit voltage (40 Volts)
andvoltage(31.5Volts)atpeakPVpowerpointofthe
module at 12.30 PM as compared to simple module.
Thecoolingofmodulealsohelpedincreasingelectrical

Totalsolarradiation(IT)normaltomodulesurface(W)
and solar radiation (It) calculated normal to module
surface (W/m2) are calculated using following
formulas:

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power (143.6W), performance ratio (80 %) and


efficiency (12.9%) as shown in figures 6 and 7
respectively. By utilizing waste heat of module, this
hybrid solar system generated 616 W of thermal
power at water flow rate of 0.042 Kg/sec. The
combined PV/T efficiency of 68.2 % was recorded for
the hybrid system as shown in Figure 10. Figure 7
shows low PV efficiencies in the morning and late
afternoon for both heat exchangers of PV/T systems.
Thesemainlyhappenedasangleofincidenceofsolar
raysdecreasesfrommorningtonoonandincreasesto
lateafternoon.Atnoonitsvalueislowestandsunrays
strike normal to module surface; generating peak
electrical power and efficiencies and less for other
periods.

recorded was less as compared to March 2104.The


hybridPV/Tsystemwithspiralflowsystemproduced
less electrical energy and efficiency; compared to
thermalenergyandefficiency.Duetohighintensityof
solar radiation; the module temperature increased;
decreasing its electrical power. Since copper spiral
flow heat exchanger has good configuration design
havinghighthermalconductivity;whichabsorbsmore
heat from module and cools it at reasonable
temperature. By considering overall performance;
copper spiral flow heat exchanger hybrid system was
foundbestoptionforgeneratingelectricalandthermal
energy during these months than aluminium
oscillatoryflowheatexchanger.
Tables 3 and 4 shows the technical data recorded
during trials such as solar radiation, ambient
temperatures, temperature of module at top side,
electrical,andthermalpowerforbothheatexchangers
of hybrid system. The observations and results of
these tables showed that, module of hybrid system
could produce more electrical power at less solar
radiationduringmonthofMarchirrespectiveofmore
ambient temperature. During months of April and
May, module of hybrid system could produce less
electricalpoweratmoresolarradiationirrespectiveof
lessambienttemperature.

The temperature of water recorded at outlet of both


heatexchangerswasaround35.500C,whichissuitable
for low temperature applications. The forced
circulation system was used from 10 AM to 3 PM to
supplywatertobothheatexchangersofhybridsystem
during experimental process. Due to this,
enhancementinsystemperformancesandreductionin
operating temperatures were observed daily during
these time periods as shown in figures of 6 to 10 for
both heat exchangers. It was also observed that for
both heat exchangers, the temperature attended by
bottomsidesheetattachedbelowheatexchangerswas
recordedandequaltotheambienttemperatureduring
trials.Theseresultsshowedthat,theselectedthickness
of glass wool insulation was precise for these hybrid
systemapplications.

The results obtained from both heat exchangers of


hybrid systems showed that; spiral flow heat
exchanger could produce more thermal power as
compared to oscillatory type heat exchanger. The
experiments performed on both the hybrid system
shows that both heat exchangers produced same
electricalpowerandefficiencyatsamewaterflowrate
andoptimumtiltsofmoduleduringdifferentdaysof
experiments.

PerformanceAssessmentofOscillatoryandSpiral
FlowHeatExchangersusedinHybridSolarSystem
Experiments were conducted on oscillatory flow heat
exchanger of hybrid system during month of March
2014. During this month; the value of solar radiation
intensitymeasuredwaslessandambienttemperature
recorded was more than its values in the months of
April and May 2104. This helped oscillatory flow
system to produce more electrical energy and
efficiency;comparedtothermalenergyandefficiency.
The cost of generation of combined energy; using
aluminium oscillatory flow heat exchanger in hybrid
system was less than copper spiral flow heat
exchangerduetoitslessinvestment.

Intheseexperimentalworks,trialswereconductedon
single photovoltaic commercial module by changing
heat exchangers during selected experimental days.
The first hybrid system was created by locating
oscillatoryheatexchangeratbottomofmoduleduring
month of March2014. During months of AprilMay
2014; oscillatory heat exchanger was replaced and
secondhybridsystemusingspiralflowheatexchanger
was used to perform experiments to compare its
performance with oscillatory flow heat exchanger. As
experiments were conducted on different days and
months; both heat exchangers showed different
overall performances over a day. These experiments
were conducted on both heat exchangers by keeping
sametilts;flowrates;daysofexperimentsforlatitude

Experimentsperformedonspiralflowheatexchanger
ofhybridsystemduringmonthofAprilandMay2014.
During these months, the intensity of solar radiation
measured was more and ambient temperature

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InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume4Issue6,December2014

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TABLE4TECHNICALDATARECORDEDANDCALCULATEDFORSPIRALL

of Mumbai. After analysing the results of two hybrid


systems;theoverallperformanceofcopperspiralflow
heat exchanger was observed better than aluminium
oscillatoryheatexchanger.Thismainlyhappeneddue
to the selection of high thermal conductivity material
for heat exchanger and best water flow configuration
design of heat exchanger. In this configuration; water
flowsfrominlettocentreofheatexchangerandfrom
centretotheexitofheatexchanger.Duetothispattern
ofwaterflow;heatexchangerabsorbsmoreheatfrom
bottom of module and cools at satisfactory
temperature; enhancing its electrical as well thermal
power and efficiency compared to other type of heat
exchangers.

FLOWHEATEXCHNAGREROFHYBRIDSYSTEM

Srno
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Use of thermal grease compound at top side of heat


exchangersandbottomsideofmodulemayleadtothe
reductionofairgapbetweenthesesurfacesimproving
therateofheattransfer.Thisleadsinreductionofthe
operating temperature of module; improving
photovoltaic; thermal and combined power and
efficiencies of both heat exchangers. The performance
of these hybrid systems will be improved by fitting
reflectors to the sides of the module to enhance its
concentration ratio, and electrical as well thermal
power output. The operating temperature of cooled
module for both heat exchangers may further be
reduced by lowering inlet water temperature;
enhancing photovoltaic; thermal and combined PV/T
powerandefficienciesofsystem.Sufficientwaterhead
maintained in storage tank of cooling water can use
thermosiphonedhybridPV/Tsystem.Thiswillbethe
ideal solution for electrical power generation and hot
water production. By using this concept; an
autonomous hybrid system may be developed for its
useinruralareas.

Time
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30

Ig
572
688
739
801
870
875
892
881
876
865
802
786
636
551
449

Ta
33.7
36.0
37.4
37.5
36.7
36.0
35.4
34.6
34.1
33.6
33.8
34.9
35.7
36.3
35.5

Tmod
48.4
49.3
48.0
50.3
52.2
53.1
52.5
51.1
50.1
48.8
46.2
46.0
45.6
45.5
42.4

Ppv
48.7
78.5
94.9
115.0
137.1
139.0
143.6
140.1
137.4
134.7
115.8
108.1
59.6
39.3
22.8

Pt
0.0
0.0
483.9
571.9
571.9
571.9
615.9
615.9
615.9
571.9
571.9
483.9
0.0
0.0
0.0

FIG.6PVPOWERPRODUCEDBYAL_OSCILLATORYAND
CU_SPIRALFLOWHEATEXCHNAGERSUSEDINHYBRID
SYSTEM

TABLE3TECHNICALDATARECORDEDANDCALCULATEDFOR
OSCILATORYFLOWHEATEXCHNAGREROFHYBRIDSYSTEM

Srno
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Time
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30

Ig
431
510
638
678
715
784
841
851
844
808
769
696
624
531
431

Ta
34.4
37.6
39.9
40.3
40.2
38.3
36.6
35.8
35.0
34.1
34.0
35.4
36.3
36.8
36.8

Tmod
42.1
46.5
41.8
43.7
46.2
47.5
47.5
48.7
46.8
45.1
45.4
44.3
44.8
43.4
40.7

Ppv
33.08
47.88
82.40
97.28
105.47
136.17
142.46
146.12
143.10
131.67
115.37
87.89
64.13
41.33
24.91

Pt
0.0
0.0
440.0
440.0
483.9
483.9
527.9
571.9
483.9
440.0
440.0
440.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

FIG.7PHOTOVOLTAICEFFICIENCYPRODUCEDBY
AL_OSCILLATORYANDCU_SPIRALFLOWHEAT
EXCHNAGERSUSEDINHYBRIDSYSTEM

IllustrationofCostEffectiveness
TheSamplecostanalysisforaluminumoscillatoryand
copperspiralflowheatexchangerusedinhybridsolar
watersystemsisshownintables5and6respectively
forpeakPVpowerpointwaterflowrate.

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TABLE5COSTEFFECTIVENESSOFOSCILLATORYFLOWHEATEXCHANGER
HYBRIDPV/TSYSTEM

3
4
5
6

FIG.8THERMALPOWERPRODUCEDBYAL_OSCILLATORY
ANDCU_SPIRALHEATEXCHNAGERSUSEDINHYBRID
SYSTEM

540

1280

90
1220
120
4.6

TABLE6COSTEFFECTIVENESSOFSPIRALFLOWHEATEXCHANGER
HYBRIDPV/TSYSTEM

5
6

Totalcostincurredforpurchasingandfabricationof
hybridsystem(%)
TotalPV/Tenergygeneratedbyhybridsystemwith
areaof1.25m2inKWhperannumat150LPH.
(Assuminghybridsystemrunsfor6hrsperdayand
300daysperyear)
PowerconsumedbypumpinKWhperannum.
(Assumingpumprunsfor5hrsperdayand300
daysperyear)
NetPV/Tenergygeneratedbyhybridsystemwith
areaof1.25m2inKWhperannum
NetPV/Tincomefromhybridsystemin$per
annum.(Assuming$0.1perKWhforelectricaland
thermalenergy)
Paybackperiodofhybridsystem(years)

606

1367

90

1277

125
4.8

Conclusions

The performance of both heat exchangers has been


studied,analysedand compared during experimental
process for peak PV power condition at same slopes.
Anoscillatoryflowheatexchangeratwatermassflow
rate of 0.042kg/sec produced 65.30% combined PV/T
efficiencywith13.30%PVefficiencyandperformance
ratio of 81%. At the equivalent flow rate; the spiral
flow heat exchanger generated power with 68.20%
combined PV/T efficiency with 12.90% PV efficiency
andperformanceratioof80%.Thisstudyshowedthat;
copper spiral flow heat exchanger could generate
more combined PV/T efficiency than aluminium
oscillatoryflowheatexchangeratsameflowrate.This
enhancement in combined PV/T efficiency was
observedduetohighthermalconductivityandchoice
of configuration of copper spiral flow heat exchanger
design.Costofgenerationofenergyusingaluminium
oscillatory flow heat exchanger hybrid system is less
and it is the best option generating thermal energy
suitable for different applications. By considering

FIG.9THERMALEFFICIENCYPRODUCEDBY
AL_OSCILLATORYANDCU_SPIRALFLOWHEAT
EXCHNAGERSUSEDINHYBRIDSYSTEM

FIG.10PV/TEFFICIENCYPRODUCEDBYCU_OSCILLATORY&
CU_SPIRALFLOWHEATEXCHNAGERSUSEDINHYBRID
SYSTEM

162

Totalcostincurredforpurchasingandfabricationof
hybridsystem($)
TotalPV/Tenergygeneratedbyhybridsystemwith
areaof1.25m2inKWhperannumat150LPH.
(Assuminghybridsystemrunsfor6hrsperdayand
300daysperyear)
PowerconsumedbypumpinKWhperannum.
(Assumingpumprunsfor5hrsperdayand300
daysperyear)
NetPV/Tenergygeneratedbyhybridsystemwith
areaof1.25m2 inKWhperannum
NetPV/Tincome fromhybridsystemin$per
annum.(Assuming$0.1perKWhforelectricaland
thermalenergy)
Paybackperiodofhybridsystem(years)

InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume4Issue6,December2014

overall performance; copper spiral flow heat


exchanger hybrid system was found best option for
generatingmaximumcombinedenergy.Illustrationof
cost effectiveness showed that the payback period of
hybrid PV/T solar water system using both heat
exchangers was same. These experiments proved that
hybridsolarwatersystemisapotentialalternativefor
electricalpowergenerationandhotwaterproduction.

www.ijesci.org

solarcollector(PVTS)designs. Selected Papers from:


Communications & Information Technology; Circuits,
Systems and Signals; Applied Mathematics, Simulation
andModeling2008,MarathonBeach,Attica,Greece.
Palaskar V N, Deshmukh S P , Pandit A B, Panse S V.
Performance analysis of an Oscillatory flow design heat
exchanger used in solar hybrid water system.
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and

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