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1

1:
:
) S Na2SO4
) KNO3
) P H3PO4
) Na +1 -2, :
2(+1) +X +4(-2) = 0 X = +6
) +1 -2, :
(+1) + + 3(-2) = 0 = +5
) +1 -2, :
3(+1) +X +4(-2) = 0 X= +5
2:
:
) Cr , Cr2 O72) S , SO 32) , 4+
) -2, :
2 + 7(-2) = -2 = +6
) -2, :
X + 3(-2) = -2 X = +4
) +1, :
+ 4(+1) = +1 = -3
3
:
() , K2Cr2 O7 ,
() , MnO4
() , K2Cr2O7, 6
2 (.. ) + 2 (. Cr) + 7 (.. ) = 0
2 3 ,

2 (+1) + 2 (.. Cr) + 7 (2) = 0


, 2 (.. Cr) = 2 (+1) 7 (2) = +12 .. Cr = +6
() , MnO 4 , 6
(.. Mn) + 4 (.. O) = 1
3 O,
(.. Mn) + 4 (2) = 1 , .. Mn = 1 4 (2) = +7

4

:
. MnO4
. PO4 3
. 3

. ..(n) = x, MnO 4
.. MnO4 ,:

..(K) + ..(Mn) + 4 A.O. (O) = 0 : (+1) + x + 4(-2) = 0 x = +7


, MnO4, Mn .. +7.
.
..(P) = x, PO 4 3
.. PO 43 -3, :
..(P) + 4 A.O.(O) = -3 : x + 4(-2) = -3 x = +5
, PO43 , P .. +5.
. ..() = x, 3
.. 3 -1, :
..() + 3 A.O.(O) = -1 : x + 3(-2) = -1 x = +5
, 3 , .. +5.
5
(C 3H8):
. .
. .

. ( ).

C - H, , .

C - C ,
.
, 1+
3-
2-.
, ( ) .. = -3
( ) ..=-2.
. ..(C) = x, C 3H8.
.. C3H8 , :
3 ..(C) + 8 ..(H) = 0 : 3x + 8(+1) = 0 x = -8/3
, C3H8, o C .. -8/3.
6:
Zn + O2 ZnO

: Zn + O2 ZnO , Zn
e- , e-.
Zn 2e -
Zn2+.

:
Zn Zn2+ + 2e 2e- Zn
:
O2 + 2e- O2 7
,
:
. 2 + S H2S
. 2K + Br2 2KBr

:
. S 2, . .
. ,
.
:
. 2S
, .
. () r
().
:
. .. 0 +1 () ..
S 0 -2 (). .
H20 + S0 H+12 S-2
. .. a 0 +1 () ..
r 0 -1 ().
.
2 Na0 + Br20 2 Na+1 Br-1
8
Zn HCl Zn(s) + 2H+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + H2(g).
,
Zn 0 2+.
H 1+ 0.
Zn Zn2+ H+ H2.
H+ Zn .
Zn H+ .
.
9

. H2 + Cl2 2HCl
. 2 + CH2=CH2 CH3CH3
. H2 + 2Na 2NaH

2 :
. H2 + 2Na 2NaH
.. 0 -1.

10
, ,
2 +Cl2 2HCl
. =0 . =+1
Cl . =0 . =-1
Cl 2 , 2
Cl 2.
11:

HNO3 , NO2 , NO , NH3 , N2

HNO3
NO2
NO
NH3
N2

+5
+4
+2
-3
0
3

.
3

.
12
: 3Cu + 8HNO3 ; 3Cu(NO3 )2 + 2NO + 4H2O :
.
.
.

. .

.
13
: KMnO4, H22, NH3, K2Cr2O7 H2S :
.H22 , KMnO4 K2Cr2O7
.NH3 H2S
.H22, NH3 H2S
..

.H2 2, NH3 H2 S