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IMPACT: International Journal of Research in

Humanities, Arts and Literature (IMPACT: IJRHAL)


ISSN(P): 2347-4564; ISSN(E): 2321-8878
Vol. 4, Issue 8, Aug 2016, 21-24
Impact Journals

INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES IN PRIMARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS


SUREKHA KSHEERASAGAR1 & FIRDOUS JAHAN2
1

Professor and Research Guide, Department of Education, Gulbarga University, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India
2

Research Scholar, Department of Education, Gulbarga University, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT
Education is a decisive determinant of economic and social expansion, and also household livelihoods and food
security status. Empirical studies also demonstrated that investment in elementary education amplifies the productivity in
all the sectors of the economy much more than other levels of education, and that economic returns to investment in
primary education are greater than those arising from other levels of schooling The development of education depends on
large number of factors including the infrastructure resources available to a school. School infrastructure, such as the site,
buildings, furniture and equipments contribute to a learning environment. This study highlights the primary and high
schools infrastructure facilities in Hyderabad Karnataka region. This region is labeled as backward district socioeconomically and educationally. Hence it is essential to study the status of schools with reference to infrastructure, which
is a basic aspect impacting on students enrolment, retention, and academic achievement

KEYWORDS:-Primary and High School Education, Infrastructural Facilities, Pancha soulyab, SSA and MHRD
Specification for Basic Facilities in Schools

INTRODUCTION
The importance of education cannot be stated enough. It is a self-enlightening process. It is crucial to the overall
development of an individual and the society at large. Education provides us with knowledge about the world. It paves the
way for a good career. It helps build character. It leads to enlightenment. It lays the foundation of a stronger nation.
Education makes a man complete. Kautilya, an Indian philosopher, royal adviser, and professor of economics and political
science very rightly underlined the importance of education, some 2000 years ago. He has highlighted the fact that
education enriches people's understanding of themselves. He has said that education is an investment in human capital, and
it can have a great impact on a nation's growth and development. It Gives Knowledge a direct effect of education is
knowledge gain. Education gives us knowledge of the world around. It Leads to Career Progression.
Education is important because it equips us with the expertise that is needed in helping us realize our career goals.
It Builds Character the words 'cultivate' and 'civilize' are synonymous with 'educate'. That says it all. Education is
important as it teaches us the right behavior and good manners, thus making us civilized. It won't be wrong to say that good
education makes us more human. It Leads to Enlightenment. It wipes out the wrong beliefs from our minds. It helps create
a clear picture of things around, and erases all the confusion It Helps a Nation Progress Though not enlisted as one of the
three basic human needs, education is equally important. For the progress of a nation, for the enrichment of society in
general, education is important.

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22

Surekha Ksheerasagar & Firdous Jahan

Infrastructure Facilities
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) accorded special significance and weight age for the provision of infrastructure
facilities to schools. School buildings, additional classrooms, maintenance and repairs of school buildings are included
herein. 8 facilities are recognized as Basic Facilities for schools comprising of Common Toilets, Girls Toilets, Electricity,
Play Ground, Ramps, Library, Compound and Drinking water. A review of progress of schooling in the light of provision
of infrastructure facilities to schools reveals that there has been notable improvements in enrolments of children, enrolment
ratios, retention rates, student classroom ratios, teacher-pupil ratios, transition rates and gender parity in enrolments. An
update on provision of infrastructure facilities in the State is provided in this section.
School Buildings
44,672 out of a total of 60,036 elementary schools in the State belong to the Department of Education. 98.32
percent of schools of the Department possess / own the buildings. Rent need not be paid to 0.82 percent of schools owned
by the Department. Another 0.69 percent of schools are run in rented and private buildings. 0.01 percent of schools are run
without any building facility.
The Department of Education runs 4442 high schools. 23 (0.52%) schools in this set do not have a building of
their own. 3874 (87.21%) of schools possess the building while 16 (0.36%) percent of high schools are run in private and
rented buildings. 458 (10.31%) percent of schools do not need to pay rent for the buildings in which they are functioning.
They are rent-free. There are 56(1.26%) schools whose buildings are under construction. They are run under transitory
arrangements. The number of building less schools (own building) decreased from 113 in 2011-12 to 23 during 2012-13.
Classrooms
There are 2, 03,950 classrooms in 44,672 elementary schools of the Department of Education 71.42 percent of
classrooms are in good condition. 11.59 percent of classrooms need minor repairs, while 16.99 percent of classrooms are
waiting for major repairs. It is to be noted that the position regarding to classrooms which are in good condition has
marginally improved from 69.73 percent in 2011-12 and that require minor repairs has decreased from 18.86 percent in
2011-12. However the percentage of classrooms which require major repairs has increased from 11.41 percent during
2011-12 to 16.99 percent during 2012-13.
Eight Basic Facilities (as per MHRD specifications)
Even though increasing attention is being given over the years to provision of basic facilities in schools, database
on availability of basic facilities leaves much to be desired. The DISE data of 2012-13 informs us that there is no separate
toilet for girls in 0.10 percent of elementary schools while 0.08 percent elementary schools do not have drinking water
facility. Provision of Ramps in High Schools needs serious attention as the current provision is hardly in 40.05 percent of
schools. The Eight Basic facilities identified by MHRD are

Common Toilet

Girls Toilet

Electricity,

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us

Infrastructural Facilities in Primary and High Schools

Play Ground

Ramps

Compound

Drinking Water

Library

13

Pancha Soulabhya
The government of Karnataka identified 5 facilities, on top priorities as most essential for schools. Some of them
are common to the 8 basic facilities identified by the MHRD. Four of these five facilities are

Drinking Water

Common Toilets

Play Grounds

Compound wall

School buildings
Here the researcher has interpreted SSA analytical data with reference to these infrastructural facilities from 2011-

2013 and provided only major findings related to primary and high schools of Hyderabad Karnataka region.
There are 44,672 elementary schools in the State, under the Department of Education, of them, 98.32 schools
function in own buildings. In 09 districts of the State, more than 99 percent of schools own the building in which they
function their own buildings.

Position in regard to ownership needs attention in Raichur, Bangalore city, Yadgir and Belgaum districts whose
deficit in more than 5 percent.

There are 198415 classrooms in 45677 schools of the DoE, More than 03 out of 10 classrooms in the schools of
the DoE are not in 'good' condition. Bangalore city district fares well comparatively. That is, 63415
classrooms which need minor / major repairs.

Districts which have at least 3 out of 4 classrooms in good condition are Bidar, Raichur, Kalaburagi and Koppal.
There are 4278 high schools in the State run by the DoE. They have 20624 classrooms and 13307 other rooms.

13535 out of 20624 classrooms, 65.63 percent, are in good condition.

3 out of 4 classrooms are in ' good ' condition in Raichur and Kalaburagi districts..(2010-11)

Position in regard to ownership needs attention in Raichur and Yadgiri. Districts whose deficit is more than 04
percent.

The Districts which have at least 3 out of 4 classrooms in good condition. They are :,Koppal and Gulbarga,Bidar,
Raichur, and Yadagiri (2012-13 SSA analytical report)
Impact Factor(JCC): 2.1783 - This article can be downloaded from www.impactjournals.us

24

Surekha Ksheerasagar & Firdous Jahan

6 out of 7 classrooms are in ' good' condition in Kalaburagi district.

Districts with 25 or > 25 percent increase in Composite Index in last 04 years, that is 2008-09 to 2012-13 are :
Bidar, Kalaburagi, Yadagiri, and Raichur.

Districts with 25 or > 25 percent increase in Composite Index over last 04 years, that is 2008-09 to 2012-13
are: Kalaburagi, Yadagiri, Bidar, and Raichur.

Districts that figure among Bottom TEN in Composite Index at both Elementary and Secondary lists are Raichur.

District that figure among Top TEN in Composite Index at both elementary and secondary levels is Bidar district.

CONCLUSIONS
School is the fundamental and a foundational unit of an educational system. Number of schools is indicative of the
size of a system. The government of Karnataka identified facilities, on top priorities as most essential for schools. Some of
them are common to the 8 basic facilities identified by the MHRD. Four of these five facilities are

Drinking Water

Common Toilets

Play Grounds

Compound wall
The fifth one is school buildings. In this study the basic facilities in schools, infrastructure and Teacher student

ratio (Education Department) is discussed. Through Hyderabad Karnataka having a better infrastructure facilities.

REFERENCES

C.V.Myageri(2008); Secondary Education and Teacher Functions Suvarna Karnataka Rajya prashati Vidynidhi
Prakashana Gadaga.

EDUCATION in KARNATAKA STATE,(2010-11) Department of Education, Government of Karnataka A State


level and District Wise Analytical Report Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

EDUCATION in KARNATAKA STATE,(2011-12) Department of Education, Government of Karnataka A State


level and District Wise Analytical Report Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

EDUCATION in KARNATAKA STATE,(2012-13) Department of Education, Government of Karnataka A State


level and District Wise Analytical Report Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

State level Research Studies Abstract From 2002-03 to 2008-09 Research, Evaluation,Monitoring and
Supervision, Executive summary, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan-Karnataka

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