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# DYNAMICS

COMMON NOMENCLATURE

l:

time

## Unit vectors erand erare, respectively, normal to and collinear

with the position vector r. Thus:

5 =-position

F: rgr

: velocity
a: acceleration
an : normal acceleration
v

ierl r\q
o:(, * ,02)e,+(r6

v=

r:

a, = tangential acceleration

0:

angle
or: angular velocity
cr angular acceleration
O = angular velocity ofxyv reference axis
Q angular acceleration ofreference axis
relative position of "A" with respect to "B"
r
vo^ relative velocity of "A" with respect to "B"
ao^ relative acceleration of "A" with respect to "B"

:
*r::
:

PARTICLE KINEMATICS

## Kinematics is the study of motion without consideration of

the mass of, or the forces acting on, the system. For particle
motion, let r(l) be the position vector of the particle in an
inertial reference frame.'The velocity and acceleration of the
particle are defined, respectively, as

+ 2r0)q, where

## = the angle between the x axis and

: drl dt, etc., i : d2 rl dt2, etc.

e,

Variable a

o:
v

Constant

dv

y:

dt

a:

a.

vo+ act

l"

s=56*vntlia"t"

-ds
-At

,'

= ,3+ zq(,

,o\

## Particle Curvilinear Motion

r,0,2 Coordinates
x,y,z Coordinates

Yr: *

Qr: i

l":2

ar:2

vr:y'

v-.=i
a.=i
gr

v: dr/dt
u : dv/dt, where
v : the instantaneous velocity
a : Ihe instantaneous acceleration
t : time

0r=f-r02

h: r0 q= r6+2fe
vr= 2

er=

n, t, b Coordinates

Cartesian Coordinates

r=xi+yj+zk
v=ii+ii+2k
a: xi + ii + 2k,where

Relative Motion

u: v o* Y ,,,

## aB: aA+ aR/A

*=dxldt-v,,etc.

*=*xldt2-e,etc.

Relative Motion
The equations for the relative position, velociry and
acceleration may be written as

## Radial and Tiansverse Components for Planar Motion

Translating Axis

rA

rB+ rilB
vA = 9B + ax rilB= vBlvAlB
a,q : aB + U"x rAtB+ o) x (o) x tilp)

: au* ao,,

## where ro and c{, are, respectively, the angular velocity and

angular acceleration ofthe relative position Yector rAtB.
tAdapted from Hibbeler, R.C., Engineering Mechanics, lOth ed., Prentice Hall' 2003'

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Rotating Axis

## Normal and Tangential Components

rA: rB + ruB
-rA: rB + ax rilB+
a,q:

aB

vilB

+ a"xrAtB + o x (o xr11p)+2@xr,a*

a,qta

the path

## where rrt and a are,respectively, the total angular velocity and

acceleration ofthe relative position vector ro,r.

## Plane Circular Motion

A special case oftransverse and radial components is for
motion.

v

= v(t) e,

a:

## The equations for the velocity and displacement when

acceleration is a constant are given as
(t

to)

displacement at time to
velocity along the direction of travel
velocity at time lo
constant acceleration

time
some initial time

(A)

at= ra
The normal acceleration is given by
(towards the center of the circle)

-g

(downward).
as a function of position

may be written as

,r:fr+2c6(s_s6)
For constant angular acceleration, the equations for angular

o(l) :
0(r)

s:r0

vo

## aoQ - t)212 + voQ -to)*so, where

distance along the line of travel

qo

ro(l): so(t-

## Arc length, tangential velocity, and tangential acceleration,

respectively, are

roo2

ao

o.:6:6

an:-

Llo

v(t)

. _A
CO-U

l7:

a(t)

yo
ao
t :
to

## The magnitudes of the angular velocity and acceleration,

respectively, are deflned as

+ (tltp)e,,where

## 0 = instantaneous radius of curvature

Constant Acceleration

=
:
s(l) =
s *
,so

r: rer
v: raet
/
g : \- ru)'^\)erl ra.er. where
r : the radius of the circle
0 : the angle between the x and e" axes

o(t)e,

lo)

roo

r,:o(/

e:

angular displacement

eo

to

(D

angular velocity

0o:

0o

t:

time

to

oo(r

6)2tz

6)

## An additional equation for angular velocity

angular position may be written as
ro2

69

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ot3

2o6 (0

0s)

+ 00, where

as a function

of

Projectile Motion

ar= Fr/m,where

f,r:

## the resultant of the applied forces, which in general can

depend on t, x, andvr.

If{

o,(t): F,G)t*

,,(r):

## The equations for common projectile motion may be obtained

from the constant acceleration equations as

a* :0
v* : vo cos(O)
x :vocos(O)l+x,
av :-g
Yy : -gt + vo sin(O)
y : -gPtZ + vo sin(O)r +yo

Io,(r)dr+r,,0

t0

*(r):

Ir,G)dr+no

,0

## If the force is constant (i.e. independent of time,

displacement, and velocity) then

ar: Frlm
,,:or(t-ro)+rrn
*

:,,(t -

tof o +

r*n(t

h) + *,,

Non-constant Acceleration
When non-constant acceleration, a(t), is considered, the
equations for the velocity and displacement may be obtained

## Normal and Tangential Kinetics for Planar Problems

When working with normal and tangential directions, the

lrom

E4: *on: *(tlp)

,(7)= la(r)dt+r^
h

= /v(t)dr+s,o
"(7)

Tr*

tO

## For variable angular acceleration

U,

,:

T,

Kinetic Energy

1,

t-

ro(r): lu(r)dr+

a,o

-mv'
2

Particle

tO

Rigid Body

0(t)

: la(r)dr+0^

(l'lane Motion)

to

CONCEPT OF WEIGHT
W : mg,where

Variableforce Uo

JF

cos 0 ds

"a'

Spring

- (4 cos O)As
U * : -wLv
U, : -[10,: -^:)

Couplemoment

Ur: MLe

Constantforce Uo

mass, kg (lbf-sec2/ft)

Weight

## local acceleration ofgravity, m/s2 1ft/sec2;

PARTICLE IflNETICS
Newton's second law for a particle

2"

Work

W :weight,N(lb0

m:
C :

l2
: -mv--r

is

2F = d(mv)/dt, where

## : the sum of the applied forces acting on the particle

m : the mass of the particle
v : the velocity of the particle

IJr

## For constant mass,

ZF=mdv/dt=ma
One-Dimensional Motion of a Particle (Constant Mass)
When motion exists only in a single dimension then, without
loss of generality, it may be assumed to be in the x direction,

[2

dt

P,n

U,n

## Tr+ Vr: Tr+

a

')

Y,

Adapted liom Hibbeler, R.C., Ezgmeering Mechanics, lOth ed., Prentice Hall, 2003.

and

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Potential Energy
Vr+ V , where Vr: !. Wy, V : + l/2

V:

## Impulse and Momentum

Linear
Assuming constant mass, the equation of motion of
may be written as

ksz

Work

Zis deflned as
py=JF.dr

particle

mdv/dt: F

mdv :Fdt

Kinetic Enersv

## For a system of particles, by integrating and summing over the

number of parlicles, this may be expanded to

## The kinetic energy of a particle is the rvork done by an

extemal agent in accelerating the particle from rest to a
velocity y. Thus

Enq (r,),r

T = mv2/2

Enq (r,),r

+ Z'il, at
t1

energy is

U = mgh, where

## The tem on the left side of the equation is the linear

momentum of a system of particles at time 1.. The first term
on the right side of the equation is the lineaimomentum of
a system of particles at time 1,. The second term on the right
side of the equation is the impulse of the force F from time
tlto t2. lt should be noted that the above equation is a vector
equation. Component scalar equations may be obtained by
considering the momentum and force in a set of orthogonal
directions.

## Angular Momentum or Moment of Momentum

rz- T:

*6i-

vl)rz

Potential Enersv
The work done by an external agent in the presence of a
conseruative field is termed the change in potential energy.

## The angular momentum or the moment of momentum about

a particle is defined as

point 0 for

## For a linear elastic spring with modulus, stiffness, or spring

constant, the force in the spring is
'E,

Ho= r Xmy,or
Ho:1orrl

= ir r, where

## x = the change in length of the spring from the undeformed

length of the spring.

## Taking the time derivative of the above, the equation

motion may be written as

## The potential energy stored in the spring when compressed or

extended by an amount r is

rr- r--2tt

Ho

d(1oro)

of

ldt = M, where

u - A I /l

## In changing the deformation in the spring from position r, to

xr, the change in the potential energy stored in the spring is

## and summing over a system of any number of particles, this

may be expanded to

t1

If
of

## T,and, U, are, respectively, the kinetic and potential energy

a parlicle at state l, then for conservative systems (no

is

T2+Ur= Tr+[J,

## The tem on the left side of the equation is the angular

momentum of a system of parlicles at time t".The first term
on the right side of the equation is the angulir momentum of
a system of particles at time t,. The second term on the right
side of the equation is the angular impulse of the momentM

t2.

## Ifnonconservative forces are present, then the work done by

these forces must be accounted for. Hence

Tr+Ur=

T, +U, +W

r-r,

Adapted from Hibbeler, R.C., Engzeering Mechanics, lOth ed., prenrice Hall, 2003.

wherc

## W1-2= the work done by the nonconseruative forces in

moving between state I and state 2. Care must be exercised
during computations to correctly compute the algebraic sign of
the work term. If the forces sele to increase the energy of the
system, Wr-rris positive. If the forces, such as friction, serve
to dissipate energy, Wrnris negative.

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Impact

## During an impact, momenfum is conserved while energy may

or may not be conserved. For direct central impact with no

external forces

mpl

l-ffi2r2- n\v\+

m2v'2,where

## m, m2 : the masses of the two bodies

rp v2 = the velocities of the bodies just

v't,v'z :

rrl
0,

= d1ldt
= daldt

before impact

(v',\ - (v')
e: #,rvhere
\\), -

## Rigid Bodv Rotation

For rigid body rotation 0

## Instantaneous Center of Rotation (Instant Centers)

An instantaneous center of rotation (instant center) is a point,
common to two bodies, at which each has the same velocity
(magnitude and direction) at a given instant. lt is also a point
in space about which a body rotates, instantaneously.

\v2),

## coeffi cient of restitution

the velocity normal to the plane of impact just before

lv),

impact
the velocity normal to the plane of impact just after
impact

lv,l

1r+

## The value of e is such that

0 < e < 1, with limiting values
e

:0,

1,

## perfectly elasiic (energy conserved)

perfectly plastic (no rebound)

given as

(vi):
\

mz(v2),(l

+,,) + (nt-

l ln

(v',):
\ . |n

em2)(v1),

t?11+ tTh

## mr(vr),(t + e) - (emr* m.r)(vr),

mt+

m2

Friction
The Laws of Friction are
The total friction force ,F that can be developed is
independent of the magnitude of the area of contact.
The total friction force Fthat can be developed is
proportional to the normal force,Iy'.
For low velocities of sliding, the total frictional force
that can be developed is practically independent of
the velocity, although experiments show that the
force Fnecessary to initiate slip is greater than that
necessary to maintain the motion.

1.

2.
3.

,F< pN, where
l'r

## The flgure shows a fourbar slider-crank. Link2 (the crank)

the definition of an instant center (1Q, we see that the pins at
Or,A, and B are ICs thal are designated Ip, Iy, and 1ro. The
easily observable IC is 1,0, which is located at inflnity with its
direction perpendicular to the interface between links 1 and 4
(the direction of sliding). To locate the remaining two 1Cs (for
a fourbar) we must make use of Kennedy's rule.
Kennedy s Rule: When three bodies move relative to one
another they have three instantaneous centers, all ofwhich lie
on the same straight line.

## To apply this rule to the slider-crank mechanism, consider

links l, 2, and 3 whose 1Cs are Ip, Iy, and Is, all of which
lie on a straight line. Consider also links 1, 3, and 4 whose
ICs are I,.., 134, and Iy, all of which lie on a straight line.
Extending the line through lrrand lrrand the line through 1r,
and lroto their intersection locates 1,r, which is common to the
two groups of links that were considered.
Itq *

.4 ltz

In general

## F< p,l/, no slip occurring

F= trt,,N, at the point of impending slip
F = VoN, when slip is occurring
Here,

## !t, : the coefficient of static friction

pr : the coefficient of kinetic friction

## The coefficient of kinetic friction is often approximated as

7 5o/o of the coefficient of static friction.

72

oynnurcs

## Similarly, if body groups I , 2, 4 and 2, 3 , 4 are considered, a

line drawn through known ICs lrrand lroto the intersection of
a line drawn through known ICs lrrand lrolocates 1ro.

Parallel-Axis Theorem
The mass moments of inertia may be calculated about
any axis through the application ofthe above definitions.
However, once the moments of inertia have been determined
about an axis passing through a body's mass center, it may
be transformed to another parallel axis. The transformation

-2

n(n

equation is

1\

In"*= Ir+

In".:lhe

## Kinetics of a Rigid Body

In general, Newton's second law for a rigid body, with
constant mass and mass moment of inertia, in plane motion
may be written in vector form as

2,F : rytoc
EM, = 1,s
EMo : I"a +

pp"

Ic :

x mar,where

Parallel-Axis

## the mass moment of inertia about an axis that is parallel

to the above specified axis but passes through the
body's mass center

The mass radius of gyration is deflned as

r^=ffi
Without loss of generality, the body may be assumed to be
inthe x-y plane. The scalar equations of motion may then be
written as

to point c.

Inertia t = lr'
Theorem I : Io + mfl2

dm

2,F- - t/taxc
2F, = tfiayc
ZM" = IrrQ.rwhere

!_
m

Equations of Motion

Rigid Body

LF,

(fhne Motion)

4 : *Qo),

m(ao),

## zc indicates the z axis passing through the body's mass center,

ar"and aycare the acceleration of the body's mass center
in the x andy directions, respectively, and a, is the angular
acceleration ofthe body about the z axis.
Rotation about an Arbitrary Fixed Axis

Variable

## Mass Moment of Inertia

The definitions for the mass moments of inertia are

L: l (y'+

22)dm

I,:l(x2+22)dm

ofthis section.

ct

a= ac
0=0)Ot0"l

Constalt

da

0: dt
de
(r) :
dt

to2

0o

+ .l,ot+l a"f

oA

12o,(0

- 06)

## For rotation about some arbitrary fixed axis q

4:l(x2+y2)am
A table listing moment of inertia formulas for some standard

## mass moment of inertia about any specified axis

above-specified axis

## a" is the acceleration of the body's mass

center both in the plane of motion, M,are moments and o, is
the angular acceleration both about an axis normal to the plane
of motion, f. is the mass moment of inertia about the normal
axis through the mass center, and po"is a vector from pointp

Mass Moment of

where

## m : the mass of the body

d : the normal distance from the body's mass center to the

## F are forces and

m*,

2M, = Iro
If the applied moment acting about the fixed axis is constant
then integrating with respect to time, from I = 0 yields

G, =

Mqllq

o = oo+cx,/
e - 0o+otot+ufn
where cr)o and 0o are the values of angular velocity and angular
displacement at time I = 0, respectively.
a

Adapted from Hi bbeler,R.C., Engin""r:irg Merhorirs,l Oth ed., prentice Hall, 2003.

73

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## The change in kinetic energy is the work done in accelerating

the rigid body from oo to o)
0

Ina212

= Iqail2 + I

Mrdo

fr

where rrl, =
lm is the undamped natural circular frequency
and Crand Crare constants of integration whose values are
determined from the initial conditions.

06

## Principles of Work Energy

In general the kinetic energy for a rigid body may be written

i(0)

my2l2

re cos(ro,l)

+ (vsla,)sin(ro,l)

+ Irazl2

r:

vs, then

x(t) =

AS

T:

r(0) = x6 and

are denoted as

system as

## *(rl,+ r!,)n+ +a:t2

rl,n: {916",
The undamped natural period of vibration may now be written

AS

T= Irc<]D

(f bne Motioi)

where Ho

(u,),

+IJ

where

H,

dr --

(u,),

2n

f L
IK -

## Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum

Rigid

1*
LIL

ln-alLtun-

,,1

16'
l6

v6"

Torsional Vibration

loirr,

ruo

dt:

(uo),

= 1o61

## Conservation of Angular Momentum

I(syst.

H),:

I(syst. H),

Free Vibration
The figure illustrates a single degree-of-freedom system.

## For torsional free vibrations it may be shown that the

differential equation of motion is

Position of Undefomed
Length of Spring
Position of Static

Equilibrim

+ (.tt,lt)0

0, where

## = the angular displacement of the system

k, = the torsional stiffness of the massless rod

1:

## The solution may now be written in terms of the initial

conditions 0(0)

o(r)
The equation of motion may be expressed as

m*

= m& - t(x +

0o

0s

cos(rop)

and g(0)

0o as

+ (00/o,)sin(ro;)

a, = ,[ftrll

0,,)

## where m is mass of the system, k is the spring constant of the

system, 6r, is the static deflection of the system, and r is the
displacement of the system from static equilibrium.

## The torsional stiffness of a solid round rod with associated

polar moment-of-inertia -r, length L, and shear modulus of
elasticity G is given by

kt= GJ/L
From statics it may be shown that
mg =

## Thus the undamped circular natural frequency for a system

a solid round supporting rod may be written as

with

k6"

rl,n: {GJIIL
thus the equation of motion may be written as

m* -f

lw:

0, or

* + (klm)x:

## Similar to the linear vi bration problem, the undamped natural

period may be written AS

Tn:2ttlan:

2n_

lEy7

2tr

IGJ
\/ -7r

74

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1Oth ed.,

Prentice Hall

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