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DYNAMICS

COMMON NOMENCLATURE

l:

time

Unit vectors erand erare, respectively, normal to and collinear


with the position vector r. Thus:

5 =-position

F: rgr

: velocity
a: acceleration
an : normal acceleration
v

ierl r\q
o:(, * ,02)e,+(r6

v=

r:

a, = tangential acceleration

0:

angle
or: angular velocity
cr angular acceleration
O = angular velocity ofxyv reference axis
Q angular acceleration ofreference axis
relative position of "A" with respect to "B"
r
vo^ relative velocity of "A" with respect to "B"
ao^ relative acceleration of "A" with respect to "B"

:
*r::
:

PARTICLE KINEMATICS

Kinematics is the study of motion without consideration of


the mass of, or the forces acting on, the system. For particle
motion, let r(l) be the position vector of the particle in an
inertial reference frame.'The velocity and acceleration of the
particle are defined, respectively, as

+ 2r0)q, where

Ihe radial distance

= the angle between the x axis and


: drl dt, etc., i : d2 rl dt2, etc.

e,

Particle Rectilinear Motion

Variable a

o:
v

Constant

dv

y:

dt

a:

a.

vo+ act

l"

s=56*vntlia"t"

-ds
-At

,'

ads:vdv

= ,3+ zq(,

,o\

Particle Curvilinear Motion


r,0,2 Coordinates
x,y,z Coordinates

Yr: *

Qr: i

l":2

ar:2

vr:y'

v-.=i
a.=i
gr

v: dr/dt
u : dv/dt, where
v : the instantaneous velocity
a : Ihe instantaneous acceleration
t : time

0r=f-r02

h: r0 q= r6+2fe
vr= 2

er=

n, t, b Coordinates

Cartesian Coordinates

r=xi+yj+zk
v=ii+ii+2k
a: xi + ii + 2k,where

Relative Motion

u: v o* Y ,,,

aB: aA+ aR/A

*=dxldt-v,,etc.

*=*xldt2-e,etc.

Relative Motion
The equations for the relative position, velociry and
acceleration may be written as

Radial and Tiansverse Components for Planar Motion

Translating Axis

rA

rB+ rilB
vA = 9B + ax rilB= vBlvAlB
a,q : aB + U"x rAtB+ o) x (o) x tilp)

: au* ao,,

where ro and c{, are, respectively, the angular velocity and


angular acceleration ofthe relative position Yector rAtB.
tAdapted from Hibbeler, R.C., Engineering Mechanics, lOth ed., Prentice Hall' 2003'

68

ovrueurcs

Rotating Axis

Normal and Tangential Components

rA: rB + ruB
-rA: rB + ax rilB+
a,q:

aB

vilB

+ a"xrAtB + o x (o xr11p)+2@xr,a*

Unit vectors etand enare, respectively, tangent and normal to


a,qta

the path

where rrt and a are,respectively, the total angular velocity and


acceleration ofthe relative position vector ro,r.

Plane Circular Motion


A special case oftransverse and radial components is for
constant radius rotation about the origin, or plane circular
motion.

wilh enpointing to the center of curvature. Thus


v

= v(t) e,

a:

The equations for the velocity and displacement when


acceleration is a constant are given as
(t

to)

displacement at time to
velocity along the direction of travel
velocity at time lo
constant acceleration

time
some initial time

(A)

at= ra
The normal acceleration is given by
(towards the center of the circle)

-g

(downward).
as a function of position

may be written as

,r:fr+2c6(s_s6)
For constant angular acceleration, the equations for angular

velocity and displacement are

o(l) :
0(r)

s:r0

vo

aoQ - t)212 + voQ -to)*so, where


distance along the line of travel

qo

ro(l): so(t-

Arc length, tangential velocity, and tangential acceleration,


respectively, are

roo2

ao

For a free-falling body, ao=

o.:6:6

an:-

Llo

v(t)

An additional equation for velocity

. _A
CO-U

l7:

a(t)

yo
ao
t :
to

Here the vector quantities are defined as

The magnitudes of the angular velocity and acceleration,


respectively, are deflned as

+ (tltp)e,,where

0 = instantaneous radius of curvature


Constant Acceleration

=
:
s(l) =
s *
,so

r: rer
v: raet
/
g : \- ru)'^\)erl ra.er. where
r : the radius of the circle
0 : the angle between the x and e" axes

o(t)e,

lo)

roo

r,:o(/

e:

angular displacement

eo

angular displacement at time

to

(D

angular velocity

0o:

angular velociry at time t,

0o

constant angular acceleration

t:

time

to

some initial time

oo(r

6)2tz

6)

An additional equation for angular velocity


angular position may be written as
ro2

69

oyrnmrcs

ot3

2o6 (0

0s)

+ 00, where

as a function

of

Projectile Motion

ar= Fr/m,where

f,r:

the resultant of the applied forces, which in general can


depend on t, x, andvr.

If{

only depends on l, then

o,(t): F,G)t*

,,(r):

The equations for common projectile motion may be obtained


from the constant acceleration equations as

a* :0
v* : vo cos(O)
x :vocos(O)l+x,
av :-g
Yy : -gt + vo sin(O)
y : -gPtZ + vo sin(O)r +yo

Io,(r)dr+r,,0

t0

*(r):

Ir,G)dr+no

,0

If the force is constant (i.e. independent of time,


displacement, and velocity) then

ar: Frlm
,,:or(t-ro)+rrn
*

:,,(t -

tof o +

r*n(t

h) + *,,

Non-constant Acceleration
When non-constant acceleration, a(t), is considered, the
equations for the velocity and displacement may be obtained

Normal and Tangential Kinetics for Planar Problems


When working with normal and tangential directions, the

lrom

scalar equations may be written as

E4: *rr: mdvtldt and


E4: *on: *(tlp)

,(7)= la(r)dt+r^
h

= /v(t)dr+s,o
"(7)

Principle of Work and Energy

Tr*

tO

For variable angular acceleration

U,

,:

T,

Kinetic Energy

1,

t-

ro(r): lu(r)dr+

a,o

-mv'
2

Particle

tO

Rigid Body

0(t)

: la(r)dr+0^

(l'lane Motion)

to

CONCEPT OF WEIGHT
W : mg,where

Variableforce Uo

JF

cos 0 ds

"a'

Spring

- (4 cos O)As
U * : -wLv
U, : -[10,: -^:)

Couplemoment

Ur: MLe

Constantforce Uo

mass, kg (lbf-sec2/ft)

Weight

local acceleration ofgravity, m/s2 1ft/sec2;

PARTICLE IflNETICS
Newton's second law for a particle

2"

Work

W :weight,N(lb0

m:
C :

l2
: -mv--r

is

2F = d(mv)/dt, where

: the sum of the applied forces acting on the particle


m : the mass of the particle
v : the velocity of the particle

IJr

For constant mass,

ZF=mdv/dt=ma
One-Dimensional Motion of a Particle (Constant Mass)
When motion exists only in a single dimension then, without
loss of generality, it may be assumed to be in the x direction,

[2

Power and Efficiency

dt

P,n

U,n

Conservation of Energy Theorem

Tr+ Vr: Tr+


a

')

Y,

Adapted liom Hibbeler, R.C., Ezgmeering Mechanics, lOth ed., Prentice Hall, 2003.

and

70

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Potential Energy
Vr+ V , where Vr: !. Wy, V : + l/2

V:

Impulse and Momentum


Linear
Assuming constant mass, the equation of motion of
may be written as

ksz

Work and Energy


Work

Zis deflned as
py=JF.dr

particle

mdv/dt: F

mdv :Fdt

Kinetic Enersv

For a system of particles, by integrating and summing over the


number of parlicles, this may be expanded to

The kinetic energy of a particle is the rvork done by an


extemal agent in accelerating the particle from rest to a
velocity y. Thus

Enq (r,),r

T = mv2/2

Enq (r,),r

+ Z'il, at
t1

In changing the velocity from u, to vr, the change in kinetic


energy is

Potential Energy in Gravity Field


U = mgh, where

The tem on the left side of the equation is the linear


momentum of a system of particles at time 1.. The first term
on the right side of the equation is the lineaimomentum of
a system of particles at time 1,. The second term on the right
side of the equation is the impulse of the force F from time
tlto t2. lt should be noted that the above equation is a vector
equation. Component scalar equations may be obtained by
considering the momentum and force in a set of orthogonal
directions.

h = the elevation above some specifled datum.

Angular Momentum or Moment of Momentum

rz- T:

*6i-

vl)rz

Potential Enersv
The work done by an external agent in the presence of a
conseruative field is termed the change in potential energy.

The angular momentum or the moment of momentum about


a particle is defined as

Elastic Potential Energy

point 0 for

For a linear elastic spring with modulus, stiffness, or spring


constant, the force in the spring is
'E,

Ho= r Xmy,or
Ho:1orrl

= ir r, where

x = the change in length of the spring from the undeformed


length of the spring.

Taking the time derivative of the above, the equation


motion may be written as

The potential energy stored in the spring when compressed or


extended by an amount r is

rr- r--2tt

Ho

d(1oro)

of

ldt = M, where

M is the moment applied to the parlicle. Now by integrating

u - A I /l

In changing the deformation in the spring from position r, to


xr, the change in the potential energy stored in the spring is

and summing over a system of any number of particles, this


may be expanded to

uz- Ur: k(*i- *l),2

l(Ho,),r: )(Ho,),, + >'itWo,at


t1

Principle of Work and Energ),

If
of

T,and, U, are, respectively, the kinetic and potential energy


a parlicle at state l, then for conservative systems (no

energy dissipation or gain), the law ofconservation ofenergy


is

T2+Ur= Tr+[J,

The tem on the left side of the equation is the angular


momentum of a system of parlicles at time t".The first term
on the right side of the equation is the angulir momentum of
a system of particles at time t,. The second term on the right
side of the equation is the angular impulse of the momentM

from time ttto

t2.

Ifnonconservative forces are present, then the work done by


these forces must be accounted for. Hence

Tr+Ur=

T, +U, +W

r-r,

Adapted from Hibbeler, R.C., Engzeering Mechanics, lOth ed., prenrice Hall, 2003.

wherc

W1-2= the work done by the nonconseruative forces in


moving between state I and state 2. Care must be exercised
during computations to correctly compute the algebraic sign of
the work term. If the forces sele to increase the energy of the
system, Wr-rris positive. If the forces, such as friction, serve
to dissipate energy, Wrnris negative.

71

DyNAMtcs

Impact

PLANE MOTION OF A RIGID BODY

During an impact, momenfum is conserved while energy may


or may not be conserved. For direct central impact with no

Kinematics of a Rigid Body

external forces

mpl

l-ffi2r2- n\v\+

m2v'2,where

m, m2 : the masses of the two bodies


rp v2 = the velocities of the bodies just

v't,v'z :

rrl
0,

= d1ldt
= daldt
ad9 = ada

before impact

the velocities of the bodies just after impact

For impacts, the relative velocity expression is

(v',\ - (v')
e: #,rvhere
\\), -

Rigid Bodv Rotation


For rigid body rotation 0

Instantaneous Center of Rotation (Instant Centers)


An instantaneous center of rotation (instant center) is a point,
common to two bodies, at which each has the same velocity
(magnitude and direction) at a given instant. lt is also a point
in space about which a body rotates, instantaneously.

\v2),

coeffi cient of restitution


the velocity normal to the plane of impact just before

lv),

impact
the velocity normal to the plane of impact just after
impact

lv,l

1r+

The value of e is such that


0 < e < 1, with limiting values
e

:0,

1,

perfectly elasiic (energy conserved)


perfectly plastic (no rebound)

Klowing the value of

e, the velocities after the impact are

given as

(vi):
\

mz(v2),(l

+,,) + (nt-

l ln

(v',):
\ . |n

em2)(v1),

t?11+ tTh

mr(vr),(t + e) - (emr* m.r)(vr),

mt+

m2

Friction
The Laws of Friction are
The total friction force ,F that can be developed is
independent of the magnitude of the area of contact.
The total friction force Fthat can be developed is
proportional to the normal force,Iy'.
For low velocities of sliding, the total frictional force
that can be developed is practically independent of
the velocity, although experiments show that the
force Fnecessary to initiate slip is greater than that
necessary to maintain the motion.

1.

2.
3.

The formula expressing the Laws of Friction is


,F< pN, where
l'r

The flgure shows a fourbar slider-crank. Link2 (the crank)


rotates about the fixed center, Or.Link 3 couples the crank to
the slider (link 4), which slides against ground (link 1). Using
the definition of an instant center (1Q, we see that the pins at
Or,A, and B are ICs thal are designated Ip, Iy, and 1ro. The
easily observable IC is 1,0, which is located at inflnity with its
direction perpendicular to the interface between links 1 and 4
(the direction of sliding). To locate the remaining two 1Cs (for
a fourbar) we must make use of Kennedy's rule.
Kennedy s Rule: When three bodies move relative to one
another they have three instantaneous centers, all ofwhich lie
on the same straight line.

To apply this rule to the slider-crank mechanism, consider


links l, 2, and 3 whose 1Cs are Ip, Iy, and Is, all of which
lie on a straight line. Consider also links 1, 3, and 4 whose
ICs are I,.., 134, and Iy, all of which lie on a straight line.
Extending the line through lrrand lrrand the line through 1r,
and lroto their intersection locates 1,r, which is common to the
two groups of links that were considered.
Itq *

= the coefficient of friction.

.4 ltz

In general

F< p,l/, no slip occurring


F= trt,,N, at the point of impending slip
F = VoN, when slip is occurring
Here,

!t, : the coefficient of static friction


pr : the coefficient of kinetic friction

The coefficient of kinetic friction is often approximated as


7 5o/o of the coefficient of static friction.

72

oynnurcs

Similarly, if body groups I , 2, 4 and 2, 3 , 4 are considered, a


line drawn through known ICs lrrand lroto the intersection of
a line drawn through known ICs lrrand lrolocates 1ro.

Parallel-Axis Theorem
The mass moments of inertia may be calculated about
any axis through the application ofthe above definitions.
However, once the moments of inertia have been determined
about an axis passing through a body's mass center, it may
be transformed to another parallel axis. The transformation

The number of 1Cs, c, for a given mechanism is related to the


number of links, r, by

-2

n(n

equation is

1\

In"*= Ir+

In".:lhe

Kinetics of a Rigid Body


In general, Newton's second law for a rigid body, with
constant mass and mass moment of inertia, in plane motion
may be written in vector form as

2,F : rytoc
EM, = 1,s
EMo : I"a +

pp"

Ic :

x mar,where

Parallel-Axis

Radius of Gyration 1s:

the mass moment of inertia about an axis that is parallel


to the above specified axis but passes through the
body's mass center

Mass Radius of Gvration


The mass radius of gyration is deflned as

r^=ffi
Without loss of generality, the body may be assumed to be
inthe x-y plane. The scalar equations of motion may then be
written as

to point c.

Inertia t = lr'
Theorem I : Io + mfl2

dm

2,F- - t/taxc
2F, = tfiayc
ZM" = IrrQ.rwhere

!_
m

Equations of Motion

Rigid Body

LF,

(fhne Motion)

4 : *Qo),

m(ao),

LM" : I"a.or IM"= Z(Uo),

zc indicates the z axis passing through the body's mass center,


ar"and aycare the acceleration of the body's mass center
in the x andy directions, respectively, and a, is the angular
acceleration ofthe body about the z axis.
Rotation about an Arbitrary Fixed Axis

Rigid Body MotionAbout a FixedAxis

Variable

Mass Moment of Inertia


The definitions for the mass moments of inertia are

L: l (y'+

22)dm

I,:l(x2+22)dm

shapes is at the end

ofthis section.

ct

a= ac
0=0)Ot0"l

Constalt

da

0: dt
de
(r) :
dt
adoo:ad1

to2

0o

+ .l,ot+l a"f

oA

12o,(0

- 06)

For rotation about some arbitrary fixed axis q

4:l(x2+y2)am
A table listing moment of inertia formulas for some standard

mass moment of inertia about any specified axis

above-specified axis

a" is the acceleration of the body's mass


center both in the plane of motion, M,are moments and o, is
the angular acceleration both about an axis normal to the plane
of motion, f. is the mass moment of inertia about the normal
axis through the mass center, and po"is a vector from pointp

Mass Moment of

where

m : the mass of the body


d : the normal distance from the body's mass center to the

F are forces and

m*,

2M, = Iro
If the applied moment acting about the fixed axis is constant
then integrating with respect to time, from I = 0 yields

G, =

Mqllq

o = oo+cx,/
e - 0o+otot+ufn
where cr)o and 0o are the values of angular velocity and angular
displacement at time I = 0, respectively.
a

Adapted from Hi bbeler,R.C., Engin""r:irg Merhorirs,l Oth ed., prentice Hall, 2003.

73

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The change in kinetic energy is the work done in accelerating


the rigid body from oo to o)
0

Ina212

= Iqail2 + I

Mrdo

fr

where rrl, =
lm is the undamped natural circular frequency
and Crand Crare constants of integration whose values are
determined from the initial conditions.

Ifthe initial conditions

06

Principles of Work Energy


In general the kinetic energy for a rigid body may be written

i(0)

my2l2

re cos(ro,l)

+ (vsla,)sin(ro,l)

It may also be shown that the undamped natural frequency

+ Irazl2

may be expressed in terms of the static deflection of the

For motion inthe xy plane this reduces to

r:

vs, then

x(t) =

AS

T:

r(0) = x6 and

are denoted as

system as

*(rl,+ r!,)n+ +a:t2

rl,n: {916",
The undamped natural period of vibration may now be written

For motion about an instant center,

AS

T= Irc<]D

Body | {n"), + IJu"

(f bne Motioi)

where Ho

(u,),

+IJ

where

H,

dr --

(u,),

2n

f L
IK -

Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum


Rigid

1*
LIL

ln-alLtun-

,,1

16'
l6

v6"

Torsional Vibration

loirr,

ruo

dt:

(uo),

= 1o61

Conservation of Angular Momentum

I(syst.

H),:

I(syst. H),

Free Vibration
The figure illustrates a single degree-of-freedom system.

For torsional free vibrations it may be shown that the


differential equation of motion is

Position of Undefomed
Length of Spring
Position of Static

Equilibrim

+ (.tt,lt)0

0, where

= the angular displacement of the system


k, = the torsional stiffness of the massless rod

1:

the mass moment of inerlia of the end mass

The solution may now be written in terms of the initial

conditions 0(0)

o(r)
The equation of motion may be expressed as

m*

= m& - t(x +

0o

0s

cos(rop)

and g(0)

0o as

+ (00/o,)sin(ro;)

where the undamped natural circular frequency is given by

a, = ,[ftrll

0,,)

where m is mass of the system, k is the spring constant of the


system, 6r, is the static deflection of the system, and r is the
displacement of the system from static equilibrium.

The torsional stiffness of a solid round rod with associated


polar moment-of-inertia -r, length L, and shear modulus of
elasticity G is given by

kt= GJ/L
From statics it may be shown that
mg =

Thus the undamped circular natural frequency for a system


a solid round supporting rod may be written as

with

k6"

rl,n: {GJIIL
thus the equation of motion may be written as

m* -f

lw:

0, or

* + (klm)x:

Similar to the linear vi bration problem, the undamped natural


period may be written AS

Tn:2ttlan:

The solution of this differential equation is

x(t) = g, cos(ro,r) + C2sin(a,t)

2n_

lEy7

2tr

IGJ
\/ -7r

a Adapted from Hibbeler. R.C., Erglneering Mechanics,

74

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1Oth ed.,

Prentice Hall

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75

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