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Local Government Engineering Department

Local Government Division


Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives
Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh

Small Scale Water Resources Development Project


in Greater Mymensingh, Sylhet and Faridpur Areas

CAD Subproject Development

Technical Guideline

November 2011

A Local Government Engineering Department Project


Supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency
JICA Loan No. BD-P57

Contents Amendment Record


This report has been issued and amended as follows:
Issue

Revision

Description

Date

Page i

Signed

CONTENTS
I.

INTRODUCTION

II.

LOW PRESSURE PIPELINE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM OPTIONS


A.
Introduction
B.
Upstream versus Downstream Control Systems
C.
Conveyance Pipe Types and Costs

2
2
2
3

1.
2.

III.

Conveyance Pipe Characteristics


uPVC Pipe Availability and Costs in Bangladesh

APPRAISAL OF EXISTING CAD SUBPROJECTS


A.
Introduction
B.
Appraisal of Existing CAD Subprojects
1.
2.
3.
4.

Development Costs
Agricultural Performance of Existing CAD Subprojects
Engineering Features of Existing CAD Subprojects
Engineering Appraisal of Rouha Subproject

C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

IV.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Introduction
Option A: Minor Improvement to Existing CAD Systems Designs
Option B: Adoption of uPVC Pipes
Option C: Downstream Control & Semi-Closed System with uPVC Pipes
Provision of Pump Plant and Power Connection
Recommendation

SELECTION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CAD SUBPROJECTS


A.
Introduction
B.
Criteria for Selection of CAD Subprojects
C.
System Layout
1.
2.

Introduction
Guidelines for Layout Preparation

D.
1.
2.
3.

Pipe System Design

18
18
19
19
20
20

21
21
21
22
25
25
32
32

33
33
34
34
37

37
37
38
42

Pumps and Power Requirements

Introduction
Pump Selection Overview
Pump and Electric Power Requirements

Construction

46
46
46
48

50

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


A.
Introduction
B.
Operation
1.
2.
3.
4.

18

Pipe System Structures

H.
V.

7
9
11
14

Types of Structures
Flow Formulae
Design Features of Pipe System Structures

G.
1.
2.
3.

Crop & Irrigation Water Requirements and Operating Considerations

Design Process and Steps


Pipeline and Node Numbering System
Pipe Sizing and Pipe Flow Friction Losses
Standard Design Spreadsheet

F.
1.
2.
3.

7
7
7

22
22

Crop and Irrigation Water Requirements


Design Duty for Pipe Sizing
Operating Considerations

E.
1.
2.
3.
4.

3
4

Operation Objectives
System Layout, Farmer Institutions and O&M Staff
Operational Challenges and Practices
Enabling Subproject Infrastructure

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51
51
51
51
51
52
53

5.

Water Distribution below the Pipe Outlet

C.
1.
2.

54

Maintenance

54

Categories of Maintenance
Specific Maintenance Requirements

54
55

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure III-1: Subproject Development Costs .................................................................... 8
Figure III-2: Rabi (Winter) Cropped Areas ..................................................................... 10
Figure III-3: CAD Irrigation System Pipeline & Structures .............................................. 12
Figure III-4: Cost of Rouha Pipeline System for concrete / uPVC Pipes ........................ 17
Figure IV-1: Layout for Beneswardi Subproject (SP prepared using Google-earth) ....... 23
Figure IV-2: Detail of part of Beneswardi Subproject (showing detail available from
Google-earth)......................................................................................................... 24
Figure IV-3: Typical Cropping Pattern by Land Category .............................................. 25
Figure IV-4: Climatic Stations in Bangladesh ................................................................ 26
Figure IV-5: District Map ............................................................................................... 31
Figure IV-6: Moody Diagram ......................................................................................... 35
Figure IV-7: Headloss Coefficients for Pipe Channel / Structure Transitions .............. 39
Figure IV-8: Modular Limit for Broad Crested Weirs ...................................................... 40
Figure IV-9: Head over V-notch weir crest and flow ...................................................... 42
Figure IV-10: Plan and Section of a Header Tank ......................................................... 43
Figure IV-11: Plan and Section of Flow Control / Measurement Structure ..................... 44
Figure IV-12: Plan and Section of Outlet Riser .............................................................. 44
Figure IV-13: Plan and Elevation of Standpipe .............................................................. 45
Figure IV-14: Plan and Section of Washout................................................................... 46
Figure IV-15: Pump Sets and Pump Types ................................................................... 47
Figure IV-16: Conveyance Pipeline Trench Construction .............................................. 50
LIST OF TABLES
Table II-1: Upstream Versus Downstream Conveyance Systems ................................... 2
Table II-2: Conveyance Pipe Characteristics ................................................................... 3
Table II-3: uPVC Pipes Diameters and Wall Thicknesses ............................................... 4
Table II-4: Comparison between PVC & Concrete Pipe Costs (2011) ............................. 5
Table III-1: Review of Existing / Original Layouts .......................................................... 11
Table III-2: Cost of Rouha CAD Subproject with Concrete / uPVC Pipes ...................... 15
Table IV-1: Criteria for Selection of CAD Subprojects ................................................... 21
Table IV-2: Cropping by Land Category and Season .................................................... 25
Table IV-3: Average Climatic Data and ET0 (Mymensingh) ........................................... 27
Table IV-4: Average Total and Effective Rainfall (Mymensingh) .................................... 27
Table IV-5: Net Rice Crop Water Requirements ............................................................ 28
Table IV-6: Irrigation Requirements for Rabi Cropping (Mymensingh) ........................... 29
Table IV-7: On-farm Irrigation Requirements for Rabi Cropping .................................... 30
Table IV-8: Pipe Roughness, ks .................................................................................... 36
Table IV-9: Description and Function of Pipe System Structures .................................. 37
Table IV-10: Energy Loss Coefficients for Transitions ................................................... 38
Table IV-11: Reduction Factors for Submerged Flow .................................................... 40
Table IV-12: Number of Pump Sets and Power Requirements ...................................... 49
Table IV-13: Pump & Power Requirement Options ....................................................... 49
Table V-1: Scheme Layout, Institutions and O&M Staff ................................................. 52
Table V-2: Rainfall and suggested length of Closure Period.......................................... 53

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Working Paper

APPENDICES
Appendix A: Pipe System Costs
Appendix A: uPVC Pipe and Fitting Rates
Appendix B:
Appendix B1:
Appendix B2:
Appendix B3:

Crop Water Requirements


Description of FAO Programmes for CWR Calculation
Crop Water Requirements and Design Duties (FAO)
On-farm Irrigation Water Requirements

Appendix C:
Appendix C1:
Appendix C2:
Appendix C3:
Appendix C4:

Pipe System Original & Improved Layouts


SP 25227, Hatnabad Subproject, Rajshahi District
SP 25233, Gandharbbapur-Dighali subproject, Laxmipur District
SP 25195, Sonar Bangla, Chapai Nawabganj District
SP 25259, Baroigoan Jhilki subproject, Mymensingh District

Appendix D: Sample Design Calculations for CAD Subproject (Bajra Panail)


Appendix E: Sample Drawings of CAD Subproject (Bajra Panail)
Appendix F: Sample Specification for uPVC Pipe Distribution System
Appendix G: Selected Photographs

Page iii

ABBREVIATIONS
ADB
BWDB
CAD
FMD
FSDD
HGL
IWRMU
IU
JBIC
JICA
kW
LGED
LF
LL
MC
MF
MIS
MRF
O&M
PVC
RU
SF
SP
SSW-1
SSW-2
SSW-3
SSW-4
TA
UAE
UE
uPVC
WCS
WMCA

Asian Development Bank


Bangladesh Water Development Board
Command Area Development
Flood Management and Drainage
Feasibility Study & Detailed Design
Hydraulic Grade Line
Integrated Water Resources Management Unit (of LGED)
Irrigator Unit (typically 5-15 ha in area)
Japanese Bank for International Cooperation
Japan International Cooperation Agency
kilo Watt
Local Government Engineering Department
Large Farmer (> 7.5 ac)
Landless (farmer)
Management Committee (of WMCA)
Medium Farmer (2.50 to 7.49 ac)
Management Information System
Marginal Farmer (0.01 to 0.49 ac)
Operation and Maintenance
Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (see also uPVC)
Rotation Unit (typically 80 120 ha in area)
Small Farmer (0.50 to 2.49 ac)
Subproject
Small Scale Water Resources Development Project 1 (ADB), 1996-2002
Small Scale Water Resources Development Project 2, (ADB), 2002-2009
Small Scale Water Resources Development Project (JBIC), 2009-ongoing
Participatory Small Scale Water Resources Project (ADB) 2010-ongoing
Technical Assistance
Upazila Assistant Engineer
Upazila Engineer
Un-Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (or PVCu)
Water Conservation Structure
Water Management Cooperative Association

Page iv

GLOSSARY
Acre
Aman

Aus
Beel
Boro

District
Haor

Khal
Kharif
Rabi
Taka, Tk
Union
Union Parishad

Upazila
Upazila
Parishad

1 ha = 2.471 acres
Rice grown during the wet season (Kharif), and harvested late (NovDecember). Yields: (i) Broadcast, deep water 1.5t/ha; (ii) Transplanted, local
variety 2.2t/ha; (iii) Transplanted, high yielding variety, 3.25t/ha
Rice grown during the wet season (Kharif), and harvested early (July-August).
Yields: (i) Broadcast 1.25t/ha; (ii) Transplanted, high yielding variety, 2.5t/ha
Saucer shaped low-lying area with pond of static water as opposed to moving
water in rivers and canals.
Irrigated rice grown in the dry season (Rabi). Transplanted in
December/January and harvested in April / May. Yield: (i) Transplanted, high
yielding variety, 4.25t/ha
Second administrative unit of the government comprising 6-9
Upazilas. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh.
Haor is a wetland ecosystem in the north eastern part of Bangladesh.
Physically a bowl or saucer shaped shallow depression, also
known as a back-swamp.
Natural or man-made water channel (canal)
Wet (monsoon) season
Dry / winter cropping season (November to March)
Bangladesh currency; 1 US$ = 77 Tk (November 2011)
Subdivision of Upazila. In all, there are 4,889 unions in Bangladesh.
Local government institution at Union level. The Union Parishad consists of an
elected council and chairman, and is the oldest government institution in
Bangladesh
Administrative unit, sub-division of District and lowest administrative tier of the
government. In all, there are 482 upazilas in Bangladesh.
2nd tier of local government institution at Upazila level.

Page v

I.

INTRODUCTION

Twenty nine of the 300 subprojects developed under SSW-2 (ADB) from 2002-2010 were
CAD irrigation subprojects. These were usually designed for boro rice cropping with water
pumped from a permanent water body, small river or khal into a concrete header tank. Water
distribution from the header tank to farmers fields usually comprised: (i) either a buried
concrete pipe or an open (lined) canal system constructed by the project supplying flow to
outlets; and (ii) open earthen ditches from the outlets to the fields dug by farmers.
Unfortunately many of these CAD subprojects are failing to achieve the envisaged
agricultural benefits for reasons which include poor design and construction and lack of O&M
and agricultural extension support. It was also realized that the existing guidelines1 for small
scale water resource development do not provide sufficient guidance for the design,
construction and O&M of CAD subprojects.
About 5-10% of the 550 subprojects to be developed under SSW-3 (JICA) and SSW-4
(ADB) are likely to be CAD type subprojects and it is appropriate, prior to their development,
to synthesize lessons from the existing subprojects and prepare this report to guide future
CAD subproject development where buried pipe conveyance is adopted.
Following this Introductory Chapter, a review of low-pressure pipeline conveyance options is
given in Chapter II and covers upstream versus downstream control and choice of pipe type.
While a systematic review of the performance of the SSW-2 (ADB) CAD subprojects has not
been carried out, it is known that that many suffer from pipe joint leakage, fail to provide
equitable coverage of the proposed benefit (command) area and achieve lower than
expected Rabi crop areas. Chapter III gives a brief appraisal of existing CAD subprojects,
including a description of their design and concludes that poor design is likely to be a root
cause of poor performance. The Chapter ends with lessons and recommendations for the
future development of CAD subprojects by LGED.
There are currently no guidelines for the selection, design, construction and operation &
maintenance of CAD subprojects, and this is remedied by Chapter IV which covers the
selection, design and construction of CAD subprojects adopting buried uPVC pipe
distribution, and Chapter V which describes operation and maintenance requirements.

In particular the SSWR Subproject Planning & Design Guidelines, January 2005

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II.
A.

LOW PRESSURE PIPELINE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM OPTIONS

Introduction

Low-pressure (up to about 6 m operating head) pipeline conveyance systems enable


delivery of irrigation water to farmers for surface application with minimal land-take, reduced
water losses compared to open channel systems, and (depending on the control systems
adopted) with increased flexibility of supply to meet a range of crop water demands. The
pipe system supplies outlets (risers) which are spread equitably over the full command area,
delivering water to irrigator groups for surface conveyance and application.
For the CAD subprojects developed by LGED the net irrigation command area typically
varies from about 300-800 ha (with an upper limit of 1,000 ha), and the irrigator group areas
from about 40-80 ha.
Options for the conveyance pipeline system require making choices for the following: (i)
upstream versus downstream control; and (ii) choice of pipe types.
B.

Upstream versus Downstream Control Systems

The characteristics and advantages / disadvantages of upstream and downstream control


systems are tabulated below.
Table II-1: Upstream Versus Downstream Conveyance Systems
Option
Upstream
Control (open
pipeline
system)

Characteristic
Water is released from a header tank
into the pipeline system. Operating
pressures within the pipeline are
controlled by open standpipes
located at the end of each reach, and
often just upstream of each outlet
(riser). If the outlets are closed water
rises in the standpipes and if supply
is not reduced overspills. When
irrigation ceases the pipeline would
usually drains empty.

Advantages / Disadvantages
Simple system to build but: (i) the
standpipes are vulnerable to overtopping
and possible damage; and (ii) good
operation requires monitoring of irrigation
demand and standpipe water levels to
adjust the number of pumps operating.

Downstream
Control
(semi-closed
or closed
pipeline)
system

In a downstream control system


standpipes are replaced with
pressure reducing valves (eg Haris
float valves) so that when there is no
irrigation demand pressure in the
pipeline builds to the design static
water level (SWL) and flow ceases.
There is no spillage from the system
and the operator turns on/off the
pumps according to the water level in
the header (discharge) tank. If
required a water sensor (eg mercury
float switch) can be used to turn the
pumps on/off.

Usually a slightly more expensive system to


build and with slightly higher pressures than
for an upstream control system. However
downstream control is beginning to find
favour as a means of flexible water delivery
(water is available at each outlet
instantaneously) and for ease of operation
which leads to increased efficiency of water
use. These advantages are particularly felt
if a range of different dry-foot crops are
cultivated in the dry season. If monocropping of paddy rice is proposed then the
advantage is minimal.

Current LGED practice is to design pipeline conveyance systems for upstream control, with
open standpipes located just upstream of each outlet (riser). There are usually no other flow
control or measurement structures. Costs are therefore minimized, but operational
challenges are considerable. A modest increase in investment for control and flow

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Cad Sp Development (2)

measurement structures to allow rotation of flows to different pipelines, as well as for


washout and escapes would appear justified and is discussed in this manual.
C.

Conveyance Pipe Types and Costs


1.

Conveyance Pipe Characteristics

Current LGED practice for CAD irrigation subprojects is to use precast concrete pipes with
joints sealed by: (i) filling gaps with hessian cloth soaked with bitumen; and (ii) placement of
a mortar / concrete surround. This remains the lowest cost option.
Concrete pipes with spigot and socket joints can provide reasonable water tight joints for
pressures up to about 6 m, particularly if rubber gaskets are used. However rubber gaskets
are not currently used with concrete pipes and maintenance efforts to reseal leaking pipes is
a recurring problem.
An alternative option is to use uPVC (and / or HDPE) pipes available for pipe diameters up
to about 600 mm. This is more expensive than concrete but would enable downstream
control if this was desired, as well as addressing the joint leakage problem.
For low-pressure pipe systems (less than 6 m head) with open water surface risers / outlets
water hammer will not be an issue. Nonetheless flow velocities in PVC pipes are limited to
1.5 m/s. For concrete pipes flow velocities of about 2.4 m/s are allowed, though such high
velocities may acerbate damage to, and leakage of, joints.
Table II-2: Conveyance Pipe Characteristics
Nr

Material

Typical
Diameters
(mm)

Jointing

GRP

300 to
2,000 mm

Couplings with
elastometric
seals

Rigid
uPVC (6 m
lengths)

50 to 600
mm

Solvent (small
pipes); and
spigot & socket
(large)

Precast
spun
concrete

300-900
mm

Rubber
gaskets, mastic
fill, filter fabric,
mortar, external
bands
(concrete)

SSWRDP (JICA)

Nominal
Working
Pressure,
PN (bar)
10 & 16 bar
(other
pressure
classes
possible)
4, 6, 10 &
16 bars (but
any
pressure
can be
specified)
Usually Low
pressure

Page 3

Average
Life (years)

50 years
buried with
proper
trenching /
bedding
50 years
buried with
proper
trenching /
bedding
50 years
buried with
proper
trenching /
bedding

Suggested Use

Irrigation water
conveyance where
larger diameters are
required. Careful
handing necessary to
avoid damage.
Ideal for irrigation water
conveyance for smaller
pipes. Maximum flow
velocity, 1.5 m/s

Free water surface flow


or low pressure
pipelines

Cad Sp Development (2)

2.

uPVC Pipe Availability and Costs in Bangladesh


a.

Pipe Sizes and Wall Thicknesses

The base material from which the uPVC pipes are produced shall be un-plasticised Polyvinyl
Chloride (uPVC) with additives as necessary for manufacture in accordance with ISO 4065:
1996(E).
All fittings having sockets shall comply with ISO 727-1985 and shall be compatible with the
pipes supplied.
The operating heads in the LGED constructed low-pressure CAD subproject pipelines will
(usually) be less than 10 m. Adopting a design norm that the pipe working pressure is 1.4
times this indicates a pressure rating of about 14 m, say 20 m or 2 bar. However to be safe
(transport damage, impact, etc) adopted of pipes with a working pressure of 3.25 bar (32 m)
is recommended.
Wall thicknesses of uPVC pipes and pipe fittings shall be commensurate with the adopted
working pressure rating and determined in accordance with ISO 4065: 1996(E), having a
SDR value of 81 (equivalent to PN 3.25).
For the recommended 3.25 bar (32 m head) pipe diameters and wall thickness are tabulated
below for the range of pipes and pipe fittings likely to be used.
The pipes shall have one end socket and one end spigot (plain). The spigot end shall be
chamfered to facilitate insertion into the socket of the adjacent pipeline / fitting. The socket
shall be machine made.
The length of the pipes shall be 6.0 m including socket.
Table II-3: uPVC Pipes Diameters and Wall Thicknesses
Nr

External
Diameter
(mm)

Nominal Wall
thickness
(mm)

Internal
Diameter (mm)

Length
(m)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560

2.00
2.30
2.50
2.80
3.10
3.50
4.00
4.40
5.00
5.60
6.20
7.00

156
175
195
219
244
273
307
346
390
439
488
546

6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00

There are a number of manufacturers and suppliers of PVC pipe in Bangladesh including:
Rangpur Foundry Limited (rfl@prangroup.com)
Aziz pipes (info@azizpipes.com)
PCL plastics (pclplasticsbd@yahoo.com)

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At the present time (November 2011), only Rangpur Foundry (RFL) is capable of
manufacturing the larger diameter pipes, from about 160 mm to 600 mm2.
b.

Comparison between PVC and Concrete Pipe Costs

LGED 2011 rates for uPVC (3.25 bar pressure, 32 m head) pipes of various diameters are
tabulated below and include for transport to site, placement in trench and jointing.
LGED 2011 rates for concrete pipes are also given. The fitted and fixed rates are the
schedule rate increased by 10% for the reinforced concrete plinths which are to be placed
under the pipes to prevent settlement and joint failure.
PVC pipes are available for a variety of sizes from 225 mm to 560 mm (outside diameter).
Concrete pipes are usually spun for pipes from 300 to 550 mm (internal diameter), and cast
using steel forms for diameters from 600 to 900 mm or even larger.
For 300 mm diameter pipes, uPVC is comparable in cost to a concrete alternative, about Tk
1,900 / m. For larger diameters concrete pipes are considerably cheaper, being half the cost
of uPVC pipes for diameters of about 550 mm (Tk 3,075 /m compared to Tk 6,200 /m).
While the lower friction losses and greater range of available diameters of PVC pipes means
that often a slightly smaller pipe can be used than its concrete alternative, designers should
avoid using PVC pipes larger than (say) 500 mm. Also twinning of PVC pipes should be
avoided as this would be very expensive. For large flows concrete pipes should be adopted.
Table II-4: Comparison between PVC & Concrete Pipe Costs (2011)
PVC Pipe (3.25 bar)

Concrete Pipe

External
Diameter
(mm)

Pipe Wall
Thickness
(mm)

Internal
Diameter
(mm)

LGED
*1
Rate
(Tk/ m)

225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560

2.80
3.10
3.50
4.00
4.40
5.00
5.60
6.20
7.00

219
244
273
307
346
390
439
488
546

1,130
1,184
1,487
1.900
2,370
3,016
3.780
4,667
(6,200)

Internal
Diameter &
thickness
(mm)

2011
Schedule
of Rates

Fitted &
*2
Fixed Rate
(Tk/m)

300 x 50
350 x 50
400 x 50
450 x 50
500 x 50
550 x 75
600 x 75
650 x 75
700 x 75
750 x 100
800 x 100
850 x 100
900 x 100

1,719
1,780
2,044
2,144
2,185
2,795
2,958
3,005
3,345
3,656
4,662
4,880
4,606

1,891
2,136
2,248
2,358
2,404
3,075
3,254
3,306
3,680
4,022
5,128
5,368
5,067

0%
90%
75%
62%
52%
50%

1. PVC pipe fitted & fixed 2011 LGED rate includes for transport, placement & jointing
2. Concrete pipe fitted & fixed rate is taken from 2011 schedule of rates but increased by 10% for cost of RCC
plinth bedding under pipe joints

Pipes greater than 500 mm in diameter are likely to require a special order

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c.

Recommended use of uPVC pipes in CAD Subprojects

The adoption of uPVC pipes for CAD subprojects has the following advantages:
i.
Lengthy on-site manufacture of pipes is avoided this often takes a year or longer.
ii.
Quality control is easier and problems arising from poorly cast / spun pipes avoided.
iii.
PVC pipes are light and handling, placement and jointing is both easier and quicker
than for concrete pipes.
iv.
With PVC pipes (provided proper seals are provided and installed) leaking joints are
rare.
The main disadvantage is the higher cost. Prior to the manufacture of larger size uPVC
pipes in Bangladesh the cost difference was prohibitive. This is no longer the case for
smaller pipes, though larger diameter PVC pipes are relatively expensive.
To avoid very high pipeline costs it is recommended that LGED CAD pipe irrigation systems
adopt a mix of PVC pipes with diameters ranging from 225 to 500 mm and concrete pipes for
diameters from 550 to 900 mm.

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III.
A.

APPRAISAL OF EXISTING CAD SUBPROJECTS

Introduction

For the LGEDs SSWR irrigation (CAD) subprojects the traditional choice for pipeline
conveyance of irrigation water has been concrete hume pipes with joints sealed using
bitumen impregnated hessian / jute cloth and a concrete / mortar surround. However
leakage is a problem, even at low (< 6 m) pressures, and construction periods are long.
Rubber gaskets seals are not used and spigot and socket joints are only features of the
larger (600 mm or more) concrete pipes.
The irrigation (CAD) pipe subprojects are designed as upstream control (open) systems
whereby supply has to be adjusted to demand with field feedback to the pump station
operator to inform pumping. Oversupply results in water rising up in the (pressure relief)
standpipes and overtopping.
An appraisal of the design of CAD subprojects designed and built / under construction by
2011 is given in Section B. The appraisal includes: (i) a general assessment of agricultural
performance, system layout and construction; and (ii) a detailed engineering assessment of
the (original) design of the Rouha CAD
Section C outlines options for the design of future CAD subprojects by LGED. These range
from minor improvements to the existing designs using concrete hume pipes, to adoption of
downstream control and a semi-closed pipeline system with uPVC pipes and fittings. The
recommended option to retain upstream control, incorporate uPVC pipes and to adopt a pipe
layout and essential structures to facilitate improved operation represents a suitable
compromise at this time.
B.

Appraisal of Existing CAD Subprojects


1.

Development Costs

Only one CAD subproject was developed under SSW-1 (1996-2002), SP11004 Agrani
Irrigation project. This was considered successful with farmers choosing to switch from
cultivation of winter Boro rice to vegetables and potato. Under SSW-2 (2002-2009) a total of
29 CAD subprojects were developed. The cost of these at 2010/11 prices (assuming 5%
annual inflation in US$ terms) varied from about US$ 400 to 1,000 / ha, averaging US$ 643 /
ha. These subprojects used concrete pipeline conveyance. Note: the costs for CAD
subprojects incorporating uPVC pipes will be higher, probably averaging about US$ 1,000 /
ha.
The cost of non-CAD subprojects depends on the scope of work, from simple khal
excavation to construction of several large water regulating structures. However the
investment is generally lower than for a CAD subproject. For the first 8 subprojects
developed under SSW-4 (2009-ongoing) the cost varied from US$ 223/ha to US$ 918/ha
and averaged US$ 427/ha.
Overall the unit area investment costs of CAD subprojects (incorporating uPVC pipes) will be
about double the cost for other types.

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Figure III-1: Subproject Development Costs


SP Nr
Subproject

Year
Construction
Initiated

Type of SP

SP Cost Cost

Tk million
Cost of Selected SSW-2 CAD Subprojects
SP25195
Sonar Bangla
SP25288
Dariapur
SP25289
Chapai Grameen
SP25233
Agrani-Dighali-Gandharbpur
SP25300
Ramkrishnapur
SP23109
Chaipara
SP25227
Hatnabad
SP25235
Kashimpur
SP22023
Nayagola-Mohananda
SP22021
Mohammadkhani
SP25236
Baliaghata
Cost of Selected SSW-3 Subprojects (Non-CAD)
SP31003
Beel Gobindapur
SP31007
Barua-Kumaria
SP31004
Arua Kalkalia
SP31002
Tekhala-Naodhara-Katajora
SP31008
Pukuria-Uziakhali Khal
SP31005
Ranjana Jharna Khal
SP31006
Bawa-Chamurakandi Boro Haor
Averages

SSWRDP (JICA)

2007
2008
2008
2007
2009
2005
2007
2007
2004
2004
2007

2010/11
2010/11
2010/11
2010/11
2010/11
2010/11
2010/11

Rate

Benefitted Area

US$ million

ha

2010/11
Prices

US$/ha

US$/ha

CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD
CAD

20.71
12.22
16.35
12.41
8.75
26.76
13.63
9.17
14.08
12.80
9.30
14.20

68
68
68
68
70
58
68
68
57
57
68

0.305
0.180
0.240
0.183
0.125
0.461
0.200
0.135
0.247
0.225
0.137
0.22

931
290
334
546
245
544
450
320
342
563
433
454

327
620
720
334
510
848
445
421
722
399
316
515

398
717
833
406
563
1,137
541
512
1,016
561
384
643

FMD&WC
FMD&IRR
WC
DR&WC
FM
WC
FM&WC

24.10
15.21
13.42
18.20
13.27
15.73
13.96
16.27

76.00
76.00
76.00
76.00
76.00
76.00
76.00

0.317
0.200
0.177
0.239
0.175
0.207
0.184
0.21

708
800
546
856
784
380
200
611

448
250
323
280
223
545
918
427

448
250
323
280
223
545
918
427

Page 8

Cad Sp Development (2)

2.

Agricultural Performance of Existing CAD Subprojects

The agricultural assessment of CAD subprojects, as will all others, is determined from:
i.
Effect monitoring data particularly seasonal crop area and production data
collected by agricultural facilitators; and
ii.
Impact assessments comprising a baseline and, 5 years later, impact survey carried
out for a selected number of subprojects by an independent consuming firm.
Impact assessments have been carried out for 10 SSW-1 subprojects but none of these
were CAD irrigation schemes.
Baseline surveys were carried out (in 2007) for 30 of the SSW-2 subprojects of which 3 were
CAD subprojects. It is expected that follow-on surveys of these 30 subprojects will be carried
out in (about) 2012/13 to allow impact to be determined.
Effect monitoring data for five subprojects is tabulated below for the rabi (winter) season
when the CAD irrigation subproject would be expected to have the most impact. The data
compare the baseline rabi areas for both cereal and non-cereal crops with the latest data
available, 2009 for these subprojects. Overall all the data are disappointing, with rabi
cropped areas decreasing in three of the five subprojects and overall by 17%. On the more
positive side, the data indicate an overall increase in non-cereal (boro rice) cropping of 30%.

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Cad Sp Development (2)

Figure III-2: Rabi (Winter) Cropped Areas


SP
Name
Cereal

SP22021
SP22022
SP22023
SP23108
SP23109

Mohammadkhani
Behula
Nayagola-Mohananda
Kasadah
Charipara*
Averages

(ha)
390
228
254
264
341
295

Feasibility / Baseline
NonTotal
Cereal
(ha)
(ha)
82
472
16
244
82
336
79
343
203
544
92
388

Year

Cereal

2003
1999
2003
2005
2003

(ha)
95
51
182
273
415
203

Latest Data
NonTotal
Cereal
(ha)
(ha)
30
125
34
85
65
247
230
503
243
658
120
324

Year

2009
2009
2009
2009

Cereal
(%)
-75.6%
-77.6%
-28.3%
3.4%
21.7%
-31.2%

Increase
NonCereal
(%)
-63.4%
112.5%
-20.7%
191.1%
19.7%
30.3%

*Note: Charipara was visited on 4 October 2011. In 2010/11 only about 50% of the command area was irrigated (ie 300-350 ha) due to breaking of the
pipeline at a stream crossing.

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Cad Sp Development (2)

Total
(%)
-73.5%
-65.2%
-26.5%
46.6%
21.0%
-16.6%

3.

Engineering Features of Existing CAD Subprojects


a.

Introduction

Possible technical reasons for CAD subprojects to under-perform include the following:
i.
Poor layouts.
ii.
Poor designs including choice of materials.
iii.
Poor construction.
iv.
Poor support for subproject operation and maintenance.
b.

Layouts

The original / existing layouts for four subprojects developed under SSW-2 are given in
Appendix C along with improved layouts. A brief description of the existing layouts and
suggested improvements are tabulated below.
Table III-1: Review of Existing / Original Layouts
Nr

Subproject &
District

Net
Area
(ha)
450

SP 25227,
Hatnabad
subproject,
Rajshahi

SP25233,
GandharbbapurDighali
subproject,
Laxmipur

546

SP25195, Sonar
Bangla, Chapai
Nawabganj

931

SP 25259,
Baroigoan Jhilki
subproject,
Mymensingh

350

Existing Layout
Description

Suggestions for Improvement

Central pipeline which


leads east from the
Header Tank through the
command area, crossing
over low land the Charai
Beel Khal.
The existing layout
provides reasonable good
coverage with a single
central main pipeline with
eight off-taking branches

The existing layout is broadly retained.


It bisects the command area into six
approximately equal hydraulic units.

The existing layout


comprises a single
pipeline aligned along the
eastern boundary of the
subproject. It only covers
about 2/3 of the
command area.
The existing layout
comprising 3 pipelines,
only one of which crosses
the railway which bisects
the command area. The
pipeline does not provide
complete or equitable
coverage of the command
area.

The existing layout could have been


marginally improved with three
pipelines offtaking directly from the
header tank. The centre (larger)
pipeline would bisect the command
area and have three offtaking
branches. The command area would be
divided into six approximately equal
hydraulic units.
Two pipeline offtaking from the header
tank are required. A smaller one to
command hydraulic (rotation) units 1 &
2, and a larger one aligned along the
eastern boundary leading to units 3-7.

Two pipelines off-taking from the


header tank are proposed feeding one
and two hydraulic units respectively.
Two small branch pipelines are
proposed to supply the more remote
parts of the command area. Note: use
of existing (drainage) culverts under
roads/railways should be avoided and
not allowed to influence pipeline layout.

Many of the SSW-2 CAD subproject layouts have one or more of the following deficiencies:
i.
Incomplete coverage of the command area ie some parts of the command area are
not commanded by the pipeline system.
ii.
Inequitable coverage of the command area ie some farmers fields are much further
from the pipeline than others which leads to problems for both operation and

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Cad Sp Development (2)

iii.

collection of funds for maintenance due to some farmers benefitting more than
others.
Little consideration of operation and pipeline water distribution for example the
pipeline does not divide the command area into hydraulic units of comparable size to
facilitate formation of water user groups and rotations of irrigation supply.

Guidelines for preparation of improved pipe system layouts are given in Section IV-C.
c.

Pipeline and Structures

All CAD subproject designed to date are similar in design comprising: (i) a concrete header
tank into which pumped water discharges and which provides the necessary pressure head
as well as settling out sediment; (ii) a concrete pipeline distribution system; (iii) riser outlets
providing water to small outlet box structures; and (iii) standpipe air-vents (usually) located
just upstream of each riser outlet. There are no gated regulator (control) or flow
measurement structures. Any sediment that enters the pipe system is expected to wash out
through the riser outlets.
Figure III-3: CAD Irrigation System Pipeline & Structures

Header Tank, Kharia Nadi

Production of Spun Concrete Pipes

Air vent Standpipe & Outlet Box, Kharia Nadi

Locked cover to prevent tampering to Alfalfa


Vale of Outlet

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Cad Sp Development (2)

d.

Operation & Maintenance

The sizing of each pipeline section is carried out for its design flow which is given by the
product of the net command (irrigation) area and design duty. The design duty represents
the peak monthly irrigation demand. While efforts are (usually) made to align the pipelines
down-slope to minimise pressure variation along the pipeline it is accepted that the pressure
at each outlet will vary. Given the near-flat terrain of much of Bangladesh pressures in the
pipe distribution system are usually highest near the header tank and lowest at the tail
end(s) of the pipeline system.
To enable reasonable equity of distribution flows have to be adjusted at each outlet using the
alfalfa valves, or any other control valve. Where pressures are low (usually near the tail) the
alfalfa valves would be wide open and where pressures are high (usually near the header
tank), they would be partially closed to burn of excess head.
Operation is further complicated by the fact that irrigation water requirements vary over the
cropping season.
While in theory the opening, closing and adjustments of all outlet valves along pipelines to
match supply to irrigation demand is possible, in practice it is extremely difficult, particularly
for large systems.
Operations would be facilitated by subdividing the command into rotation units and locating
control / flow measurement structures at key locations. This should be done when pipeline
layouts are prepared.
Many of the subprojects suffer from leakage from pipe joints which are sealed using jute
cloth bandages soaked with bitumen and with a cement slurry (mortar) surround. These
typically start to leak after 3-5 years requiring replacement of the bandage.
Performance and constraints were assessed for SP 23109 Charipara in Mymensing District
and included:
Reported difficulty in providing water to the whole command area of 544 ha (net).
Typically about 50% is irrigated by the system with water provided to 28-30 outlets.
Note: when commissioned in 2006 water was supplied to all outlets.
Each outlet typically provides water to two small earthen channels which supply
water to farmer fields.
There are 3 deep (14 inch) tubewells in the area used for irrigation.
A short length of pipeline was washed away where it crosses under the railway using
an existing drainage culvert in 2010/11. Until repaired the whole system cannot
receive water.
Typically only two pump sets are hired for rabi cropping from BADC. This is
understood to be insufficient to command the whole area. Pumping continues from
early January to end April at night due to low power during the day time.
Some of the standpipes overtop during operation this indicates that discharges and
flow velocities are lower than design.
Fish ponds are supplied with water in exceptionally dry years.
Rabi crops include boro rice, vegetables and banana.
To prevent tampering of the alfalfa valves lockable screens are provided to the outlet
risers. These, as well as the pumps, are controlled by four operators who manage
water distribution and are each paid Tk 6,000/month during Rabi. Farmers are
charged Tk 2,400/ac per season for water.

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Cad Sp Development (2)

4.

Engineering Appraisal of Rouha Subproject


a.

Introduction

A detailed appraisal of the (original) design of the Rouha CAD irrigation project (SP 31001)
being constructed under the SSW-3 (ADB) project was carried out to determine possible
improvements in: (i) the design process and scope; and (ii) design tools use of standard
spreadsheets. The cost of a concrete pipe system design is also compared with the cost of a
uPVC pipe system.
b.

Features of Rouha CAD Subproject Design

The Rouha CAD subproject extends over a gross area of 911 ha, and has a net irrigable
area of 644 ha, see layout (index map) below. There are 3,100 households (15,500 persons)
within the subproject area, indicating an average irrigated farm size of 0.28 ha/HH. The peak
net irrigation water requirement for the subproject (which is near Mymensing) based on
100% rice cropping is 0.0135 cusecs/acre (0.94 l/s/ha) and occurs in March (refer Appendix
B3). By comparison if the subproject was designed for a dry foot crop such as wheat the
crop water requirement would be just 0.0073 cusecs/acre (0.51 l/s/ha).
The design duty for each outlet (riser) is 1.175 l/s/ha and assumes an open channel
conveyance and field application efficiency of 80%. Continuous day and night (ie 24/7)
irrigation is assumed.
The feasibility report for Rouha indicates that a range of crops is envisaged for the dry
season, dominated by boro rice, wheat, pulses, oilseed and vegetables. The adoption of a
design duty for 100% rice is therefore conservative. If a less water demanding crop was
adopted either the design duty could be reduced or night time irrigation would not be
required.
There are 50 outlets (risers) distributing water to irrigator groups indicating an average
irrigation area per outlet of 12.9 ha and an average flow of 15.1 l/s.
Water for the subproject is pumped from the Old Brahmaputra river into a reinforced
concrete header tank on the river bank, and from there in a buried concrete pipe system
comprising a main line and four branches to the outlets (risers). Upstream of each outlet is a
standpipe opening to the atmosphere. The top of the standpipes are set about 0.6 m above
the hydraulic grade line (ie above the design operating pressure), and would allow water to
spill if excess pressures develop in the pipeline. Five of these standpipes are fitted with
plastic pipe piezometers allowing pressures to be monitored.
Alfalfa valves are fitted to the top of each outlet risers and enable control of discharges to
farmer irrigators. The pressure head at each outlet is fixed to allow for 0.1 m command of the
highest ground level in the outlets command area plus 0.5 m for open channel conveyance
from the outlet to farmers fields.
The conveyance concrete pipes are supported by small reinforced concrete plinths to
prevent settlement, and the joints are then sealed with jute (hessian cloth) bandages soaked
in bitumen followed by a cement mortar / concrete surround. Only pipes of 600 mm or larger
diameters are spigot and socket type, the rest have butt ends.
To meet fluctuating irrigation demand pumping from the river (ie number of pumps being
operated) needs to be adjusted. Constant monitoring of the five piezometers (and any
standpipe overflows) is required with pumping adjusted accordingly. For those months when
continuous 24/7 irrigation is not practiced the pipeline would probably empty overnight

SSWRDP (JICA)

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Cad Sp Development (2)

(though the open outlets), and require refilling in the morning. Provision of smaller flows is
possible, but may cause overtopping at air vent standpipes due to lower friction losses.
There are no control (isolation) valves along the pipeline and rotation of design flows to each
branch pipeline in turn would not be easy.
Starting with an empty pipeline, it would take a few hours hours to achieve operating
(design) pressures depending on whether outlets were open or closed. Achievement of
operating pressures would be be achieved most quickly (in about an hour) if no farmers drew
water until the pipeline was full.
There is no intermediate storage in the system which could: (i) allow water from one or more
key standpipes (provided with larger than usual diameters) to be spilled for possible reuse;
and / or (ii) more rapid commissioning each morning. However given the small size of the
subproject (644 ha) provision of storage is probably not justified.
There are also no control valves / isolating valves in the system. These would usually be
placed at the head of each branch off-take, and possibly at intervals along the main pipeline,
to: (i) allow rotation of flows if desired during off-peak irrigation months; and (ii) allow
isolation of part of the system for maintenance without closing down the whole system.
There is no provision for flushing of the pipelines to remove sediment and also to allow
emptying of the pipeline system for maintenance.
Pumping plant and electricity connections are not considered in the design of the pipe
system. Note: for operational flexibility three or more pumps are required.
c.

Cost of Rouha Subproject with Concrete and / or uPVC Pipes

The cost of the Rouha CAD subproject has been determined for three difference pipe
options:
i.
Concrete pipe (ie as designed and as being constructed3).
ii.
Complete replacement of concrete with uPVC pipes, requiring twinning of uPVC
pipeline for the larger diameter concrete pipes (ie 750 mm and 900 mm diameters)
iii.
Partial replacement with of concrete pipes with uPVC pipes (ie no twinning of pipes)
Results are tabulated in Figure III-4 and summarised below. Note: the cost of the
conveyance pipe system typically makes up about 70% of the total cost of the subproject
(excluding the pumping plant).
Table III-2: Cost of Rouha CAD Subproject with Concrete / uPVC Pipes
Option
Option 1: All
concrete pipe
Option 2: All uPVC
pipe
Option 3: uPVC &
Concrete

Cost
(Tk
million)
25.68

Increase
in Cost
(factor)
1.00

Lengths of Pipe (m)

Cost per ha

Concrete
9,880

39,877

518

47.56

1.85

27,030

73,856

959

34.85

1.36

1,350

8,530

54,111

703

uPVC

BDT/ha

US$/ha

1. US$ 1.00 = BDT 77.00


2. Net irrigation area: 644 ha

The Rouha subproject (SP 31001) was awarded for construction in June 2010 before preparation of this design
guide and the decision to adopt uPVC pipes for CAD irrigation subprojects.

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Cad Sp Development (2)

The cost of the conveyance pipe system for Option 1 (all concrete pipes) is about BDT 25,68
million, or BDT 39,877 /ha (US$ 518/ha).
Option 2 requires the twinning of uPVC pipes to replace concrete pipes of diameters 750
mm or larger. This is considered prohibitively expensive (1.85 times the concrete pipe
option) and Option 2 is therefore not (generally) recommended.
Option 3 avoids twinning and requires 1,350 m of large diameter (750 and 900 mm) concrete
pipes with spigot & socket joints, and 8,530 mm of uPVC pipes with diameters varying from
300 (12 inch) to 600 mm (24 inch). Option 3 is 1.76 times more costly than the concrete pipe
Option 1 but may be justified on the basis of, inter-alia: (i) reduced joint leakage; (ii) speedy
construction and less disruption to farmers; (iii) avoiding the danger of poor construction of
on-site spun concrete pipes, placement and and jointing; and (iv) (if desired) would enables
adoption of downstream control with inherent improved flexibility of delivery to farmers and
easier operation.

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Cad Sp Development (2)

Figure III-4: Cost of Rouha Pipeline System for concrete / uPVC Pipes
Option A: All Concrete
Concrete Pipe
Diameters
(mm)

Total
Length
s (m)

900
750
600
500
450
400
350
300

550
800
1,250
1,300
1,500
1,200
700
2,580
9,880

Rates
(Tk/m)
4,606
3,657
2,958
2,185
2,144
2,044
1,780
1,719

Option B: Fully replace with uPVC

Adopted
Rates
(Tk/m)
5,067
4,023
3,253
2,403
2,358
2,248
1,958
1,891

Cost (Tk
million)
2.79
3.22
4.07
3.12
3.54
2.70
1.37
4.88
25.68
1.00

uPVC Pipe Equivalent


D
D (mm)
(inch)
24
609.6
22
558.8
24
609.6
18
457.2
16
406.4
14
355.6
14
355.6
12
304.8

Rates
(Tk/m)

Nr
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

8,000
6,200
8,000
3,780
3,016
2,370
2,370
1,900

Cost (Tk
million)
8.80
9.92
10.00
4.91
4.52
2.84
1.66
4.90
47.56
1.85

Option C: No uPVC Pipe Twinning


Cost (Tk
Adopted Pipe Lengths
million)
Concrete
550
800

1,350
13.7%

Note: uPVC pipes working pressure rating: 3.25 bar

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uPVC

Cad Sp Development (2)

1,250
1,300
1,500
1,200
700
2,580
8,530
86.3%

2.79
3.22
10.00
4.91
4.52
2.84
1.66
4.90
34.85
1.36

C.

Conclusions and Recommendations


1.

Introduction

Possible options for low pressure pipeline irrigation water delivery systems include the
following:
i.
Option A: a concrete pipeline with upstream control (ie as currently adopted but with
minor though significant improvements to facilitate O&M).
ii.
Option B: uPVC pipeline (without twinning of pipes) with upstream control (ie similar
to the current design practice but with uPVC pipes giving advantages of assured
quality, speedy construction and reduced joint leakage as well as some additional
control structures.
iii.
Option C: uPVC pipeline with downstream control allowing on-demand supply of
water to farmers and facilitating cultivation of a range of crops in the dry season.
2.

Option A: Minor Improvement to Existing CAD Systems Designs

The current concrete pipe designs have the advantage of low cost. However the lengthy
construction time for both on-site concrete pipe construction and placement, construction
quality concerns and joint leakage are problematic. Failure of joints after just a few years is
common in concrete pipelines with bitumen / cement mortar sealed (butt) joints, and poses a
major (and costly) maintenance problem in addition to increased pumping costs and
sometimes causing localized crop damage.
While the review of the Rouha CAD subproject found the design to be sound various
comments and / or suggestions to improve future designs and to facilitate O&M of CAD
subprojects are identified. These are listed below:
i.
Pipeline layout: ensure the layout provides complete and equitable coverage to the
command area, and divides the command into roughly equal hydraulic (rotation)
units.
ii.
Design duty: check the likely proposed cropping in the dry season and decide if a
design duty for paddy rice is appropriate. For subprojects with light or variable soils
paddy rice may not be appropriate or recommended. Further mono-cropping of
paddy rice in both wet and dry seasons year after year may cause decline in soil
fertility.
iii.
Night time irrigation: this is likely to be appropriate if paddy rice cropping is
proposed. However if non-paddy crops are adopted (eg vegetables) night time
irrigation may result in low water application efficiencies, over / under irrigation as
well as being socially inconvenient.
iv.
Power supply: if use of electric pumps is proposed ensure that the cost of the
required power cable and transformer is not prohibitive this will require that power
is already supplied to the subproject area.
v.
Flexibility: as future cropping and power supply cannot be known with certainty
ensure that the design allows for reasonable future flexibility in general designing
for the peak irrigation demand associated with 100% boro rice cropping but assuming
continuous pumping for the peak demand period is a reasonable compromise.
vi.
Friction factor: especially for low pipe flow velocities check that the pipe flow is in
fact fully turbulent and the appropriate value of the moody friction factor is adopted (if
desired check using Colebrooke-White formula)
vii.
Isolation / control valves or gated structures: provide isolation / control valves or
gated structures at the head of branch pipelines to allow supply to be rotated and / or
flow to be cut off to enable maintenance work.
viii.
Flow measurement: include for flow measurement at key locations, for example at
the header tank and at control points (eg gated control structures).

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Cad Sp Development (2)

ix.

x.
xi.

Operational feedback: identify a few pressure monitoring locations in the pipe


distribution system to be monitored so that feedback to the pump operator is timely
reducing waste of water. In addition to clear plastic tube piezomometers fixed to
selected standpipes, some standpipes should be larger in diameter and extend just
0.3 m (say) over the design hydraulic grade pressure, compared to about 0.6 m
elsewhere. These escape standpipes should have an overflow arrangement
allowing water to spill into escape channels or into a storage tank.
Flushing: introduce pipe flushing / drainage outlets to allow the pipeline to be
emptied for maintenance as well as periodically flushed of any sediment.
Intermediate storage: for larger subprojects and where practical consider
introduction of intermediate storage (at high points) in the system. These would
reduce start up time to fill the the pipeline after a period of non-irrigation. Spillage
from escape standpipes could also discharge into intermediate storage tanks.
3.

Option B: Adoption of uPVC Pipes

Adoption of uPVC pipes to replace concrete pipes of 600 mm or smaller in diameter will
probably increase pipeline costs by a factor of about 1.5 - 1.8, and subproject costs by about
1.2 1.5. However this needs to be set against much faster construction, less disruption to
farmers fields and cropping, assured quality for the pipe system and minimal joint leakage
and need for joint repairs / maintenance in the future. uPVC pipes also facilitate the
introduction of a range of other fittings (control / isolating valves, air valves and pressure and
flow measurement gauges).
4.

Option C: Downstream Control & Semi-Closed System with uPVC Pipes

Option C has all the advantages of Option B (ie quicker construction time, assured quality of
pipeline, etc), but with downstream control.
Downstream control whereby water is more or less available to irrigator groups on-demand
provides additional operational flexibility as well as simplifying operations and improving
water use efficiency. The usual argument against downstream control is the fear that farmers
will over-irrigate when water is available on tap leaving their alfalfa valves open even when
irrigation water is not required. In the initial period following subproject completion this may
be true, until farmers become aware of the issue and that they are wasting money on
pumping water that is not needed.
For mono-cropping of paddy rice there is little requirement for operational flexibility. However
for light and / or variable soils where non-paddy is expected to dominate dry season
cropping Option C has distinct advantages, enabling farmers to crop a range of crops
according to their preference.
Option C maybe 10-30% more expensive than option B due to the cost of pressure (water
level) control valves introduced in the pipeline instead of open standpipes. These pressure
control valves shut off flow in periods of low / no demand. In low pressure systems float
operated (Haris) valves are usual, with the float monitoring pressures (tank water levels) in
the downstream pipeline and closing a valve to shut of flow as the pressure rises.
The rate of closure of float (haris) valves is slow enough to prevent water hammer.
As required isolating and air valves, and flow measurement and pressure gauges can also
be incorporated into the pipe conveyance system. Over time this would allow farmers to
improve system operation and match irrigation supply to crop demand.

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Cad Sp Development (2)

5.

Provision of Pump Plant and Power Connection

Pumping plant (ie pump and motor) and reliable power (electric transmission line and
transformer) connections are vital and should be considered at an early stage of subproject
development.
Consideration of pumping plant at the design stage is also recommended as it may lead to
change in the pipeline design and header tank to allow optimisation between pumping and
capital (construction) costs.
At least three pumps are required to meet the variable irrigation demand.
6.

Recommendation

The following is recommended for all CAD subproject developed under SSW-3 (JICA) and
SSW-4 (ADB):
i.
When practical and funds are available improvements should be made to existing
CAD subprojects (either under construction or to be renovated) which have adopted
concrete pipes. This is likely to include division of the command into hydraulic
(rotation) units with incorporation of flow control / measurement structures at the
head of each unit. This will facilitate O&M.
ii.
Future CAD subprojects should: (i) adopt upstream control: (ii) use uPVC pipes but
avoid twinning for larger flows concrete pipes with spigot & socket joints will be
used; (iii) ensure layouts which enable full and equitable coverage of the command
area and delineate rotation units; and (iv) include additional structures to facilitate
O&M including flow control / measurement structures, wash-outs and escapes.
Further it is suggested that as a trial one CAD subproject where non-paddy dry season
cropping is proposed / expected be designed using uPVC pipes and downstream control.
This will require additional research into availability of requisite control valves (ie haris float
valves).

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Cad Sp Development (2)

IV.
A.

SELECTION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CAD SUBPROJECTS

Introduction

The relatively poor (agricultural) performance of many CAD subprojects developed to date
requires that improvements occur in their selection, design, construction and O&M. In this
Chapter the selection, detailed design and construction of CAD subprojects is discussed.
B.

Criteria for Selection of CAD Subprojects

There may be justification for adoption of increased numbers of CAD subprojects (or
combination of CAD with flood protection, etc) but this needs to be done carefully. The
following criteria may be used to screen proposals during reconnaissance.
Table IV-1: Criteria for Selection of CAD Subprojects
Nr
1

Water source

Other Users

Existing
irrigation
system
Community
Interest /
Demand
Groundwater
pumping

Flooding / land
elevation

Power source

Soils

Topography

10

Unit Cost /
Economic
Viability

11

O&M

SSWRDP (JICA)

Criteria
The water source must be perennial with sufficient water in an
adjacent river / khal even in a dry year to meet demand. Highly
unstable rivers should also be avoided.
Increased pumping from the water source must not adversely impact
on other users (whether for domestic, agricultural or fishery use)
There should be an existing low lift irrigation system (open channel /
pipe) in the subproject area demonstrating community interest and
ability to manage an irrigation system
The local community must give high priority to provision of an
irrigation system (CAD type SP)
If the command area is already irrigated by either: (i) small privately
(household) owned shallow wells; or (ii) a few number of deep
tubewells it should not be developed as a CAD SP
Irrigation facilities should not extend over land which is extensively
flooded in the monsoon. If the proposed SP contains extensive (say
>40%) of such land it should not be developed as a CAD SP.
Reliable power supply must be available assuming electric pumps
this implies that a suitable power line is available within (say) 3km
The soils should be suited to irrigation sandy soils with high
infiltration rates are not suited to surface irrigation. Also note that a
high variation of soil types within the subproject would pose
challenges to operators.
If the proposed command area is highly fragmented / broken (eg
bisected by khals) then irrigation development is not likely to be
viable. For example undulating & irregular narrow ridges broken by
low-lying land are not suitable.
The CAD subproject must be viable. While high value crops may be
proposed for Rabi, it is suggested that the SP should at least break
even for padi cropping. This means that the existing rabi cropping
intensity should be quite low (ie less than say 60%).
The CAD subproject should benefit equitably all farmers within the
subproject area to facilitate collection of O&M fees

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Cad Sp Development (2)

C.

System Layout
1.

Introduction

The pipe system layout must provide complete and equitable coverage to the whole
command area.
The first challenge is to identify the command area for the subproject. Prior to detailed
survey this is best done using freely available google earth imagery. This allows the planner:
i.
To see physical features (settlements, fields, roads, bunds, rivers, khals, wet land,
etc)
ii.
To identify drainage alignments and possible alignments for pipelines (following high
land) as well as a possible location for the header tank. Note: google earth imagery
gives spot heights to the nearest meter.
iii.
To identify hydraulic boundaries, rotation units and a viable command area for the
subproject.
The use of imagery to prepare layouts is illustrated for the Beneswardi subproject, Faridpur
District (SP 33059) on Figure IV-1 and Figure IV-2.
2.

Guidelines for Layout Preparation

The process and guidelines for delineating the pipe system layout is as follows. As noted
above this may be done on-line using google-earth imagery. Alternative the imagery may
be printed out (and joined) and a paper copy used:
Block out any land not to be commanded (eg village areas, permanent swamps low
land) ;
Delineate natural drainage lines;
Delineate physical features which affect the layout (eg roads, bunds, railway tracks);
Finalise and delineate the subproject boundary and command area;
Divide up the command area into roughly equal rotation hydraulic units each
commanding about 80-130 ha. There should generally be a minimum of 2-3 rotation
units in the subproject and as many as about 10;
Determine the number of high points in the system and fix the number of header
tanks required (note 1 header tank per high point). For most of our subprojects just
one header tank will be required.
Ensure complete coverage of the irrigable command area so that all beneficiaries
have equitable access to water. As a rule of thumb no part of the irrigable area
should be more than 200-400 m from a riser (outlet).
Adopt the number of riser outlets so that each outlet commands 10-15 ha irrigator
units. From each the outlet flow will be distributed by open channel.
Flows from the header tank will be by (semi-closed) pipelines and/or open channels
aligned along ridges and, as far as possible sloping downhill. Risers will be located
along these pipelines. The position of each riser outlet should be marked on the
layout map and its command area determined. Note: the high cost of uPVC pipe and
the larger variety of diameters available justify determining pipe discharges and pipe
diameters between each outlet.
Flow from the main or primary header tank to any secondary header tank would
usually be through a (closed) pipeline without risers (outlets). In this case the closed
pipeline should be aligned along the most direct route to save pipeline costs.
Consider the danger posed by pipeline floatation if a pipeline is aligned across low
lying areas that may flood in the monsoon months. If necessary the pipeline should
be set lower in the ground with more than 1.0 m of cover.

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Figure IV-1: Layout for Beneswardi Subproject (SP prepared using Google-earth)

Legend:
Red line pipeline alignment
Blue natural drainage alignment

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Figure IV-2: Detail of part of Beneswardi Subproject (showing detail available from Google-earth)

Legend:
Red line pipeline alignment

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D.

Crop & Irrigation Water Requirements and Operating Considerations


1.

Crop and Irrigation Water Requirements


a.

Cropping and Land Elevation

Cropping depends to a great extent on land elevation. Lower lying areas are vulnerable to
flooding for much of the year limiting cropping while supporting fish-based livelihoods. Higher
areas, and most CAD irrigation subprojects, have the potential for 250-300% cropping. Land
categories and seasonal cropping are illustrated on the figure and described in the table
below.
Figure IV-3: Typical Cropping Pattern by Land Category

Table IV-2: Cropping by Land Category and Season


Land
Type

Land Category
Non-cultivated
high land
F0 (< 0.3m
flooding)

Nature of
Flooding

High

Not
flooded

High

Intermittent

F1 (0.3m <0.9m)

Medium
-high

F2 (0.9 <1.8m)

Mediumlow

SSWRDP (JICA)

Cropping Intensity
(%)
Typical
Typical
Current
Potential

Cropping
Kharif- I
(summer)

Kharif-II
(monsoon)

Rabi

(Housing area, roads & other infrastructure)

HYV & B.
Aus, Jute

T. & HYV
Aman

Seasonal
(3-6
months)
DW Amam

Page 25

HYV Boro,
Oilseed,
Wheat,
vegetables
(onion,
garlic, etc)
HYV Boro,
Oilseed,
(Wheat)

210%

300%

190%

280%

160%

20%

Cad Sp Development (2)

Land
Type

Land Category
Non-cultivated
high land

High

F3 (>1.8m)

Low

Non-cultivated
low land

Very low

Nature of
Flooding
Not
flooded
Seasonal
(less than
9 months)

Cropping Intensity
(%)
Typical
Typical
Current
Potential

Cropping
Kharif- I
(summer)

Kharif-II
(monsoon)

Rabi

(Housing area, roads & other infrastructure)


hyv Boro
(cont.)

Permanent

hyv Boro

100%

100%

(Fishing & navigation)


Totals

179%

Note: potential cropping will vary from scheme to scheme


T Transplanted; HVY high yielding variety; DW Deep water; B broadcast

Peak irrigation requirements will occur in Rabi with further supplementary irrigation required
for land preparation for a follow-on Aus crop. During the monsoon period supplementary
irrigation may also be required depending on rainfall. For the CAD irrigation subprojects the
main interest of engineers is on the type and extent of Rabi cropping.
Assuming the CAD subproject does not include any low (F3) or very-low lying land 100%
Rabi cropping may be assumed in determining irrigation water demand. Rabi crops may
include a variety of dry-foot crops (wheat, vegetables onion & garlic, potato, etc) as well as
boro paddy.
b.

Crop & Irrigation Water Requirements

Crop Water Requirements may be calculated using climatic data for any one of the 16 main
climatic stations in Bangladesh using the FAO program CROPWAT (version 8). Data in a
format ready for use in CROPWAT are available from the FAO CLIMWAT database. Details
of these programmes are given in Appendix C1.
Figure IV-4: Climatic Stations in Bangladesh

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Cad Sp Development (2)

220%

Average monthly climatic data are tabulated below for Mymensingh and show that
evapotranspiration (ET0) peaks in April at 4.98 mm/d. Total annual ET0 is 1,263 mm.
Table IV-3: Average Climatic Data and ET0 (Mymensingh)
Month

Min Temp

Max Temp

Humidity

Wind

Sun

ETo

km/day

hours

mm/day

January

11.6

25.2

94

54

8.2

2.20

February

13.8

27.6

82

67

8.5

2.87

March

18.2

32.0

73

93

9.1

4.15

April

22.0

33.8

79

124

9.1

4.98

May

23.5

32.4

96

119

8.1

4.49

June

24.9

31.2

99

119

5.6

3.74

July

25.7

31.3

95

143

5.0

3.63

August

25.6

31.3

96

110

4.8

3.48

September

25.4

31.5

98

88

5.4

3.40

October

23.8

30.7

97

72

7.7

3.47

November

18.2

28.7

100

54

8.5

2.82

13.6

26.4

99

45

8.4

2.27

21

30

92

91

7.4

3.46

December
Averages

Annual average rainfall for Mymensingh is 2,246 mm, almost double annual ET0. Effective
rainfall calculated using the USDA soil conservation method is 1,119 mm.
Table IV-4: Average Total and Effective Rainfall (Mymensingh)
Month

Rain

Eff rain

mm

mm

January

11

10.8

February

18

17.5

March

42

39.2

April

105

87.4

May

263

151.3

June

487

173.7

July

406

165.6

August

376

162.6

September

320

157

October

200

136

17

16.5

1
2,246

1
1,119

November
December
Average / Totals

Using the Mymensingh climatic and rainfall data the 10-day net on-farm irrigation water
requirement for paddy rice transplanted on 27th November and harvested on 25th March for a
medium loam soil, including for land preparation (puddling) totals 579 mm as tabulated
below. The irrigation requirement is given by the crop water requirement ET C of 447mm less
effective rainfall of 90mm, but including for a land preparation / initial wetting requirement of
221mm.

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Table IV-5: Net Rice Crop Water Requirements


Month

Decade

Stage

Oct

Nurs

Nov

Nov

Nov

Kc

ETc

ETc

Eff rain

Irr. Req.

coeff

mm/day

mm/dec

mm/dec

mm/dec

1.2

0.39

1.6

12.8

1.6

Nurs/LPr

1.15

1.51

15.1

15.5

52.5

Nurs/LPr

1.06

30

0.6

29.4

Init

1.08

2.84

28.4

0.5

183.1

Dec

Init

1.1

2.7

27

0.7

26.3

Dec

Deve

1.1

2.5

25

25

Dec

Deve

1.12

2.52

27.7

0.5

27.3

Jan

Deve

1.15

2.55

25.5

2.6

22.9

Jan

Mid

1.17

2.57

25.7

3.7

22

Jan

Mid

1.17

2.84

31.2

4.4

26.8

Feb

Mid

1.17

3.1

31

4.6

26.4

Feb

Mid

1.17

3.36

33.6

5.1

28.5

Feb

Late

1.16

3.84

30.7

7.8

22.9

Mar

Late

1.13

4.19

41.9

9.8

32.1

Mar

Late

1.08

4.48

44.8

11.9

32.9

Mar

Late

1.04

4.61

27.6

9.6

18.8

Totals

446.8

90.1

578.5

To more accurately assess boro rice water requirements for an irrigation scheme
transplanting dates for the rice crop were staggered from late November to late December.
The calculated net (on-farm) irrigation water requirements using Mymensingh climatic and
rainfall data and including for land preparation and effective rainfall are tabulated in
Appendix B2 and summarised below. The results are given for a range of soil and initial soil
moisture conditions.
For boro rice the net irrigation seasonal requirements were as follows: (i) 596 mm for a loam
soil with an initial 10% moisture depletion; (ii) 682 mm for the same loam soil but with an
initial 70% moisture depletion; and (iii) 719 mm for a light (sandy) soil.
For boro rice the irrigation requirement in early Rabi, in November December depends
hugely on the water requirement for puddling the soils. To determine the puddling water
requirement it was assumed that the soil is soaked to a depth of 0.5 m. This requires about
180mm to 330mm of water depending on soil type and initial wetness of the command area.
The on-farm irrigation water demand is likely to peak in November / December to meet
puddling requirements, followed by a smaller, but more sustained peak in February and
March to meet evapotranspiration requirements.

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Table IV-6: Irrigation Requirements for Rabi Cropping (Mymensingh)


Cropping
Nr
1

Description
Soil Characteristics
Soil type
Initial soil moisture depletion
Climatic Data
Peak Evapotranspiration
Month peak occurs
Cropping
Crop Duration
Planting period
Harvesting period

Units

Wheat &
Vegetables

100% Boro Rice

Loam

Loam

Light / sandy

70%

Light /
sandy
0%

% of TA

10%

mm/d
-

4.98
April

4.98
April

4.98
April

4.98
April

days
-

150
150
21 Nov to 21 Dec

150

20 March to 19 April

Cropping Intensity
%
100%
Irrigation Scheduling Assumptions
Initial soil soaking depth
m
0.5
Irrigation depths
mm
50 to 100
Net irrigation requirements including for land preparation
Nov mm/month
141
Dec mm/month
191
Jan mm/month
70
Feb mm/month
78
March mm/month
99
April mm/month
17
Totals
mm
596
mm/d
6.1
Peak net duty
l/s/ha
0.71
Efficiencies, Duties and Water Requirements
%
Field irrigation efficiency
75%
mm/d
8.1
Peak field irrigation duty
l/s/ha
0.95
mm
Total on-farm requirement
795
Conveyance efficiency (pipe outlet
%
80%
to field)
mm/d
10.2
Peak duty at pipe outlet
l/s/ha
1.18
mm
Total pipe-outlet requirement
993

0%

100%

100%

130 (wheat)
21 Nov to 15
Dec
30 Mar to 23
Apr
100%

0.5
50 to 100

0.5
50 to 100

n/a
Varies

219
199
70
78
99
17
682
7.3
0.84

207
248
70
78
99
17
719
8.0
0.93

2
27
49
72
60
5
215
2.6
0.30

75%
9.7
1.12
909

75%
10.7
1.24
959

60%
4.3
0.50
358

80%

80%

80%

12.2
1.40
1,137

13.3
1.55
1,198

5.4
0.63
448

On-farm and conveyance water losses (efficiencies) need to be considered to determine


total (gross) irrigation requirements. Assuming a field (on-farm) irrigation efficiency for rice of
75% the season irrigation requirement is likely to be in the range 795-959 mm and the peak
on-farm duty about 0.95-1.24 l/s/ha (8.1-10.7 mm/d).
For non-rice rabi crops such as wheat, vegetables, potato and pulses crop water
requirements (ETc) will typically be about 250-400 mm, and just 200-300 mm allowing for
effective rainfall. Water application is likely to be by basin or furrow with efficiencies of about
60% depending on how well land preparation is carried out (ie preparation of suitable
furrows, or adoption of suitable basin areas and how well they are levelled). Total seasonal
irrigation demand is likely to be about 358 mm and the peak on-farm irrigation duty would
usually occur in January March and be about 0.5 l/s/ha (4.3 mm/d).

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Cad Sp Development (2)

To determine duties at the pipe outlets (risers) open channel conveyance losses between
the outlets and farmers fields need to be considered. For a properly laid out buried pipe
system the distance from any pipe outlet to farmers fields should not exceed about 300 m.
For this distance a conveyance efficiency of about 80% is reasonable. The total seasonal
irrigation requirements for boro rice is therefore likely to be about 990-1,200mm and the
peak irrigation duty 1.2 1.5 l/s/ha. For non-rice crops the water requirement is likely to be
about 500m and the peak duty about 0.6 l/s/ha.
c.

District Variation in Crop & Irrigation Water Requirements

Due to climate and rainfall variation within Bangladesh on-farm irrigation water requirements
vary from district to district. On-farm irrigation requirements have been determined by
others for each district as tabulated in Appendix B3 and summarised below. They are
highest in the north-west of the country (Bogra, Dinajpur and Rangpur) and lowest in the
north-east (Sylhet). These on-farm requirements appear to include for on-farm losses but
exclude for puddling for which water requirements are highly dependent on soil type and
initial moisture condition of the command area. A district map is given below.
Table IV-7: On-farm Irrigation Requirements for Rabi Cropping
Nr
1
2
3
4
5

Districts
Rangpur, Dinajpur & Bogra
Rajshahi, Kushtia, Jessore,
Faridpur, Khulna & Pabna
Tangali, Dhaka, Comitta,
Mymensingh, Jamalpur
Chittagong, Noakhali,
Patuakhali, Barisal
Sylhet

Seasonal Irrigation Requirement & Peak Duty


Boro Rice
Wheat
(mm)
(l/s/ha)
mm/d
(mm)
(l/s/ha)
mm/d
1,382

1.18

10.2

367

0.49

4.2

1,273

0.96

8.3

442

0.55

4.7

1,089

0.95

8.2

415

0.51

4.4

874

0.70

6.0

423

0.55

4.7

661

0.65

5.6

373

0.46

4.0

The peak on-farm irrigation duty for boro rice varies from 1.18l/s/ha in the north-west to
0.65l/s/ha in Sylhet. The peak duty for Mymensingh is 0.95 l/s/ha.

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Figure IV-5: District Map

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2.

Design Duty for Pipe Sizing

In determining the design duty to size the pipe distribution system the following needs
consideration:
i.
Cropping pattern and intensity.
ii.
Soil type and initial moisture condition.
iii.
Application and conveyance efficiency.
iv.
Pumping hours for electric power pumps this depends on the reliability (voltage and
power) of electricity in the area.
The feasibility report for the subproject may provide some of the required data which may be
supplemented by site visits. However the designer needs to be aware that cropping patterns
may change over the design life of the subproject influenced by external factors such as crop
profitability, marketing conditions and farmer preferences. Similarly there may be an
improvement (or deterioration) in electric power supply.
For subprojects which fulfil the following: (i) high medium lying land for which 100% rabi
cropping may be assumed, and (ii) heavy or medium soils, it is proposed that the design
duty adopted for pipe sizing shall be the peak boro rice on-farm duty for the district taken
from the table above with an 80% efficiency adopted for losses between the farmers fields
and the pipe outlets. Thus the design duty at pipe outlet for a subproject in Mymensingh
shall be 1.19 l/s/ha (0.95 / 80%).
The adoption of a fairly short duration peak duty, associated with 100% boro rice cropping
over the command area, to design the pipe system may appear conservative as this
irrigation demand will only be sustained for 20-40 days. However this is offset by the (likely
erroneous) assumption of continuous (24/7) power supplies. If power supplies were erratic
and pumping only possible during the night, then peak irrigation requirements would have to
be (partially) met by pumping as many hours as possible over a longer period, 40-60 days
say.
3.

Operating Considerations

Even in an average year water demand will vary from month to month as indicated by the
tabulated data in Appendix B3 of monthly irrigation requirements for boro rice and for wheat
in Mymensing. For boro rice irrigation water requirements (excluding for land preparation)
would typically vary from 37% in October to full demand (100%) in March and just 17% in
May. For many subprojects water requirements for land preparation (puddling) will be high,
depending on rainfall in late monsoon and soil characteristics, so that peak demand occurs
in November / December.
The data given are for an average year. In practice, supply has to be adjusted to rainfall,
actual planting dates in different parts of the command area, and for some subprojects for a
variety of crops being cultivated. The challenge for operators is to meet the varying irrigation
requirements, minimizing water loss (and pumping cost), and avoiding water logging /
flooding of lower lying fields.
Operators must therefore adjust the pumped flow (ie number of pumping units operational)
to cope with varying irrigation water demand. However as the pipe distribution system is
designed to meet peak demand, whenever actual flows are less, the lower pipe friction
losses will result in higher pressures, a flatter hydraulic grade line, pressure imbalance and
overtopping of some of the standpipes.
For improved operation, to facilitate cultivation of a variety of crops (ie not just monocropping of boro rice) as well as to allow maintenance of each part of the pipe conveyance

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system without closure of the whole system, control (isolating) valves / structures should be
included in the pipe distribution system. These would usually be located at pipe junctions at
the head of branch pipelines.
The opening / closing of values will allow on/off rotational supply of approximately the design
flow into branch pipelines. The main pipeline should be ideally be designed / checked for at
least two flow conditions: (i) design (peak) flow condition; and (ii) 50% flow condition. The
branch lines need only be designed for the peak flow condition.
Except for the peak demand period of 20-40 days, flows would be rotated between the
branch pipelines on a weekly (ie 1 week on / 1 week off) or a 10 day rotation system.
Alternatively, and for smaller subprojects, the whole system may be periodically closed down
by shutting down all the pumps.
E.

Pipe System Design


1.

Design Process and Steps

The design of a CAD subproject is facilitated by breaking the design up into a number of
steps each of which is done in correct sequence. The design steps are listed below:
i.
Layout: fix the boundary of the subproject and alignment of the pipelines. Divide the
command area into roughly equal sized hydraulic (rotation) units 80-120 ha in size.
ii.
Obtain stakeholder approval to the layout and complete any necessary (additional)
topographic survey eg header tank and other structure surveys and long section
surveys along pipeline routes.
iii.
Fix the location of (any) flow control / measurement structures usually at the head
of each branch.
iv.
Decide on the number and location of each outlet riser. Note: each outlet is to
command 5-15 ha irrigator units and to be spaced at 200-500 m intervals along the
pipeline.
v.
Adopt a design duty to size the pipe distribution system usually this will be based
on 100% boro paddy cropping and continuous 24/7 irrigation for the peak irrigation
demand period.
vi.
Divide the pipeline into reaches separated by nodes (points). For uPVC pipe systems
for which a wide range of pipe diameters is available each reach will usually extend
between adjacent riser outlets.
vii.
Determine the lengths, net command areas and design discharges along the
pipelines for each reach and prepare a Discharge Statement. An initial indication of
pipe diameters may be obtained by observing the maximum and recommended flow
velocities of 1.5 m/s and 1.2 m/s respectively.
viii.
Make a note of the existing ground level at each node (reach end point) and also (if
different) the highest ground level in the command area of the the node outlet.
ix.
The minimum pressure at each outlet of shall be 0.6 m above (the highest) ground
level in its command area.
x.
Allowing for friction losses along the pipeline and through its structures determine the
required pipe diameters for the design flows. The calculation starts from the tail
(downstream end) of each pipeline and works upstream towards the header tank.
xi.
Confirm / identify locations for all structures including: (i) riser outlets; (ii) flow control
/ measurement structures; (iii) standpipe air-vents; (iv) standpipe escapes; and (v)
washouts.
xii.
Determine options for numbers of pumps and power requirements.

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2.

Pipeline and Node Numbering System

The pipeline numbering system should, as far as possible, reflect the rotation units. For
example pipeline 1 to supply Rotation Unit 1 and so on.
Off-taking (branch) pipelines should be numbered from upstream to downstream with the
number of the main pipeline as well as the number of the branch. For example Branch 5-1
implies the first branch off-taking from pipeline 5. Similarly 5-1-1 implies the first sub-branch
pipeline offtaking from Branch 5-1.
Nodes for outlets and pipe-bends should be denoted by numbers and letters starting from
upstream and progressing downstream. Thus 1A is the first node along pipeline 1, while 2B
would be the second node along pipeline 2.
3.

Pipe Sizing and Pipe Flow Friction Losses


a.

Approach

Pipe sizing is the process whereby pipe diameters are adopted for each reach taking into
account pipe friction losses and losses due to bends, changes in pipe diameter and offtaking T-junctions to outlets.
This is an iterative process with more than one solution possible. However the aim will be to
optimise the selection of pipe diameters so that:
i.
Flow velocities are reasonably uniform from reach to reach and do not exceed the
maximum allowable velocity for the pipe type.
ii.
The design hydraulic grade line ensures command over all off-takes but is not so
high that the cost of structures, and in particular the cost of the header tank and flow
control / measurement structures, is not too expensive. In practice the hydraulic head
should not exceed a practical limit of about 8 m and ideally vary from about 1 - 5 m.
iii.
A negative hydraulic head should never develop.
Once head losses are calculated for the reach pipe pressures are determined at each node
and the hydraulic grade line is determined for the design discharges working from
downstream towards the header tank.
The standard design spreadsheet allows the impact of a change in pipe diameter on the
hydraulic grade line to be immediately apparent and facilitates the selection of appropriate
pipe diameters.
b.

Pressure and Velocity Limits

For concrete pipes the maximum flow velocity may be 2.4 m/s, though rather lower velocities
are suggested unless rubber gasket seals and spigot & socket joints are adopted. The
maximum flow velocity for uPVC pipes should be 1.5 m/s. A minimum flow velocity of about
0.3 m is suggested to avoid sedimentation of the pipelines.
The allowable (working / static) water pressure in the pipeline depends on the class of uPVC
pipe (wall thickness) specified. Usually for CAD subprojects developed by LGED a 3.25 bar
(32 m) pressure rating will be specified. To protect against surge damage the allowable
water pressure shall not exceed 70% of the pressure rating, ie about 2.3 bar (22-23 m head).

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As the usual range of water pressures in the pipelines will vary from just 1-8 m there is a
considerable safety factor. However use of uPVC pipes with a lower pressure rating is not
recommended as damage during transit and handling would increase.
c.

Pipe Friction Losses

Pipe friction may be calculated by spreadsheet using the Darcey-Weisbach formulae:


HL = f (L/D) (V2/2g)
where:
L = pipe length (between nodes)
D = pipe diameter
V = pipe flow velocity
G = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)
The spreadsheet includes a fixed value for the Moody friction factor of 0.020 for concrete
pipes and 0.0168 for uPVC pipes4.
These values are appropriate for completely turbulent flow in the pipes. However the flow
type and appropriate equation for the friction factor (there are four) depends on the relative
pipe roughness (ie roughness / pipe diameter) and Reynolds number (refer Moody diagram
below fully turbulent flow is above and to the right of the dotted line). Particularly for the
smooth uPVC pipes (roughness of 0.0015 mm compared to concrete which has a roughness
of about 0.03-3.0 mm) with low flow velocities (and low Reynolds numbers) the pipe flow
may not be turbulent.
Figure IV-6: Moody Diagram

Note: in the spreadsheet the formula is rearranged to use 4f values where f is 0.0050 (concrete) and 0.0042
(uPVC)

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For uPVC pipes the excel design spreadsheet using Darcy-Weisbach could possibly be
amended to include for a check on the flow type, and include for the four different formulae
for calculation of the friction factor depending on flow type. However this would be quite
complex and is probably not necessary.
However a check should be carried out on the calculated pipe friction losses and is most
easily done using the Colebrook-White formula which is recommended by the Hydraulics
Research Centre, Wallingford, UK for calculation of pipe friction losses. The relationship
between velocity, pipe slope, pipe diameter and pipe roughness given by the ColebrookWhite formula is as follows5:

where:
V = velocity (m/s)
D = diameter (m)
S = hydraulic gradient
ks= pipe effective roughness (m)
g= gravitational acceleration (9.806 m/s2)
= kinematic viscosity of fluid (0.00111 at 150C)
Pipe effective roughness values, ks, for use in the Colebrook-White formula are tabulated
below.
Table IV-8: Pipe Roughness, ks
Material
Good
uPVC (with spigot & socket joints)
uPVC (chemically cemented joints)
Precast concrete with O ring joints
Spun precast concrete with O ring joints
Monolithic concrete construction - steel forms

d.

ks (mm)
Normal

0.06
0.06
0.30

0.06
0.03
0.15
0.13
0.60

Poor

Recommended
Maximum Flow
Velocity (m/s)
1.5

0.60
0.30
1.5

2.5

Losses Due to Bends and Fittings

Losses due to a bend of fitting may be calculated by the product of the velocity head (V2/2g)
in the pipeline and the appropriate loss coefficient, C.
Suitable coefficient C values are listed below:
Entry:
0.50 (sharp), 0.05 (bell).
Bends:
0.15 (22.50); 0.30 (450); 0.75 (900).
Tees:
1.20 (sharp); 0.80 (radius).
Valves:
0.12 (open gate valve).
Exit:
1.00 (sudden), 0.20 (bell).
In practice highly accurate calculation of headloss is not necessary and in the standard
design spreadsheet a fairly conservative approach is adopted whereby the headloss in each
reach is calculated as follows:
i.
Calculation of the velocity head, V2/2g
ii.
Determination of the number of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc in
the reach.
iii.
Calculation of the loss due to pipe bends, etc adopting a coefficient C of 0.80.
5

Charts for the Hydraulic Design of channels and pipes, HR Wallingford, 1983

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iv.
v.
vi.

Determination of the number of riser outlets and the number of standpipe air valves
in the reach.
Calculation of the loss due to riser outlets and standpipes.
Calculation of the total fitting and bend losses

The total fitting and bend losses are added to the pipe friction losses to give the total reach
head loss.
4.

Standard Design Spreadsheet

Use of a standard design excel spreadsheet facilitates the design and facilitates the choice
of pipe diameter, headloss and hydraulic pressure head in each reach working from the tail
in an upstream direction to the header tank.
A printout of the spreadsheet used to design the Bajra Panail subproject is included as
Appendix D.
F.

Pipe System Structures


1.

Types of Structures

The types and typical numbers of structures associated with a typical irrigation (uPVC) pipe
distribution system are tabulated below along with a summary of their function.
Table IV-9: Description and Function of Pipe System Structures
Nr

Type of
Structure
Header Tank

Nr
Required
1

Flow Control
Structures

0-3

Standpipes (air
vents)

15 (say)

Outlets (Risers)

30

Escapes
(standpipe
overflows)

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Description

Function

RC structure with 3 main


separate compartments, and with
(steel) ladder and operating
platforms to provide access to
gates/shutters and flow
measurement V-notches. Also
hand railing and washouts.

To receive discharge from


pumps and allow settlement of
sediment to removed by
flushing / manually. Also to
enable flow control and flow
measurement to offtaking
pipelines. Height to be sufficient
to drive design flow through
conveyance pipelines.
To provide flow control and flow
measurement at head of
rotation units.

RC structure with gates / shutters


and V-notch weirs
(For small uPVC pipes valves
may be adopted instead of gates)
Vertical uPVC pipe leading off
from top of uPVC pipeline at high
nd
points and, on-average, every 2
outlet. Standpipes to comprise
Class C uPVC pipe for extradurability. RC wall / pillar 1.2 m
(typ.) high to provide support to
standpipe.
uPVC pipe offtake from pipeline
leading to (concrete/PVC) riser
pipe fitted with an alfalfa value.
Masonry / concrete distribution
box to be located over riser pipe.
Vertical uPVC pipe leading off
from top of PVC pipeline key
locations and where escape flow
can discharge safely. Small clear

Page 37

To ensure pressures within


pipeline remains within design
limits and to allow air to vent.
Top of standpipes to be 0.6
(typ) m above design HGL

To release irrigation flows from


pipeline to 5-15 ha (typ)
irrigator units (usually every
200-500 m along pipeline)
To allow monitoring of
pressures in pipeline, feed back
to pump operator to increase /
decrease pumping flows, and

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Nr

Type of
Structure

Washouts

2.

Nr
Required

Description

Function

piezometric tube to be fitted to


allow monitoring of water level
(pressure).

for excess flow to discharge


safely into drainage ditch. Top
of standpipes to be 0.3 (typ) m
above design HGL.

uPVC pipe offtake with control


valve and RC access box located
at low point(s) in pipelines

To allow periodic flushing and


emptying of pipeline for repairs
and removal of sediment.

Flow Formulae

In this section the flow formulae used for the hydraulic designs of the pipe system structures
are presented.
a.

Transitions

Head (energy) losses through transitions include for losses between structures / channels
and pipes.
The general expressions for transition losses are:
For exit losses:

He = Ce (V2 - V3)2 / 2g

For inlet losses:

Hi =

Hi, He
Ci, Ce
V1
V2
V3

energy loss through transition [m]


coefficient of head loss in transition
velocity upstream of transition [m/s]
velocity in constriction (pipeline) [m/s]
velocity downstream of transition [m/s/]

=
=
=
=
=

Ci (V1 V2)2 / 2g

Values for the head loss coefficients from open channels / structures to and from conduits
are tabulated below and shown on Figure 2.2. Note: these coefficients apply for Froude
numbers of the constricted flow of less than 0.5.
Table IV-10: Energy Loss Coefficients for Transitions
Type of Transition
Conduit protruding from channel slope
Conduit connected to straight head wall
Conduit connected to simplified straight line
transition
Conduit connected with rounded ends to
straight head wall
Conduit connected to simplified straight line
transition with vertical walls
Conduit connected to transition with round
to rectangular 6D long pipe transition (width
2D, height D)
Warped transition

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Type of Conduit
Circular,
Rectangular (free
Submerged
water surface)
Ci
Ce
Ci
Ce
0.65
1.00
0.50
1.00
0.55
1.10
0.50
1.00
0.50

0.40

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0.65

0.30

0.60

0.25

0.50

0.20

0.40

0.10

0.20

0.60

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Figure IV-7: Headloss Coefficients for Pipe Channel / Structure Transitions

b.

Broad Crested Weir

For free flow (ie modular) conditions discharge is (approximately) given by:
Q = 1.7 b h11.5
Where:
Q
=
h1
=
b
=

discharge [m3/s]
upstream depth of flow over the weir crest [m]
width of the weir [m]

The flow over a weir is modular when it is independent of variations in downstream water
level. For this to occur the downstream energy head (E3), must not rise beyond a certain
percentage of the upstream energy head (E1).

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The ratio E3/E1 is the modular ratio and the modular limit is the value of the modular ratio at
which flow ceases to be free. Usually flow velocities upstream of the weir, and downstream
of the hydraulic jump are similar, and E3/E1 may be approximated by h3/h1.
The modular limit also depends on the height of the crest above the downstream floor (p2).
As shown below the modular limit for broad crested weirs with a shallow sloping back
(downstream) face varies from 0.79 to 0.94, while for a vertical back face the modular limit
varies from 0.67 to 0.92, depending on the value of the ratio (E1/p2).
Figure IV-8: Modular Limit for Broad Crested Weirs

For submerged (non-modular) flow, the discharge is reduced by multiplication by the


applicable reduction factor f tabulated below. The reduction factor depends on the modular
ratio (E3/E1), and on the approaches to the weir.
The values given in this table are applicable to weirs with either a rounded or a sloping
upstream face and a sloping downstream face, with slopes 1V:2H or flatter, are from Fanes
curve. For weirs with a vertical back (downstream) face, reduction factors are greater, and
have been approximated from Chow, 1978, Figure 14-17.
Table IV-11: Reduction Factors for Submerged Flow
Modular Ratio
E3/E1
0.80
0.90
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.98

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f value for weirs with shallow


sloping u/s and d/s faces
0.99
0.98
0.84
0.77
0.71
0.61

f value for weirs with a vertical


back face
0.88
0.70
0.50
-

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c.

Orifice

The gated pipe offtakes from concrete structures are submerged flow orifices for which
discharge is mainly a function of the head loss across the orifice, and the orifice opening as
given by the following formula:
Q = Cd Cv A (2g(h1 h2))0.5
Where:
Q
=
Cd
=
Cv
=
A
=
h1
=
h2
=

discharge [m3/s]
discharge co-efficient
velocity co-efficient
area of opening (= product of orifice opening a and orifice width b) [m 2]
upstream water depth above orifice crest [m]
downstream water depth above orifice crest [m]

Cv can usually be taken as 1.0.


For a fully contracted, rectangular orifice, Cd = 0.61. However, for most offtakes the
contraction is suppressed along the base and sides of the orifice by the walls and floor, and
the adjusted value of Cd can be found from:
Cd = 0.61 (1 + 0.15 Ps/Po)
For most sluice gated orifices, Ps/Po is about 0.6 giving a value of Cd of 0.66.
Note: as an alternative to this equation the transition headloss equation may be used with
the appropriate loss coefficient, C.
d.

V-Notch Weir

For a negligible approach velocity tests on a 900 V-notch weir for upstream heads (H1)
varying from 6 to 55 cm resulted in the following equation:
Q = 1.34 H12.47

(m3/s)

Where, H1 = upstream head over the weir crest (m).


If the flow becomes submerged the discharge reduces. For a 90% V-notch weir a 10% loss
in discharge occurs if the downstream head (H2) rises to 0.5H1 as shown on the figure
below.
It is proposed that 900 V-notch weirs are incorporated into pipe distribution system structures
(ie header tanks and flow control structures) to allow flows into pipelines to be measured.
Adopting a limit for the downstream head H2 of 0.5 H1 (or less) is proposed.

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Figure IV-9: Head over V-notch weir crest and flow

3.

Design Features of Pipe System Structures

Sample drawings for pipe system structures are given in Appendix E and design features
are discussed below.
a.

Header Tank

The height of the tank is determined by the pipeline design and necessary head to supply
irrigation water to all the outlet risers. A freeboard of 0.5-0.6 m is usual. There are three main
compartments as shown on the figure below. The first receives water from the delivery pipes
and facilitate settlement of sediment. Baffle walls calm the flow before is passes over gated
(broad crested) weirs into the second compartment, and then over 900 V-notch weirs into the
third compartment.
The second and third compartments are divided into sub-compartments according to the
number of off-taking pipelines. The design water levels in the second and third
compartments depend on the hydraulic head required at the head of the off-taking pipelines.
The crest level for all the gated (broad crested) weirs should be the same, with the number
of weirs and their widths reflecting the design discharge. In this way these weirs act as
proportional flow splitters even when the gates are not used to regulate flows.
Only one V-notch weir will be provided to measure the flows to each off-taking pipeline and
their crest levels vary according to the design discharges the higher the discharge the
lower the crest.

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Sufficient headloss should be allowed for all the broad and V-notch weirs so that flow
remains free (ie unaffected by the downstream water levels). This indicates typical minimum
headlosses of about 0.15 m for the V-notch weirs and 0.10 m for the broad crested weirs.
Figure IV-10: Plan and Section of a Header Tank

Section

b.

Plan

Flow Control / Measurement Structure

Flow control / measurement structures should be located at the head of each rotation unit to
facilitate equitable flow distribution, allow flow rotations during periods of relatively low
irrigation demand, as well as closure of part of the pipe system for emergency repair /
maintenance without closing the whole system.
The height of the reinforced concrete structure is dictated by the pipeline design, specifically
the hydraulic pressure head in the off-taking pipelines, head losses through the structure
itself and a freeboard requirement of usually 0.4 0.5 m.
A typical structure would comprise two main compartments as shown on the figure below.
Incoming flows would discharge into the upstream compartment. The downstream
compartment would be subdivided according to the number of off-taking pipelines. Flow
measurement to each pipeline would be by a 900 V-notch weir set into the partition wall
between the upstream and downstream compartment. Outflows to each pipeline would be
controlled by gated orifices set into the downstream compartment. The structure would
incorporate the following features: (i) trash racks to prevent trash entering the off-taking
pipelines; (ii) an operating platform to access the gates and V-notch weirs; (iii) an access
ladder (or rungs); (iv) small pipe drains set at the floor of the structure to allow cleaning of
each compartment; (v) pipe overflows set at design water level + 100 mm; (vi) air vent pipes
set into the structures walls for each gate to allow to enter the off-taking pipeline in event of
gate closure.
Note: an alternative, technically better but more expensive design would be similar to the
header tank described above.

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Figure IV-11: Plan and Section of Flow Control / Measurement Structure

Plan

c.

Section

Outlet Risers

Outlets typically comprise a uPVC pipe leading to riser pipe fitted with an alfalfa value. A
masonry / concrete distribution box is located over the riser pipe. It is advised, particularly for
uPVC pipes, that the outlet box is offset from the main pipeline to avoid damage to the
pipeline and allow access to the pipeline in event of repairs being required. To prevent
tampering of the alfalfa valve a lockable screen should be provided.
Figure IV-12: Plan and Section of Outlet Riser

Plan

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Section

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d.

Air Vent and Escape Standpipes

Air-vent and escapes are similar structures comprising vertical (uPVC / concrete) standpipes
leading from the top of the pipeline as shown on the figure below. The main differences
between them are as follows:
i.
Air vents are located at high points and, on-average, just upstream of every 2nd
outlet. They ensure pressures within pipeline remains within design limits and allow
air to vent. The top of air vent standpipes is usually 0.6 m above the design hydraulic
grade line (pressure head) at the standpipe location.
ii.
Escapes are located at a few key locations and allow excess flow to discharge safely
into a drainage ditch. The top of escape standpipes is usually set just 0.3 m above
the design hydraulic grade line.
Escape standpipes always have a small clear piezometric tube fixed to the standpipe to
allow monitoring of pressures in the pipeline and feed back to the pump operator to
increase supply if pressure is low, and to decrease supply if pressure is too high. The air
vents may also have these piezometric tubes if additional monitoring is desired.
Figure IV-13: Plan and Elevation of Standpipe

Plan

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Elevation

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e.

Washouts

Washouts comprise a side pipe off-take from the parent pipeline fitted with a control (gate)
valve and concrete / masonry protective box. They should be located at low point(s) along
the pipelines to to allow periodic flushing and emptying for repairs and removal of sediment.
Figure IV-14: Plan and Section of Washout

Plan

G.

Section

Pumps and Power Requirements


1.

Introduction

The source of water for the CAD irrigation subproject is typically a perennial river or other
water body. To ensure their safety from flooding and possible bank erosion the header tank
is usually located some distance from the river on high lying ground. The pump sets
(comprising pump and motor) are transported by the WMCA farmers to a pumping platform
(comprising a levelled area on which concrete has been placed) during Rabi and, as
required, in early / late Kharif.
Currently6 the procurement / rent of pump sets is primarily the local stakeholders (WMCA)
responsibility. However LGED and project staff must facilitate this and also ensure the
supply of an adequate electricity connection.
At design stage options for the number of pump sets should be determined, along with the
required design flow and pumping head characteristics and power requirements.
The selection of appropriate pump sets should be left to the supplier / manufacturer to avoid
mistakes and procurement of inappropriate pumps which will then operate at low efficiencies
with increased operating costs.
The guidelines below provide an overview of pump selection, number of pump sets and
calculation of power requirements.
2.

Pump Selection Overview


a.

Types of Pumps

Pumps fall into the following categories: (i) axial flow pumps low head and high discharge;
(ii) centrifugal pumps high head and low discharge; and (ii) mixed flow pumps. They are all

It is suggested that procurement of pump sets and electricity connection is included in the subproject cost.

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designed to run at a constant speed and their performance is described by the following
characteristics:
Pumping head and discharge;
Power Requirement; and
Efficiency of operation.
The peak efficiency for any pump occurs for a certain head and discharge and efficiency falls
off rapidly if the pump is required to pump a different head. Proper pump selection is
important and should be done only in consultation with the pump manufacturer / supplier.
To allow for varying irrigation demand at least three pump sets will be required and more
usually 4-6 pump sets. Ideally the number of pump sets would equal the number of Rotation
Units, though for large subprojects (or for small sized rotation units) the number may be
reduced.
Also the pumps should be sufficiently small to be transported to / from the river bank each
season.
Providing that several pumps are provided the provision of a standby pump is not
recommended due to the high cost of pump sets and the fact that peak demand only occurs
for a short period of time. Funds would very likely be better spent on the purchase and
provision of a standby electricity generator.
Figure IV-15: Pump Sets and Pump Types

Centrifugal
Pump

Mixed Flow
Pump

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b.

Power Unit

Power sources are either an electric motor or an internal combustion engine. For the CAD
subprojects developed under LGED electric motors are usually adopted using mains
(national grid) electric power. Correct determination of the power requirement is important to
ensure that a suitable electric connection and transformer is provided.
It is acknowledged that power supplies in Bangladesh are erratic so that pumping and
irrigation is often only possible at night. Erratic supplies are also the frequent cause of motor
burn out.
c.
Efficiencies
Efficiencies are given by the product of the efficiencies of: (i) the pump; and (ii) the power
unit and vary widely.
The efficiency of the pump is usually about 40-80% provided that a suitable pump is selected
and is operating near to its optimal pumping head and discharge.
The efficiency of the power unit varies from: (i) 75-80% for electric motors; and (ii) 15-35%
for internal combustion engines.
d.

Common Mistakes / Misunderstandings

Before buying a pump the pumping head should be checked for the as-built scheme,
checking in particular low-flow water levels in the river, and the exact location and elevation
of the header tank. Also confirm the number of pumps and power requirements.
In reading pump labels, eg 50 GPM, 70 ft of lift be aware that this often means one or the
other (ie 50 GBP or 70ft of lift), not both.
Remember also that a pump set comprises: (i) the power unit; and (ii) the pump. They may
both be housed under a single protective casing. Also, the same pump may be attached to
different sizes of motor.
3.

Pump and Electric Power Requirements

The electric power requirement is given by:


Power (kW) = 9.81 x discharge (m3/s) x head (m) / overall efficiency
The overall efficiency is given by the product of the electric motor and the pump itself. Little
data are available, but the following efficiencies are suggested: (i) motor 80%; and (ii) the
pump - 60%, giving an overall efficiency of 48%.
A typical (spreadsheet) calculation of power requirements is tabulated below for a design
discharge of 253 l/s, a total pumping head of 10.1 m, and for five pump sets. As shown the
power requirement for each pump set is 11.8 kW, and the total power requirement is 58.9
kW. Note: provision of 10-20% spare pumping capacity is suggested.

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Table IV-12: Number of Pump Sets and Power Requirements


Nr
1

Item
Total discharge at peak demand (design discharge)

2.1
2.2

Nr of pumps (at least 3)


Pump discharge

2.3

Pump capacity

2.4
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.1

Pump spare capacity (adopt 10-20%)


Design water level in header tank
Ground level where pump to be located (ie near river)
River level during dry season (ie Dec - March)
Total Static Head
Suction Head (recommended limit 2-3 m)
Allowance for friction losses (pipe and fittings)
Total Pumping Head
Adopted power unit efficiency (75-85% for electric unit)
Adopted pump efficiency (40-80%)
Overall efficiency
Power Demand per pump (for adopted pump capacity)

5.2

Total (Peak) Power Demand for subproject

Quantity
0.253
8.949
5
51
1.79
57
2.01
205
902
12%
11.22
4.00
1.60
9.62
2.40
0.50
10.12
0.80
0.60
0.48
11.8
16.0
58.9
80.2

Units
3
m /s
cusecs
Nr
l/s per pump
cusecs/pump
l/s per pump
cusecs/pump
3
m /hr per pump
USG/m per pump
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

kW
HP (= 1.36 kW)
kW
HP (= 1.36 kW)

The final selection of pump sets is not done at design stage, but as part of subproject
commissioning. Identification of 2-3 possible pump set options is recommended prior to
consulting a dealer / manufacturer or arranging for the hire of pump sets. Possible options
for the discharge and pumping head given above are summarised in the table below.
Table IV-13: Pump & Power Requirement Options
Nr
1

Nr of Pumps

Suggested Pump Capacity

Suction Head
Total Pumping Head (static lift &
losses)
Adopted overall efficiency (motor &
pump)

4
5

Item

Power requirement per pump

Total power requirement

SSWRDP (JICA)

Units
No
l/s
cusecs
m3/hr
m
m

Option A
3
100
3.5
360
2-3
10.1

Option B
4
70
2.5
256
2-3
10.1

Option C
5
57
2.0
205
2-3
10.1

48%

48%

48%

kW
HP
kW

20.7
28.1
62.0

14.7
20.0
58.7

11.8
16.0
58.9

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H.

Construction

Good construction quality is essential for the long term success of a CAD subproject and the
construction supervisor should be fully aware of the Specification, included as Appendix F
to this Guideline which covers: (i) pipe sizes, wall thickness and material specification; (ii)
pipe storage and handling; (iii) pipeline layout and location of structures; (iv) trench
construction; (v) pipe placement and jointing; (vi) structure connections; (vii) thrust control;
and (viii) pipeline testing and backfill.
Figure IV-16: Conveyance Pipeline Trench Construction

Local farmer stakeholders should be consulted throughout the construction period, and in
particular concerning the exact location of riser outlets.

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V.
A.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

Introduction

To achieve sustainable benefits from the investment in engineering infrastructure effective


management, operation and maintenance is vital. The LGED Water Resources
Infrastructure O&M Guidelines 2007 and the Small Scale Water Resources Support
Strategy and O&M Manual 2009 do not cover the specific management, operation &
maintenance needs of CAD irrigation subprojects. To some extent this lack is addressed by
this Chapter which describes the operational challenges facing farmers of CAD subprojects,
and their operation and maintenance features and requirements.
The relatively large capital investment for CAD subprojects (with uPVC pipelines) justifies
preparation of subproject specific O&M strategies and intensive training of farmers to ensure
good performance.
B.

Operation
1.

Operation Objectives

Suggested operation objectives are to:


i.
Supply sufficient irrigation water to meet crop water requirements with reasonable
flexibility to meet fluctuating demand;
ii.
Reliable, transparent and equitable water distribution;
iii.
Easy / simple operation; and
iv.
Beneficiaries (farmers) meeting O&M costs.
Meeting these objectives requires:
i.
Clarity and consensus to operating procedures among stakeholders;
ii.
Organisation of appropriate farmer institutions;
iii.
Suitable infrastructure to control and measure flows and enable good operation;
iv.
Adoption of agreed performance procedures; and
v.
Adoption of agreed charges for irrigation water and procedures for collection, use
and accounting for funds.
2.

System Layout, Farmer Institutions and O&M Staff

To facilitate operation the scheme area should be divided in Rotation Units each about 80120 ha in area by consideration of topography /hydraulic boundaries. Each Rotation Unit
should be supplied with a regulated and measureable amount of irrigation water.
In turn each Rotation Unit is divided into smaller Irrigator Units, each 5-15 ha in area and
receives irrigation water by open (field) channels supplied from a pipe riser outlet.
Institutional O&M arrangements and staffing should match the scheme layout as tabulated
below. An O&M sub-committee should be formed for the subproject with 1-2 (elected)
representatives from each Rotation Unit. The O&M subcommittee reports to the WMCA
management committee.
To manage the pump sets and water distribution to each outlet well trained and paid (by the
WMCA through farmer contributions) staff are required comprising: (i) 1-2 Pump Operators;
and (ii) 1-2 Pipe System Mangers per Rotation Unit.

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Downstream of the pipe outlet farmers would be expected to organise themselves into
Irrigator Groups to manage water distribution from the pipe outlet along field channels to
their fields. Depending on the crop(s) grown the time each farmer receives irrigation water
would be set by the group, and the group would manage rotation of irrigation supplies to
farmers.
Table V-1: Scheme Layout, Institutions and O&M Staff
Nr

Unit

Typical
Area
(ha)

Rotation
Unit

80 120

Irrigator
Unit

5-15 ha

Institution

Flow Control &


Measurement

O&M subcommittee with 12 representatives


from each RU
reporting to the
WMCA
Irrigator Groups
managing rotation
of supply to
farmers fields

Flow control and


measurement by
gated regulator
structure
incorporating Vnotch weirs
Flow control at
head of IU by
alfalfa valve. No
accurate flow
measurement.

Typical Nr of
Irrigator HHs
assuming 0.15
1
ha/ HH*
200-250

15 25

O&M Staff

Paid Pump
operator (1-2
Nr), Pipe
System
Managers (1-2
/ rotation unit)
Unpaid Irrigator
Group
Manager.

* Note: CAD irrigation subprojects typically are dominated by small and medium land holders with a proportion of
landless. Average net irrigation land holding is likely be about 0.4-0.5 ha.

Farmers in small scale water resources subprojects developed by LGED comprise the
following land owning groups:
i.
Land less (LL)
ii.
Marginal farmers (MRF):
0.01 to 0.49 ac
iii.
Small farmers (SF):
0.50 to 2.49 ac
iv.
Medium Farmers (MF):
2.5 to 7.49 ac
v.
Larger farmers (LF):
> 7.5 ac
The overall average landholding is typically about 1-1.3 ac (0.40 to 0.53 ha)
3.

Operational Challenges and Practices

The challenges facing operators of CAD irrigation subprojects are considerable and usually
stem from:
i.
Variation in irrigation demands within a season and from year to year due to weather
variations, particularly rainfall and plant stages of growth.
ii.
The variation in land types (and also possibly soils) in the command area. Low lying
areas may be wetter than high lying areas requiring less and / or delayed irrigation
supply.
iii.
A range of different crops being cultivated requiring differing irrigation intervals and
application depths.
iv.
Fluctuation in electric power supply (unless farmers invest in standby generators)
restricting pumping times.
v.
Time taken to fill the pipe distribution system whenever irrigation is resumed after an
interval and to attain usual operation flows and pressures in the system.
vi.
Sedimentation.
vii.
Failure of part of the pipe delivery system.
viii.
Tampering of alfalfa valves and/ or theft of water.

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Operators must therefore adjust the pumped flow (ie number of pumping units operational)
to cope with varying irrigation demand. To some extent, as alfalfa values are opened or
closed the pumped supply can be adjusted to match supply to demand.
However as the pipe distribution system is designed for a single design discharge (based on
the peak irrigation demand), whenever actual pipe flows are less, the lower pipe friction
losses will result in a higher hydraulic grade line, pressure imbalance and overtopping of
some of the standpipes.
For this reason maintaining near constant flows (say 70% to 110% of design) in the pipelines
is advised, with minimal adjustment of the alfalfa valves after they have been set to supply
their design flows.
Matching irrigation supply to demand, whenever demand drops to less than 70% of design,
should therefore be achieved by rotation of supply in turn to each Rotation Unit. A rotation
period of 1 week or 10 days is suggested.
For boro paddy, no rotations will occur for land preparation (December / January) and during
peak crop demand (March - April) months, but for other months a 2 in 3 or 1 in 3 rotation
may be instigated. Alternatively, the whole system may be periodically closed down by
shutting down all the pumps.
Closure of the whole system is particularly sensible following rainfall in the command area. A
rough rule of thumb for the period of system closure for various rainfall events is tabulated
below.
Table V-2: Rainfall and suggested length of Closure Period
Daily Rainfall (mm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

4.

20
20 25
25 30
30 35
35 45
45 55
55 70
70 - 80
80 and above

Days of Closure
Suggested
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Enabling Subproject Infrastructure

Good operation is enabled by the design and provision of appropriate or enabling


infrastructure which is one reason why this Guideline, prepared primarily for designers,
covers system O&M.
CAD subproject infrastructure central to good operation includes:
i.
A control structure at the head of each rotation unit enabling: (i) adjustment and
measurement of irrigation flows (70-110% of design); and (ii) its isolation and
maintenance without closing down the whole system. Note: this function is also
carried out by the header tank.
ii.
Standpipes constructed to correct height (ie 0.3 m freeboard for escapes and 0.6 m
freeboard for air vents) and supplied with small clear plastic piezometric tubes
attached to the standpipes to monitor pressures within the distribution pipe system.

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iii.

iv.
v.

Alfalfa values in outlets which are protected from tampering by a lockable grill (or
other suitable arrangement). The alfalfa values should only be adjusted by the Pipe
System Managers.
Suitable selection of pump sets to maximise efficiencies and minimise power
requirements and operating costs.
Washouts to allow periodic flushing / drainage of the pipe system.
5.

Water Distribution below the Pipe Outlet

Flow along each field channel to farmers fields will be managed by irrigator groups.
The delivery pattern arranges the sequence in which each farmer receives his turn in the
irrigation cycle. Ideally the movement of water along a field canal will be systematic, going
from head to tail, or the reverse, but not haphazard. This reduces losses due to prism
storage and perimeter wetting.
Rotational distribution to farmers by turn according to a predetermined time schedule
specifying the day, time and duration of supply is proposed.
C.

Maintenance
1.

Categories of Maintenance

In any irrigation development which is either new, or substantially expanded or changed,


farmers do not initially appreciate maintenance needs, activities and costs to keep the
engineering infrastructure in good working order. If maintenance is not carried out, or
frequently deferred, the scheme will deteriorate resulting in its inability to perform as
designed.
Considerable efforts are therefore required to build awareness of maintenance requirements,
support development of a maintenance strategy that has the broad approval of farmers, and
develop farmer (institutional) capacity to implement the strategy.
Maintenance requirements for engineering infrastructure fall into the following categories: (i)
Preventative Maintenance; (ii) Routine Maintenance; (iii) Periodic maintenance; and
Emergency repairs.
Preventive maintenance works are those required to ensure ease of operation and smooth
functioning of the system and involve only minor expenditure for labour and materials.
Examples are lubrication / greasing of bearings, painting of gates and other metal work,
covering of any exposed length of pipeline, weed cutting and minor earthwork dressing in
field channels.
Routine maintenance will commonly be executed during the seasonal closures and are
works identified by observations and inspections. Examples include servicing of pumping
equipment, repair to cables / electrical connections, sediment removal from header tank,
repair for (pipe) joint leaks, ensuring earthen cover is maintained to pipelines, etc.
Periodic maintenance addresses major repair works and may be implemented during
extended annual closures. Works may include flushing of the pipeline, replacement of
lengths of pipeline and quite major repairs to structures.
Emergency repairs are those not foreseen and which must be undertaken immediately to
avoid partial or complete system shutdown and subsequent loss of agricultural production.

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These may arise because of extreme events flood damage, sudden failure of a structure
and so on.
Maintenance would usually be carried out during canal closures / off-seasons after crop
harvest.
2.

Specific Maintenance Requirements

Maintenance of the pumping plant, including control panel, electrical connections and the
pumps themselves is essential to keep it operational and maintain high (as designed)
efficiencies.
Moving mechanical parts need greasing, while operation of electric motors at low / high
voltage should be avoided to reduce likelihood of motor and / or transformer burn-out.
Proscribed procedures at start up / shut down must be followed.
Security of equipment and of the electric transmission line and transformer is always a
concern, and is best ensured by the WMCA and community themselves.
Provided the uPVC irrigation distribution system is well constructed there should be little
leakage from the rubber seal O ring joints, and general maintenance work will comprise: (i)
seasonal removal of sediment from the header tank; (ii) seasonal flushing of the irrigation
pipe system to remove any sediment that may accumulate as well as drainage of the system
when not in use for long periods; (ii) repairs to structures of the pipe irrigation system
including the header tank, outlet risers, air-vent standpipes, escapes and washouts. Any
tampering of the outlet (alfalfa valves) will result in imbalance and inequitable water
distribution, and for this reason they should be provided with a lockable cover and any
damage quickly rectified. The alfalfa valves are robust but periodic replacement is likely to
be necessary.
Pipe crossings of low land areas including any drainage lines (streams, etc) are particular
vulnerable points. During floods empty uPVC pipes have been known to float if not buried
properly. Also erosion can expose the pipeline to sunlight and physical damage. Immediate
repair of such damage is essential.
The outlet masonry boxes have puca nucas to direct flow into earthen channels. The puca
nucas need to be replaced when ever damaged, and the earthen channels kept in good
order, with seasonal prism shaping and cutting of grass and vegetation.

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APPENDICES
Appendix A: Pipe System Costs
Appendix A: uPVC Pipe and Fitting Rates
Appendix B:
Appendix B1:
Appendix B2:
Appendix B3:

Crop Water Requirements


Description of FAO Programmes for CWR Calculation
Crop Water Requirements and Design Duties (FAO)
On-farm Irrigation Water Requirements

Appendix C:
Appendix C1:
Appendix C2:
Appendix C3:
Appendix C4:

Pipe System Original & Improved Layouts


SP 25227, Hatnabad Subproject, Rajshahi District
SP 25233, Gandharbbapur-Dighali subproject, Laxmipur District
SP 25195, Sonar Bangla, Chapai Nawabganj District
SP 25259, Baroigoan Jhilki subproject, Mymensingh District

Appendix D: Sample Design Calculations for CAD Subproject (Bajra Panail)


Appendix E: Sample Drawings of CAD Subproject (Bajra Panail)
Appendix F: Sample Specification for uPVC Pipe Distribution System
Appendix G: Selected Photographs

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Appendix A: uPVC Pipe and Fitting Rates


Standard: ISO 4065
Date: 14 September 2011
Nr

External
Dia
(mm)

Nominal
Wall
thickness
(mm)

0.04
Internal
Dia
(mm)

Length
(m)

Ex-Factory
/ supplier
Rate
(BDT/m)

Transport
Cost at
4%

0.08
Placing &
Connecting
/ Jointing
Cost at 8%

0.02
Sub-total
A
(BDT/m)

Testing,
incidental
charges &
overheads

0.10
Sub-total
B
(BDT/m)

10% profit
(add 10%
on Subtotal B)

Sub-total
C
(BDT/m)

VAT at
5.5%
of total

Income
Tax at
4% of
total

1
160
2.00
156
6.00
356
14
28
399
8
407
41
447
27
20
2
180
2.30
175
6.00
456
18
36
511
10
521
52
573
35
25
3
200
2.50
195
6.00
558
22
45
625
12
637
64
701
43
31
4
225
2.80
219
6.00
814
33
65
912
18
930
93
1,023
62
45
5
250
3.10
244
6.00
853
34
68
955
19
974
97
1,072
65
47
6
280
3.50
273
6.00
1,071
43
86
1,200
24
1,224
122
1,346
82
59
7
315
4.00
307
6.00
1,368
55
109
1,532
31
1,563
156
1,719
104
76
8
355
4.40
346
6.00
1,707
68
137
1,912
38
1,950
195
2,145
130
95
9
400
5.00
390
6.00
2,172
87
174
2,433
49
2,481
248
2,729
166
121
10
450
5.60
439
6.00
2,722
109
218
3,049
61
3,110
311
3,421
208
151
11
500
6.20
488
6.00
3,361
134
269
3,764
75
3,840
384
4,224
257
187
Notes:
Working Pressure: 3.25 bar (32 m head)
Pipe sizes & wall thickness in accordance with ISO-4422 and ISO-4065 for required working pressure - note that nominal wall thickness is the minimum diameter
Ex-factory rates as quoted by Suppliers in August 2011
Total rate is the all-in Installation rate for the uPVC pipeline including placing, connecting and jointing but excluding bedding & trench earthworks (O-ring jointing proposed)
In estimating pipe quantity allow for jointing wastage of (say) 3-8% depending on pipe diameter

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Cad Sp Development (2)

Total allin rate


(BDT/m)

494
633
775
1,130
1,184
1,487
1,900
2,370
3,016
3,780
4,667

uPVC Tee Rates


Nr

Dimensions - External
Diameter (mm)

0.04
Nomina
l Wall
thickne
ss (mm)

Length
(m)

Ex-Factory
/ supplier
Rate
(BDT/Pc)

Transport
Cost at
4%

0.10

0.02

0.10

Placing &
Connecting
/ Jointing
Cost at
10%

Sub-total
A (BDT /
Pc)

Testing,
incidental
charges &
overheads

Sub-total
B (BDT /
Pc)

10% profit
(add 10%
on Subtotal B)

1
Tee 160 x 160 x 160
2.50
1.47
1,021
41
102
2
Tee 180 x 180 x 180
2.80
1.47
1,201
48
120
3
Tee 200 x 200 x 200
3.20
1.47
1,419
57
142
4
Tee 225 x 255 x 255
3.50
1.47
1,655
66
166
5
Tee 250 x 250 x 250
3.90
1.47
1,954
78
195
6
Tee 280 x 280 x 280
4.40
1.47
2,453
98
245
7
Tee 315 x 315 x 315
4.90
1.47
2,996
120
300
8
Tee 355 x 355 x 355
5.60
1.98
4,916
197
492
9
Tee 400 x 400 x 400
6.30
2.29
6,901
276
690
10
Tee 450 x 450 x 450
7.00
2.67
9,863
395
986
11
Tee 500 x 500 x 500
7.80
2.67
12,152
486
1,215
Notes:
Rates for Un-equal Tees (eg 315 x 315 x 200) as for equal Tee (315 x 315 x 315)

1,164
1,369
1,618
1,887
2,228
2,796
3,415
5,604
7,867
11,244
13,853

23
27
32
38
45
56
68
112
157
225
277

1,187
1,397
1,650
1,924
2,272
2,852
3,484
5,716
8,024
11,469
14,130

119
140
165
192
227
285
348
572
802
1,147
1,413

Placing &
Connecting
/ Jointing
Cost at
10%

Sub-total
A (BDT /
Pc)

Testing,
incidental
charges &
overheads

Sub-total
B (BDT /
Pc)

10% profit
(add 10%
on Subtotal B)

84
103
126
150
181
234
299
373
596
740
910

962
1,174
1,431
1,710
2,062
2,668
3,412
4,247
6,798
8,436
10,374

19
23
29
34
41
53
68
85
136
169
207

981
1,198
1,459
1,744
2,104
2,721
3,480
4,331
6,934
8,605
10,581

98
120
146
174
210
272
348
433
693
860
1,058

Subtotal C
(BDT /
Pc)

1,306
1,536
1,815
2,117
2,499
3,138
3,832
6,288
8,827
12,616
15,543

VAT at
5.5% of
total

79
93
110
129
152
191
233
382
536
767
945

Income
Tax at
4% of
total

58
68
80
94
110
139
169
278
390
558
687

Total allin rate


(BDT /
Pc)

1,443
1,697
2,006
2,339
2,762
3,467
4,234
6,948
9,753
13,940
17,175

uPVC Bend Rates


Nr

Dimensions External Diameter


(mm)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Bend 160
Bend 180
Bend 200
Bend 225
Bend 250
Bend 280
Bend 315
Bend 355
Bend 400
Bend 450
Bend 500

Nominal
Wall
thickness
(mm)

Length
(m)

Ex-Factory
/ supplier
Rate
(BDT/Pc)

2.50
2.80
3.20
3.50
3.90
4.40
4.90
5.60
6.30
7.00
7.80

1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.98
1.98
1.98

844
1,030
1,255
1,500
1,809
2,340
2,993
3,725
5,963
7,400
9,100

SSWRDP (JICA)

Transport
Cost at
4%

34
41
50
60
72
94
120
149
239
296
364

Page 2

Subtotal C
(BDT /
Pc)

1,080
1,317
1,605
1,919
2,314
2,993
3,828
4,765
7,627
9,465
11,640

Cad Sp Development (2)

VAT at
5.5% of
total

66
80
98
117
141
182
233
290
464
575
707

Income
Tax at
4% of
total

48
58
71
85
102
132
169
211
337
418
514

Total allin rate


(BDT /
Pc)

1,193
1,456
1,774
2,120
2,557
3,307
4,230
5,265
8,428
10,459
12,861

uPVC End-Cap Rates


Nr

Dimensions - External
Diameter (mm)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

End cap 160


End cap 180
End cap 200
End cap 220
End cap 250
End cap 280
End cap 315
End cap 355
End cap 400
End cap 450
End cap 500

Nomina
l Wall
thickne
ss (mm)

Length
(m)

Ex-Factory
/ supplier
Rate
(BDT/Pc)

Transpo
rt Cost at
4%

Placing &
Connecting
/ Jointing
Cost at
10%

Sub-total
A
(BDT/Pc
)

Testing,
incidental
charges &
overheads

Sub-total
B
(BDT/Pc
)

10% profit
(add 10%
on Subtotal B)

Subtotal C
(BDT/Pc
)

2.00
2.30
2.50
2.80
3.10
3.50
4.00
4.40
5.00
5.60
6.20

0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42

381
437
494
637
659
872
2,219
2,792
3,544
4,328
5,327

15
17
20
25
26
35
89
112
142
173
213

38
44
49
64
66
87
222
279
354
433
533

434
498
563
726
751
994
2,530
3,183
4,040
4,934
6,073

9
10
11
15
15
20
51
64
81
99
121

443
508
574
741
766
1,014
2,580
3,247
4,121
5,033
6,194

44
51
57
74
77
101
258
325
412
503
619

487
559
632
815
843
1,115
2,838
3,571
4,533
5,536
6,814

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Cad Sp Development (2)

VAT at
5.5% of
total

30
34
38
50
51
68
172
217
275
336
414

Income
Tax at
4% of
total

22
25
28
36
37
49
125
158
200
245
301

Total allin rate


(BDT/Pc
)

538
618
698
900
931
1,232
3,136
3,946
5,009
6,117
7,529

Appendix B: Crop Water Requirements


Appendix B1: Description of FAO Programmes for CWR Calculation
CLIMWAT is a climatic database to be used in combination with the computer program
CROPWAT and allows the calculation of crop water requirements, irrigation supply and
irrigation scheduling for various crops for a range of climate stations worldwide.
CLIMWAT 2.0 for CROPWAT is a joint publication of the Water Development and
Management Unit and the Climate Change and Bio-energy Unit of FAO. It offers observed
agro-climatic data of over 5000 stations worldwide.
CLIMWAT provides long-term monthly mean values of seven climatic parameters, namely:
i.
Mean daily maximum temperature in C
ii.
Mean daily minimum temperature in C
iii.
Mean relative humidity in %
iv.
Mean wind speed in km/day
v.
Mean sunshine hours per day
vi.
Mean solar radiation in MJ/m2/day
vii.
Monthly rainfall in mm/month
viii.
Monthly effective rainfall in mm/month
ix.
Reference evapotranspiration calculated with the Penman-Monteith method in
mm/day.
The data can be extracted for a single or multiple stations in the format suitable for their use
in CROPWAT. Two files are created for each selected station. The first file contains longterm monthly rainfall data [mm/month]. Additionally, effective rainfall is also included
calculated and included in the same file. The second file consists of long-term monthly
averages for the seven climatic parameters listed above. This file also contains the
coordinates and altitude of the location.
All station information is drawn from the database of the Agromet Group of FAO.
All variables, except potential evapotranspiration, are direct observations or conversions of
observations. Original data coming from a large number of meteorological stations as
included in CLIMWAT, could not be uniform. For example, humidity and radiation can be
expressed through different variables. With respect to humidity, data can be provided as
relative humidity, dew point temperature or water vapour pressure. These three variables
can be uniquely converted into each other if the mean temperature is known. However, if
humidity is measured and provided in more than one of these variables, the actual numbers
would not necessarily be in line. In this case it is necessary to decide which variable to use.
When compiling CLIMWAT, it was decided to use water vapour pressure as a core variable
and only where it is not available, use dew point temperature and relative humidity.
However, there is a risk that the provided value of vapour pressure is higher than the one
that is possible to obtain, given the mean temperature. The original databases were
crosschecked for this possible inconsistency and one of the other variables was used in the
few cases where it occurred.
The same problem arises with radiation. Instead of the solar energy flux at the surface often
only sunshine hours or sunshine fraction are recorded, both of which though can be
converted to radiation. In order to calculate evapotranspiration using the Penman-Monteith
method, both radiation and sunshine fraction are necessary. To keep both these values in
agreement the observed radiation was used as base variable and the sunshine fraction was
estimated from it. When only the sunshine fraction (or hours) has been observed it was used
to estimate radiation. If both (fraction and radiation) are observed radiation was preferred.
SSWRDP (JICA)

Page 1

Cad Sp Development (2)

As a result, the provided relative humidity and sunshine hours are often deduced from
observations of vapour pressure and radiation, even if the former are observed. The
procedure, however, ensures that the different expressions are coherent.
In compiling the data, an effort was made to cover the period 1971 - 2000, but when data for
this period were not available, any recent series that ends after 1975 and that has at least 15
years of data have been included. Some of the series are "broken", but they nevertheless
have at least 15 years of data (e.g. 1961-70 and 1992-2000).
CROPWAT is a decision support tool developed by the Land and Water Development
Division of FAO. CROPWAT 8.0 for Windows is a computer program for the calculation of
crop water requirements and irrigation requirements based on soil, climate and crop data. In
addition, the program allows the development of irrigation schedules for different
management conditions and the calculation of scheme water supply for varying crop
patterns. CROPWAT 8.0 can also be used to evaluate farmers irrigation practices and to
estimate crop performance under both rainfed and irrigated conditions.
All calculation procedures used in CROPWAT 8.0 are based on the two FAO publications of
the Irrigation and Drainage Series, namely, No. 56 "Crop Evapotranspiration - Guidelines for
computing crop water requirements and No. 33 titled "Yield response to water".
As a starting point, and only to be used when local data are not available, CROPWAT 8.0
includes standard crop and soil data. When local data are available, these data files can be
easily modified or new ones can be created. Likewise, if local climatic data are not available,
these can be obtained for over 5,000 stations worldwide from CLIMWAT, the associated
climatic database. The development of irrigation schedules in CROPWAT 8.0 is based on a
daily soil-water balance using various user-defined options for water supply and irrigation
management conditions. Scheme water supply is calculated according to the cropping
pattern defined by the user, which can include up to 20 crops.
CROPWAT 8.0 is a Windows program based on the previous DOS versions. Apart from a
completely redesigned user interface, CROPWAT 8.0 for Windows includes a host of
updated and new features, including:
i.
Monthly, decade and daily input of climatic data for calculation of reference
evapotranspiration (ETo).
ii.
Backward compatibility to allow use of data from the CLIMWAT database.
iii.
Possibility to estimate climatic data in the absence of measured values.
iv.
Decade and daily calculation of crop water requirements based on updated
calculation algorithms including adjustment of crop-coefficient values.
v.
Calculation of crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling for paddy & upland
rice, using a newly developed procedure to calculate water requirements including
the land preparation period.
vi.
Interactive user adjustable irrigation schedules.
vii.
Daily soil water balance output tables.
viii.
Easy saving and retrieval of sessions and of user-defined irrigation schedules.
ix.
Graphical presentations of input data, crop water requirements and irrigation
schedules.
x.
Easy import/export of data and graphics through clipboard or ASCII text files.
xi.
Extensive printing routines, supporting all windows-based printers.
xii.
Context-sensitive help system.
xiii.
Multilingual interface and help system: English, Spanish, French and Russian.
CROPWAT 8.0 for Windows was developed using Visual Delphi 4.0 and runs on the
following Windows platforms: 95/98/ME/2000/NT/XP and Vista.
SSWRDP (JICA)

Page 2

Cad Sp Development (2)

Appendix B2: Crop Water Requirements and Design Duties (FAO)


Nr
1
2

Description

Units

Mymensingh Climatic Data


100% Rice Cropping

Cropping
Soil Characteristics
Soil type
Initial soil moisture depletion as & of TA
Climatic Data
Peak Evapotranspiration
Month Peak Occurs
Cropping
Crop Duration
Planting period

Loam

Loam

10%

mm/d
-

4.98
April

days
-

Faridpur Climatic Data


100% Rice Cropping

Wheat &
Vegetables
Light / sandy

Loam

Loam

70%

Light /
sandy
0%

0%

10%

4.98
April

4.98
April

4.98
April

4.74
April

150
150
21 Nov to 21 Dec

150

100%

100%

Wheat &
Vegetables
Light / sandy

70%

Light /
sandy
0%

4.74
April

4.74
April

4.74
April

150
150
21 Nov to 21 Dec

150

100%

130 (wheat)
21 Nov to 15
Dec
30 Mar to 23
Apr
100%

0%

Harvesting period

Cropping Intensity
Irrigation Scheduling Assumptions
Initial soil soaking depth
Irrigation depths
Net irrigation requirements incl. land
preparation
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
March
April
Totals
Peak net duty

100%

100%

100%

130 (wheat)
21 Nov to 15
Dec
30 Mar to 23
Apr
100%

m
mm

0.5
50 to 100

0.5
50 to 100

0.5
50 to 100

n/a
Varies

0.5
50 to 100

0.5
50 to 100

0.5
50 to 100

n/a
Varies

mm/month
mm/month
mm/month
mm/month
mm/month
mm/month
mm
mm/d
l/s/ha

141
191
70
78
99
17
596
6.1
0.71

219
199
70
78
99
17
682
7.3
0.84

207
248
70
78
99
17
719
8.0
0.93

2
27
49
72
60
5
215
2.6
0.30

132
184
77
74
109
13
589
5.9
0.69

210
192
77
74
109
13
675
7.0
0.81

199
235
77
74
109
13
707
7.6
0.88

1
19
56
68
67
3
214
2.4
0.28

20 March to 19 April

20 March to 19 April

Efficiencies, Duties & Water


Requirements

SSWRDP (JICA)

Page 3

Cad Sp Development (2)

Nr

Description
Field irrigation efficiency
Peak on-farm (field) irrigation duty
Total water requirements at field level
Conveyance efficiency (pipe outlet to
field)
Peak duty at pipe outlet
Total water requirements at pipe outlet

Units
%
mm/d
l/s/ha

75%
8.1
0.95
795

Mymensingh Climatic Data


75%
75%
9.7
10.7
1.12
1.24
909
959

60%
4.3
0.50
358

75%
7.9
0.92
785

Faridpur Climatic Data


75%
75%
9.3
10.1
1.08
1.17
900
943

60%
4.0
0.47
357

80%

80%

80%

80%

80%

80%

80%

80%

mm/d
l/s/ha
mm

10.2
1.18
993

12.2
1.40
1,137

13.3
1.55
1,198

5.4
0.63
448

9.8
1.15
982

11.7
1.35
1,125

12.7
1.47
1,178

5.0
0.58
446

SSWRDP (JICA)

Page 4

Cad Sp Development (2)

Appendix B3: On-farm Irrigation Water Requirements


HYV of Paddy Rice
Month

October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May

Depth
per day
(inch)
0.093
0.193
0.172
0.176
0.276
0.360
0.401
0.142

Totals (mm)
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May

0.102
0.183
0.156
0.172
0.247
0.326
0.326
0.160

Totals (mm)
October
November
December

0.119
0.193
0.172

Depth
per day
(mm)
2.4
4.9
4.4
4.5
7.0
9.1
10.2
3.6

Duty
(cfs/acre)

0.0039
0.0081
0.0072
0.0074
0.0116
0.0151
0.0168
0.0060

Duty
(l/s/ha)

0.27
0.57
0.51
0.52
0.81
1.06
1.18
0.42

HYV of Wheat
% of peak

Typical
Operation /
Rotations

Depth
per day
(inch)

Districts: Rangpur, Dinajpur, Bogra


23%
1 in 3
48%
2 in 3
0.061
43%
2 in 3
0.052
44%
2 in 3
0.102
69%
Full / 2 in 3
0.165
90%
Full
0.102
100%
Full
35%
2 in 3

Depth
per day
(mm)

Duty
(cfs/acre)

1.5
1.3
2.6
4.2
2.6

1,382

367

2.6
4.6
4.0
4.4
6.3
8.3
8.3
4.1

0.0043
0.0077
0.0066
0.0072
0.0104
0.0137
0.0137
0.0067

Districts: Rajshahi, Kushtia, Jessore, Faridpur, Khulna & Pabna


0.30
31%
1 in 3
0.54
56%
2 in 3
0.070
1.8
0.46
48%
2 in 3
0.061
1.5
0.51
53%
2 in 3
0.121
3.1
0.73
76%
Full / 2 in 3
0.186
4.7
0.96
100%
Full
0.116
2.9
0.96
100%
Full
0.47
49%
2 in 3

1,273

422

3.0
4.9
4.4

0.0050
0.0081
0.0072

Districts: Tangail, Dhaka, Comilla, Mymensingh & Jamalpur


0.35
37%
1 in 3
0.57
60%
2 in 3
0.072
1.8
0.51
53%
2 in 3
0.061
1.5

SSWRDP (JICA)

Page 5

Duty
(l/s/ha)

% of peak

Typical
Operation /
Rotations

0.0026
0.0022
0.0043
0.0069
0.0043

0.18
0.15
0.30
0.49
0.30

37%
32%
62%
100%
62%

1 in 3
1 in 3
2 in 3 / Full
Full
2 in 3 / Full

0.0029
0.0026
0.0051
0.0078
0.0049

0.21
0.18
0.36
0.55
0.34

38%
33%
65%
100%
62%

1 in 3
1 in 3
2 in 3 / Full
Full
2 in 3 / Full

0.0030
0.0026

0.21
0.18

41%
35%

2 in 3
2 in 3

Cad Sp Development (2)

HYV of Paddy Rice


Month

January
February
March
April
May

Depth
per day
(inch)
0.176
0.200
0.324
0.191
0.054

Totals (mm)
November
December
January
February
March
April
May

4.5
5.1
8.2
4.9
1.4

Duty
(cfs/acre)
0.0074
0.0084
0.0136
0.0080
0.0023

Duty
(l/s/ha)
0.52
0.59
0.95
0.56
0.16

% of peak

Typical
Operation /
Rotations

54%
62%
100%
59%
17%

2 in 3
Full / 2 in 3
Full
2 in 3
1 in 3

Depth
per day
(inch)

Depth
per day
(mm)

0.131
0.175
0.106

1,089
0.172
0.156
0.116
0.219
0.237
0.207
0.040

Totals (mm)
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
Totals (mm)

Depth
per day
(mm)

HYV of Wheat

4.4
4.0
2.9
5.6
6.0
5.3
1.0

0.9
3.5
2.9
2.7
4.7
5.6
1.7
661

3.3
4.4
2.7

Duty
(l/s/ha)

% of peak

Typical
Operation /
Rotations

0.0055
0.0074
0.0045

0.39
0.51
0.31

75%
100%
61%

2 in 3 / Full
Full
2 in 3

0.0028
0.0024
0.0061
0.0078
0.0042

0.19
0.17
0.43
0.55
0.29

35%
31%
78%
100%
54%

1 in 3
1 in 3
2 in 3 / Full
Full
2 in 3

0.0026
0.0022
0.0052
0.0066
0.0039

0.19
0.16
0.36
0.46
0.27

40%
34%
78%
100%
59%

1 in 3
1 in 3
2 in 3 / Full
Full
2 in 3

415
0.0072
0.0066
0.0049
0.0092
0.0100
0.0087
0.0017

Districts: Chittagong, Noakhali, Patuakhali & Barisal


0.51
73%
2 in 3
0.066
0.46
66%
2 in 3
0.058
0.34
49%
2 in 3
0.145
0.64
92%
Full / 2 in 3
0.186
0.70
100%
Full
0.100
0.61
87%
Full / 2 in 3
0.12
17%
1 in 3

874
0.036
0.136
0.116
0.106
0.186
0.222
0.065

Duty
(cfs/acre)

1.7
1.5
3.7
4.7
2.5

423
0.0015
0.0057
0.0049
0.0045
0.0078
0.0093
0.0027

SSWRDP (JICA)

0.11
0.40
0.34
0.31
0.55
0.65
0.19

16%
61%
52%
48%
84%
100%
29%

Districts: Sylhet
1 in 3
2 in 3
2 in 3
2 in 3
Full / 2 in 3
Full
1 in 3

0.063
0.053
0.123
0.158
0.093

1.6
1.3
3.1
4.0
2.4
373

Page 6

Cad Sp Development (2)

Appendix C
Pipe System Original & Improved Layouts
Appendix C1:
Appendix C2:
Appendix C3:
Appendix C4:

SP 25227, Hatnabad Subproject, Rajshahi District


SP 25233, Gandharbbapur-Dighali subproject, Laxmipur District
SP 25195, Sonar Bangla, Chapai Nawabganj District
SP 25259, Baroigoan Jhilki subproject, Mymensingh District

SSWRDP (JICA)

Page 1

Cad Sp Development (2)

Appendix D
Sample Design Calculations for CAD Subproject (Bajra Panail)

SSWRDP (JICA)

Page 1

Cad Sp Development (2)

Nr of Rotation & Irrigator Units


Name of SP : Bajra-Panail Subproject
Up : Alfadanga
Dist : Faridpur
Item
Gross Area
Net Irrigable Area
Crop Water Requirements
Efficiency d/s of outlet
Water Requirements at Outlet

Units
ha
ha
l/s/ha
%
l/s/ha

Quantity
260
213
0.96
80.0%
1.20

Number of Rotation Units


Net Irrigable Area of Rotation Units (avg)
Number of Outlets (risers) ie Irrigator Units
Net Irrigable Area of Irrigator Units (avg)

Nr
ha
Nr
ha

Nr of standpipes

Nr

Number of benefitting HHs


Number of HH per Rotation Units
Number of HH per Irrigator Units

Nr
Nr
Nr

1,659
553
55

Rotation flows (avg)


Irrigator flows (avg)

l/s
l/s

85
9

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

Remarks

3
Select to give 80-120 ha Rotation Units
71.0
30 Select to give 5-15 ha Irrigator Units, and generally
7.1 every 200-500 m along pipe line
15 Adopt about 50% of nr of riser outlets

29/11/2011

Net Irrigation Water Requirements


Name of SP : Bajra-Panail Subproject
Up : Alfadanga
Dist : Faridpur
Month

October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May

Depth per
day (inch)
0.102
0.183
0.156
0.172
0.247
0.326
0.326
0.160

Depth per
day (mm)
2.6
4.6
4.0
4.4
6.3
8.3
8.3
4.1

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

HYV of Paddy Rice


Duty
Duty
% of peak
(cfs/acre)
(l/s/ha)
0.0043
0.30
31%
0.0077
0.54
56%
0.0066
0.46
48%
0.0072
0.51
53%
0.0104
0.73
76%
0.0137
0.96
100%
0.0137
0.96
100%
0.0067
0.47
49%

Operation /
Rotations
1 in 3
2 in 3
2 in 3
2 in 3
None / 2 in 3
None
None
2 in 3

Depth per
day (inch)
0
0.07
0.061
0.121
0.186
0.116
0
0

Depth per
day (mm)
0.0
1.8
1.5
3.1
4.7
2.9
0.0
0.0

HYV of Wheat
Duty
Duty
(cfs/acre)
(l/s/ha)
0.0000
0.00
0.0029
0.21
0.0026
0.18
0.0051
0.36
0.0078
0.55
0.0049
0.34
0.0000
0.00
0.0000
0.00

% of peak
0%
38%
33%
65%
100%
62%
0%
0%

Operation /
Rotations
1 in 3
1 in 3
1 in 2 / None
None
1 in 2 / None

29/11/2011

Command Areas, Design Flows & Minimum Pipe Diameters Associated with Maximum PipeFlow
Name of SP : Bajra-Panail Subproject
Up : Alfadanga
Dist : Faridpur
Available PVC pipe sizes outer diameter (mm): 160, 180, 200, 225, 250, 280, 315, 355,400, 450 & 500
Max flow velocity is 1.5 m/s for PVC pipes. Typical max is 1.2 m/s
Pipe thickness for 3.25 bar working pressure

Branch Pipe Line-1 (A-B-C-D-E-F-G):


Sl
No

Pipeline
Reach

1
2
3
4
5
6

FG
EF
DE
CD
BC
AB

Length

Command Area
(cumulative)

m
400
450
450
630
320
200
2,450

ha
56
82
106
141
163
163

Design Duty
cfs/acre
0.0136
0.0136
0.0136
0.0136
0.0136
0.0136

l/s/ha
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96

Irrigation Efficiency
d/s of Outlet

Design
Discharge, Q

%
80
80
80
80
80
80

m3/s
0.067
0.098
0.126
0.168
0.194
0.194

Irrigation Efficiency
d/s of Outlet

Design
Discharge, Q

%
80
80
80
80
80

m3/s
0.026
0.038
0.050
0.059
0.059

Pipe Flow Velocity

Typ

Max

m/s
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20

m/s
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

Pipe diameters
Typ
mm
266
322
366
422
454
454

Min
mm
238
288
327
377
406
406

Suggested Pipe Thickness & Diameter


(mm)
External Dia
280
355
400
450
500
500

Thickless
3.50
4.40
5.00
5.60
6.20
6.20

Internal Dia
273
346
390
439
488
488

Branch Pipe Line-2 (A-B-H-I-J-K):


Sl
No

Pipeline
Reach

1
2
3
4
5

JK
IJ
HI
BH
AB

Length

Command Area
(cumulative)

m
500
500
550
250
200
2,000

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

ha
22
32
42
50
50

Design Duty
cfs/acre
0.0136
0.0136
0.0136
0.0136
0.0136

l/s/ha
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96

Pipe Flow Velocity

Typ

Max

m/s
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20

m/s
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

Pipe diameters
Typ
mm
167
201
230
251
251

Min
mm
149
180
206
225
225

Suggested Pipe Thickness & Diameter


(mm)
External Dia
180
225
250
280
280

Thickless
2.30
2.80
3.10
3.50
3.50

Internal Dia
175
219
244
273
273

29/11/2011

Pumping Plant and Power Requirements


Total discharge at peak demand (for boro paddy - see note below)

Pump spare capacity

0.253
8.949
5
51
1.79
57
2.01
205
902
12%

m3/s
cusecs
Nr
(Notes: (i) not less than the nr of Rotation units; (ii) no standby pump)
l/s per pump
cusecs/pump
l/s per pump
cusecs/pump
m3/hr per pump
USG/m per pump
(Note: adopt 10-20%)

DWL in header tank


EGL at header tank / near river (ie where pump to be located)
River level during dry season (ie Dec - March)
Total Static Head
Suction Head
Allowance for friction losses (pipe and fittings)
Total Pumping Head

11.22
4.00
1.60
9.62
2.40
0.50
10.12

m
m
m
m
m
m
m

Adopted power unit efficiency


Adopted pump efficiency
Overall efficiency
Power Demand per pump (for adopted pump capacity)

0.80
0.60
0.48
11.8
16.0
58.9
80.2

Nr of pumps
Pump discharage
Adopted pump capacity

Total Peak Power Demand for SP

(est)
(refer feasibility report: note data not too reliable)
Note: recommended limit: 2-3 m
(Note: distance maybe about 100 m)

Note: electric unit: 75-85%)


Note: 40 - 80%
kW
HP
kW
HP

Power (kW) = 9.81 x discharge (m3/s) x head (m) / overall efficiency

Note: 24/7 pumping at peak demand period is assumed. However electical power shortages mean that pumping may only be possible during night hours. If 100% rice cropping occurs in the SP
area and if peak demand occurs over the whole command area simultaneously then the pipe system and pumps cannot meet crop water demand by only pumping at night. In practice: (i) some
vegetables / wheat etc may be cropped; and (ii) transplanting of boro rice is usually staggered reducing peak water demand. None-the-less water shortage may occur due to non-availability of
power in which case the WMCA may have to arrange hire / purchase of a generator for day time use over the peak water demand period.

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

29/11/2011

Buried Pipe Loss Calculation for Branch Pipe Line -1


Name of SP : Bazra-Panail Subproject
Up : Alfadanga
Dist :Faridpur

For concrete pipe adopt f =


For PVC pipe adopt f =

0.0050
0.0042

Available PVC pipe sizes outer diameter (mm): 160, 180, 200, 225, 250, 280, 315, 355,400, 450 & 500

Hydraulic Grade Line : A-B-C-D-E-F-G


2+450km

G
Chainage
Length
FG
Ground EL at G
Command at G
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at G
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
F to G
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at F

400
5.45
0.80
4.45
6.25
0.30
6.55
355
346
0.067
0.50
0.03
1.00
0.02
2.86
3.00
2.00
0.02
0.08
0.10
6.85

F
Chainage
Length
EF
Ground EL at F
Command at F
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at F
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
E to F
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at E

450
5.45
1.40
4.45
6.85
0.30
7.15
400
390
0.098
0.66
0.03
1.00
0.03
3.21
3.00
2.00
0.02
0.10
0.13
7.65

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

5 of 16

m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.71
m/s
hf =
0.503
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

2+050km
m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.82
m/s
hf =
0.665
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

29/11/2011

1+600km

E
Chainage
Length
DE
Ground EL at E
Command at E
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at E
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
E to F
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at D

450
5.62
2.03
4.62
7.65
0.30
7.95
450
439
0.126
0.61
0.04
1.00
0.03
3.21
3.00
2.00
0.02
0.11
0.13
8.39

D
Chainage
Length
CD
Ground EL at D
Command at D
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at D
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
E to F
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at C

630
5.61
2.78
4.61
8.39
0.30
8.69
500
488
0.168
0.89
0.04
1.00
0.03
4.50
5.00
3.00
0.02
0.20
0.23
9.51

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

6 of 16

m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.83
m/s
hf =
0.608
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

1+150km
m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.90
m/s
hf =
0.892
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

29/11/2011

0+520km

C
Chainage
Length
BC
Ground EL at C
Command at C
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at C
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
E to F
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at B

320
5.09
4.42
4.09
9.51
0.30
9.81
500
488
0.194
0.60
0.05
1.00
0.04
2.29
3.00
2.00
0.03
0.16
0.21
10.32

B
Chainage
Length
AB
Ground EL at B
Command at B
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at B
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
E to F
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at A

200
5.38
4.94
4.38
10.32
0.30
10.62
500
488
0.194
0.38
0.05
2.00
0.09
1.43
2.00
1.00
0.03
0.10
0.19
10.89

A
Length
Ground EL at A
Command at A
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at A
Freeboard for Header tank
El of top of header tank
Height of Tank

200
5.38
5.51
4.38
10.89
0.50
11.39
6.01

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

0+200km
m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
1.04
m/s
hf =
0.378
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

0+000km

Chainage

7 of 16

m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
1.04
m/s
hf =
0.604
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

m
m PWD
m
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD

29/11/2011

Buried Pipe Loss Calculation for Branch Pipe Line -2


Name of SP : Bazra-Panail Subproject
Up : Alfadanga
Dist :Faridpur

For concrete pipe adopt f =


For PVC pipe adopt f =

0.0050
0.0042

Available PVC pipe sizes outer diameter (mm): 160, 180, 200, 225, 250, 280, 315, 355,400, 450 & 500

Hydraulic Grade Line : A-B-H-I-J-K

2+000km

K
Chainage
Length
J-K
Ground EL at K
Command at K
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at K
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at J

500
5.21
0.80
4.21
6.01
0.30
6.31
225
219
0.026
0.93
0.02
1.00
0.02
3.57
4.00
2.00
0.01
0.09
0.11
7.05

J
Chainage
Length
I-J
Ground EL at J
Command at J
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at J
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at I

500
5.17
1.88
4.17
7.05
0.30
7.35
250
244
0.038
1.16
0.03
1.00
0.03
3.57
4.00
2.00
0.02
0.12
0.15
8.36

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

8 of 16

m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.69
m/s
hf =
0.931
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

1+500km
m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.81
m/s
hf =
1.159
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

29/11/2011

1+000km

I
Chainage
Length
H-I
Ground EL at I
Command at I
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at I
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at H

550
4.15
4.21
3.15
8.36
0.30
8.66
280
273
0.050
1.26
0.04
1.00
0.03
3.93
4.00
2.00
0.02
0.13
0.16
9.78

H
Chainage
Length
B2-H
Ground EL at B2
Command at B2
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at H
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at B2

250
5.10
4.68
4.10
9.78
0.30
10.08
315
307
0.059
0.44
0.03
1.00
0.03
1.79
2.00
1.00
0.02
0.06
0.08
10.30

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

9 of 16

m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.85
m/s
hf =
1.259
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

0+450km
m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.80
m/s
hf =
0.443
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

29/11/2011

0+200km

B2
Chainage
Length
A-B2
Ground EL at B2
Command at B2
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at B2
Freeboard for standpipes (min)
El of top of standpipes (min)
Diameter of Pipe (external)
Diameter of Pipe (internal)
Design Discharge
Pipe Friction Loss
Velocity head, v2/sg
Nr of pipe bends / changes in pipe diameter / values etc
Loss due to pipe bends / change in pipe diameter/ control values, etc
Estimated nr of riser outlets
Nr of riser / outlets
Nr of standpipes
Loss per riser / standpipe
Losses due to risers / standpipes
Total fitting / bend etc losses
Hydraulic Grade Line El at A

200
5.38
4.92
4.38
10.30
0.30
10.60
315
307
0.059
0.35
0.03
1.00
0.03
1.43
2.00
1.00
0.02
0.06
0.08
10.74

A
Ground EL at A
Command at A
Top of pipeline
Hydraulic Grade Line El at A
Freeboard for Header tank
El of top of header tank
Height of Tank

5.38
5.36
4.38
10.74
0.50
11.24
5.86

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

0+000km

Chainage

10 of 16

m
m PWD
m
(0.5 plus 0.3 m req'd)
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD
mm
hf = (2*f*l*v^2)/(g*d)
mm
f=
0.0042
m3/sec
v=
0.80
m/s
hf =
0.354
m
m
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.8
Nr
Nr
Nr
m
Adopt loss coefficient, K, of 0.6
m
m
m PWD

m PWD
m
m PWD
m PWD
m
m PWD BUT ADOPT AS FOR BRANCH

PIPELINE 1

29/11/2011

Pipeline Schedule
Net Irrigable Area (ha):

Name of SP : Bazra-Panail Subproject


Up : Alfadanga
Dist :Faridpur
Pipeline
Section
Pipeline 1
A-B1
B1-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
Pipeline 2
A-B2
B2-H
H-I
I-J
J-K

Length
(m)

Outside
Diameter
mm

Wall thickness
mm

Inside
Diameter
mm

All-in Installation
Rate
BDT/m

All-in Installation
Cost
BDT

200
320
630
450
450
400
2,450

500
500
500
450
400
355

6.20
6.20
6.20
5.60
5.00
4.40

488
488
488
439
390
346

4,667
4,667
4,667
3,780
3,016
2,370

933,400
1,493,440
2,940,210
1,701,000
1,357,200
948,000
9,373,250

200
250
550
500
500
2,000

315
315
280
250
225

4.00
4.00
3.50
3.10
2.80

307
307
273
244
219

1,900
1,900
1,487
1,184
1,130

380,000
475,000
817,850
592,000
565,000
2,829,850

213

Remarks

12,203,100
57,292
774
Note: pipe thicknesses for Working Pressure of 3.25 bar (32 m)

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

29/11/2011

Name of SP : Bazra-Panail Subproject


Up : Alfadanga
Dist :Faridpur
Structures, Suggested Locations and Lengths of Standpipes
Pipeline

Length (m)

Outer
Diameter of
Pipeline
mm

PVC Pipe
Junction

Riser
Outlet
km

km

Pipeline 1
A-B1

200

500

B1-C

320

500

200
210
350
500

C-D

630

500

450

450

450

400

400

2,450

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

355

Washout
km

210
500

800
1,100

1,400

1,600

1,600
1,700
1,850
2,000

F-G

GL

10.32
9.92
9.51

5.38
5.00
5.09

9.25
8.98
8.72
8.46

5.40
5.45
5.41
5.61

8.23
7.98
7.68
7.65
7.47
7.21
6.94

5.54
5.70
5.70
5.62
5.75
5.60
5.53

6.70
6.47
6.25

5.40
5.48
5.45

160
0.60
Airvent Standpipe:
Ext.
Freeboard
Length
Diameter
mm
m
m

160

0.60

6.54

160

0.60

6.02

160

0.60

5.13

160

0.60

4.45

160

0.60

3.88

160

0.60

3.32

160

0.60

3.01

160

0.60

2.59

0.30
Escape Standpipe:
Ext.
Freeboard
Length
Diameter
mm
m

1,150
1,250
1,400
1,550

E-F

HGL

520
650
800
950
1,100

D-E

Suggested Location of (*):


Standpipe
Standpipe
Airvent
Escape
km
km

1,600

1,700
2,000

250

0.30

3.33

250

0.30

2.29

2,050

2,450

2,150
2,300
2,450

2,300
2,450

2,450

12 of 16

29/11/2011

Pipeline

Pipeline 2
A-B2
B2-H

H-I

I-J

Length (m)

Outer
Diameter of
Pipeline
mm

200
250

550

500

315
315

280

250

PVC Pipe
Junction
km

Riser
Outlet
km

500

225

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

GL

km

Airvent Standpipe:
Ext.
Freeboard
Length
Diameter
mm
m
m

Escape Standpipe:
Ext.
Freeboard
Length
Diameter
mm
m

210
350

210

10.30
9.99

5.38
4.80

160

0.60

6.52

500
650
800
950

500

9.65
9.26
8.88
8.49

5.27
4.80
4.24
4.18

160

0.60

5.98

160

0.60

6.24

8.10
7.70
7.31

4.70
4.80
4.88

160

0.60

5.00

160

0.60

4.03

6.95
6.63
6.32
6.01

5.10
4.84
5.20
5.21

160

0.60

3.39

450

800

1,000

1,000
1,100
1,400

1,500

2,000
Totals
2,000
* Exact chainage to be determined on-site

HGL
Washout

0
200

1,100
1,250
1,400
J-K

Suggested Location of (*):


Standpipe
Standpipe
Airvent
Escape
km
km

1,550
1,700
1,850
2,000
29 Nr

1,700

15 Nr

2,000
4 Nr

2,000
3 Nr

13 of 16

160
66.10

0.30

2.10
7.72

29/11/2011

Name of SP : Bazra-Panail Subproject


Up : Alfadanga
Dist :Faridpur
Item
Flow over V-notch weirs
Design Water level in compartment 3
Design Water level in compartment 2
Design Water level in compartment 1

Units

Pipeline 1

Pipeline 2

Remarks

m
m
m

10.89
11.12
11.22

10.74
11.12 Allow 15 cm headloss (min) over V-notch weirs, but check submergence
11.22 Allow 10 cm headloss (min) through gates
Note: water levels in compartment 1 to be the same

Design flow

m3/s

0.194

0.059

Depth of flow over crest of V-notch weir, H1

0.46

Top of header tank structure

11.52

11.52 0.3 m freeboard to water level in compartment 1

Crest level of V-notch weir

10.66

10.84

Check free flow conditions over V-notch


Upstream depth of flow over crest, H1
Downstream depth of flow over crest, H2
Submergence ratio H2/H1

m
m

0.46
0.23
0.50

Span (of gates)


Depth of flow over crest, H1
Crest level

m
m
m

0.80
0.28
10.94

Check free flow conditions


Upstream depth of flow over crest, H1
Downstream depth of flow over crest, H2
Submergence ratio H2/H1

m
m

0.28
0.18
0.65

0.28 90 degree V-notch weir (Q=1.34 x h^2.47)

0.28
-0.10
-0.35 Accept as high as +0.5 (ie 10% loss in flow due to submergence)

Flow through gates

Hydraulic Design - Bajra Panail SP (5)

0.25 Adopt spans (to nearest 10 cm) so that crest levels are the same for all pipelines
0.28 Adopt Q=1.6H^1.5 (free flow)
10.94

0.28
0.18
0.64 Accept as high as +0.7

29/11/2011

Appendix E
Sample Drawings of CAD Subproject (Bajra Panail / Rouha)

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Appendix F
Sample Specification for uPVC Pipe Distribution System

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Appendix F: Sample Specification for uPVC Pipe Distribution System


1. Introduction
This part of the Specification covers the conveyance pipe system works including: (i) pipe sizes, wall thickness
and material specification; (ii) pipe storage and handling; (iii) pipeline layout and location of structures; (iv) trench
construction; (v) pipe placement and jointing; (vi) structure connections; (vii) thrust control; and (viii) pipeline
testing and backfill.
Works for pipeline system structures, including as applicable, control structures, riser outlets; standpipe air-vents,
standpipe escapes and washouts are covered by the General Specifications.

2. uPVC Pipes and Fittings Appearance and Sizes


2.1 Appearance
When viewed without magnification the internal and external surfaces of the pipes and fittings shall be smooth,
clean and free from scoring, cavities and other surface defects. The material shall not contain visible impurities.
The ends of the pipes and fittings shall be clean and square to their axes. The colour of the pipes and fittings
shall be grey.
2.2 Pipe and Fitting Sizes and Wall Thickness
The base material from which the uPVC pipes are produced shall be un-plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (PVCu)
with additives as necessary for manufacture in accordance with ISO 4065: 1996(E).
All fittings having sockets shall comply with ISO 727-1985 and shall be compatible with the pipes supplied.
Wall thicknesses of uPVC pipes and pipe fittings shall be commensurate with a working pressure rating of 3.25
bar (32 m head). Required wall thickness shall be determined in accordance with ISO 4065: 1996(E), having a
SDR value of 81 (equivalent to PN 3.25)
The pipes shall have one end socket and one end spigot (plain). The spigot end shall be chamfered to facilitate
insertion into the socket of the adjacent pipeline / fitting. The socket shall be machine made.
The length of the pipes shall be 6.0 m including socket. Pipe diameters and wall thickness are tabulated below
for the range of pipes and pipe fittings likely to be used.
uPVC Pipes Diameters and Wall Thicknesses
Nr

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

External
Diameter
(mm)

Nominal Wall
thickness (mm)

Internal
Diameter (mm)

Length
(m)

160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560

2.00
2.30
2.50
2.80
3.10
3.50
4.00
4.40
5.00
5.60
6.20
7.00

156
175
195
219
244
273
307
346
390
439
488
546

6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00

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uPVC Tee Dimensions and Wall Thicknesses


Nr

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Dimensions - External
Diameter
(mm)

Nominal Wall
thickness
(mm)

Length
(m)

Tee 160 x 160 x 160


Tee 180 x 180 x 180
Tee 200 x 200 x 200
Tee 225 x 255 x 255
Tee 250 x 250 x 250
Tee 280 x 280 x 280
Tee 315 x 315 x 315
Tee 355 x 355 x 355
Tee 400 x 400 x 400
Tee 450 x 450 x 450
Tee 500 x 500 x 500

2.50
2.80
3.20
3.50
3.90
4.40
4.90
5.60
6.30
7.00
7.80

1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.98
2.29
2.67
2.67

uPVC Bend Dimensions and Wall Thicknesses


Nr

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Dimensions - External
Diameter
(mm)

Nominal Wall
thickness
(mm)

Length
(m)

Bend 160
Bend 180
Bend 200
Bend 225
Bend 250
Bend 280
Bend 315
Bend 355
Bend 400
Bend 450
Bend 500

2.50
2.80
3.20
3.50
3.90
4.40
4.90
5.60
6.30
7.00
7.80

1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.98
1.98
1.98

uPVC End Caps Dimensions and Wall Thicknesses


Nr

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Dimensions - External
Diameter (mm)

Nominal Wall
thickness (mm)

Length (m)

End cap 160


End cap 180
End cap 200
End cap 220
End cap 250
End cap 280
End cap 315
End cap 355
End cap 400
End cap 450
End cap 500

2.00
2.30
2.50
2.80
3.10
3.50
4.00
4.40
5.00
5.60
6.20

0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.56
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42

Pipe Testing and Marking

3.1 Pipe Testing


The following tests shall be conducted for uPVC pipes on representative samples of each diameter of pipe
required. Testing shall be carried out in any reputable laboratory as required by the Engineer.
Dimensions: The thickness of the pipes and pipe fittings shall not be less than the nominal thicknesses
tabulated, and shall not exceed the nominal thickness by more than 15%.
Short Term Hydrostatic Test: For a temperature of 200C and a test pressure of 9.5 bar the pipes shall not fail
within a period of 1.0 hrs.

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Heat Reversion Test: The longitudinal reversion value in accordance with the test requirements of ISO 2505
shall not be greater than 5%.
Impact Strength: Impact strength at 200C shall satisfy ISO 3127.
Resistance to Acetone: A short length of pipe shall be immersed in acetone vertically to a depth of at least 25
mm at room temperature for 2 hours shall not show any attack on the surface of the test piece. Fattening and / or
swelling of the pipe shall not be deemed to constitute failure.
Specific Gravity: The specific gravity of the pipe material shall be within 1.35 to 1.45.
3.2 Pipe Marking
Pipes shall be permanently marked at intervals no greater than 2.0 m. The marking shall include the following
information:

Manufacturers name or trademark

Nominal outside diameter

Pipe material (uPVC)

Standard (ISO 4065: SDR 81)

Date (and time) of manufacture

LGED

Not for sale

3.3 Fitting Marking


The marking of fittings shall include the following information:

Manufacturers name or trademark

Sizes

Fitting material (uPVC)

Standard (ISO 727)

Date (and time) of manufacture

LGED

Not for sale

Pipe Handling and Storage

4.1 Receiving Pipes and Fittings


All pipes and pipe fittings received on Site shall be visually inspected for damage which may have occurred
during transit. Ends shall be checked for any cracks or splits or other damage. The pipes shall also be checked
for any severe deformation which could later cause jointing problems.
Any damaged pipes and fittings should be returned to the place of manufacture / procurement and will be not be
accepted in the permanent works.
4.2 Handling
The pipes and fittings should be handled with reasonable care. They are relatively light and must not be thrown
around and / or dropped from any height.
Pipes and fittings should not be dragged / pushed / dropped from a truck bed. Loose pipes may be rolled down
on a timber support but care must be taken that they do not fall on each other or on any hard or uneven surface.
4.3 Storage
Pipes should be stored on level ground which is dry and free from sharp objects. Different pipe sizes should be
stored separately.
The pipes and fittings shall be protected from the sun.
Pipes should be continuously supported along its length. If this is not possible the spacing of supports should not
exceed 1.0 m.
Pipes shall not be stacked to a height in excess of 2 m, or 6 layers, whichever is the lesser.

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Pipeline Layout and Location of Structures

The contractor shall confirm the pipeline layout and lengths of each size of pipe required under the contract by
setting out the pipeline(s) prior to trench excavation, marking all pipe bends and structure locations with marker
flags. The marker flags shall be at least 1.6m in height.
The locations of riser outlets shall be discussed and confirmed by the outlet farmers represented by the the
Organizing or Management Committee of the WMCA, all as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

Trench Construction

The trench shall be excavated to a depth to ensure cover to the top (crown) of the pipe of typically 1.0 m, and at
least 0.8 m. The trench grade (longitudinal slope) shall be as shown on the drawings or as otherwise directed by
the Engineer-in-Charge, so as to provide uniform slopes between pipeline structures.
The trench below the top of the pipe shall be only wide enough to permit the pipe to be easily placed and joined,
and to allow for initial backfill material to be uniformly placed under the haunches and along the side of the pipe.
The usual trench width shall be D + 0.3 m where D is the pipe outside diameter.
Where stable conditions exist trench side slopes shall be vertical subject to safety considerations. Where
necessary for side slope stability, trenches may be excavated with sloping sides. Where working conditions and /
or right-of-way restricts width, the sides of the trench shall be shored using timber boards braced across the
trench.
The trench bottom shall be uniform so that the pipe is fully supported without bridging. Clods, stones and
uneven spots that can damage the pipe or cause non-uniform support shall be removed. A small layer of bedding
material (sand) may be spread over the bottom of the trench to facilitate uniform support to the pipe.
Where rocks, stones or uneven material are encountered, the trench bottom shall be cut 100 mm below the
required grade, and backfilled with bedding material (sand).
Excavated material shall be placed along one side the trench, allowing easy access from the other side for
placement of pipes prior to laying.
The excavated trenches shall be fenced / marked off as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge to prevent people /
animals falling into the trench.
Where ground water is encountered it shall be kept below the formation level of the pipes to be joined by
pumping, side drainage trench construction, placement of sand in the trench bottom and any other measures as
directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

Pipe Placement and Joining

Small holes shall be excavated for the socket ends of the pipes to permit the pipe body to be uniformly supported
along its whole length. Pipe laying may start from any structure location and shall proceed in a downstream
direction.
Pipes shall be carefully placed in the excavated trench for joining after removal of all foreign matter or dirt. Prior
to joining the connecting surfaces of the spigot and socket shall be cleaned with a rag or brush.
The pipe socket (bell end) should be aligned downstream. Ensure that the rubber gasket (ie O ring) is placed
correctly in the socket and that lubricant is applied to the spigot of the adjacent downstream pipe. The spigot
should be smoothly chamfered if necessary any minor irregularities may be filed off.
The two pipes should be carefully aligned and the spigot of the downstream pipe inserted into the socket (bell
end) of the upstream pipe applying firm pressure, either by hand or using a bar and block assembly. A small
twisting motion may be useful for smaller pipe diameters. Care should be taken to avoid over entry of the spigot
into the socket.
Pipes shall be cut by a method which provides a clean square profile with splitting of damage to the pipe wall.
Cut spigot ends shall be chamfered.

Structure Connections

Minor settlement of rigid structures will not usually cause shear breakage of the uPVC pipe, and the pipes may
be placed directly into concrete structures. As uPVC pipe will not bond with concrete water seal is provided by
two 0 ring rubber gaskets placed 100 mm apart in the wall of the structure.
To minimize differential settlement initial pipe backfill within 1 m of the structure shall comprise sand. Further to
accommodate any differential settlement, rubber O ring pipe joints shall be provided to all pipelines within 1 m
of the structure.

Thrust Control

Thrust control (joint restraint) is required to prevent pipe movement and damage at the following locations: (i)

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changes in pipe direction (eg tees, bends, elbows, etc); (ii) change in pipe size; (iii) dead ends (end caps). Thrust
control shall comprise Class D concrete placed between the pipe and the (vertical) side of the excavated trench
to resist movement.

10

Initial and Final Backfill

10.1 Initial Backfill


Initial backfill shall be by hand and shall comprise soil or sand that is free from stones larger than 15 mm in
diameter. At the time of placement the moisture content of the material shall be such good compaction can be
achieved. Initial backfill shall not be carried out during wet weather.
Initial backfill shall be placed under and around the pipe and to provide 50 mm cover to the pipe top (crown).
Initial backfill shall be compacted firmly to provide adequate lateral support to the pipe and prevent movement.
Compaction shall be carried out using a steel plate or other approved rammer at least 12 kg in weight in 100 mm
thick compacted layers.
Pipeline testing and commissioning shall be carried out after initial backfilling of the pipeline trench, but before
final backfill unless otherwise approved / directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
Grounds for carrying out final backfill prior to testing may include: (i) a real and identified risk of pipe floatation;
(ii) safety hazard particularly near settlements; (iii) blocking of right of way, etc.
10.2 Final Backfill
Final backfill may be by hand or machine.
Final backfill material shall be free from large stones and other debris larger than 75 mm in diameter. The
material shall be placed and spread in approximately uniform layers to fully fill the trench. Final backfill shall be
placed and compacted by iron rammer in 250 mm thick compacted layers.
10.3 Concrete Backfill
To ensure against floatation and / or scour and exposure of the pipeline where it crosses natural drainage lines,
the initial backfill material may comprise concrete Class D placed and compacted under and around the pipe and
to a depth of 100 mm over the top of the pipe.
Concrete backfill shall also be used where the pipeline crosses under road embankments.

11

Pipeline Testing and Commissioning

The pipeline shall be tested for leakage and to ensure that design flows are supplied to all outlets along the
pipeline before final backfilling. As part of the commissioning process, in additional to checking of flows at each
outlet, water levels in the standpipes shall be measured and adequacy of freeboard confirmed at the design
flows.
The reasons for any instances of inadequate freeboard shall be reported to the concerned authorities / design
engineers and the cause determined (eg foreign material left in pipeline, inaccurate measurement of pipe length,
wrong pipe diameter used, etc). Following identification of the causes remedial measures / actions shall be taken
as ordered by the Engineer-in-Charge.
If for reasons of safety and / or cropping necessity, (parts) of the pipeline are fully backfilled prior to testing and
system commissioning then the Contractor shall re-excavate selected parts of the pipeline, and any areas where
surface wetness is observed, to expose the joints and check for any leakage as ordered by the Engineer-inCharge.
Any leaks or damaged pipes / pipe seals shall be repaired and the pipeline retested.

12

Pumping Plant, Transformer and Electrical Connection

12.1 General
The following may be provided under the CAD subproject contracts subject to instruction by the Engineer-inCharge, and in accordance with the requirements of the Power Development Board:

Pumping plant

Transformer and Electrical installation

Electrical transmission line

12.2 Pumping Plant


The number, pumping discharge and pumping head of the required pumps, as well as indicative power
requirements are indicated as appropriate in the Particular Specifications.
12.3 Transformer and Electrical Installation

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A complete electrical installation shall be provided for operation of the pumping plant. Since night time operation
is envisaged a 65 Watt tubular fluorescent light or similar approved shall be provided, as well as electrical meter,
power sockets, switchboard and pumping plant transformer all as required. Theses shall be located at / near the
pumping / header tank site as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
The switchboard, electrical meter, power sockets and lighting shall be wall mounted, for water proofed
construction and with protective cover(s) for security and water proofing, unless located inside a building that
may or may not be available on Site.
All cables shall be adequately supported and present a neat appearance. Cables shall be fixed using proper
cable cleats or saddles.
The wall mounted switchboard shall receive power from the transformer and distribute it to the pumping plant.
12.4 Electrical Transmission Line
The contractor shall supply and install an overhead electric cable connection complete with supporting poles
from the existing electrical distribution system to the pumping plant transformer.
12.5 Testing and Commissioning of Electrical Equipment
The Contractor shall test and commission the electrical equipment along with the pumping plant whether
sourced under this contract or some other arrangement all in accordance with requirements of the Power
Development Board and as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

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Appendix G
Selected Photographs

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Production of spun concrete pipes

Spun concrete pipes - curing

Placed concrete pipes with joints left exposed


for testing

Pressure Testing of concrete pipes

Elevated concrete pipe aqueduct

Leakage from buried concrete pipeline

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Storage of uPVC pipes

Manufacture of uPVC Pipes

Alfalfa (orchard) valve outlet arrangement


from buried pipeline

Simple (no valves / gates) outlet arrangement

Exposed & leaking concrete pipeline

Alfalfa valve

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Outlet box arrangement with pucca-nucca

Locked cover to prevent tampering with outlet


(alfalfa valve)

Pressure Meter

Flow Meter

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