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Chemical Earth

1.1 Living and non-living components of the Earth


contain mixtures
1. State the particle theory of matter
2. Describe the difference between an element, compound and
mixture
3. Complete the table:
Zone

Mixture present

Components in
mixture

Biosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
4. Use diagrams to describe the following processes:
a) Filtration

b) Sedimentation

b) Evaporation and
Crystallization

d) Fractional Distillation

e) Sieving

f) Decanting

5. You performed an experiment in class separating the


components of a mixture made up of sand, salt and water.
Outline the method that you used. (Outline means to indicate
the mean features of, therefore you should list the steps in
order, just as you would write a method in an experimental
write up. Make it very clear and easy to follow).
6. Assess (make a judgment of value) the use of filtration to
separate sand from a mixture of sand and salt
7. Complete the table:
Components of a
mixture

Process used to
separate
components

Property that
makes this
possible

Oil and water


Solid wastes from
sewerage
Sand and gravel
Nitrogen and oxygen
from air

1.2 Although most elements are found in


combination on Earth, some elements are found
uncombined
8. Compare the reactivity of the metals magnesium and gold
9. Complete the table summarizing the differences between the
physical properties of metals and non-metals
Physical property
Melting and boiling
points
Conductivity of heat
Conductivity of
electricity
Malleability
Ductility (ability to be
stretched into wires)
Lustre

Metals

Non-Metals

10.
Justify (support an argument) the classification of gold
as a metal
11.

Classify each of the below as a metal or nonmetal

a) a malleable, silver coloured element with a melting point of


1540 degrees and a boiling point of 3000 degrees
b) a yellow powder which is a poor conductor of electricity
c) a colourless gas at room temperature
12.
List the elements that occur as liquids and gases at
room temperature
13.

The physical properties of a metal are usually give as:

Hard and strong


Solid at room temperature
Shiny, silvery appearance
High melting point
Malleable and ductile
Good conductors of electricity

A non-metal is usually not considered to have these physical


properties. In terms of the physical properties mentioned above,
what makes each of the following elements unusual?
a) the metal lead
b) the non-metal carbon in the forms of graphite and diamond
c) the non metal iodine
d) the metal mercury
e) the metal copper

1.3 Elements in Earth are present mostly as


compounds because of interactions at the atomic
level
14.
Construct ionic equations to show the formation of ions
from the following atoms:

a) sodium
b) magnesium
c) chlorine
15.
Apply Lewis electron dot structures to electron sharing
between:
a) two atoms of chlorine sharing electrons to form a molecule of
chlorine
b) an atom of oxygen sharing electrons with two atoms of
hydrogen to form a molecule of water
16.
Define the term ionic compound and identify three
examples of ionic compounds.
17.
To which of the following ions would magnesium ions be
attracted: sodium ions, calcium ions, chloride ions, ammonium
ions or zinc ions. Explain your answer
18.
Identify the term used to describe the force between
sodium ions and chloride ions in the compound sodium
chloride.
19.
Distinguish between an atom of hydrogen and a
molecule of hydrogen

20.

Identify the following:

a) three elements with molecules composed of only one atom


b) three examples of molecules composed of two identical
atoms
c) the term used to describe molecules composed of two
atoms
d) three examples of compounds that exist as molecules

21.
Covalent molecules are ones in which electrons are
share. Use Lewis electron dot diagrams to show molecules of:
a) water
b) methane
c) oxygen
d) ammonia

22.

Describe how YOU used a model to describe:

a) a metal
b) an ionic compound
c) a covalent compound

1.4 Energy is required to extract elements from


their naturally occurring sources
23.
When you start heating water in a beaker, you can see
tiny bubbles of a gas on the inside of the beaker, in the water.
Does this mean that the water molecules are breaking up into
hydrogen and oxygen gas? Explain
24.
You carried out an experiment in which you passed an
electric current through water and the water decomposed.
a) Draw a labeled diagram to show how you did this and the
results you obtained
b) Use a diagram to show the water molecules before and
after the passage of the electric current through the water
c) Write the chemical equation to show the decomposition of
water by electrolysis
d) Outline one use for electrolysis of water
e) Describe the tests you used to identify the oxygen and
hydrogen produced

25.
Describe the changes that occur when a silver salt is
exposed to light
26.

Explain how silver salts are used in photography

27.
Define and give everyday examples of the following
types of chemical reactions. For each of the examples
complete the table to identify the type of energy released or
used.
a) Decomposition definition

Example
Production of metals
from their ores
(copper from copper
carbonate)
Production of
aluminum from
bauxite
Development of film

Method used
Heat in furnace

Energy used or
released
Heat energy used to
decompose the
copper carbonate

b) Synthesis definition
Example
The rusting of iron

Method used
Iron interacts with
oxygen in air, in the
presence of water to
form a hydrated
form of iron(III) oxide

Energy used or
released
Energy released in
the form of heat

Photosynthesis
Formation of nitrogen
oxides in the
atmosphere
Burning coal or coke
to produce electricity
or to make steel

1.5 The properties of elements and compounds are


determined by their bonding and structure

28.
Elements and compounds both have definite properties
such as boiling points and density, but mixtures do not.
Explain why this is the case.
29. When elements combine to form a compound, the compound
has properties, which are different to the properties of the
elements used to make the compound. Explain why this
happens, using an example.

30. Complete the table


Property

Ionic

Melting and
boiling point
Hardness
Electrical
conductivity
when solid
Electrical
conductivity
when dissolved
in water
Electrical
conductivity
when molten

Covalent
Molecular

Covalent
Network

Very high
Hard

Poor

Good

Poor

31. Classify each of the following substances as metallic, ionic,


covalent molecular or covalent network. Then for each substance
determine a use that relies on properties associated with its type
of bonding
Factor
Type of
substance
Use
Property
that allows

Copper

Sodium
chloride

Nitrogen

Silicon
dioxide

for this use


Reason for
this
property

32. Use a labeled diagram to represent that structure of a metal

33. Complete table:


Physical property of metal
Good conductor of electricity

Explanation in terms of
structure
Outer shell electrons are
delocalized (not held tightly to
the metal ion) and thus mobile
so they are free to carry the
charge

Good conductor of heat


High melting and boiling point
Malleable and ductile
Shiny lustre
34. Define the term molecular formula
35. Define the term empirical formula
36. Explain why NaCl is an empirical formula rather than a
molecular formula
37. What is meant by an allotrope?
38. Identify three allotropes of carbon
39. Identify two other elements that also occur as allotropes
40. Complete the table:
Structural feature of ionic

Physical property

compound
Strong ionic bonds throughout
the crystal lattice. A lot of
energy is needed to break
these bonds.
Heating makes ions vibrate.
This breaks the bonds and the
ions are then free to move and
carry the current
Water moves between the ions,
pushing them apart and
breaking the ionic bonds. The
ions are then free to move and
carry the electric charge
Ions are held in fixed positions
by strong ionic bonds that
extend throughout the lattice.
The ions can only vibrate, they
are not free to move and carry
the charge.

determined by structure
High melting and boiling points
Hard
Crystalline

41. The following diagrams represent models of covalent and


ionic lattices. Discuss the advantages and limitations of each
a) Na+

b)

Cl-