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23/2/2012

IE2150Week6
Feb27282012
DesignofDisplaysandControls
TanKayChuan
Dept ofISE,NUS

Purpose
Topresentergonomicguidelinesforequipment
designwiththepurposeofreducingtransaction
time,errorrate,operatorinjury,anddiscomfort

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DisplaysandControlsmaybe
Poweredornonpowered,
mechanicalorelectronic
devices
Functions,alternatives,design
opportunities(adjectives)
Workplace
Physicalarrangementof
equipmentandoperators
Physicalandoperational
environment

HumanInterfaces
Controlsanddisplays
Physicalandcognitiveinterfaces

Processandtasks(operations)
Transactions
Setup,operation,maintenance,
calibration

ThereisVariabilityinPeople
Physical
Size,Shape,Strength,Stamina,Reach,Fit,Variability

Vision
Monocularandbinocularvisioncones,obstructions

Cognition
Attention,perception,memory,decisionmaking,problemsolving

Knowledge
Systemdynamics,errorimplications

Training
Motorcontrol,dexterity
Operationalanderrormodeexperience

Behavior
Habits,risktaking

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AnthropometricVariability

Biomechanical&PhysiologicalVariation
Cantheoperatorperformtheexpected
manipulationsunderallusualandunusual
operationalandenvironmentalconditions?
Strength
Controls,maintenancetools

Stamina
Repeatedandlongdurationactivities

Skill
Precisemanipulations

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CognitiveVariability

Sensoryaccess

Attention

Cantheoperatorseethecontrolordisplayfromallexpectedoperational
locationsandconditions?
Istheoperatorsattentiondrawntokeysystemstatusvalues
Aretheresourcesofdistractioneitherintheequipmentorworkplace

Understandability

Cantheoperatorunderstandthestatusofthecontrolordisplayandthe
implicationofdeviantvalues?

Memoryfortargetvalues

Motorskills

Feedback

Errortypesandimplications

Doestheoperatorhaveclearknowledgeoftargetvaluesorranges
Cantheoperatorreach,graspandmanipulatethecontrolseffectively?
Istimelyfeedbackprovidedregardingtheeffectofacontrolinput?
Istheoperatorfamiliarwitherrorpossibilitiesandtheirimplications?

DisplayDesignCriteria
Visibility
Cantheoperatorseethedisplayfromallexpectedoperational
locations?

Accuracy
Doesthedisplayprovideaccurateinformation?

Resolution
Doesthedisplayhavetheappropriatelevelofresolution?

Importance
Howimportantisthedisplayinthebroadcontextofthenormal
andmaintenanceandemergencyoperations?

Frequency
Howoftenisthedisplayused?

Sequence
Whatistheoperationalsequenceofthedisplay?

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ChecklistforEquipmentDesign
Equipmentpurpose

Displays

Setup

Calibration
Maintenanceandservice

PhysicalEnvironment

Lighting
Noise
Thermal
Vibration

OperationalEnvironment

Speed
Information
Errorimplications

Workplace

Visibility
Reach,Access,Fit
Basepostures
Adjustability

Type
Designcriteria
Understandability
Accuracy
Resolution
Importance
Frequency
Sequence

Controls
Type
Designcriteria
Resolution
Directionofmotion
Rangeofmotion

Panel

Location
Panel
arrangement
Grouping
Location

Operationsanalysis
Sensoryaccess
Attention
Understandability
Memoryfortargetvalues
Motorskills
Feedback
Errortypesandimplications

Facilitators

Instructions
Warnings
Labels
Memoryaids

OperatorRequirements

Selection
Training
Attention

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ManualControlandTracking
Controlorder
Zeroordercontrolsystem(position)
for eg. Laser Pointer

Firstordercontrolsystem(speed)
Secondordercontrolsystem(accelerate)

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First-Order Devices

Firstorder

??order

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FittsLaw

Predicthumancontrolmovementtime
Shortinclassexercise
Tradeoffbetweenspeedandaccuracy
Fittslawapplytocomputermouse
movement,textinputonhandphone,text
inputoncomputerkeyboard,etc

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ControlResistance
Elasticresistance
StaticandCoulombresistance
Viscousdamping
Inertia

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Elasticresistance

Coulombresistance

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Viscousdamping

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ControlResponseRatio
Travel(Slew)time
Adjustmenttime
OptimumC/Dratio
Spacing between keys;
No sense of boundary between keys

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Electronic Controls
Whereisthefeedback(resistance)?

HumanFactorsinDisplaysandControls
AllforthesakeofCompatibility
Lessviolationofcompatibilityrelationships
Fasterlearning
Reducedresponsetime
Fewererror
Increasedusersatisfaction

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