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Journal Article

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Wear

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/wear

aqueous conditions

M.M. Stack , S.M. Abdelrahman

University of Strathclyde, Department of Mechanical Engineering 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, UK

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 2 August 2010

Received in revised form 23 June 2011

Accepted 24 June 2011

Available online 1 July 2011

Keywords:

Erosioncorrosion maps

CFD modelling

Fe

Particle concentration effects

a b s t r a c t

A CFD (computational uid dynamics) model has been developed to evaluate the effects of particle

concentration on the erosioncorrosion of the inner surfaces of a circular pipe of 90 bend at room

temperatures. The relative intensity of erosion and corrosion around the pipe geometry results in

transitions between various erosioncorrosion regimes, for a given inlet particle concentration. The

results indicate that the corrosion-dominated regime at the pipe bend is reduced with an increase in

particle concentration. Typical results from the model are shown illustrating how this 3D mapping

method can be used to model parameters such as particle concentration on the erosioncorrosion

regimes over the surface.

Crown Copyright 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In studies of modelling erosioncorrosion, both nite element

(FE) [1] and computational uid dynamics (CFD) [24] techniques

have been used to investigate mass loss of materials and to evaluate

the effect of various parameters controlling the erosion and corrosion process. However, the majority of these investigations do not

introduce a full denition for erosioncorrosion regimes resulting

from the interaction between erosion and corrosion, where various

regimes of corrosion can occur [5]. These regimes [6] are very useful

in identifying the mechanism of erosioncorrosion, in addition to

identifying the corrosion mechanism component of the interaction

as identied by Pourbaix diagrams [5].

An approach to identify the transition regimes for the

erosioncorrosion process and also to monitor the effects of various

parameters has been developed by the current authors as an extension of earlier work on erosioncorrosion mapping [68]. Although

2D mapping is capable of capturing the inuence of any particular parameter on erosioncorrosion regime boundaries, it does not

give any indication of the combined effect of all the parameters on

these boundaries, nor the metal degradation in a 3D space.

A new methodology was introduced in previous work [9] to

study the integrated effect of these parameters together (namely

those related to the particle, uid ow, and environment), on the

boundaries of the erosioncorrosion regime and wastage maps by

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 141 5483754; fax: +44 141 5525105.

E-mail address: margaret.stack@strath.ac.uk (M.M. Stack).

combining the concept of CFD with the erosioncorrosion mapping techniques. Such approach facilitates mapping the surfaces

of any 3D component that is exposed to aqueous slurry ow. Furthermore, it provides a powerful predictive tool for estimating the

predominance of various erosioncorrosion regimes.

In this study, a 3D mapping technique is used to investigate

the effect of the particle concentration and on the construction of

erosioncorrosion mechanism and wastage maps for Fe. The effects

of particle concentration are evaluated on the regime boundaries.

The results are discussed in terms of the applications of this technique to erosioncorrosion in slurry ows in addition to addressing

some current limitations.

2. Methodology

A dilute slurry ow of water-alumina particles of size 103 m

and four volume fractions i.e. 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 is ingested

through a pipe bend inlet with bore diameter (D) equal to 0.078 m

and (R D1 ) ratio of 1.2 (ratio of pipe bend radius to diameter),

where R is the pipe bend radius.

The CFD simulation generated by FLUENT ver.6.3 [10] uses a

nite element based nite volume method to solve the ow governing equations. Table 1 summarises the equations used, operating

and boundary conditions used in this study whilst Table 2 lists

the mechanical and physical properties for the slurry and target

material.

Validation of the erosion results is carried out in [9] by comparison to previous experimental work as described elsewhere [11],

and is summarised in Table 3. The simulation validation was car-

0043-1648/$ see front matter. Crown Copyright 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.wear.2011.06.024

39

Table 2

Physical and mechanical properties for the slurry and target material.

Nomenclature

Latin letters

pipe inlet area [m2 ]

Ain

C

particle concentration [g cm3 ]

Cp

specic heat capacity [J kg1 K1 ]

D

diameter of the pipe [m]

applied potential [V] (SCE)

E

en

normal coefcient of restitution

F

Faraday constant (96,485) [C mol1 ]

numerical constant (0.025)

ft

Hs

hardness of the substrate [Pa]

H

thickness of the oxide layer [m]

ho

initial thickness of the oxide [m]

Ip

impact frequency [imp cm2 s1 ]

net anodic current density [A m2 ]

ianet

io

exchange current density [A m2 ]

Kc

pure corrosion rate [g m2 s1 ]

total wastage rate [g m2 s1 ]

Kec

pure erosion rate [g m2 s1 ]

Ke

material constant (0.699)

K

k2

material constant (1.398)

Mt

amount of mass removal per impacting particle

[g impact1 ]

mass of impacting particle [kg]

mp

nc

strain hardening coefcient (0.3)

RAM

relative atomic mass of Fe (55.8) [g mol1 ]

Tm

melting point of the Fe (1808) [K]

Vp

particle velocity [m s1 ]

vf.

volume fraction of particles

WC

erosion by cutting [kg kg1 ]

WD

erosion by deformation [kg kg1 ]

number of electrons (2)

zm

Greek letters

p

impact angle [ ]

particle shape factor (0.0)

frictional coefcient (0.1)

f

critical friction coefcient (Sundararajan)

Pi ratio (3.142)

f

density of the oxide layer (5240) [kg m3 ]

density of the particle (2650) [kg m3 ]

p

Subscripts

Ap

applied potential

Rev

reversible equilibrium potential

passivation

Pas

Density [kg m3 ]

Particle size [m]

Flow rate [kg s1 ]

k2 [14]

Particles (alumina)

998

2670

103

Variable

7850

14.3

1.398

The second model of Sundararajan is divided into two expressions; one accounts for the localised deformation at the impact

point, whilst the other addresses the ductile cutting mechanism

during the impact. The total erosion rate is the summation of these

two mechanisms. The formulation is as follows [13]:

5.5 102

D=

W

(Tm 436)

0.75

5.5 102

C=

W

(Tm 436)

0.75

nc Cp

(1)

(1 + )22nc nc Cp

(2)

where

f =

1

(1 + ) (1 + e) tan

(3)

en = 0.988 0.78 + 0.192 0.0243 + 0.0274

(4)

[kg m2 s1 ] in line with the calculated corrosion rates below. V

is the impact velocity as dened in Sundararajans model above.

2.2. Corrosion rates

2.2.1. Active corrosion model

In the active region, it is assumed that the total corrosion is estimated from knowledge of the dissolution current density from the

ButlerVolmer equation:

ianet = io exp

zm FrE

Ro T

exp

(1 )zm FrE

Ro T

(5)

E = Eap Erev

ried out for a SS304L stainless steel alloy using Forders erosion

model [12] as in the case study, and the results were simulated for

mild steel using Sundararajans second model [13].

Table 1

CFD modelling equations, operating and boundary conditions.

Model parameter

Water

Sand particles

Solver equations

Turbulence model

Wall treatment

Coupling

Operating cond.

Inlet velocity [m s1 ]

NavierStokes

Standard k-

Standard wall function-no slip

DPM

One way

3.0

(6)

and Eap and Erev are the applied and reversible potentials, respectively.

It should be noted that further details of the corrosion models are given in earlier work [9]. The Faraday constant above in

the ButlerVolmer equation is given by Fr and is the transfer

coefcient of ions in the reaction.

The corrosion rate is therefore given by:

Kc = Kco =

Ambient

3.0

Fluid (water)

RAMianet

zm F

(7)

Table 3

Comparison between the current study and Experimental and simulation work of

Wood et al. [11].

(volume per impacting

particle)

Experimental [11]

Simulation [11]

Current

study

2.25.5

5.5

5.45

40

For the passivation mechanism, we assume that pure corrosion

(Kco ) rate is sufciently low as to be negligible and the corrosion

rate is the additive effect of corrosion enhanced by erosion (Kc )

[14]. An expression for the corrosion rate in passivation conditions

has been introduced [5] and is currently modied to include the

effect of the oblique impact [9,15].

Mt = kh f dp2

p (1 en2 )

6Hs

0.5

(Vp sin 1 )

(8)

and the oxide created during the corrosion reaction, multiplied by

the number of moles of metal involved in the reaction and is related

to k2 in [14] by denition as (k = k2 /2). The thickness of the passive

layer h can be assumed to vary with the potential difference and

may be given from [16] assuming a linear relationship between the

over-potential and passive layer thickness:

h = ho + 3 109 (Eap Epas )

(9)

= 1 109

and ho

m.

The unit given by Eq. (8) is [kg impact1 ]. To convert to

[kg m2 s1 ], it is multiplied by particle impact ux as outlined in

[14]. This can be varied according to the application under investigation. For example, if the ow is homogeneous then particle

impact frequency may be used and is given as [17]:

Kc = Kc =

Mt cVp sin

mp

(10)

The regime boundaries are determined in terms of the ratio

Kc /Ke as

Kc

< 0.1 (Erosion dominated)

Ke

Kc

< 1 (Erosioncorrosion dominated)

Ke

(12)

Kc

< 10 (Corrosionerosion dominated)

Ke

(13)

0.1

1

(11)

Kc

10 (Corrosion-dominated)

Ke

(14)

follows:

Kec < 1 mm year1

(Low wastage)

Kec 10 mm year

(Medium wastage)

(High wastage)

(15)

namely 0.957, 1.9169, 2.87 and 3.8276 kg s1 which are equivalent

to particle inlet volume fractions of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.0909,

respectively.

Fig. 2 shows the regime maps at the inner surfaces of the pipe

bend at pH = 7 (pure water) and applied potential E = 0.6 V (SCE),

illustrating the changes in erosioncorrosion regimes with increasing the particle volume fraction. As the particle volume fraction

increases, as the particles are introduced to the pipe on the left hand

side of the gure, Fig. 2(a), the erosion rates increases linearly and

as a result, the erosiondissolution and erosion dominated regimes

are enlarged. In addition, the dissolution dominated regime reduces

with increasing particle volume fraction. This indicates the importance of the volume fraction (or particle concentration) as a factor

affecting the erosioncorrosion regimes.

Fig. 3 illustrates the wastage maps for pH = 7 and at applied

potential E = 0.6 V (SCE) for the same particle mass ow rates listed

above as in Fig. 2. Again the high wastage regime area (red colour

region) is increased as the particle mass ow rate increases.

(16)

(17)

recent paper by the authors [9].)

3. Results

Fig. 1 illustrates the Pourbaix diagram for Fe at T = 298 K with

respect to the standard hydrogen electrode and identies the

possible corrosion mechanisms (i.e. immunity, dissolution and passivation mechanisms) for various values of temperature, pH and

applied potential.

To investigate the particle concentration effect, a homogeneous

particle distribution in the pipe inlet is assumed and the particle

concentration is thus related to the particle mass ow rate according to the relation:

p = p p Vp Ain

m

Fig. 1. Simplied Pourbaix diagram for Fe at T = 298 K in aqueous media [5]. The

parallel lines indicate the reduction and oxidation of water respectively.

(18)

4. Discussion

The results indicate that particle volume fraction effects play

a signicant role in changing the erosioncorrosion regime in 3D,

Figs. 2 and 3. In the 3D case, various regimes are observed over

the surface, Fig. 2. With increasing volume fraction, the erosiondominated regime is enhanced. This is due to the increase in erosion

rate with increasing particle concentration, shifting the corrosion

affected regimes towards those dominated by erosion.

It should be noted that in Fig. 2(a), for the lowest concentration

modeled, no erosion-dominated behaviour was observed. However, as the particle concentration was increased, the time interval

between impacts was reduced, thereby increasing the overall erosion to corrosion contribution on the surface. As a result, the

erosion-dominated regime is more prevalent at the higher volume

fractions, Fig. 2(c and d), with the erosiondissolution area reduced,

and marginally spreading out to areas which previously had been

dominated by dissolution on the pipe elbow. This indicates that

Fig. 2. Regime maps on the outer surface of Fe pipe bend at pH = 7 and E = 0.6 V

(SCE) for total particle mass per second: (a) 0.957, (b) 1.9169, (c) 2.87, (d)

3.8276 kg s1 .

such conditions.

The above trends in the variation of erosioncorrosion regimes

on the pipe bend are also observed in earlier work by the current authors [9]. In this work, the signicant changes in particle

concentration and velocity for the component are identied, resulting in a variation of erosion intensity on the surface. In addition,

the local impact angle also changes. Hence, the erosioncorrosion

regime variation on the component can be attributed to these factors.

Nonetheless, it should be noted that the variation of the

erosioncorrosion regimes only occurs at the pipe bend only

and the remaining parts (i.e. entrance and exit) exhibit no

erosioncorrosion regime change (results not shown). This indicates that the erosion rates at these regions remain unaffected

during the simulation. For the wastage maps, the pipe exit exhibits

a minor variation from the medium to the high wastage regime as

the particle concentration increases. Hence, the erosioncorrosion

mapping technique is a potentially sensitive method of detecting any change in the erosioncorrosion behaviour in such

environments where changes in component geometry are anticipated.

For the present study, additive erosioncorrosion behaviour is

assumed i.e. erosion enhanced corrosion and the effect of corrosion on erosion is negligible. (It is acknowledged that at higher

pH values where passivation takes place, this would not be the

case.) For the effect of corrosion on erosion, the so-called syn-

41

Fig. 3. Wastage maps on the outer surface of Fe pipe bend at pH = 7 and E = 0.6 V

(SCE) for total particle mass per second: (a) 0.957, (b) 1.9169, (c) 2.87, (d)

3.8276 kg s1 .

of possible mechanisms relating to the material microstructure

[18,19] and it is acknowledged that this is a simplistic assumption.

Hence, initial work on mapping the component for the materials

above has made such assumptions but future work will address

such issues in more detail by assessing materials with composite

structures.

The erosion and corrosion rates are assumed, in this study,

to be constant with time, i.e. both processes are independent of

time. The time interval between impacts is a very important factor in the erosioncorrosion process, as in the passive region, it

determines the lm thickness and growth kinetics. However, for

this study as the thickness of the passive lm is assumed to be

in the order of nanometers, signicant increase in lm thickness

is not considered for long intervals between impacts, as dened

for low concentrations of particles. It is acknowledged that this

may be a simplistic assumption and will be considered in further

work.

It should be noted that for the 2D mapping approaches presented in earlier work, qualitative agreement has been found

between the results from these studies and experimental studies

[7]. For the 3D mapping approach above, it was not possible to verify

experimentally the regimes on the simulated pipe. Further work,

will address the issue of quantifying experimentally the regimes

from post exposure pipe bends exposed to such conditions.

Hence, 3D erosioncorrosion maps provide a useful tool for prediction and identication of the erosioncorrosion regimes and

wastage regions when parameters such as in-let particle concentration are varied. The results have indicated signicant changes in

42

increasing particle volume concentration in the pipe. Further work

will be to model the effects of other parameters such as oxygen

concentration and temperature in addition to extending the range

of materials in the model and the synergism/antagonism between

the processes.

5. Conclusions

CFD methods, involving uid dynamics and multiphase ow

parameters, have been used to model the erosioncorrosion

behaviour of Fe at range of particle concentration values for a 3D

space and thus represents the rst study of the effect of particle

concentration on a 3D erosioncorrosion map.

The technique enables both erosioncorrosion regimes and

wastage rates to be predicted over a simulated pipe component.

Changes in erosioncorrosion regimes over the component

geometry were observed with increases in particle concentration. In particular, at the pipe bend, at the highest concentration

evaluated, the erosion-dominated regime increased and the

erosion-dissolution regime reduced, compared to that observed at

the lowest particle concentrations.

The boundaries of the erosioncorrosion regimes were also

observed to vary at the pipe inlet and exit following simulation of increases in particle concentration, with the dissolution

affected regimes being reduced in favour of dissolutionerosion

and erosiondissolution.

References

[1] D. Grifn, A. Daadbin, S. Datta, The development of a three-dimensional nite

element model for solid particle erosion on an alumina scale/MA956 substrate,

Wear 256 (910) (2004) 900906.

[2] A. Keating, S. Nesic, Prediction of two-phase erosioncorrosion in bends, in:

Second International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries,

CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 1999, pp. 229236.

Corrosion Science 51 (4) (2009) 769775.

[4] Y. Ferng, Y. Ma, N. Chung, Application of local ow models in predicting distributions of erosioncorrosion locations, Corrosion 56 (2) (2000) 116126.

[5] M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions, Nace,

Houston, 1977.

[6] M. Stack, N. Corlett, S. Zhou, A methodology for the construction of the

erosioncorrosion map in aqueous environments, Wear 203 (1997) 474488.

[7] M. Stack, N. Pungwiwat, Erosioncorrosion mapping of Fe in aqueous slurries:

some views on a new rationale for dening the erosioncorrosion interaction,

Wear 256 (5) (2004) 565576.

[8] M. Stack, T. Abd El Badia, On the construction of erosioncorrosion maps for

WC/CoCr-based coatings in aqueous conditions, Wear 261 (1112) (2006)

11811190.

[9] M. Stack, S. Abdelrahman, B. Jana, A new methodology for modelling

erosioncorrosion regimes on real surfaces: gliding down the galvanic series

for a range of metal-corrosion systems, Wear 268 (34) (2010) 533542.

[10] FLUENT Inc., FLUENT Users Guide, Version 6.3, US.

[11] R.J.K. Wood, T. Jones, J. Ganeshalingam, N. Miles, Comparison of predicted

and experimental erosion estimates in slurry ducts, Wear 256 (910) (2004)

937947.

[12] A. Forder, M. Thew, D. Harrison, A numerical investigation of solid particle erosion experienced within oileld control valves, Wear 216 (2) (1998) 184193.

[13] G. Sundararajan, A comprehensive model for the solid particle erosion of ductile

materials, Wear 149 (12) (1991) 111127.

[14] M. Stack, B. Jana, Modelling particulate erosioncorrosion in aqueous slurries:

some views on the construction of erosioncorrosion maps for a range of pure

metals, Wear 256 (910) (2004) 9861004.

[15] S. Abdelrahman, M. Stack, Some reictions on a model to predict the erosion

rate of the passive lm on pure materials, in: 13th Int. Conf. on Aerospace

Science and Aviation Technology, ASAT-2009, Cairo, Egypt, 2009.

[16] M. Graham, J. Bardwell, G. Sproule, D. Mitchell, B. Macdougall, The growth and

stability of passive lms, Corrosion Science 35 (14) (1993) 1318.

[17] B. Lu, J. Lue, Correlation between repassivation kinetics and corrosion rate

over a passive surface in owing slurry, Electrochimica Acta 53 (23) (2008)

70227031.

[18] M. Stack, N. Corlett, S. Turgoose, Some thoughts on modelling the effects of oxygen and particle concentration on the erosioncorrosion of steels in aqueous

slurries, Wear 255 (2003) 225236.

[19] M. Stack, M. Antonov, I. Hussainova, Some views on the erosioncorrosion

response of bulk chromium carbide based cermets, Journal of Physics D:

Applied Physics 39 (15) (2006) 31653174.

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