Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 72

##################>###

#############O##################################r###s###
#######

############+###,###-###.###F###G###H###I###^
##d
##e###f###g###

##_

##c

##

##

##############$###=###>###?
#################################################################
############################## ##x!##y!##,"##"##>######<$##$##$##
%##%##
%##
#Y#
####################}#####bjbjWW################## ###(##=##=##
%#######################=#############################################]#####^
#######^###^#######^#######N#######N#######N###############b#######b#######b#######
b###8######\######

###b#######Y#####
##6###
##"###
######
######
######O3######O3######O3######W######W######W######W##3###W#####X#####Y##$
###Z#####\##~###Y######################N#######O3######################S+#####
O3######O3######O3######Y######A######^#######^#######
##############
##u ##
######A######A######A######O3######^###H###
######N#######
######W######################b#######b#######^#######^#######^#######^#######O3###
###W######A##p###A######gE#####I##
########N###############################################################W######
#######
#####W##b#######b#######_6#####W##&#########################################
###################################################################################
#############CONTENTS#Page No#####OBJECTIVES#2##INTRODUCTION TO
MICROPROCESSORS#4##HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE#9##CLOCK, POWER SUPPLY AND INSTRUCTION
CYCLE#18##BUS CONCEPT#23##RAM & ROM, ADDRESSING MODES#25##INTERRUPTS#31##I / O
CONCEPTS#39#####

MODULE ONMICROPROCESSORThis topic consists of 8 hours of theory lectures and 6


hours of practical sessions, one criterion test of one hour duration and two hours
of practical test.OBJECTIVESBe able toLesson 1 Describe the parts of a
computer..Understand the Intel 8086 Microprocessor.Lesson 2Describe the
architecture of MPU 8086.Describe the stack and the stack pointer,PC and Flag
registerLesson
Describe the Clock and power suppliesDescribe the 8086 pin
diagram Describe the timing, power supply and Instruction cycle of 8086.Lesson 4
Describe the meaning of Bus in Microprocessor.Describe the types of Bus
arrangements.Lesson 5
Understand ROMs and RAMs.Describe the addressing modes in
8086 Microprocessor.Lesson 6Describe the Hardware and Software Interrupts in 8086
Microprocessor.Describe the Interrupt response of 8086 Microprocessor.Lesson 7 .
Describe the concept of memory mapped I/O.Describe the types of Data Transfer.
Criterion TestThe test will be held for hour duration. The trainee is expected to
secure 60 percent marks without the aid of the material
***********chapter 1INTRODUCTION TO 8086 MICROPROCESSORComputersFig.1 shows a block
diagram of a simple computer. The major parts are the central processing unit or
CPU, memory and the input and output circuitry or I/O and three sets of parallel
lines called Buses connecting these parts together. The three buses are called
address bus, data bus and control bus########## EMBED Paint.Picture ####MemoryThe
memory section usually consists of RAM and ROM. It may also have magnetic floppy
disks, magnetic hard disks or laser option disks. Memory has two purposes. The
first purpose is to store the binary codes for the sequence of instructions you
want the computer to carryout. The second purpose of the memory is to store the
binary-coded data with which the computer is going to be working.Input/OutputThe
input/output or I/O section allows the computer to take in data from the outside
world or send data to the outside world. Peripherals such as keyboards, video
display terminals, printers and modems are connected to the I/O section. These
allow the user and the computer to communicate with each other. The actual physical
devices used to interface the computer buses to external systems are often called
ports.Central Processing UnitThe Central Processing unit or CPU controls the
operation of the computer. It fetches the binary-coded instructions from memory,
decodes the instructions into a series of simple actions and carries out these
instructions. The CPU contains an arithmetic and logic unit or ALU which can
perform arithmetical and logical calculations like add, subtract, AND, OR, etc.,
The CPU also contains an address counter which is used to hold the address of the
next instruction to be fetched from the memory, general purpose registers which are
used for temporary storage of binary data, and circuitry which generates and the
control bus signals.Address BusThe address bus consists of 16, 20, 24 or more
parallel signal lines. On these lines the CPU sends out the address of the memory
location that is to be written to or read from. The number of memory locations that
the CPU can address is determined by the number of address lines. If the CPU has N
address lines then it can directly address 2N memory locations. For example, a CPU
with 16 address lines can address 2 16 or 65, 536 memory locations.Data BusThe data
bus consists of 8, 16, 32 or more parallel signal lines. The data bus lines are bidirectional.Control BusThe control bus consists of 4 - 10 parallel signal lines.
The CPU sends out signals on the control bus to enable the outputs of addressed
memory devices or port devices. Typical control bus signals are memory/read, memory
write , I/O read, and I/O write. To read a byte of data from a memory location, for
example, the CPU sends out the address of the desired byte on the address bus and
then sends out a memory read signal on the control bus. The memory read signal
enables the addressed memory device to output the byte of data on the data bus
where it is read by the CPU.Hardware, Software, and FirmwareWhen working around
computers you hear the terms hardware, software and firmware. Hardware is the name
given to the physical devices and circuitry of the computer. Software refers to the
programs written for the computer. Firmware is the term given to the programs
stored in ROMs or in other devices which keep their stored information when the
power is turned off.What is a Microprocessor ?The entire CPU with timing and
control functions on a single chip is known as Microprocessor. Therefore a
Microprocessor or MPU is an integrated circuit that contains many processing

capabilities of a large computer.Microprocessor EvolutionA common way of


categorizing is by the number of bits that their ALU can work with at a time. A
Microprocessor with a 4 - bit ALU will be referred to as a 4-bit Microprocessor,
regardless of the number of address lines or the number of data bus lines that it
has. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004 produced in 197 1. This 4004 was a
4 - bit device intended to be used with some other devices in making a
calculator .Some logic designers, however, saw that this device could be used to
replace PC boards full of combinational and sequential logic devices. Also, the
ability to change the function of a system by just changing the programming, rather
than redesigning the hardware, is very appealing. It was these factors that pushed
the evolution of microprocessors.In 197 2 Intel come out with the 8008 which was
capable of working with 8-bit words. In 197 4 Intel announced the 8080 which had a
much larger instruction set than 8008. The 8080 is referred to as a secondgeneration microprocessor.Soon after Intel produced 8080, Motorola came out with MC
6800, another 8-bit general purpose CPU. Some of the other competitors were the MOS
technology 6502 and the Zilog Z80. The 16-bit microprocessors entered the
marketplace in the late 197 0s and early 1980s. Then came the 32-bit processors.Most
Widely, Microprocessors are divided into two groups based on their origin. These
groups may be tabled as the 6s group and that of the 8s . A family tree of the
6s group and that of the 8s group is shown in figure 2.

############################## EMBED Paint.Picture ####We observe that as we


progress upward on the family tree the trend is towards greater complexity.
Complexity is noted in the figure, in terms of the bit size of the internal
registers. The 6s group traces its origin back to the original 6800 Microprocessor
designed by Motorola. The 8s group traces its origin back to Intels 8080
Microprocessor. Each branch in Fig.2 is labeled near the top with the manufacturer
responsible for its development.

The INTEL 8086 MicroprocessorIntroductionThe 8086 was the first 16-bit


Microprocessor to be introduced by Intel Corporation. It is designed to be upwardly
compatible with the older 8080/8085 series of 8-bit microprocessors. The upward
compatibility allows programs written for the 8080/8085 to be easily converted to
run on the 8086.The word 16-bit means that its arithmetic logical unit, internal
registers, and most of its instructions are designed to work with 16-bit binary
words. The 8086 has a 16-bit data bus, so it can read data form or write data to
memory and ports either 16-bits or 8-bits at a time. The 8086 has a 20-bit address
bus, so it can address any one of 220 or 1,048,57 6 memory locations. Each of the
1,048,57 6 memory addresses of the 8086 represents a byte-wide location. Words will
be stored in two consecutive memory locations. If the first byte of a word is at an
even address, the 8086 can read the entire word in one operation. If the first byte
of the word is at an odd address, the 8086 will read the first byte of the word in
one operation, and the second byte in another operation.*****

Chapter 2HARDWARE ARCHITECTUREThe term architecture, as used in microprocessor


circuits, describes the functional components that make up the MPU and the
interaction between them. These include the temporary storage devices known as
registers, which are used to hold data, instructions, and status information. There
are also devices to perform arithmetic and logical operations. Control devices are
used to control the flow of information through the MPU.## EMBED Paint.Picture ###
Fig.3 8086 Internal Block DiagramAs shown by the block diagram in fig.3, the 8086
MPU is divided into two independent functional parts known as the execution unit
(EU)and the bus interface unit (BIU).Execution unit (EU)The EU is where the actual
processing of data takes place inside the 8086 MPU. It is here that the arithmetic
and logic unit (ALU) is located, along with the registers used to manipulate data
and store immediate results. The EU accepts instructions and data that have been
fetched by the BIU and then processes the information. Data processed by the EU can
be transmitted to the memory or peripheral devices through the BIU. EU has no
direct connection with the outside world and relies solely on the BIU to feed it
with instructions and data as indicated in fig.4# EMBED Paint.Picture ###Bus
Interface Unit (BIU)The BIU is made up of the address generation and bus-control
unit, the instruction queue, and the instruction pointer. It has the task of making
sure that the bus is used to its fullest capacity in order to speedup operations.
This function is carried in two ways. First, by fetching the instructions before
they are needed by the execution unit and storing them in the instruction queue,
the 8086 MPU is able to increase computing speed. Second, by taking care of all
bus-control functions, the EU is free to concentrate on processing data and
carrying out the instructions. The instruction pointer contains the location or
address of the next instruction to be executed.Inside the EUThe EU is made up of
two parts known as the ALU and the general registers. It is here that instructions
are received, decoded, and executed from the instruction queue portion of BIU. The
instructions are taken from the top of the instruction queue on the first-in,
first-out, or FIFO, basis.ALUThe ALU is the calculator part of the execution unit.
It consists of electronic circuitry that performs arithmetic operations or logical
operations on the binary represented electrical signals. The control system for the
execution unit can also be thought of as part of ALU. It provides a path for the
flow of instructions into the ALU, the general registers, and the flag register.
Flag RegisterA flag is a flip-flop which indicates some condition produced by the
execution of an instruction or controls certain operations of the EU. The Flag
Register is a special register associated with the ALU. A 16-bit flag register in
the EU contains nine active flags. Fig.5 shows the location of the nine flags in
the flag register.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###Six flags are status flags- AF, CF, OF,
SF, PF and ZF. The remaining three flags are control flags -DF,IF, and TF. Table 1
presents a flag summary and highlights key concerns. Each flag is next discussed in
detail.Table 1Flag summaryStatus Flags#Description##AF (auxiliary flag)#Indicates
if the instruction generated a carry out the 4 LSBs.##CF (carry flag)#Indicates if
the instruction generated a carry out the MSB.##OF (overflow flag)#Indicates if
the instruction generated a signed result that is out of range.##SF (sign
flag)#Indicates if the instruction generated a negative result.##PF (parity
flag)#Indicates if the instruction generated a result having an even number of
1s.##ZF (zero flag)#Indicates if the instruction generated a zero
result##DF(direction flag)#Controls the direction of the string manipulation
instructions.##IF (interrupt-enable flag)#Enables or disables external interrupts.
##TF ( trap flag)#Puts the processor into a single-step mode for program
debugging##AF (auxiliary flag). If this flag is set, there has been a carry out or
borrow of the 4 least significant bits. This flag is used during decimal arithmetic
instructions.CF(carry flag). If this flag is set, there has been a carry out or
overflow of the most significant bit. It is used by instructions that add and
subtract multi byte numbers.OF (overflow flag). If this flag is set, an arithmetic
overflow has occurred; that is , a significant digit has been lost because the size
of the result exceeded the capacity of its destination location.SF (sign flag).
Since negative binary numbers are represented in the 8086/8088 in standard 2s
complement notation. SF indicates the sign of the result ( 0 = positive, 1 =

negative).PF (party flag). If this flag is set, the result has even parity, an even
number of 1s. This flag can be used to check for transmission errors.ZF (zero
flag). If this flag is set, the result of the operation is 0.DF(direction flag).
Setting DF causes string instructions to auto-decrement (count down); that is, to
process strings from the high address to the low address, or from right to left.
Clearing DF causes string instructions to auto-increment (count up), or process
strings from left to right.IF ( interrupt-enable flag) Setting IF allows the MPU to
recognize external (maskable) interrupt requests. Clearing IF disables these
interrupts. IF has no effect on either nonmaskable external or internally generated
interrupts.TF (trap flag) . Setting TF puts the processor into single-step mode for
debugging. In this mode the MPU automatically generates an internal interrupt after
each instruction, allowing a program to be inspected as it executes instruction by
instruction.General Purpose RegistersEU has eight general purpose registers labeled
AH, AL, BH, BL, CH, CL, DH and DL. These registers are a set of data registers,
which are used to hold intermediate results. The H represents the high- order or
most- significant byte and the L represents the low- order or least-significant
byte. Each of these registers may be used separately as 8-bit storage areas or
combined to form one 16-bit ( one word) storage area.The acceptable register pairs
are AH and AL, BH and BL, CH and CL and DH and DL. The AH-AL pair is referred to as
the AX register, the BH-BL pair is referred to as the BX register, the CH-CL pair
is referred to as the CX register, and the BH-BL pair is referred to as the DX
register.The AL register is also called as the Accumulator. For 16-bit operations,
AX is called the accumulator.The 8086 register set is very similar to those of
earlier generation 8080 and 8085 microprocessors. Many programs written for the
8080 and 8085 could easily be translated to run on the 8086.

Stack Pointer RegisterA Stack, is a section of memory set aside to store addresses
and data while a subprogram is being executed. An entire 64 K bytes segment is set
aside as Stack in 8086 MPU. The upper 16 bits of the starting address for this
segment is kept in the stack segment register. The Stack Pointer (SP) register
contain the 16-bit offset from the start of the segment to the memory location
where a word was most recently stored on the Stack. The memory location where a
word was most recently stored is called the top of Stack. Fig.6 shows the details.#
EMBED Paint.Picture ###The physical address for a stack read or for a stack write
is produced by adding the contents of the stack pointer register to the segment
base address in SS. To do this the contents of the Stack segment register are
shifted four bit positions left and the contents of SP are added to the shifted
result. In the figure 5000 H in SS is shifted left four bit positions to give
50000H. When FFEOH in the SP is added to this, the resultant physical address for
the top of the stack will be 5FFEOH. The physical address can be represented either
as a single number 5FFEOH, or it can be represented in SS:SP form as 5000:FFEOH.
Other pointer and Index RegistersIn addition to the Stack Pointer register, SP, the
EU contains a 16-bit base pointer (BP) register. It also contains a 16-bit Source
index (SI) register and a 16-bit destination index (DI) register. These three
registers can be used for temporary storage of data just as the general purpose
registers. However, their main use is to hold the 16-bit offset of a data word in
one of the segments. That is, the pointer and index registers are usually used to
point to or index to an address in memory. When used in this manner, these
registers are address registers that designate a specific location in the memory
that may be frequently used by the program. The addresses contained in these
registers can be combined with information from the BIU to physically locate the
data in the memory.The Bus Interface UnitThe BIU sends out addresses, fetches
instructions from memory, reads data from ports and memory. In other words the BIU
handles all transfers of data and addresses on the buses for the execution unit.
The BIU can be thought of as three functional blocks; Bus control, Instruction
queue and Address control.But controlThe bus-control unit performs the bus
operations for the MPU. It fetches and transmits instructions, data and control
signals between MPU and the other devices of the system.Instruction QueueThe
instruction queue is used as a temporary memory storage area for data instructions
that are to be executed by the MPU. The BIU, through the bus-control unit,
prefetches instructions and stores them in the instruction queue. This allows the
execution unit to perform its calculations at maximum efficiency. Because the BIU
and EU essentially operate independently, the BIU concentrates on loading
instructions into the instruction queue. This usually takes more time to do than
the calculations performed by the execution unit. In effect, the BIU and the EU
work in parallel. The instruction queue is a first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory.
This means that the first instruction loaded into the instruction queue by the bus
control unit will be the first instruction to be used the ALU.Address controlThe
address-control unit is used to generate the 20-bit memory address that gives the
physical or actual location of the data or instruction in memory. This unit
consists of the instruction pointer, the segment registers and the address
generator as shown in fig 7 .# EMBED Paint.Picture ###Instruction PointerThe
Instruction Pointer (IP) is a 16- bit register that is used to point to, or tell
the MPU, the instruction to execute next. Therefore, the instruction pointer is
used to control the sequence in which the program is executed. Each time the
execution unit accepts an instruction, the instruction pointer, is incremented to
point to the next instruction in the program.

Segment RegistersThere are four segment registers. They are the code segment (CS),
the data segment (DS), the stack segment (SS), and the extra segment (ES). These
registers are used to define a logical memory space or memory segment that is set
aside for a particular function.The CS register points to the current code segment.
Instructions are fetched from this segment. The DS register points to the current
data segment. Program variables and data are held in this area. The SS register
points to the current stack segment, stack operations are performed on locations in
the SS segment. The ES register points to the current extra segment, which is also
used for data storage. Each of the segment registers can be upto 64 kilo bytes
long. Each segment is made up of an uninterrupted section of memory locations. Each
segment can be addressed separately using the base address that is contained in its
segment register. The base address is the starting address for that segment.Address
GeneratorThe address-generator unit is used with the segment registers to generate
the 20-bit physical address required to identify all the possible memory addresses.
The 20 address lines give a maximum physical memory size of 20 address locations,
or 1,048,57 6 bytes of memory. But all the registers in the MPU are only 16 bits
wide. The physical address is obtained by shifting the segment base value four bit
positions ( one hexa decimal position) and adding the offset or logical address of
the segment.*****

Chapter 3CLOCK, POWER SUPPLY AND INSTRUCTION CYCLEFig 8 shows the 8086 pin diagram.
Vcc is on pin 40 and ground on pins 1 and 20. 8086 requires +5v supply. Clock input
labeled CLK is on pin 19. An 8086 requires a clock signal from some external,
crystal- controlled clock generator to synchronize internal operations in the
processor. Different versions of the 8086 have maximum clock frequencies ranging
from MHz to 10 MHz.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###Pins 2 through 16 and pins 35 through
39 are used for the address bus. Pins 35 through 38 are used by multiplexing to
provide information or status about the MPU. The status signals are labeled S3,
S4, S5
and S6 as shown. The data bus lines AD0 through AD15 are used at the
start of the machine cycle to send out addresses, and later in the machine cycle
they are used to send or receive data. The 8086 sends out a signal called address
latch enable or ALE on pin 25 to let external circuitry know that an address is on
the data bus. The upper 4 bits of an address are sent on the lines labeled A16/ S
3 through A19/ S 6.######Some of the control bus lines on a microprocessor usually
have mnemonics such as RD, WR and M/ IO. Pin 32 of the 8086 is labeled RD. A tristate active-low output signal on pin 32 indicates that the 8086 is reading data
from memory or from a port. Pin 29 has a label WR next to it. However, pin 29
also has a label LOCK next to it, because this pin has two functions. The function
of this pin and the functions of the pins between 24 and 31 depend on the mode in
which the 8086 is operating.######The operating mode of the 8086 is determined by
the logic level applied to the MN / MX input on pin 33. If pin 33 is asserted high,
then the 8086 will function in minimum mode, and pins 24 through 31 will have
functions shown in parentheses next to the pins in fig. 8. If the MN / MX pin is
asserted low, then the 8086 is in maximum mode. In this mode pins 24 through 31
will have the functions described by the mnemonics next to the pins in fig. 8. A
tri-state active-low output signal on pin 29 indicates that MPU has put valid and
stable data on the data bus. Pin 28 will function as M / IO. The 8086 will assert
this signal high if it is reading from or writing to a memory location, and it
will assert a signal low if it is reading from or writing to a port. In the maximum
mode the control bus signals (S0, S1, S2 ) are sent out in encoded form on pins
26,27 and 28. An external bus controller device decodes these signals to produce
the control bus signals required for a system, which has two or more
microprocessors sharing the same buses.If pin 21, the RESET input is made high, the
8086 will, no matter what it is doing, reset its DS, SS, ES, IP and flag registers
to all 0's. It will set its CS register to FF. When the RESET signal is removed
from pin 21, the 8086 will then fetch its next instruction from physical address
(FFFF0H). This address is produced in the 8086 Bus Interface unit (BIU) by shifting
the FFFFH in the CS register 4 bits left by adding the 0000H in the instruction
pointer to it. The first instruction that has to be executed after a reset is put
at this address FFF0H.8086 has two interrupt inputs, non-maskable interrupt (NMI)
input on pin 17 and the interrupt (INTR) input on pin 18. An active-high on any one
of these pins will cause the 8086 to stop execution of its current program and go
execute a specified procedure. At the end of the procedure it can return to
executing the interrupted program. The NMI cannot be ignored, or masked, by the
MPU. The INTR (interrupt request) is maskable and can be made to be ignored by the
MPU through software control.##A tri-state active-low output signal on pin 26 DEN
(data enable) determines whether the data buffer is enabled or disabled. A tristate output signal on pin 27 DT / R (data transmit receive) is used to control
the direction of data flow. A logic level 1 indicates data bits are being
transmitted from the MPU. A logic level 0 indicates that data bits are being
received into the MPU.All microprocessors use an oscillator to generate a master
frequency clock to synchronize or time operations. For the 8086 microprocessor the
oscillator frequency, or clock frequency is typically 5 MHz. The period of one
clock cycle is then equal to.
T = 1/F= 1/5 x 106 Hz= 0.2 x 10-6 sec.= 200
n secThe 8086 operates in time periods called bus cycles. Each bus cycle requires 4
clock cycles to complete. Therefore, the bus cycle is completed very 800 ns. A
typical bus cycle is shown in fig 9.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###One cycle of this is
referred to as a state. A state is measured from the 50 percent point on the
falling edge of one clock pulse to 50 percent point on the falling edge of the next

clock pulse- T1 in the figure is a state. Each basic bus operation such as reading
a byte from memory or writing a word to a port requires some number of states. The
group of states required for a basic bus operation is called a machine cycle. The
total time it takes the 8086 to fetch and execute an instruction is called an
instruction cycle. An instruction cycle consists of one or more machine cycles. To
summarize, an instruction cycle is made up of machine cycles, and a machine cycle
is made up of states.Two major bus cycles are the read bus cycle and the write bus
cycle. The read bus cycle is activated when the microprocessor is reading
information from the memory or an I/O device. During the read bus cycle, there are
normally four clock cycles T1 ,T2, T3 and T4. However, if the device outputting
data to the MPU needs more time to send the data, a wait state (Tw) is initiated by
placing extra clock cycles (Tw's) between cycles T3 and T4.Fetch-Execute cycleThe
microprocessor has two primary functions. Fetch and execute. First it must fetch or
read the program instruction or data. This can take one or more bus cycles. Once it
has fetched the necessary program instructions and data through the BIU, the
microprocessor's next step is to execute the instructions. The EU receives the
instruction from the instruction queue and executes it. Some instructions may take
2 clock cycles to execute, where as others may take as many as 100 clock cycles to
execute. In older microprocessors this left the bus idle while the MPU was
executing a long instruction, as shown in the fig. 10. however, since the 8086 MPU
is broken up into two functional units, the BIU and EU, it avoids much of the idle
time required by older microprocessors. It does this by having the BIU pre fetch
instructions and place them into the instruction queue and data registers while the
EU is executing the program instructions. Therefore, while the bus is busy during a
read cycle, the EU can be executing the previous instructions. When the bus is busy
during a write cycle, the EU can be executing another instruction. This greatly
increases the effective speed of the entire system.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###*****

Chapter 4BUS CONCEPT, DATA BUS, ADDRESS BUS, CONTROL BUSA Bus is a group of common
wires in which signals travel. The three types of buses used are the Address Bus,
the Data Bus and the control Bus.Address BusAn address is a unique location in
memory. It is like a mailbox in the post office, where each mail box has its own
unique number to identify its location. An address bus consists of 16,20,24 or
more parallel signal lines. On these lines the CPU sends out the addresses of the
memory location that is to be written to or read from. The total number of memory
locations is determined by the number or address lines. In the 8086 the address is
determined by a 20-bit number. This gives us 220
possible address locations, or
1,048,57 6 bytes of memory.An address bus is made up of 20 wires, or conductors,
labeled A0 through A19 , with A0 as the LSB and A19 as the MSB. It is used to
locate or find information in memory. It is also used to define a location in
memory where information is to be stored. The address bus is some times used to
identify which I/O port is used for input/output operations.Data BusA data bus is
used to move information ( data and instruction ) from the MPU to memory and other
devices. This is referred to as a write operation. The data bus is also used to
receive information into the MPU. This is called as a read operation. Because the
data bus receives and transmits information, it is known as a bi-directional bus.
However, it cannot receive and transmit data at the same time.The Intel 8086 has
a 16-bit data bus labeled D0 to D15, where D0 is the LSB and D15 is the MSB. The
8086 microprocessor multiplex the address and data buses. Multiplexing is the
process of using the same wires or pins to do different things at different times.
When acting as a data bus, the signal lines carry read/write information for memory
or input/output information for I/O devices. When acting as an address bus, the
same signal lines are used to locate information.Control Bus The CPU sends out
signals on the control bus to enable the outputs of addressed memory devices or
port devices. The control line determines the sequence of operations to be
performed. The control bus consists of 4 to 10 parallel signal lines. Typical
control bus signals are memory read, memory write, I/O read, and I/O write. To read
a byte of data from a memory location, for example, the CPU sends out the address
of the desired byte on the address byte and then sends out a memory read signal on
the control bus. The memory read signal enables the addressed memory device to
output the byte of data on to the data bus where it is required by the CPU.*****

Chapter 5RAM & ROM, ADDRESSING MODES & CONTEXT SWITCHINGMemoryA memory stores large
number of binary words. Since the early 197 0s, ICs or semi conductor memory have
been the most widely used type of primary memory found in micro computers. The
simplest form of computer memory is the basic flip-flop and a flip-flop is called a
memory cell which can be used store a single bit ( 0 or 1). 8 or 16 cells are
connected together to form a memory byte or memory word. Each memory byte or word
has a unique location in the memory called an address. Therefore, memory is a place
where data bits ( 0 or 1) can be stored and then later retrieved when the computer
needs it. The process of storing data into the memory is called writing. The
process of retrieving data from the memory is called reading. Accordingly, we say
that a microprocessor is in a write cycle or performing a write operation when it
is storing data into memory. The process by which a microprocessor retrieves data
from memory is called a read cycle or read operation. Memory classificationMemory
can be classified into three general types, ROM and RAM. ROM stands for read- only
memory. ROM generally contains permanently stored data that cannot be changed. It
can be read but not written into. The main feature of ROMs is that they are nonvolatile, which means that the information stored in them is not lost when the
power is removed.RAM, on the other hand, is memory that can be read from or written
to. RAM stands for random-access memory, but since ROMs are also random access, the
major difference is that RAM is memory that can be read or written to. RAM is
actually read/write memory. RAM memory is volatile memory, that is, it is lost
whenever the power is switched off.ROMROMs can be classified into three general
types. A maskable ROM is a ROM that is programmed with information or data by the
manufacturer. Once programmed these data bits cannot be altered or changed. A
programmable ROM, or PROM, is a device that can be programmed by a user. Once
programmed, the data in a PROM, like a ROM, cannot be altered or changed . An
erasable PROM, or EPROM, is a type of ROM that can be programmed by an user but
whose data may be erased or changed with use of specialized equipment.A summary of
the different types of ROMs is given below:Mask-programmed ROM -Programmed during
manufacture; cannot be changed.PROM- user programs by blowing fuses; cannot be
erased except to blow additional fuses.EPROM- Electrically programmable by the
user; erased by passing ultra violet light through a quartz window in the package.
EEPROM-Electrically programmable by the user; erased with electrical signals
instead of ultra violet light.RAMRAM or read/write memory, is a type of volatile
memory from which data can be read and into which data can be written. RAM can be
classified as either Static or dynamic. A Static RAM is essentially a matrix of
flip-flops. Therefore, we can write a new data word in a RAM location at any time
by applying the word to the flip-flop data input and clocking the flip-flops. The
stored data word will remain on the flip-flop outputs as long as the power is left
on. This type of memory is volatile because data is lost when the power is turned
off. These types of storage device is called static RAM. In dynamic RAMs, binary
1's and 0's are stored as an electrical charge or no charge on a tiny capacitor.
The internal capacitance of a MOSFET is great enough to make it appear that a small
capacitor (a few pico-farads ) exists in the MOSFET. Each memory cell is
essentially a single MOSFET. A logic 1 or a charged capacitor must be refreshed, or
recharged, at least once every 2 ms, or the capacitor will lose its charge and the
data.Addressing ModesThe different ways that a processor can access data are
referred to as its addressing modes. It is the way by which the location of the
operand is determined. How an operand is addressed in a program depends on the
types and location of the data. There are three general types of addressing modes:
Immediate addressing modes.Register addressing modes.Memory addressing modes.
Immediate Addressing modeSuppose that in a program we need to put the number 526AH
in the CX register. The MOV CX, 526AH instruction can be used to do this. This
instruction will put the immediate hexadecimal number 526AH in the 16- bit CX
register. This is referred to as immediate addressing mode because the number to be
loaded into the CX register will be put in two memory locations immediately
following the code for the MOV instruction.A similar instruction, MOV CL, 48H could
be used to load the 8-bit immediate number 48H into the 8-bit CL register. It is
also possible to write instructions to load an 8-bit immediate number into an 8-bit

memory location or to load a 16-bit number into two consecutive memory locations.
Register Addressing modeRegister is the source of an operand for an instruction in
Register Addressing mode. For example, the instruction MOV CX, AX copies the
contents of the 16-bit AX register into the 16-bit CX register. Destination
register is specified in the instruction before the source. When it executes, the
contents of AX are just copied to CX, not actually moved. In other words, the
previous contents of CX are written over, but the contents of AX are not changed.
For example, if CX contains 2A84H and AX contains 497 1H before the execution, then
after the execution of the instruction CX will contain 497 1H and AX will still
contain 497 1H. The contents of any 16-bit register can be moved into any 16-bit
register, or the contents of any 8-bit register can be moved into any 8-bit
register. However, an instruction of the type MOV CX, AL cannot be used because
this is an attempt to copy a byte- type operand (AL) into a word type destination
(CX). A byte in AL would fit in CX, but the 8086 would not know which half of CX to
put it in. But if the byte from AL is to be copied into the high byte of CX, the
instruction MOV CH, AL could execute it. The instruction MOV CL, AL will copy the
byte from AL to CL, the low byte of CX.Memory Addressing ModesTo access data in
memory the 8086 must produce a 20-bit physical address. It is done by adding a 16bit value called the effective address to one of the four segment bases. This
effective address (EA) represents the displacement or offset of the desired operand
from the segment base. Any of the segment bases can be specified, but the data
segment is the one most often used. Fig 11(a) shows a graphic form how EA is added
to the data segment base to point an operand in the memory. The fig 11(b) shows how
the 20-bit physical address is generated by the BIU. The starting address for the
data segment in fig 10 (b) is 2000H so that the data segment register will contain
2000 H. The BIU shifts the 2000 H four bit positions left and adds the effective
address, 437 AH, to the result. The 20-bit physical address sent out to memory by
the BIU will then be 2437 AH. The physical address can be represented either as a
single number, 2437 AH, or in the segment base; offset form as 2000 : 437 AH # EMBED
Paint.Picture ###Direct Addressing ModeFor the simplest memory addressing mode the
effective address is just an 8-bit or 16-bit number written directly in the
instruction. The instruction MOV CL ,[437 AH] is an example. The brackets around the
437 AH are shorthand for "the contents of the memory location at a displacement from
the segment base of". When executed, this instruction will copy the contents of the
memory location, at a displacement of 437 AH from the data segment base into the CL
register. The actual 20-bit physical memory address will be produced by shifting
the data segment base in DS four bits left and adding the effective address 437 AH
to the result. Fig 10(b) shows how the operation is done. This addressing mode is
called direct because the displacement of the operand from the segment base is
specified directly in the instruction.Another example of this addressing mode is
the instruction MOV BX, [437 AH]. When executed, this instruction copies a word from
memory into BX register. Since each memory address of the 8086 represents a byte of
storage, the word must come from two memory locations. The byte at a displacement
of 437 AH from the data segment base will be copied into BL. The contents of the
next higher address, displacement 437 BH will be copied into BH register. The 8086
will automatically access the required number of bytes in memory for a given
instruction.The previous examples showed how the direct addressing mode can be
used to specify the source of an operand. It can also be used to specify the
destination of an operand. The instruction MOV[437 AH], BX for example will copy
the contents of the BX register to two memory locations in the data segment. The
contents of BL will be copied to the memory location as a displacement of 437 AH and
the contents of BH will be copied to the memory location at a displacement of
437 BH.Indirect Addressing modeIn the direct addressing mode, either the source or
the destination operand is a specific memory location defined by the address number
or a label. For example, in the instruction MOV AX, MEM 1 the contents of the
memory address labeled MEM 1 is copied or moved into AX register.In the indirect
addressing mode, the memory address is not directly given. A register is used to
indicate the address where the data can be found. Therefore , the register acts as
an indirect address to locate the data. For example, in the instruction MOV (BX),

CX the source of data is the CX register. The destination where the data are to be
placed or copied to, is the address pointed to by the BX register. The brackets ( )
around BX indicate that the BX register contains an address and not a numeric
value.SegmentationIntel has designed the 8086
family devices to use memory segmentation. By working with only 64 K bytes
segments of memory at a time, the 8086 only has to work with 16-bit effective
addresses to access any location in the segment. In other words, because of the
segmentation scheme the 8086 has to manipulate and store 16-bit address components.
Also, in a time-share microcomputer system several users share a CPU. The CPU works
on one user's program for perhaps 20 milliseconds. After working for 20 m sec on
one user's program, it then works on the next user's program for 20 milliseconds.
After working for 20 milliseconds for each of the other users, the CPU comes back
to working on the first user's program again. Each time the CPU switches from one
user's program to the next it must access a new section of code and sections of
data. Segmentation makes this switching quite easy. Each user's program can be
assigned a separate set of logical segments for its code and data. The user's
program will contain offsets or displacements from these segment bases to change
from one user's program to a second user's program all that has to be done is to
reload the four segment registers with the segment base address assigned to the
second user's program. In other words, segmentation makes it easy to keep user's
programs and data separate from each other, and segmentation makes it easy to
switch from one user's program to another user's program.*****

Chapter 6INTERRUPT (HW AND SW)What is an interrupt ?An interrupt is the method of
accessing the MPU by a peripheral device. An interrupt is used to cause a temporary
halt in the execution of a program. The MPU responds to the interrupt with an
interrupt service routine, which is a short program or subroutine that instructs
the MPU on how to handle the interrupt.When the 8086 is executing a program, it can
get interrupted because of one of the following.Due to an interrupt getting
activated. This is called as hardware interrupt.Due to an exceptional happening
during an instruction execution, such as division of a number by zero. This is
generally termed as exceptions or Traps.Due to the execution of an Interrupt
instruction like "INT 21H". This is called a Software interrupt. The action taken
by the 8086 is similar for all the three cases, except for minor differences.There
are two basic types of interrupts, maskable and non-maskable. A nonmaskable
interrupt requires an immediate response by the MPU. It is usually used for serious
circumstances like power failure. A maskable interrupt is an interrupt that the MPU
can ignore depending upon some predetermined condition defined by the status
register. Interrupts are also prioritized to allow for the case when more than one
interrupt needs to be serviced at the same time.Hardware interrupts of 8086In a
microcomputer system whenever an I/O port wants to communicate with the
microprocessor urgently, it interrupts the microprocessor. In such a case, the
microprocessor completes the instruction it is presently executing. Then, it saves
the address of the next instruction on the stack top. Then it branches to an
Interrupt Service Subroutine (ISS), to service the interrupting I/O port. An ISS is
also commonly called as an Interrupt Handler. After completing the ISS, the
processor returns to the original program, making use of the return address that
was saved on the stack top.In 8086 there are two interrupt pins. They are NMI and
INTR. NMI stands for non maskable interrupt. Whenever an external device activates
this pin, the microprocessor will be interrupted. This signal cannot be masked. NMI
is a vectored interrupt. This means, the 8086 knows where to branch to service the
NMI request. If both NMI and INTR are activated at the same time, NMI will be
serviced first.In an 8086 system the first 1 K bytes memory from 00000H to 003FFH
is set aside as a table for storing the starting addresses of interrupt service
procedures. Since 4 bytes are required to store the CS and IP values for each
interrupt service procedure, the table can store starting addresses for upto 256
interrupt procedures. The starting address of an Interrupt Service procedure stored
in this table is often called as Interrupt Vector Table or the Interrupt Pointer
Table.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###Fig. 12 shows how the 256 interrupt pointers are
arranged in the memory table. The lowest five types are dedicated to specific
interrupts such as the divide by zero interrupt and the non maskable interrupt. The
next 27 interrupt types, from 5 to 31 are reserved by Intel for use in future
microprocessors. The upper 224 interrupt types, from 32 to 255, are available to
use for hardware and software interrupts.Action taken by 8086 when NMI is activated
When NMI pin interrupts the 8086, a branch takes place to the ISS, whose interrupt
type number is 2. The action taken is as follows:Completes the current instruction
that is in progress.Push the Flag register values on to the stack.Push the CS value
and IP value of the return address on to the stack.IP is loaded from contents of
the word location 00008H.CS is loaded from contents of next word location 0000AH.
Interrupt flag and trap Flag are reset to O.Return from Interrupt Handler (IRET)The
execution of the IRET instruction results in POP from the stack top, the IP, CS and
Flag registers. Thus return back to the interrupted program takes place. When the
control is transferred back to the interrupted program, the register values are not
the same it was before the occurrence of interrupt. To solve this problem, an ISS
starts with saving register values on the stack. Finally, the register values are
restored from the stack and a return to the interrupted program takes place using
the IRET instruction.Action taken by 8086 when INTR line is activatedWhenever an
external signal activates the INTR pin, the microprocessor will be interrupted only
if interrupts are enabled using set interrupt Flag instruction. If the interrupts
are disabled using clear interrupt Flag instruction, the microprocessor will not
get interrupted even if INTR is activated. That is, INTR can be masked.INTR is a
non vectored interrupt, which means, the 8086 does not know where to branch to

service the interrupt. The 8086 has to be told by an external device like a
Programmable Interrupt controller regarding the branch.Whenever the INTR pin is
activated by an I/O port, if Interrupts are enabled and NMI is not active at that
time, the microprocessor finishes the current instruction that is being executed
and gives out a 0 on INTA pin twice. When INTA pin goes low for the first time,
it asks the external device to get ready. In response to the second INTA the
microprocessor receives the 8 bit, say N, from a programmable Interrupt controller.
The action taken is as follows.Complete the current instruction.Activates INTA
output, and receives type Number, say N.Flag register value, CS value of the return
address & IP value of the return address are pushed on to the stack.IP value is
loaded from contents of word location N x 4.CS is loaded from contents of the next
word location.Interrupt Flag and trap Flag are reset to 0.At the end of the ISS,
there will be an IRET instruction. This performs popping off from the stack top to
IP, CS and Flag registers. Finally, the register values which are also saved on the
stack at the start of ISS, are restored from the stack and a return to the
interrupted program takes place using the IRET instruction.Divide-by-zero interrupt
- Type 0 The 8086 will automatically do a Type 0 interrupt if the result of a
division operation is too large to fit in the destination register. For example, if
we execute DIV BL, then AX will be divided by BL. The quotient will be stored in AL
and the remainder in AH. If AX content is 4060H and BL is 02H, then the quotient is
2030H. But the 8-bit AL register cannot hold this data. This results in automatic
branching to an ISS. It is an internal interrupt, and the 8086 branches to an ISS
whose interrupt Type number is 0.Action taken by the 8086 when divide by zero error
occurs is as follows.Flag register value is pushed on to the stack.CS value of the
Return address and IP value of the Return address are pushed on to the stack.IP is
loaded from contents of word location 0x4 = 00000H.CS loaded from contents of
next word location, 00002H.Interrupt Flag and trap Flag are reset to 0.The action
taken by the ISS could be to display a suitable error message on the CRT and then
halt the proceedings. Or, it could be to set a bit in a memory location to indicate
an error, and then return to the interrupted program using the IRET instruction.
Single-Step Interrupt - Type 1When we tell a System to single- Step , it will
execute one instruction and stop. We can then examine the contents of the registers
and memory locations. If they are correct, we can tell the system to go on and
execute the next instruction. In other words, when in single-Step mode, a system
will stop after it executes each instruction and wait for further directions from
the user. The 8086 trap flag and type 1 interrupt make it quite easy to implement a
single-Step feature.If the 8086 trap flag is set, the 8086 will automatically do a
type 1 interrupt after executing each instruction. It is an internal interrupt
caused by the completion of an instruction execution. It is useful for debugging a
program.The action taken by the 8086 when T flag is set to 1, and an instruction
execution is completed is as follows.Flag register values is pushed on to the
stack.CS value of the return address and IP value of the return address are pushed
on to the stack.IP is loaded from the contents of the word location, 1x4 = 00004H.
CS is loaded from contents of the next word location, 00006H.Interrupt Flag and
trap Flag are reset to 0.The action taken by the ISS could be to display the
contents of the various registers on the CRT and then return to the interrupted
program using the IRET program.Software interrupt InstructionsThere are
instructions in 8086 which cause an interrupt. They areINT instructions with type
number specified.INT 3, Break Point Interrupt instruction.INTO, Interrupt on
overflow instruction.These are instructions at the desired places in a program.
When one of these instructions is executed a branch to an ISS takes place. Because
their execution results in a branch to an ISS, they are called interrupts.Software
Interrupt instructions can be used to test the working of the various Interrupt
handlers- For example, we can execute INTO instruction to execute type 0 ISS, with
out really having to divide a number by 0. Similarly, we can execute INT 2
instruction to test NMI ISS.INT-Interrupt Instruction with Type number Specified
The mnemonic for this is INT. It is a 2 byte instruction. The first byte provides
the op-code and the second byte the Interrupt type number. Op-code for this
instruction is CDH.The execution of an INT instruction, say INTN, when N is the

value in the range 00H to FFH, results in the following:Flag register value is
pushed on to the stack.CS value of the Return address and IP value of the Return
address are pushed on to the stack.IP is loaded from the contents of the word
location N x 4.CS is loaded
from the contents of the next word location.Interrupt Flag and Trap Flag are reset
to 0.Thus a branch to the ISS take place. During the ISS, interrupts are disabled
because the Interrupt flag is reset to 0.At the end of the ISS, there will be an
IRET instruction. Thus a return back to the interrupted program takes place with
Flag registers unchanged.INT 3-Break Point Interrupt InstructionWhen a break point
is inserted, the system executes the instructions upto the breakpoint, and then
goes to the break point procedure. Unlike the single-Step feature which stops
execution after each instruction, the breakpoint feature executes all the
instructions upto the inserted breakpoint and then stops execution.The mnemonic for
the instruction is INT3. It is a 1 byte instruction Op-code for this is CCH.The
execution of INT3 instruction results in the following.Flag register value is
pushed on to the Stack.CS value of the return address and IP value of the return
address are pushed on to the Stack.IP is loaded from the contents of the word
location 3x4 = 0000CH.CS is loaded from the contents of the next word location.
Interrupt Flag and Trap Flag are reset to 0.Thus a branch to the ISS takes place.
During the ISS, interrupts are disabled because Interrupt flag is reset to 0. At
the end of the ISS, there will be an IRET instruction to return back to the
interrupted program.A break point interrupt service procedure usually saves all the
register contents on the Stack. Depending upon the system, it may then send the
register contents to the CRT display and wait for the next command from the user.
INTO - Interrupt on overflow instructionThe 8086 overflow flag, OF, will be set if
the signed result of an arithmetic operation on two signed numbers is too large to
be represented in the destination register or memory location. For example, if we
add the 8-bit signed number 01101100 and the 8-bit signed number 01010001, the
signed result will be 10111101. This is correct if we add unsigned binary numbers,
but it is not the correct signed result.There are two ways to detect and respond to
an overflow error in a program. One way is to put the jump if overflow instruction,
JO, immediately after the arithmetic instruction. If the overflow flag is Set,
execution will jump to the address specified in the JO instruction. At this address
an error routine may be put which respond to the overflow.The second way is to put
the INTO instruction immediately after the arithmetic instruction in the program.
The mnemonic for the instruction is INTO. It is a 1 byte instruction. The op-code
for this is CEH.It is a conditional interrupt instruction. Only if the overflow
flag is Set, a branch takes place to an interrupt handler whose interrupt type
number is 4. If the overflow flag is reset, the execution continues with the next
instruction.The execution of INTO results in the following.Flag register values are
pushed on to the Stack.CS value of the return address and IP value of the return
address and IP value of the return address are pushed on to the stack.IP is loaded
from the contents of word location 4x4 = 00010H.CS is loaded from the contents of
next word location.Interrupt flag and Trap flag are reset to 0.Thus a branch to ISS
takes place. During the ISS, interrupts are disabled. At the end of ISS, there will
be an IRET instruction, returning back to the interrupted program. Instructions in
the ISS procedure perform the desired response to the error condition.Priority of
InterruptsThe internal interrupts which result is an error, like Divide by Zero
error, as well as software interrupt instructions have the highest priority. Next
priority is NMI. The next lower priority is assigned to INTR. The lowest priority
is assigned to single Step interrupt. In reality, NMI is always serviced on top
most priority.*****

Chapter 7 I/O CONCEPT ( I/O MAPPED AND MEMORY MAPPED)The I/O Sub SystemThe I/O Sub
System is responsible for the movement of data between the basic microcomputer
system and the peripheral or external devices connected to it. It performs the same
functions as a seaport or airport for a city. Data bits are moved in and out of the
I/O Sub System in the same way as people and goods are moved in and out of the
seaport or airport. The I/O sub system exchanges data with peripheral devices
through interface circuitry known as ports. The peripheral device is physically
connected to the port. The port is physically connected to the control circuitry as
shown in fig 13.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###The port will then became a path way for
data as it is transferred between the microprocessor and its peripherals.There are
two types of I/O ports; parallel and serial. Parallel port is the easiest to
implement as the microprocessor works with data in 8- or 16- bit groups. All bits
comprising the data word are input and output together in parallel.A serial I/O
port is quite different. The data bits are lined up and transmitted in single file
fashion one bit at a time. This technique will be slower than parallel port design.
Regardless of the I/O port design- parallel or serial- the microprocessor must be
synchronized to the speed of the peripheral. Some peripherals like printers and
plotters, cannot accept data as the microprocessor would like to output it. On the
other hand floppy- disk drives and Winchester disks may require data faster than
the processor can supply it.The major types of I/O operations are;Parallel I/O.
Serial I/O.Programmed I/O.Interrupt-Driven I/O.Direct Memory Access.Parallel I/OThe
hardware requirements for a Parallel I/O port are similar to those of a RAM or ROM
interface. When the CPU performs an output instruction (I/O write cycle) the data
on the bus must be stored by the port. When an input instruction ( I/O read cycle)
is executed, the I/O port must gate its data on to the data bus lines. Just as each
memory location has its own (memory) address, each I/O port has its own ( port)
address.The 8086 has two I/O instructions IN AL ( or AX),port and OUT port, AL (or
AX). There are two forms each of the instruction. In the direct form, IN AL (or AX)
port or OUT port, AL ( or AX), the I/O port address is supplied within the
instruction and restricts the access to ports with adds between 0 and 255. The
indirect Form, IN AL ( or AX), DX and OUT DX, AL ( or AX) uses register DX to hold
the port address. This allows access to the full range of I/O ports from 0 to
65,535.The advantage of the indirect form is that an I/O procedure can be setup and
shared between several peripherals by passing the port address ( in register DX) to
the procedure.#The address bus carries the port address on A0-A7 for direct I/O
cycles, and A0 - A15 for indirect I/O cycles. The D0-D7 data bus lines are used to
transfer data form even- addressed ports, and D8-D15 are used for odd-addressed
ports. The BHE and A0 are used to identify the type of transfer.###In the minimum
mode, the condition M/I/O =0 is used to identify the current bus cycle as an I/O
operation. RD and WR then indicate the direction of data flow.In the maximum mode
the 8288 bus controller provides separate I/O read and write commands.Table 2
indicates the two forms of each instruction.Table 2
8086 I/O
INSTRUCTIONS######Control busa##Type#Instruction#Address bus#Data
bus#Min.mode#Max.mode###Direct#IN AL (or AX),port#A0-A7 =port addressb#D0-D7 =even
byte#M / IO =0#IORC=0####A8-A19=0#D8-D15=odd byte#######D0-D15=even
word#RD=0###########OUT port,AL(or AX)#A0-A7 =port addressb#D0-D7 =even
byte#M/IO=0#IOWC=0##########A8-A19=0#D8-D15=odd byte##AIOWC=0#####D0-D15=even
word#WR=0###Indirect#IN AL (or AX),DX#A0-A15=port addressc#as above#as above#as
above####A16-A19=0######OUT DX,AL(or AX)#A0-A15=port addressc#as above#as above#as
above####A16-A19=0############a BHE and A0 are encoded as
follows:######BHE#A0#######0#0#Word access######0#1#Even byte access######1#0#Odd
byte access######1#1#No action#####b The port address is supplied within the
instruction.c The port address is supplied in register DX.##Memory- Mapped I/O##The
address space of the 8086 is divided into 1,048,57 6 bytes of memory space and
65,536 bytes of I/O space. These two registers do not overlap because memory
addresses are selected with the memory commands (MEMR, MRDC, MEMW, MWTC), while the
I/O addresses are selected with the I/O commands (IOR, IORC, IOW, IOWC).But
consider designing a one byte read/write memory. we would use latches to store the
data during a memory write cycle, and tri-state gates to drive the bus during a

memory read cycle- exactly the same hardware that we would use for an output or
input port.This is the essence of memory-mapped I/O. In hardware it appears to be a
conventional I/O port. But because it is mapped to a memory address, it is
accessible in software using any of the memory read or write instructions. For
example, the instruction MOV BH, MEMBDS becomes an input instruction ( input the
data at "port" MEMBDS to register BH). Indirect I/O is also possible. The
instruction sequence.LEA SI, MEMWDS
: Point SI at the portMOV (S.I), CX
: output CX to portallows CX to be output to the 16-bit port at address
DS:MEMWDS.The advantage of memory- mapped I/O is the large number of instructions
and addressing modes available for refreshing memory. This is compared to the
single input and output commands available with an I/O mapped port.Serial I/OThe
two basic methods used for serial data transmission and reception are Asynchronous
and Synchronous serial communication.Asynchronous serial communicationOne of the
most common applications for a serial I/O port is to interface the keyboard on a
Video display terminal(VDT). In this circuit each key stroke generates a 7 -bit
ASCII code which is converted to a bit-by-bit serial and then transmitted to a
computer over a two-or three- conductor cable. Because, even the fastest typist
cannot exceed data rates of 60 to 100 words per minute, it is a good match for the
slow transmission rate of the serial port. At some times the serial port will be
required to transfer data at 10 to 20 characters/S, but at other times the data
rate may be only 1 to 2 characters/S. Most of the time the key board is not in use
and the data rate is zero. Because of this erratic data rate, an asynchronous
communications protocol must be established.The accepted technique for asynchronous
serial communication is to hold the serial output line to a logic 1 level until
data is to be transmitted. Each character is required to begin with a logic 0 for
one bit time. The first bit is called the start bit and is used to synchronize the
transmitter and receiver. The data is sent least significant bit first and framed
between a start bit (always a 0) and one or two stop bits ( always a 1). The start
and stop bits carry no information but are required because of the asynchronous
nature of the data. Fig. 14 illustrates how the data byte 7 BH would look when
transmitted in the asynchronous serial format.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###Writing a
program compatible with all the different asynchronous communication protocols can
be a difficult task. It is also an inefficient use of the microprocessor, as much
of its time will be spent in timing loops waiting to transmit or receive another
character. Because of this, the semiconductor companies have developed the
universal, Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART)It is interesting to note that
to the microprocessor a serial port (the UART) appears as a conventional parallel
port. When the transmitter buffer is empty, all the bits in the word to be
transmitted are output to the port at once ( in parallel) similarly, all bits of
the received word are input at once when the received data is ready.The job of
converting the data from serial to parallel, or parallel to serial, has been
transferred to the UART.Synchronous Serial communicationThe start and stop bits of
asynchronous serial data represent wasted overhead bytes that reduce the overall
character rate. Even adding a parity bit can reduce the transfer rate by 10%. But
giving up the start and stop bits will require some means of synchronizing the
data. The two common synchronous
serial protocols that are used for Synchronizing
the data are the Bisync Protocol and Serial Data Link Control (SDLC).Bisync
ProtocolBecause there is no start bit, a special Sync, character is required to all
synchronous serial formats. This character tells the receives that data is about to
follow. The USART ( Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter),
accordingly, must have a special " hunt" or "search" mode so that the Sync.
Character can be found.In Bisync protocol several special characters are used to
control the data transfer.Fig 15 illustrates one frame of a Synchronous message.In
fig. 15 two sync. Characters are output followed by STX- start of text, ETX
signifies end of text BCC is a block check character used for error detector. Pad
is the character output when no data is being transmitted and corresponds to the
"mark" output in asynchronous serial.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###Serial Data Link
Control (SDLC)This format was developed by IBM for use with their Systems Network
Architecture (SNA) communications package. Fig. 16 illustrates one frame of data

using this protocol. It is similar to bisync but it is not byte oriented.# EMBED
Paint.Picture ###The SDLC receiver searches for the beginning flag (01111110) as
its sync character. An 8-bit address field follows, allowing each frame to be
addressed to a particular station among a network of stations. Control characters
are identified by a sequence of six or more logic 1's. The information
field may be of any format. The transmitter will automatically insert 0's in this
field if five or more log 1's should appear in sequence. This will avoid
inadvertent control characters appearing in the information field. The receiver
automatically deletes these 0's. The 16-bit frame check is used for error
detection. The frame ends with the ending flag.Programmed I/OProgram instructions
are controlling the transfer of data during the IN and OUT operations. The software
therefore initiates, as well as, controls the process of data transfer. The
hardwares responsibilities are confined to merely performing the necessary
operations. The appropriate device is first checked in the device interface to
determine whether it is ready. Device readiness must be tested because the CPU is
much faster than peripheral devices. The test is followed by a conditional skip
instruction. If the ready flag is '1' (device ready), the program proceeds to the
next step. If the Ready Flag is '0', the program loops back to the test
instruction. The CPU, therefore, waits for a slow device by continually testing the
readiness of the device, until it reports ready. When the I/O device is ready, the
data transfer operation takes place. Immediately after the transfer of one
character, the CPU reset the ready Flag to 0. The device then sets the Flag back to
1, when it is again ready to receive the data.Programmed data transfer has the
advantage that it allows simple hardware interfaces, because most of the management
of the I/O operations is performed by software. The disadvantage of this technique
is that valuable CPU time is wasted while the CPU waits for the peripheral device
to get ready.Interrupt Driven I/OWhen interfacing a peripheral to a microprocessor,
the microprocessor is not knowing when the peripheral is ready. That is, the
peripheral operates asynchronously with respect to the microprocessor. One solution
is to programme the CPU to repeatedly check the peripheral's READY flag. However,
this has a built-in disadvantage in that all the resources of the processor are
devoted to waiting for this flag. No other task can be performed. If the peripheral
is READY once in every 10,000 (sec, the CPU will spend most of its time idling. A
more logical approach would be to have the peripheral "tell the CPU" when it is
ready. This is the purpose of the microprocessor's interrupt input. An interrupt is
used to cause a temporary halt in the execution of a program. The microprocessor
responds to the interrupt with an Interrupt Service Sub-routine (ISS) which is a
short programme or a subroutine that instructs the microprocessor on how to handle
the interrupt.Fig. 17 diagrams the CPU's response to an interrupt. During time 1
the processor is assumed to be executing its main task. At time 2 the peripheral's
READY flag causes an interrupt to occur. After finishing the current instruction at
time 3, the CS, IP and flag registers are pushed on to the stack at time 4. Control
then transfers to the ISS at time 5. During time 6, the ISS is executed,
terminating with the instruction IRET (interrupt return). The CS, IP and flag
registers are recovered from the stack during time 7 and the original task is
resumed at time 8.# EMBED Paint.Picture ###If we assume that 100(s is required to
respond to the interrupt and supply the peripheral with data, then in the case of a
10,000 (s per character printer, 9900 (s will be available to the processor for its
main task.The 8086 has two interrupt pins labeled INTER and NM1. NM1 is a
nonmaskable interrupt, which means that it requires an immediate response from the
processor and it cannot be blocked. INTR is maskable via the IF flag. Only when
this flag is set will interrupts on this input be accepted. Interrupts can be
generated by both hardware and software. Interrupts are also prioritized to allow
for the case when more than one interfereBecause the NMI input is nonmaskable, care
must be taken when using this interrupt. This is because there may be some programs
which we do not want to interrupt- reading or writing data to a disk drive, for
example. For this reason, NMI input is normally reserved for catastrophic events
like memory error or impending power failure.Direct Memory AccessDMA is a type of
I/O technique in which data can be transferred between the micro computer memory

and an external device without utilising the microprocessor. The DMA is typically
used to transfer blocks of data between the memory Subsystem and an external device
. A DMA write operation transfers data from an external device to memory.Since the
main purpose of DMA operation is to transfer data between external devices and
memory without involving the MPU, another device is required. This device is called
a DMA controller. The DMA controller must be capable of performing read and write
operations in the same manner as the MPU. Therefore, the DMA controller is actually
a special- purpose microprocessor whose only task is to perform high-speed data
transfer between memory and an external device. The major difference between an I/O
program controlled transfer and DMA is that data transfer does not employ the
registers of the CPU.The primary advantage of the DMA data transfer technique is
that it provides an efficient transfer of large amount of data between storage
devices and the main memory without involving the CPU.Several DMA transfer
combinations are possible.Memory to peripheral.Peripheral to memory.Memory to
memory.Peripheral to peripheralDMA request takes precedence over all other bus
activities, including interrupts. In fact, no interrupt- maskable or non-maskablewill be recognised during a DMA operation.
***********

#PAGE ##PAGE #47 #Input deviceData BusOutput deviceMemory(RAM & ROM)Central


Processing UnitAddress BusControl BusControl BusI / O PortsFig. 1 Block Diagram
of a simple Computer or a Microcomputer.MotorolaZilogIntelMOS technology, Western
Design Centre, Rockwell32-bitMPUs16-bitMPUsAbout 1980About 197 48-bitMPUs65802/65816
8086/80886802068000/6801080816/801886803068096538265C0265028028680386Z80000Z-8000Z808085808068008 s6 sFig.2 Genealogy for 6s group and 8s group of microprocessors
MEMORYINTERFACE
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
######&###)###I###L###b###e###########################################
############p ##z
##
##
##
##
###
###
##!
##;
##k
##p
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
######

##

##.###5###7 ###O###A###Z###############*###+###u###w#########################
##CJ
##H*#

#jO#j9
##U#####jO#j9
##U##V##
#j####U###j####U##mH###6#CJ###5#CJ###CJ####5#CJ###CJ####5#CJ
##P####################################################&###(###)###I###K###L###b###
d###e######################################################################
######################################

###################################8#########################################
#############################d##############################################
########################@############################$##x####$#####x####$##
###$##$##T###l#####0########$##$###########!
#######################################################&###(###)###I###K###L###b###
d###e###########################################################
####################
#######=###{##########I###q################T###]############<
##o
##p
##z
##
##
##
##
##
##
##
########### ############################
#
###
#
####
###
#
#####
###
#
#####
###
#
#####
###
#
#####
###
#
#####
###
#
#####
###
#
#####
###
#
#########
#########
######K##########################################################
#######################################################################<#
##################################L###################################

#############################################################################
##########################################################################$##dh
########dh#######$####dh#######$##dh#######$#####$##$##T###l#####0########$##
x####$#####x####$######
#######=###{##########I###q################T###]############<
##o
##p
##z
##
##
##
############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
##############################################################################
$####dh#######$##dh##########dh########dh#######$##dh####
###$#
&##F###dh#####
##
##
##
##
######

##

##5###6###7 ###O#######################R###s#############################
#############################################################################
############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############$####dh########dh#######$####dh##########dh#########

##

##5###6###7 ###O#######################R###s############################
############%###&###(###)######
### ##<!##K$##L$##M$##N$##O$##P$##V$##a$##w$##"&##$&##?
&##d&##e&###'##"'##W)##r)##)##-,##;,##`-##d##.##.##<0##W0##.1##61##C1##P1##\1##]1##q1##1##1##1##1##1###2##_2##`2#######
######################################################################

###
#$ ###
#7 ####8
###
#u ###
#####
###
# ###
##### ###
# ###
########L###########################################R###s############
#####Q###Y##############################
#######!###"#######$###&###'###V###a#############
##"##"##W$##a$##v$##w$##"&###&##$&##
%&##;&##<&##=&##>&##&##&##&##&##&###'###'##
'###'##"'##'##'##W)##X)##n)## ##
##################

#jsWl9
##U#####jsWl9
##U##V###CJ####5#CJ###CJ##H*#

#j#j9
##U#####j#j9
##U##V##mH##
#j####U##
#j####U##mH###5#CJ###6#CJ###CJ##H###################%###&###(###)######
### ##<!
##K$##L$##M$##N$##O$##P$##V$##a$##w$##"&##$&####################################
############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
##############################################$##dh########dh#######$##dh#######$
####dh##########dh#######$####dh#####$&##?
&##d&##e&###'##"'##W)##r)##)##-,##;,##`-##d##.##.##<0##W0##.1##61##C1##P1##\1###########################################
#############################################################################
############################################################################
###############################################################################
###########################################################$##<##<##$#########$##
##dh#######$##dh#######$##dh#######$##dh#####n)##o)##p)##q)##r)##)##)##)##)##
)##)##)###*##-,##;,##t,##,##`-##d##.##.##.##.##/##/##<0##=0##S0##T0##U0##V0##.1##51##61##C1##]1##<4##P4##4##
4##5##5##`6##o6###7 ##'7 ##7 ##7 ##7 ###8###9##9##9###:##:###;##=###>###>##,>##7 >##>###?##"@##/@##
A###A##1A##2A##HA##IA##JA##KA##C##C##(D##,D####
#

#j+l9
##U#####j+l9
##U##V##

#jyxl9
##U#####jyxl9
##U##V##mH###6#CJ###5#CJ###CJ### #j####U##

#j[bl9
##U#####j[bl9
##U##V###L\1##]1##q1##1##1##1##1##1###2##_2##`2##o2##2##2##2###3##
3###3##N3##O3##b3##3##3##P###################################8##############
########################################################(####################
###############|
#######################################################################P#####
######################################################

###$##$##l###### #####$##<##<##$#####<##<##$# ###$##$##l##0###


##########################################`2##o2##2##2##2###3##
3###3##N3##O3##b3##3##3##3##3##3##3##:4##;4##<4##4##5##`6###7 ##7 ##7 ###9##
9##:###;##<##=##9>##xph`]ZWT######e####'##A##>
### #
######$###
#
######H###
#
#########
#
##########
#
#########
#
######## #

#####P### #
#########

#########
###
#= ###
#M####N ###
#x ###
##### ###
# ###
##### ###
## ###
#-####.
###
#{ ###
#####
###
# ###
##
3##3##3##3##3##:4##;4##<4##4##5##`6###7 ##7 ##7 ###9##9##:###;##<########
##################H##########################################################
############################################################################
#####################################################################$####dh#
######$##dh########$#
&##F###h##dh###
###$##dh####<##<# ###$##$##l##0### ########################################

###$##$##l###### #####$##<##<##$#####<##<##$###<##=##9>##>###?
##0A##1A##LA##MA##C##C##F##G##@H##LH##H##I##!
L##1L##;M##VM##WM##kM##N##N##O##R##R######################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
############################################################################
#####################################################################$##dh#####
##$####dh#######$##dh#####9>##>###?##0A##1A##LA##MA##C##C##F##G##@H##LH##H##
I##!
L##1L##;M##VM##WM##kM##N##N##O##R##R##T##T##T##T##T##T##rV##sV##V##V##
#Y##Z###_##La##;c##d##e##e##e##e##e##=
~{xu##J##\##l##}##x#########:##0##########;
##e##u##v##w##x##m####@##F##Y################)
##;######)##@##W##y############&##>###.,D##D##4D##^D##dD##eD##jD##D##D##D##D##F##G##

H###H###H##$H##%H##*H##/H##6H##7 H##>H##@H##LH##PH##`H##H##
I###I###I###I##"I##lK##qK##rK##tK##vK##{K##|K##K##!L##1L##L##L##L##
M###M##'M##;M##<M##RM##SM##TM##UM##WM##kM##oM##M##N##N##R##R##T##T##T##sV##
tV##V##V##V##V##V##UW##VW##YW##ZW##]W##`W##fW##
#####CJ##H*#

#jnl9
##U#####jnl9
##U##V##
5#>*#CJ###

#jl9
##U#####jl9
##U##V##
#j####U###5#CJ###6#CJ###CJ##OR##T##T##T##T##T##T##rV##sV##V##V###Y##Z##
#_##La##;c##d##e##e##e##e##e##f##f##i##################################
############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
##############################################$####dh###########dh########@##
dh########dh#######$##dh#######$####dh#####fW##gW##BX##CX##WX###Y##

Y##Z###[##[##[##G\##S\##ka##a##a##a##b##b##b##;c##=c##ee##je##ke##te##e##
e##e##e##!
f##+f##f##f##f##f##f##f##g##g##qh##~h##h##h##h##j##j##j##j##j##j##
j##j##Bk##Ck##Ik##Lk##`k##ho##io###p###p##'p##(p##)p##*p##+p##6p##qp##sp##vp###q#
#

q## # ####

#jH9
##U#####jH9
##U##V###CJ###

#jUt9
##U#####jUt9
##U##V##mH##
#j####U###CJ##H*##5#CJ###j####U##mH###6#CJ##
5#>*#CJ####CJ####CJ##H*##He##f##f##i##Lk##`k###p##+p##,p##p##.p##/p##0p##@p##pp##qp###q##

q##7 s##t##t##5v###x###x##z##z##z##z##z##z##z##z##z##~##~##<######
#
##
####
##q####=zr###################
#
##########
#
######d###
#
##############X##n##;##B##r##########
#######$###########*##6#############
####
##
#####&########`##{##>#*i##Lk##`k###p##+p##,p##p##.p##/p##0p##@p##pp##qp###q##

q##7 s##t##t##5v###x###x##z##z##z##z##z###################################
############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
############################################
###$#####dh#######$##dh#######$####dh########dh#######$####dh#####

q##r##r##:s##Es##ws##xs##s##s##t##t##t##t##u##u###x###x##z##z##z##{##
{##{##{###|###|##|##|
##}##}##}##}##}###~###~##'~##6~##~##~##~##~##~##~##~################?##########M##\#########
# ##
##e
# ##u##z##~####################
###
########q##v##Y##]#
##########
###########G##e##u##
##
###
5#>*#CJ####5#CJ###CJ##H*##6#CJ###CJ##H*##CJ##[z##z##z##z##z##~##~##<##
#
######
####
##q####Y##]##e##v######
#######################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
##
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh##########dh#######$####dh#######$##dh###
###$#####dh#######Y##]##e##v######
#########################

##-##
##"##<##@##M###############%##<##u####
#######~##I##~|tlif#######~###
#
##########
#
####
#c###
####H#######'##7 ##8##9##:##;#############
##*##\##s##t####o####N##g####+##E##^#
##
#
######y###
#
#########
#
######'########I### #
#####(
##I######
################<##Q#####################V#### ###
### ##"##@##M################<##?##H##########
###########

#########################*##I##e#################!
####################

##
##################
###
5#>*#CJ###

#jim9
##U#####jim9
##U##V##mH##

#j####U###CJ####6#CJ###5#CJ###U##################

##-##
##"##<##@##M###############
%##<##u##################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
############################################################################
########################dh#######$##dh#######$###dh#######$###dh#######$###
#dh#######
#######~##I##e####=#####7 ############/##g################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
##################################################### ###$#
&##F
##dh####
###$#
&##F ##dh####
###$#
&##F###dh####
###$#
&##F###dh####
###$#
&##F###dh#######$##dh########dh#######$####dh#######$##dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh#####I##e####=#####7 ############/##g##########/##|
##Y##)##K######-##c####
#######K##z#######yyvspmg_W#######^o###
#
######o###
#
####
#o###
####5p##>r##`r##s##s### #
######
t###
#
######Bt###
#
######t###
#
######t##
#
####
#u#

#
####v##w###y##8y##D{##i{##{### #
######{#
#
#
#######|# #
#
######M|###
#
######||###
#
####
#|###
####8}##c}##~############!
###3##4##5##6############/## ####|###############D##
##6##t########'########}##~####################
##|
############.##M##N##^##_##a#####################
"##Q##R##c##q##r##x### ###
##########CJ####H*##CJ####CJ##H*##5##j####U##mH##

#j#It9
##U#####j#It9
##U##V##mH###6#CJ##
5#>*#CJ####5#CJ###CJ###

#j####U##

#jm9
##U#####jm9
##U##V##mH###F########/##|##Y##)##K######-##c####
#######K##z##############################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
#################################
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F##dh######
&##F

##dh##########dh#######$####dh########dh####
###$#
&##F###dh#####z#######K##x##|
####z##d#######b################C###########################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
########################################
&##F###dh##########dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh########dh#######$####dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh########K##x##|
####z##d#######b################C##n####p######m####
###p##############D######~vnfc`]ZW#######`
##a###b##b##$c##Qc### #
######c#"#
#
######c#!#
#
######$d# #
#
####
#Sd###
####d##|e##e##f##g##g### #
######g###
#
####
# h###
####bh##h##&i##Si### #
######i###
#
######i###
#
######2j###
#
####
#bj###
####j##k##m##m##n##n### #
######$o###
#
#####!
C##n####p######m#######p##############D#########L####
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
###########################
&##F$##dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F"##dh######
&##F!##dh######
&##F ##dh######
&##F###dh########dh#######$####dh######
&##F###dh######
&##F###dh##########L######&##S##+####6####/#########N####
##C##p#####t#####################(##}##############
~}zwtqnkheb#########O##>P##+Q##Q##Q###T##!
T##MT##]T##^T##_T##`T##aT##bT##U##U###V##V##V#-#
#
######)W#,#
#
######gW#+#
#
######W#*#
#
####
##X#)#
####IX##7 Y###Z##e[###]##)]###^##^###_#(# #
######J_#'#
#
######_#&#
#
######_#%#
#

####
##`#$#
####U`#%L######&##S##+####6####/#########N####
##C##p###################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
#######
&##F-##dh######
&##F,##dh######
&##F+##dh######
&##F*##dh######
&##F)##dh##########dh#######$##dh########dh#######$####dh######
&##F(##dh######
&##F'##dh######
&##F&##dh######
&##F
%##dh########t#####################(##}##############7
##E##Q##a##w######C##################################################
############################################################################
#############################################################################
############################################################################
###########################
&##F.#####$####dh#######$########dh#######$##dh########dh#######$##dh########7
##E##Q##a##w######C##%############.##N##O##P##Q##R##S##`##a##f##r##~##################
zuqlgb]############ ###
#mF ###
#F ###
#F ###
#F####F
###
#F ###
#F ###
#F ###
#F ###
#F ###
#F####F
###
#F ###
#F ###
#F ###
#F ###
#F####F
###
##G##
G##>G##G##;H##aI###J##K##M##M##M#.#
#
######M#.#
#
######M#.#
#
######M#.#
#
######M#.#
#
######'N#"C##%############.##N##O##P##Q##R##S##`##a##f######################################
############################################################H################
############################################################################
##############A###$##$##l##r##*#
v###5"#############################################################################
###########################$#####$##$##l#####5"#########################$##$###
#########dh#######$####dh#####f##r##~####################
###################################################################
#########D###################################################################
################x###########################################################
################$##$##l#####*#
v###F#5"####<##$#L###$##$##l####*#
v###F#5"###########################################################################

#################################################$##################
######## ##
#####

#####"#####$##%##&##'##(##)##*##+##,##?
##S##c##j##q##r##y##z####;zupkgb]X## ###
#E ###
#E ###
#E####E
###
#E ###
#E ###
#E ###
#E ###
#
F
###
##F####

F
#F
##F
##F
##F
##F

###
###
###
###
###

######
##F######F
##F ###
##F ###
#*F ###
#+F ###
#,F ###
#-F####.F
#/F ###
#0F ###
#@F ###
#IF ###
#JF ###
#KF####LF
#SF ###
#]F#"######
#####

###

###

###
##

#####"#####$##%##&##'##(##)##*##+##,##?
##S##c##j##q##r##y##z################l###############################
############################################################################
#############################################################################
#############################################################################
#########################################<##$######$####!
#####$##$##l#####*#
v###F#5"####$####################################
###############################
%##:##C##L##U##V##W##X##;|wrmhd_Z######
###
#D ###
#D####D
###
#D ###
#D ###
#D ###
##E ###
#"E ###
##E####$E
###
#%E ###
#&E ###
#'E ###
#1E ###
#2E ###
#3E####4E
###
#=E ###
#FE ###
#OE ###
#dE ###
#uE ###
#~E####E
###
#E ###
#E ###
#E ###
#E ###
#E ###
#E####E
###
#E ###
#E ###
#E#"#######################################
#############################################################l#########
##########################################################################,#
#############################################################################
#####@#######################################################################
############

###########################################$##$##l#####*#
v###F#5"####<##$#####$###x################################
########
%##+##8##9##V##W##f##g##m##n#######################
###5##6##f##g##y##z##|##:##@######
########&##=##^####################r####_############'##(##
:######2###3###I###J########################
###########j#It9
##U##V##mH##

#j#It9
##U#####j#It9
##U##V##mH##
#j####U###6#CJ###j####U##mH###5#CJ###CJ####H*##mH####CJ##M###
%##:##C##L##U##V##W##X##b##c##d##e##f##g##h##i##j##k############
##################################################@#########################
#############################################################################
###############################################################L###$##$##l###
#*#
v###F#5"###########################################################################
#################################################$##$##l#####*#
v###F#5"####$###X##b##c##d##e##f##g##h##i##j##k##l##m