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TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE

ATME5273
COMPUTERAIDED
ENGINEERING
Assignment
2012/2013

Tutor: Mr. Choy Hau Yan

Table of Contents
1.

Introduction............................................................................................................2

2.

Quality Functional Deployment (QFD).................................................................2

3.

4.

2.1.

Relation Matrix................................................................................................4

2.2.

Correlation Matrix...........................................................................................6

Conceptual Design.................................................................................................7
3.1.

Design 1...........................................................................................................7

3.2.

Design 2...........................................................................................................8

3.3.

Design 3...........................................................................................................9

3.4.

Finalised Design............................................................................................10

Analysis................................................................................................................11
4.1.

Finite Element Analysis.................................................................................11

4.2.

Results...........................................................................................................13

4.3.

Motion Study.................................................................................................17

4.3.1.

Sliding Board.........................................................................................17

4.3.2.

Human Child Replica.............................................................................17

4.3.3.

Motion Study Results.............................................................................18

4.4.

Theory Calculation for Velocity....................................................................20

Conclusion............................................................................................................20

1. Introduction
The content of the assignment is a playground developed based on various
analyses. The playground designed is to allow children from age of 5-12 years old to
use. It is design so that it is safe and it can last long for the benefit of user, which are
the children and parents, and housing agents or contractor. It is important that the
playground is able to withstand high stresses and factor of safety in the design has
been elevated to make sure that the structure do not fail in short time.
Various methods have been used in designing the playground. For instance,
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to determine the need of customer and
then, the needs are further illustrated by designer to build the model. After that, a few
sketches are drawn and compared to finalise the concepts. Finally, a design is chosen
and model is built. Besides, tests such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and
simulation are done to make sure the model is safe under certain circumstance.

2. Quality Functional Deployment (QFD)


In this QFD, the target customers are children and housing area development agents
(Housing agent). The needs are then descripted in the following table based on the
features that the targets needed. The first 3 criteria are those required by children
while the following criteria are based on housing agents` needs.
Customer
Features

Description

Colour and structure will always give children their very first
Attractive
impression, because kids are usually attracted to strong colours and
shapes which they will find it very interesting.
The features included, such as slides, vertical pole for climbing and
so on will directly affect children psychologically because they are
Features
new to them and they will always wanted to try out new thing. After
included
that, they will intent to challenge their friends, which means they
will want physical challenge.
A small space will result in a crowded playground, where most of
the kids will have to line up for each of the sessions. It will be a
Space
drawback for them because they have to wait for other kid to finish
before they can enjoy. Bigger space will result in a better playing
experience.
In terms of developer, safety of children is more important.
Therefore, high level of safety factor and protected edges are
Safe
important features. It is vital to have preventive measures included
to prevent the children from injuring themselves while keeping it
interesting towards children.
When comes to maintenance, developers will always look for easy
configurations which can ease their job. Simple fittings or parts will
Easy
to
enable the developers to restore the playground more effectively and
Maintain
efficiently so that the resident of the area can have their children
enjoying the playground.
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Playground is a none value added facility and therefore, developers


Low cost
will always look for the cheapest, yet containing highest amount of
features to get the children and the parents satisfied.
It is important to have simple assembly while installing the
playground so that it is removable and does not leave any trace over
Easy
to
the place. It will ease the developers in the process of handling the
assemble
playground units and do alteration in changing the placement of the
playground facilities.
In the characteristic of Easy to maintain, developers will always
Parts
look for the replacement parts to repair the damaged playground,
Availability
therefore, if replacement parts are available, it will be easier for the
developers to maintain the playground at its optimum condition.
The table above described the characteristic of the playground which is preferred by
both the user and housing agents. Then, a series of technical description are made to
understand the method of developing a customer-want product.
Technical
Descriptor
Special
features
design
Frames
connection
and
part
design
Compartme
n-talisation
design
Standard
part design
Low
complexity
Affordable
material
High
material
strength
Common
material
Production
managemen

Explanation
Special features are to be included to arouse children interest to play
and enjoy themselves in the playground.
The connections have to be made solid and can support up to
sufficient weight to prevent any accident from happening. It is
important to have rigid support so that the playground can last longer.
It is to separate all the designs into small pieces for easier
management and redesign based on customer requirement. It also
stands for easier maintenance.
Standard parts here denote the joints and methods used to build the
playground. It is better to use more standard parts because it will
make maintenance easier. It also means a must-have in an ordinary
playground.
The complexity of the designs should be kept at minimum so that
fabrication process will be easier.
Price is affected if material for manufacturing going higher.
Therefore, it is better to provide something quality yet affordable.
Material to build frames and supportive structure should be having
high strength and stress endurance.
In order to keep the price at a competitive edge, material used has to
be common because common raw material is always cheaper than rare
material.
An effective production management will have low waste and this in
turn affect the price open to buyer. A lean manufacturing will make a
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great difference at the price competition.

Design and In order to make a part easier to fabricate, the design has to be as
part
simple as possible and involves only easy machining so that the
fabrication
overall manufacturing processes can become faster and smoother.

2.1. Relation Matrix


The relationship matrix is built based on customer requirement and it is related
to technical descriptor in order to achieve the ultimate goal, which is customer
satisfaction.
To increase attractiveness, special features design must be included. Children
will be easily attracted to something which is new to them. They would also like to
challenge themselves and take is as a chance to have fun with. Therefore the more
challenges it is, the more the fun to them. Special features design will be very crucial
to a playground whether it is acceptable by children or not.
Features included will be the next issue with children. In order to bring out
more and more features, special features design and compartmentalization design
have to work together to build in more and more types of playground facilities to the
user (children). It is because compartmentalization will reduce the space required to
hold the facilities and provide the maximum level of joy to kids. While standard part
design and low complexity are compliment to the subject. Because the design has to
include special parts and compartment design, the parts and complexity have to keep
low to reduce the chance of having self-maintenance by the housing comity. They are
not directly related to features included, but still possess medium relationship due to
technical descriptor.
Children like space. Crowded platform will contain many unforeseen danger
and therefore, the bigger the space, the better it is. Compartmentalization design will
take care of this issue. Through designers, the platform can be made wider and
providing more space through the creation of more playground facilities. Special
features design and low complexity however, still serve as a basic line to the design so
that in the process of designing, the space required for special features will not be too
small or too big; and the complexity of the structure has to be reduced so that children
have more room to play with.
The above are the customer requirement and their respective description
through technical descriptor. Below will be the discussion based on housing agent
requirement.
Children are most likely to ignore the factor of safety. However, the housing
agents are more concern on it. To achieve high level of safety, frame connection and
part designed have to be very rigid so that they will not fail even they are overloaded.
The approximate number of children playing on it at the same time has to be
estimated to design a safe structure. It is usually related that, the higher the safety, the
higher to cost, therefore, to take care of cost (price to agents), affordable material with
high material strength has to be considered. It is sometime hardtop find the suitable
material for that purpose, therefore, common material stands a medium relationship,
which is to remind designer to match the best possible configuration for the material
to have in the playground.
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In a housing area, there are usually their own maintenance personnel, who in
which perform simple adjustment and maintenance. Therefore, in easy to maintain,
low complexity and common material stood a high priority. Low complexity will
make the maintenance easier because the technician will not have to spend too much
time in figuring out a method to solve and playground failure; while common material
will ensure that technician has some tools and equipment for simple repair. Standard
part design comes at a medium priority because it is usually a method for seller to
protect the after sale market. A simple repair could be done by the agents, but bigger
problem has to be handled by professional.
To have low cost or a cheaper product, yet high level of safety, replacement
material for construction has to be done. In addition, it can be achieved by having
controlled production management and in design and part fabrication. A lean
manufacturing will ensure low waste and high return in investment as the product is
selling good. Common material comes at medium relationship because it is often out
of control. But the best possible solution is to have common material to reduce
unexpected raise in the cost of raw material. In many cases, even common material is
not cheap, but, to take care of cost, alternatives have to be discovered. However, it
should have dominated a large portion in the overall cost of the playground.
The next issue will be assembling. The assembling process should be simple
so that agents are able to construct the structure themselves. Frame connections and
part designs have to meet the target. By having sliding mechanism or other means,
will make the assembling work easier as the frame can be easily built.
Compartmentalization design will allow agents to assemble part by part, followed by
a full assemble. Low complexity on the other hand, comes at medium relationship. To
have a simple assemble will sometime reduce the fun part for children, certain level of
difficulties are to be expected to ensure the fun part.
Parts availability is one of the main concerns by housing agents. Spare parts
should be prepared for playground models to allow broken parts to be repaired.
Common material here stands for spare parts or some simpler form of design which
the housing agent can get from other seller. To make sure that there are available parts
for maintenance, special features design has to make sacrifice so that parts are easily
found as a replacement. Standard part design is a weak relationship, which is to make
sure that there are certain parts which is not made available by other supplier and this
will direct the agents to purchase the replacement parts from the seller of that
playground.

2.2. Correlation Matrix


In the process of having special features design, low complexity has to be
counted as an important factor to reduce the probability of having too high-tech
product which is outside customer`s requirement, which makes them unconfident to
buy the product. Standard part design has to be included as an affecting medium
relationship to remind designer that the design has to be in a form of easy to
understand yet fun-to-play-with product. Any design approved will eventually goes to
the production floor, so the design has to be made easy for design and part fabrication.
However, to protect the fun part, the subject will serve as a weak relationship.
Frame connection and part design are directly affected by
compartmentalization design and high material strength characteristic. A design,
whether it is rigid, depends mostly on the connecting joints and the material used to
joint them, including welding and screw-and-bolts. Therefore, they serve as a strong
relationship between each other. Cheap material and production management become
weak relationship because the design of playground to make sure children having fun
in it. The criteria are made as a reminder for designers.
Compartmentalisation design has to deal with design and part fabrication
because sometime, a movable product is more fragile and requires a lot of small
structure to support them, which in turns affect the fabrication process. Low
complexity will be a small issue which is to alert the designer to make sure that the
design is not too sophisticated for a child to play with.
Standard part design and low complexity is directly related in a way that, a
standard part should always be as simple as possible to make way for fabrication
process. However, those standard parts are designed so that they can replace the
sophisticated wear part. Therefore, it serves as a low relationship.
Affordable material is always highly associated with the raw material strength.
In QFD, it is normal relationship between common material and high material
strength. It is because designers will sometime choose to have cheaper material rather
than a more expensive one to achieve maximum profit, whereby this decision will
deteriorate the material strength. To protect the material strength for sustainability, the
material changed must have the same characteristic in major area, such as stress
endurance and so on.
Last but not least, production management has to be taken care to make sure
company`s profit. Therefore, the design and part fabrication has to be made easy so
that the machining time will not take up too much and waste management has to be
good to reduce manufacturing cost.

3. Conceptual Design
3.1. Design 1

In this design, it shows a basic playground model. The climber uses a net
system for the children to climb up and pass through a net bridge to reach the slide.
The model illustrated put weightage on the special features design. From
children perspective, they will prefer more challenge and perceive challenges as fun.
Therefore, net system is designed to achieved that perspective.
This model has many disadvantages on it, as the material uses are plastic and
it is too easy to wear and tear. As the net system for the children to climb are using a
normal nylon material and it will not able to sustain heavy load as the maximum load
is 60kg. Same goes to the net bridge, as the gaps of the net are too wide between each
gap; therefore it is easy for children to get injured if they misplaced their foot. Since
the surface platform does not have a large area to allow more than 2 children, it is
easy for a child to slip off from the playground system. In overall, this playground
system does look attractive to children and the features are creative, but safety
features are very important in a playground system. Therefore, we did not choose this
model as our design.

3.2. Design 2

In this design, it consists of an inflatable bouncer and is connected with a short


bridge to access to the slide system and it also come with a Merry-go-Round.The
Merry-go-Round look like a carousel and is the second largest piece of playground
equipment.
The model will focus on special feature designed and common material,
whereby these pieces of facilities lack of integration and they are placed apart. The
facilities are common configuration that playground usually have.
Kids sustained a lot of injuries on the Merry-Go-Round because it had many
moving parts, not shielded and are used improperly a lot of times. For the inflatable
bouncer, it requires an air compressor to continuously pump air into it to maintain its
air and also needed high cost to maintain it. Besides, it possessed harmful factors,
whereby 30 children a day in this world were treated for injuries caused by Merry-goRound in hospital. The number of cases increases yearly, where younger children are
at greater risk. Going through the slide system, children that are immoral will not
consider self and other`s safety and it is possible for them to jump down from the
slide system. Therefore it is more suitable to have a fully covered tube installed rather
than a semi tube. This system does not contain too much items for children to play.
Because of the equipment are too dangerous for the parent to be at ease to let their
children to play on it, therefore, this model will not be a good choice to become our
design.

3.3. Design 3

The above design is the third conceptual design, in which the playground is
expanded. Space is always one of the main concerns regarding to playground because
a big space can prevent a lot of unwanted injuries such as squeezing and fall from the
platform from happening. Therefore, sufficient spaces are included in the design.
Besides, to keep the fun part, the height of the sliders is elevated.
The playground will be in H-shaped. This is a concept generated to ensure
highest degree of safety and to have the children to be able to shout across to reach
their partner at the other side because children like to shout. Moreover, the main
reasons to have 2 sides of sliders with different configuration is to disperse children
attention and able to split them into 2 groups. This is to prevent them from overcrowding at the same spot.

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3.4. Finalised Design


By reviewing back to the QFD specification, the third design is chosen. From QFD,
special feature design and common material comes to the first place, followed by
compartmentalisation design.
Initially, design 3 is having special developed platforms which extended in Hshape to allow 2 groups of children to play at the same, which is different from
conventional design. Secondly, the purpose of the design is to let the children to
experience high point of view. This is to fulfil children`s want to reach higher area.
The feature of compartmentalisation is included through the combination of
platforms and towers, noted that the joints are made with a sliding mechanism before
screws are inserted. This design is to enable easy detached and assemble for workers
and to enable easy maintenance.
In order to keep the level of complexity low, the playground is presented in a
way that guardian is able to look through each part of the playground wherever they
are. The design is simple and clean so that it is accessible to both children and
guardian.
In conclusion, design 3 fulfil most of the requirement set and therefore, it is
chosen to be the finalised design.

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4. Analysis
4.1. Finite Element Analysis

Part to test the strength


using FEA approach
The diagram above shows the location of where the test is carried out. There
are reasons regarding to the choice of interest.
Firstly, the places to have highest number of children on it are the platforms
around the playground. Through repetitive comparison on the platforms, the final
decision made is that, platform on the tower which leads to a circular slide is chosen.
Similar design on the other side of playground is chosen because they possess the
same characteristic, whereby a lot of children tends to occupy the space to enjoy the
slides.
Second reason is because, it is believe to be the critical point to have most
probability of failure because it is the highest reachable place to kids and it tends to be
harmful to children if the material stress durability is not high.
Therefore, the point of interest highlighted is the choice for analysis.

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Setting up Boundary Condition

Assumption:
In this simulation, the maximum weight of a 12 years old child is 80kg. This part can
actually stand with full of 3 people, but we consider if there are some child do not
obey the rules. So, the number of child stand on this plate is 6.
6 x 80kg = 480kg = 4800N
The force apply on the plate is 4800N and fixed geometry the three holes.
Meshing

Sometimes during meshing, that might be some error occurs. This is due to the
mesh size is bigger than the part of the plate. In order to solve this problem, set the
meshing size to the finest. The results calculation will be slower due to performing a
larger numbers of iterations.

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4.2. Results

Factor of Safety
The results of the FEA simulation show this part is really safe. The minimum
value for factor of safety is 2. Since this is a playground and then a lot of children do
not concern about safety so we increase the factor of safety of material to become 5.
The figure above shows that there is no any point of the plate has higher factor
of safety of 5. Blue means the part is safe and still above factor of safety 5.It turns to
yellow when the part is below factor of safety of 5 but still in the acceptable range.
Last but not least, if any point of the part turns to red, thats means it is a critical point,
the failure may be happened at this point.

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Stress distribution

This figure shows the location of maximum and minimum stresses acting on
the plate. This is very important for engineer to know the strength of a mechanical
part. The colour indicates the amount of stress acting on that point.
From this analysis, higher stresses accumulated round the joints. This is
because the only supportive structure for this plate is around the joints at the circular
tube. Besides, the stress distributed so well as there are holes at the center of the plate
which is designed to disperse the stress accumulated at the centre of the platform.

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Displacement

The figure shows the displacement of the plate under applied load. Since one
of the edges of this plate does not have support, the red indicates the critical point or
weakest point of this plate. Th.at is the area which the plate has highest degree of
deformation. Due to lack of supportive structure, the deformation tends to be
happened at the weakest point. However, this test is carried out to test the support at
this platform and the relationship between platform and main supportive structures at
the side; there is still a ladder which connects this platform to the lower one.
Therefore, the displacement at the free end will be lower than expected.

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Strain Distribution

Through the strain analysis, it shows that the highest strain value happens to
be at the main supporting joints on the frames (tubes). This is because maximum
deflection happens at the free end and the displacement results in a pulling action
across the support. It is understandable that the maximum strain happens at the
respective points of interest.

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4.3. Motion Study


4.3.1. Sliding Board

According to research, most of the sliding board are made by linear lowdensity polyethylene (LLDPE), this materials is an important engineering plastics. It
has better sealing, higher puncture resistance, greater drawdown capability and higher
tensile strength. However, we cannot edit the material of this sliding board in
Soliwork software because the libraries do not have this material. So, in motion study,
low-density polyethylene (LDPE) will be set to replace linear low-density
polyethylene. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) differs structurally from
conventional low-density polyethylene (LDPE) because of the absence of long chain
branching. This material has coefficient of friction of 0.5.
4.3.2. Human Child Replica

This playground is suitable for child with age 5-12 years old. The maximum
weight of a child is 30kg, so now we double up the mass become 60kg to show the
strength of structure. The ball above used to replace human to simulate and know the

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velocity, acceleration of a child. If the ball going down too fast, that means this sliding
board is not safe because it can cause injury to kids.
4.3.3. Motion Study Results
Velocity diagram

Acceleration Diagram

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Displacement Diagram

The diagrams above show the computerized analysis results from software.
The velocity diagram above shows that the maximum velocity is 5m/s. This
sliding board is considered safe because the velocity is within the safe zone.
From this analysis, it shows that there is a stopping point at the slide, whereby
a maximum acceleration is achieved and followed by a steep deceleration. From
velocity diagram, it is clearly shows that user will exhibit a stopping before they come
in contact with ground.
However, the result does not end even though the subject of the test is
touching ground. This is because no virtual wall is created and there is no extra
coefficient of friction is applied. In normal cases, when a user slides towards the end,
they tend to lower their leg, which causes shoe sole to be in contact with ground.
Therefore, for reference, value after 1.45 second should be omitted. On the other
hand, the linear displacement graph is used to demonstrate the point whereby the slide
end vertically.

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4.4. Theory Calculation for Velocity

tan=

=tan

889
2182.63
1

889
=22.16
2182.63

Coefficient of friction,

=0.5

2
2
Length of slide 889 + 2182.63

2356.72mm
Friction force mgcos ,

friction work done mghcos

By conservation of energy, loss of potential energy= kinetic energy+ friction work


done
1
mgh= m v 2+ mghcos
2
1 2
v =ghghcos
2
v 2=2 gh(1cos)
v 2=(2 9.81 2.356)[0.8890.5(2.356) ( cos 22.16 )]

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24.82
v =4.98 5 m/s (Proved)
Conclusion
The results above show the theory calculation of the childs velocity when
going down on sliding board. The hand calculation answer is 100% match with the
motion study results from simulation.

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