Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

Annah

of Tourism
Rmarch,

Pergamon

Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 503-526, 19%


Clopyright 0 19% Elscvier Science Ltd
Printed in Grfat Britain. Al1 rights rrsrwcd
Olin7383/96
$15.00+0.00

0160-7383(95)00075-5

PERCEIVED IMPACTS OF TOURISM


The Case of Samos
Nicholas Haralambopoulos
Athens, Greece
Abraham Pizam
University of Central Florida, USA
Abstract: This study investigates
the impacts
of tourism,
as perceived
by the residents
of
Pythagorion,
a well-established
tourism
destination
on the Greek island of Samos. Interviews
conducted
with heads of households
revealed
that residents
not only supported
the current
magnitude
of thr tourism
industry
but also favored
its expansion.
Despite
this, the respondents identified
a number
of negative
tourism
impacts,
which, in their opinion,
affected
the
town. These impacts
included
high prices, drug addiction,
vandalism,
brawls, sexual harassment
and crimes.
The study reconfirmed
that thosr
respondents
who were economically
dependent
on tourism
had more positive
attitudes
towards
the industry
than those who wet-r
not dependent
on it. Keywords: social impacts,
tourism
impacts,
negative
and positive
tourism
impacts,
Samos, Greece.
Copyright
0 19% Elsrvier
Science
Ltd
R&urn& La perception
des impacts
du tourismr:
le cas de Samos. La pr6sente
recherche
est
une investigation
des impacts
do tourismr
selon la perception
drs habitants
de Pvthagorion,
une destination
touristique
bien Ctablic
de lile grecque
de Samos.
Des intervi;ws
men&
aupr?s
des chefs de famille
ont 16~96 qur les habitants
non seulrment
appuyaient
Iampleur
actuellc
dc Iindustrie
du tourismc,
mais quils favorisaient
son expansion.
hCdgr6 cela, Its
personnes
intrrrog6es
ant idcntifi&
plusieurs
impacts
nCgatifs
du tourisme,
qui, selon eux,
avaient
des cons6qurnces
sur le village.
Crs impacts
sont: Inflation,
toxicomanie,
vandalismc,
qucrelles
divrognes,
avancrs
sexuelles
importunes
et crime.
L6tude
a reconlirm6
que les
habitants
qui dependaient
6conomiquement
du tourisme
avaicnt
unr attitude
plus favorable
envcrs Iindustrie
q ue ceux qui nrn dependaient
pas. Mets-cl&:
impacts
sociaux,
impacts
du
tourismc,
impacts
negatifs
et positifs
du tourisme,
Samos, Gr&e.

INTRODUCTION
Social and cultural
impacts of tourism are the ways in which
tourism
is contributing
to changes
in value systems,
individual
behavior, family relationships,
collective
lifestyles,
moral conduct,
creative expressions,
traditional
ceremonies
and community organization (Pizam and Milman
1984:ll).
Social impacts involve the
more immediate
changes in the social structure of the community
and adjustments
to the destinations
economy and industry... while
the cultural impacts focus on the longer-term
changes in a societys
norms and standards, which will gradually emerge in a communitys
social relationships
and artifacts
(Murphy 1985: 117).
Nicholas Haralambopoulos
(76 Agiou Nikolou
St., 16674 Glyfada,
Greece)
holds an MSc.
in Tourism
Management
from The University
of Surrey and is currentlv
serving
in the Greek
armed
forces.
His research
interests
are in the area of tourism
social impacts.
Abraham
Pizam is Professor
of Tourism
Management
in the Department
of Hospitality
Management,
FI orida (Email apizamOucfl\,m.cc.ucf.edu).
University
of Central
His current
research
intrrests are cross-cultural
tourism
management
and marketing,
and social impacts
of tourism.

503

PERCEIVED

504

IMPACTS OF TOURISM

Since there is no clear distinction


between social and cultural
phenomena
. .. (Mathieson
and Wall 1982:37),
many theorists have
attempted
to classify the sociocultural
impact of tourism in a broad
Williams
(1979)
defines
three
categories
of impact:
context.
economic,
social, and environmental/physical.
Figuerola
(quoted in
Pearce
1989:218)
identifies
six major
categories
of social and
cultural impacts: impact on population structure,
transformation
of
forms and types of occupations,
transformation
of values, influence
on traditional
lifestyle,
modification
of consumption
patterns,
and
benefits to tourists. Pizam and Milmans (1984) similar classification
identifies
six categories
of social impacts and provides examples of
their components.
These impacts are demographic
(size of population, age, pyramid changes),
occupational
(change of occupation,
distribution
of occupations),
cultural (changes in tradition, religion,
language),
transformation
of norms (values,
morals,
sex roles),
modification
of consumption
patterns (infrastructure,
commodities),
and impact on the environment
(pollution, traffic congestion).
Furthermore,
Travis (1984) proposes a listing of sociocultural
costs
and benefits that may affect tourism destination.
The benefits are
cultural development
(modernization)
and exchange,
social change
and choice, improved image of host community,
improved public
health, social and amenity improvements,
education and conservation, positive cultural interchange
and political modifications.
The
costs include host culture destruction
and debasement,
social instability, consumerism,
changes in the law and social order, commercialized host-visitor
relationships,
changes in traditional
values and
political
destabilization.
These all need to be articulated
for an
enlarged sociocultural
framework of tourism.
Poflulation

Structure

of Host Communities

The development
of the tourism industry usually affects the size
of the host population, as the creation of new employment
opportunities slows migration
and attracts new workers or residents in the
community
(Baud-Bovy and Lawson 1977). More critically, tourism
can, on one hand, help the host community
to retain its members,
particularly
unemployed or under-employed
youths in economically
and
marginal
areas, and on the other hand, displace agriculture
result in migration
from villages
and mountain
communities
to
tourism areas (Cohen 1984; Tsartas
1989). Further, tourism development can attract
foreign workers from other economic
sectors,
particularly
agriculture
(Cohen 1984; de Kadt 1979).
Population
stability and growth as a result of tourism have been
reported in a number of studies such as Milman and Pizam (1988)
in Central Florida, Tsartas (1989) and Loukissas (1982) in the Greek
islands, Getz (1986)
in the highlands
of Scotland,
and Noronha
(1979) in Bali, Indonesia.
But tourism development
tends to alter
the composition
of the population,
not just its size. Pearce (1989)
and Reynoso, Valle and de Regt (1979) observe changes in the age
pyramid of their tourism communities;
Peck and Lepie (1989) find
tourism
responsible
for the modification
of family
size (from

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND PIZAM

505

extended
to nuclear);
and Tsartas (1989), Smaui (1979), and Getz
(1986) report on transformation
of their host populations from rural
to urban and the creation of new communities.

Employment and Occupational Structure


Tourism is often credited for generating
new employment
opportunities for the host population,
particularly
in developing communities
(UNESCO
1976).
However,
some
scholars
claim
that
uncontrolled
tourism
development
on a massive scale generates
employment
for migrants/immigrants
and expatriate
labor, rather
than the local population
(Forster
1964; de Kadt 1979; MacNaught
1982; Tsartas
1989; Young 1973). Additionally,
it has been argued
that while a large number of unskilled or semi-skilled
workers may
be available locally, they are often characterized
by low status and
low pay (MacNaught
1982). Well-paid managerial
and professional
jobs are mostly filled by expatriates
(Mathieson
and Wall 1982).
Because of the seasonal nature of tourism, much of the employment
in various tourism sectors is highly seasonal, and this fact creates
fluctuations
in the levels of local and regional employment
(Archer
1973; Mathieson
and Wall 1982; Tsartas 1989). Many of the tourism
jobs, seasonal or otherwise, go to young adults and women with no
previous occupational
mobility (Forster
1964; Getz 1986; de Kadt
1979; Reynoso, Valle and de Regt 1979; Smaui 1979; Tsartas 1989).
Further, shifts in the balance of male and female tourism employment are reported
by Wilson
(1979)
in Seychelles,
Andronicou
and Inglott (1979) in Malta.
(1979) in Cyp rus and Boissevain
Tourism development
is also believed to create adverse impacts on
occupational
distribution
by sector and may affect the communitys
traditional work patterns. LaFlamme
(1979) in the Bahamas Islands,
Gamper
(1981)
in two Austrian
towns, Wilson
(1979)
in the
Seychelles
and Tsartas (1989) in two Greek islands all noted that
traditional
agricultural
occupations
and crafts were abandoned
by
the local populations because tourism-related
jobs were regarded as
highly profitable
and more attractive.

Social Structure and Consumption Patterns


Many researchers
report on the impact of tourism on transformation of the social system and its stratification
within the host communities
(Greenwood
1972; Reynoso,
Valle and de Regt
1979) by
creating a new social stratum and particularly
urban middle classes
(de Kadt 1979). For example, changes in the socioeconomic
status of
some individuals
occur because
their land may suddenly acquire
considerable
value (Cohen
1982a;
Forster
1964; Noronha
1979;
Tsartas
1989). Tourism is also blamed for disrupting
traditional
relationships
among family members
by creating
changes
which
affect the internal family structure.
Female economic independence
caused by increased tourism job opportunities
allows women in some
traditional societies to experience
an upward social mobility and lead
less restricted
lives than was previously the case (Reynoso, Valle and

506

PEKCI;IVEI~ IRiPACTS OF TOUKISM

de Regt 1979; Wilson 1979). This increased financial independence


gained through tourism jobs allows young adults to visit foreign
countries or even opt for immigration
(Tsartas 1989).
Tourism development
may also have a disruptive role in reinforcing social and economic aspirations
that the local inhabitants
cannot
attain (Bryden 1973; Jafari
1974; Mathieson
and Wall 1982). The
tourism demonstration
effect is in most cases seen as the principal
causative
factor of change
in community
values. The term is
employed to describe copying Western consumption
patterns, changing upscale
occupational
preferences,
and declining
community
cohesion
and morals
(McElroy
and de Albuquerque
1986:3 1).
Boissevain
(1979), Wilson (1979), Andronicou
(1979), Duflield and
Long ( 198 1)) Greenwood ( 1989)) and Tsartas (1989) identify a significant impact of tourism on fashions,
entertainment,
morals and
sexual permissiveness.
It is frequently
mentioned
that tourism creates adverse impacts
on the daily life of local people in destination
communities.
The
tourism work patterns,
its unsociable working hours and its adjustments to seasonal
priorities
inevitably
influence
the established
order of daily life that has in the past been based on a different
timetable
(Boissevain
1979; Duflield and Long 1981; Forster 1964;
Pizam and Milman 1984; Tsartas 1989). Subsequently,
the changes
in occupational
and leisure
time of locals may create
negative
impacts on intra-familial
relationships,
such as tensions and discontent between married couples, which in turn may lead to frictions
and even separations
or divorces (de Kadt 1979; UNESCO
1976).
The increased physical presence of tourism, as well as the substantial demand for land, housing and various commodities,
can also
have serious effects on the communitys
traditional
standards
of
living. Forster (1964), Boissevain
(1977), Reynoso, Valle and de Regt
(1979), Dunfield and Long (1981), Mathieson
and Wall (1982), Getz
(1986),
Peck and Lepie
(19H9), and Tsartas
(1989)
argue that
tourism-induced
inflation
and competition
in the housing market
place a continuing
strain in the community.
Crime, Prostitution,

and Gambling

Crime
is considered
an externality
of tourism
development.
However, reports on crimes against tourists in many destinations
communities
have drawn
increased
attention
to the complex
relationship
between international
mass tourism and the incidence
of crime in resort areas. Data on crime are relatively easy to secure,
although
it is often very difficult
to prove a causal relationship
between
tourism
and crime. McPheters
and Strong
(1974), Jud
and Chesney-Lind
and Lind ( 1986)
(1975),
Lin and Loeb (1977),
have investigated
the relationship
between tourism presence
and
various types of crimes. They all suggest that crime is somewhat
associated with tourism. Furthermore,
many host community studies
reveal that residents perceive a positive association between tourism
and crime (King, Pizam and Milman 1993; Milman and Pizam 1988;
Pizam 1978; Rothman
1978). But certain aspects of mass tourism

HAFCAIAMBOPOULOS

AND PRAM

507

development
substantially
contribute
to an increase in criminal acts.
The most important factors directly associated with increased crime
rates are perceived
loss of local control
(Chesney-Lind
and Lind
1986),
depersonalized
commercialized
human
relations
and
(Chesney-Lind
and Lind 1986; Dogan
1989),
tourist
densities
(Bryden
1973), conflicts,
enmities
and community
resentment
perhaps because of their wealth and luxurious lifestyles-against
tourists (Cater 1987; de Kadt 1979; Nicholls 1976; Dogan 1989). In
contrast to these findings and propositions,
Pizam (1982) finds the
association
between
tourist
expenditures
in a community
and
various
types of crimes
infinitesimal:
.. tourism
expenditures
though found to be [statistically]
significantly
correlated
with four
types of crimes, property, robbery, rape and aggravated
assault, the
magnitude
of the coefficients
was minuscule
(Pizam 1982:9).
A number of studies give a passing reference
to the impacts of
tourism on prostitution
(Archer 1978; Pizam 1978; Urbanowiz 1989),
but detailed research on the subject has not yet been conducted. One
of the most critical attempts to ascertain this relationship
is Cohens
(1982b) detailed account of the various types of prostitution
available to tourists and foreigners in Bangkok. Urbanowiz (1989) reports
increased
homosexuality
and prostitution
in Tonga due to tourism.
Similarly,
as Graburn
states:
Korea has become famous for its
Kisaeng tourism. Kisaeng used to be equivalent
of Japanese
Geisha,
accomplished
female entertainers
and companions,
but by now it has
become a synonym for prostitutes.
These women are introduced
to
men in hotels as part of package tours, as enterprise
rewards to
functionaries
of small and middle sized companies,
and by travel
agencies, taxi drivers, and bellboys and cost about one quarter of the
price for similar services in Japan (1983:441).
Some authors further
associate
increases
in prostitution
with an increase
in venereal
diseases
(Turner
and Ash 1975). Cohen
(1988a)
notes that the
emergence
and spread of AIDS in Thailand
coincided
with an
increase in the economic importance
of tourism and the sex industry in the country.
Gambling
has often been perceived
as one of tourisms
byproducts. Although little research
has examined
this relationship,
much of casinos patronage depends on tourists, and thus the effects
of gambling can be assumed to be partially the result of tourist activity (Mathieson
and Wall 1982). While the positive economic impacts
of gambling on resort communities
are recognized
(Stanslield
1978;
Pizam and Pokela 1985), despite its growing economic importance,
gambling is considered
to have some negative socioeconomic
consequences (Pizam and Pokela 1985).

Cultural Expressions of Host Communities


The nature
and direction
of the consequences
of tourism
for
material
and non-material
forms of cultural expression
have been
the subject
of some research
studies.
A significant
number
of
researchers
suggest
that tourism
influences
in this respect
are
harmful
(Turner and Ash 1975; Evans 1976), but several others

508

PERCEIVED

IMPACTS

OF TOURISM

indicate that tourism contributes


to the renaissance
of traditional
art forms in host societies through the increased spending of tourists
on crafts,
souvenirs,
costumes,
and the like (Andronicou
1979;
Forster
1964; Graburn
1976; Huit 1979; de Kadt 1979). In this
context, many authors stress that traditional
forms of art, craft and
design gradually disappear or are replaced with fake reproduction,
airport art, or phony folk-culture
(Cohen 1988b; Forster 1964;
Graburn
1976;
Greenwood
1989;
Loeb
1989;
MacKean
1989;
Mathieson and Wall 1982). The deterioration
and commercialization
of non-material
forms of culture has also been a matter of major
research concern. The marketing
of culture appears to be worse in
developing
countries.
The
staging
of contrived
experience
to
compensate
for the lack of real cultural experiences
is another development that has become an accepted
outgrowth of contemporary
tourism.
In addition to these transformative
cultural consequences,
tourism
is also believed
to even influence
the host populations
spoken
language. Studies by Butler (1980) on the Island of Skye, Scotland,
Gamper (1981) m
. t wo southern Austrian villages, and Tsartas (1989)
on two Greek islands suggest that the indigenous languages in these
host communities
are being displaced
by that of the tourists.
Research on the aforementioned
sociocultural
influences of tourism,
as well as on religion, dance, music, foods and drinks, etc. of the host
community will undoubtedly continue to occupy tourism researchers
attention
in years ahead.
GREECE

AND THE

ISLAND

OF SAMOS

In a series of studies conducted in the 1970s (Stott 1973; Triandis


and Vassiliu 1972; Vassiliu and Vassiliu 1973), Greece was described
as a collectivist
culture dominated by the values of the in-group and
composed of members of the extended family. The success of the ingroup was more important
than the success of the individual, and
authority figures of the in-group were highly respected.
The family
had strong influence on the activities of the individuals and parental
power over childrens
courtship
and marriage.
The institution
of
dowry was prevalent,
and most women were involved in childrearing, homemaking
and subsistence
farming. This was especially
true for rural communities
and most Greek islands.
The migration of the rural population to the large urban centers
of Greece
in the 1980s and the development
of mass tourism in
many Greek islands led to significant
changes in the family structure and the social milieu of the Greek rural society. Hofstede (1980)
was no longer able to classify Greece as a collectivistic
society, but
placed it in the middle between collectivistic
and individualistic.
This
was later confirmed by Triandis et al (1986), who positioned Greece
in the middle on such factors as family integrity, separation from ingroup and self-reliance
with hedonism. The traditional
hierarchical
family roles-the
authoritarian
father who makes all important
decisions within the family and the submissive conciliatory
mother
whose place is in the home - had changed (Georgas 1989). In many

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND PIZAM

509

island tourism destinations,


subsistence
farming almost disappeared,
and the majority of residents became wage earners and shopkeepers. New employment
opportunities,
especially in the tourism industry, provided jobs for women that ultimately led to greater economic
and social independence.
The institution
of dowry changed its form
and became a means of assistance
in purchasing housing and furniture for the newly married
and, with the influx of tourists,
the
number of marriages
between locals and outsiders increased significantly (Kousis 1989).
Samos - the municipality
that is the focus of this paper - is one
of the largest Greek islands in terms of surface area. Situated in the
northeastern
part of the Aegean archipelago,
it covers a total surface
area of 492 square kilometers.
The climate is similar to most of the
islands in Greece and the Mediterranean:
it is hot and dry during
the summer (average temperature
32C) and mild but humid and
with strong winds during the winter (average temperature
12C).
The capital of Samos is the town of Vathi, situated in the northeastern part of the island. In 1991 the total population of Samos was
estimated at 41,850 or 15,539 households (Epilogi 1993:357). Samos is
regarded as a prosperous island with a healthy economy. The islands
economic development
has been heavily based on agriculture and on
tertiary sectors of production such as tourism, retailing and shipping.
During
the last decade,
tourism
in Samos
has experienced
unprecedented
rates of growth, and many towns were developed into
well-established
resort destinations
for foreign and domestic visitors.
In 1991 the island had an estimated
7,000 hotel beds, over 80,000
domestic
and close to l/2 million foreign tourist nights (Epilogi
1993:357).
A significant
proportion of tourist-related
businesses
are
owned by locals and managed by family members,
but the majority
of these are large enough to employ anywhere between 2 and 20 nonfamily employees.
The location of the study was the municipality
of Pythagorion,
a
small town (22 square kilometers)
situated at the southeastern
part
of the island. The area has become a popular and well-established
destination
catering
primarily
to mass tourists. In 1991 the total
population
of Pythagorion
was estimated
at 1,582 persons or 588
households
(Ministry
of National
Economy
1992). Pythagorion
is
heavily dependent
on tourism, which generates
employment
opportunities for a large proportion of the local population.
Methodology
The purpose and scope of this study was to investigate
the social
impacts of tourism on the town of Pythagorion,
as perceived by its
residents. The study was aimed at examining
local residents perceptions and attitudes towards tourism and did not attempt to measure
the actual social effects of tourism development
on the area.
In broad terms, the study hypothesized
that heavy concentration
of tourists in a destination
might lead to negative resident perceptions and attitudes towards tourism and tourists. It had two hypotheses. First, that residents
perceptions
towards the social impact of

510

PERCEIVED

IMPACTS

OF TOURISM

tourism would be a function of their direct economic dependency on


the tourism industry. In specific, it was anticipated
that residents
who had a direct business relation with tourism would have more
positive perceptions
towards tourism than those who had no direct
business
relation
with the industry;
that self-employed
residents
would have more positive attitudes towards tourism than employees;
and that residents who had any immediate
family members working
in tourism-related
businesses
would have more positive attitudes
than those who did not. Second, residents perceptions
and attitudes
towards tourism and tourists would be a function of certain sociodemographic
characteristics,
such as age, sex, occupational
status,
household income, etc.
The sample consisted of 116 households
(20% of the population)
selected in a cluster sampling method. Since the main road from
the international
airport to the towns harbor divides the town into
two subareas
fairly equal in size and population
density, each of
these was considered as a population cluster. Within each of the two
clusters, households were randomly sampled, with every third street
selected,
and from within it every fifth household was chosen from
either the left or right side of the road. Personal interviews were
conducted
by a male (50/o of cases) or female graduate
student,
with the head of each household, either male or female. Interviews
were conducted within 10 days (25 April to 5 May 1993), with five
days being devoted to each cluster. Only permanent
residents of the
community, defined as those persons who were living in the community for at least eight months of the year, were interviewed.
Of the
116 households contacted,
85 interviews were completed,
accounting for a response rate of 73.3%. The remaining
31 members of the
households
refused
to participate
in the interview
process
for
various reasons (e.g. lack of time or interest, etc.). The total usable
sample represented
14.4% of the households in the community.
The survey instrument
consisted of a pre-structured
questionnaire
similar to the one designed by Pizam (1978) and Milman and Pizam
(1988). It consisted of 48 questions in the following seven categories:
screening
for permanent
residency
(1); sociodemographic
profile
(12); perceived tourism impacts (27); effect of tourism on the image
of town (1); attitudes towards tourists and the tourism industry (3);
similarity between tourists and residents (2); desirability
of tourism
occupations
(2).
So general limitations
of the study can be identified.
First, the
survey was undertaken
during the beginning of the tourism season
- the month of Mayand thus the impacts
of heavy tourist
concentration
on the destination
were not acute. This fact could
have influenced
the respondents
perceptions.
Second, intrafamilial
relations in small island communities,
like the area under study, are
still governed by relatively strict patterns of patriarchic
authority. In
some cases, it was observed that husbands did not allow their wives
to participate
in the study, which undoubtedly created a problem of
gender representation.
In some other cases, the presence
of the
husband was necessary while his wife was being interviewed.
This
might have affected her opinions on some issues.

HARALAMBOPOULOS

RESULTS

AND PIZAM

51 1

AND ANALYSIS

The studys participants


were mostly males (64%) and concentrated in the 25-44 age categories
(56%). The majority of them were
married
(62.4%) and had a mean of 3.4 members
in their households. They were relatively well-educated
- a median of 12 years in
school-and
had lived most of their lives on the island (mean =
29.3 years).
Forty-eight
percent of the participants
were employed part-time,
only 33% full-time, and the remaining
19% were retired, unemployed
or housewives. An absolute majority of the respondents
(71%) were
involved in a tourism-related
business or occupation. Of those who had
a business relation with the industry, 62% were self-employed and the
remaining
38% were employees
in a tourism business.
Fifty-nine
percent of the respondents had one or more of their immediate family
members employed in tourism. A majority (69%) of the respondents
had an annual household
income higher than 2,5 million Greek
Drachmas (approximately
US$10,775
according to the exchange rate
in October 1994). For comparison purposes, the 1993 average monthly
food purchases for a family of four in Greece was 112,158 Drachmas
(US$438).
In the second quarter of 1994, the average cost of 1 kg of
rice was DR320 (US$l.38),
1 kg of sugar was DR234 (US$l.OO), 1 kg
of chicken quarters was DR425 (US$1.83)
and the cost of 1 liter of
Gasoline-Super
was DR196.5
(US$O.84) (Monthly Statistical
Bulletin
of Greece
1994; National
Statistical
Service of Greece
1994). To
validate
the accuracy
of the response
to the average
household
income, the above figure was compared with the latest national declared
household income for the island of Samos. The data show an average
declared household income of DR939,279
in 1991, which was significantly lower than the figure of DR2.5 million obtained in the 1993
study (Epilogi 1993). This discrepancy may indicate that the figures
obtained in the present study were more realistic than those reported
two years earlier for income tax purposes.
Attitude

Towards Tourism and Tourists

In general, respondents
expressed a very positive attitude towards
tourism. Some 80% of the respondents
strongly favored or favored
somewhat
the presence
of tourism in the area [mean = 4.1 and
standard deviation
(SD) = 1.0 on a l-5 scale, where 1 = strongly
oppose and 5 = strongly favor]. In respect to their overall attitude
towards tourism on the island of Samos, the vast majority of the
respondents
(76%)
stated
that they either
favored or strongly
favored tourism activities and development
on the island. The mean
support score was 4.0, with an SD of 1.1. Only 3.5% of the respondents strongly opposed the existence
of tourism on the island.
With regards to the effect of tourism on the image of Pythagorion,
a very large proportion of the residents (about 84%) stated that the
image of the area has improved somewhat or significantly
improved
because of tourism (mean = 4.1, SD = 1.1). Respondents
attitudes
towards further
tourism
development
were very positive.
When
asked how they felt about the volume of tourists visiting the area,

512

PERCEIVED IMPACTS OF TOURISM

78% indicated that the number of tourists visiting the area should
increase somewhat or significantly
increase, and only 13% suggested
that it should significantly
or somewhat decrease.
The perceptions
of the sample about the difference
or similarity
between themselves
and tourists visiting the area were also investigated. As anticipated,
the majority of respondents
(87%) perceived
tourists as being very different
or somewhat
different
from local
inhabitants.
Similarly, about 66% believed that Greek tourists were
very different or somewhat different from foreign tourists. Contrary
to the previous question, however, a large proportion of the sample
(34.1%)
identified
some similarities
between
Greek
tourists
and
foreign tourists.
Perceptions on the Social Impacts

of Tourism

Respondents
were asked to express
their opinions
about the
impact of tourism on a variety of socioeconomic
issues. As can be
seen from Table 1, the mean responses indicated that employment
opportunities,
towns overall tax revenue, personal income, standard
of living, attitude
towards work and hospitality
towards strangers
were perceived
to improve as a result of tourism in the area. As
expected,
local residents
had very positive perceptions
about the
impact of tourism on economic-related
issues. Sexual permissiveness
was also perceived to increase as a result of tourism. This could have
been the result of the increased
and closer contact between local
residents and tourists. In contrast, variables such as prices of goods
and services, brawls, drug addiction, vandalism and individual crimes
were perceived to worsen as a result of tourism.
As to the rest of the variables,
namely confidence
among people,
honesty, morality, organized crime, prostitution
and gambling, their
means (around 3.0) may well indicate that the residents perceived
that the current level of tourism development
had no effect on them.
The above results confirmed
the findings of other studies with
regards to the perceived impact of tourism on a variety of similar
socioeconomic
variables
(King, Pizam and Milman
1993; Milman
and Pizam 1988; Pizam and Pokela 1985; Rot hman 1978). According
the perception
of the residents
to the island police authorities,
regarding
organized crime, prostitution,
and gambling
levels was
close to reality.
In addition to studying the perceived impacts of tourism on the
residents, this study questioned the respondents
on tourisms particular impacts
on women and young residents,
because
previous
studies found that in some developing countries women and young
adults were affected disproportionally
by tourism development.
The
results indicate that respondents
believed employment
opportunities
for women and the socioeconomic
position of women within this
traditional
society had improved as a result of tourism (both with
means of 4.3). In addition, respondents
contended that tourism had
increased womens participation
in family decisions (mean of 4.1).
In short, according
to them, tourism has improved the social and
economic status of women at home and in the community.

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND

513

PIZAM

Table 1. Residents Perceptions about the Impacts of Tourism on Socioeconomic Issues


Mean

SD

Employment
opportunities
Towns
tax revenue
Personal
income
Standard
of living
Prices of goods and services
Attitude
towards
work
Courtesy
& hospitality
towards
strangers
Mutual
confidence/sincerity
among
people
Honesty
in any commercial
exchange
Morality
Sexual
permissiveness
Organized
crimes
(initiated
by criminal
groups)
Individual
crimes
(committed
by individual
criminals)
Brawls
Drug addiction
Prostitution
Sexual
harassment
Gambling/illegal
games
Vandalism
Grand
mean

4.6
4.0
4.5
4.4
2.3
3.5
3.6
3.2
2.8
2.6
4.1
2.9
2.6
2.1
2.0
2.7
2.1
2.9
2.2
3.1

0.5
1.0
0.6
0.7
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.9
0.3
0.7

What
impact
do you think
the current
level of tourism
following
issues?
bScale: 1 = significantly
worsen;
2 = worsen
somewhat;
ence; 4 = improve
somewhat;
5 = significantly
improve.
SD = standard
deviation.

development

Impact

Variables

3 = not

make

has

on the

any

ditier-

As to the impact
of tourism
on young adults,
respondents
perceived that out migration of young family members was substan:
tially decreased
as a result of tourism development
(mean of 1.8).
Respondents
also felt that tourism was responsible
for the increased
economic independence
of young adults from the family (mean of
4.4), for increased travel of young adults to foreign countries (mean
of 4.5) and for the establishment
of new homes after marriage
(mean of 3.6). On the other hand, tourism was not perceived to have
any impact on the marriage of young family members (mean of 3.2).
This may be because marriage in such closed societies is still subject
to the strict patterns
of tradition,
a finding that was reported by
Kousis ( 1989) in the island of Mykonos.
The survey set out to investigate attitudes towards tourism employment. First, respondents were asked to express their opinions about
the desirability
of tourism-related
jobs in their community.
The
results indicated a very high degree of desirability
(mean = 4.7 on a
l-5 scale, where 1 = very undesirable
and 5 = very desirable)
for
tourism occupations. About 96% of the respondents said that tourism
jobs were desirable or very desirable. This result was of no surprise
once it was found that most respondents were employed in or associated with the tourism industry. Respondents
were then asked to
select their preferred
occupation
from a limited list of jobs that

5 I4

included
showed
frequently
would be
by school
(1 1.5%),

PEKCXIVED

IMPACTS

OF TOURISM

one tourism
occupation
-hotel
receptionist.
The results
that
the tourism
occupation
was mentioned
the most
by respondents.
Ov:er 37% said that hotel receptionist
the most desirable
occupation
for them. This was followed
teacher
(2 1A%), government
officer (15.4%), ship mechanic
agricultural
laborer
(1 1.5%) and fisherman
(2.6%).

Socioeconomic

Characteristics

and Social Impacts of Tourism

TO test the relationship


bet\veen
respondents
sociodemographic
characteristics
and their opinions
on the social impacts
of tourism,
a series of one-way
analyses
of variance,
t-tests and Pearson
correlations
was conducted.
In an attempt
to test the first hypothesis
of the study, a series of
t-tests was undertaken
in order to assess the perceptual
differences
between
those residents
who were directly economically
dependent
on tourism
and those who were not (Table 2). In general,
the results
indicated
that
residents
who had a main business
relation
with
tourism
had more positive
perceptions
towards
the industry
and its
impacts
than those who had no main business
relation.
The most
significant
differences
between
the two groups
were identified
in
variables
such as the presence
of tourism
in the area, the volume
of arrivals, and consequently
the level of support
for further
tourism
development,
the image of the town and the overall opinion
about
the tourism
industry
on the island.
Those
residents
involved
in
tourism
businesses
were significantly
more supportive
of the industry than those who had no business
relation
with tourism.
Differences
between
the two groups were also found with regards
to economic-related
issues
such
as employment
opportunities,
towns tax revenue
and living
standard.
Those
personal
income,
directly
dependent
on tourism
perceived
the industry
to have more
positive
impacts
on these factors than those who were not. However,
it should be mentioned
that the latter category
did not exhibit
any
negative
attitudes.
Thus,
it can be concluded
that
even
those
residents
who did not have any direct economic
benefits
from tourism
recognized
the industrys
importance
and positive
effect
on the
economy
of the community.
Other
significant
differences
between
the
two categories
of
respondents
were based on variables
such as attitude
towards work,
mutual
confidence
and
sincerity,
hospitality
towards
strangers,
honesty, morality
and in the variables
related
to the economic,
social
and family role of women.
Residents
who were economically
dependent on tourism
perceived
it to have a positive impact on these issues
as opposed
to the residents
not involved
in the industry,
who exhibited less positive,
neutral
and, in a few cases, negative
attitudes.
Several
social, economic
and legal factors
were perceived
to be
negatively
impacted
by tourism
by both groups. However,
those who
did not have main involvement
in the industry
perceived
tourism
to
cause more negative
impacts
on several
issues than those who did.
These issues were individual
crimes,
drug addiction,
sexual harassment, vandalism
and prices of goods and services.

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND

PIZAM

5 15

Table 2. Difference in Perceptions between Residents Who Had and those


Who did not Have a Main Business Relation with Tourism
Means
Impact

Bus.

Variables

Tourisms
presence
in the area
Difference
between
locals and tourists
Difference
between
Greek
& foreign
tourists
Volume
of tourists
in the area
Image
of the area
Employment
opportunities
Tax revenue
Personal
income
Standard
of living
Prices of goods and services
Attitude
towards
work
Courtesy
and hospitality
Mutual
confidence
and sincerity
Honesty
Moralit)
Sexual
permissiveness
Organized
crimes
Individual
crimes
Brawls
Drug addiction
Prostitution
Sexual
harassment
Gambling/illegal
games
Vandalism/damages
Employment
for women
Socioeconomic
position
of women
Womens
participation
in family decisions
Out migration
of young adults
Economic
independence
of young adults
Significant
travel of young adults
Marriage
of young adults
New home after marriage
Overall
opinion
about
tourism
in Samos
,Statistically

significant

Rel.

4.5
1.4
1.9
4.3
4.6
4.8
4.3
4.7
4.6
2.7
4.0
4.0
3.4
3.1
2.8
4.2
2.9
2.8
2.2
2.2
2.8
2.2
2.9
2.3
4.6
4.5
4.3
1.7
4.5
4.6
3.4
3.8
4.4

No Bus.

3.2
1.1
1.6
3.0
3.0
4.1
3.2
4.1
3.8
1.5
2.4
2.9
2.6
2.1
2.2
4.0
2.8
2.2
1.8
1.6
2.4
1.8
2.8
1.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
2.0
4.2
4.3
2.9
3.2
3.2

Rel.

l-Value
-6.8,
-2. I
-1.1
-6.4
-6.9
-6.1~
-5.2,
-4.3
-5.4,
-5.0
-6.2
-5.2,
-3.1
-3.6
-2.6
- .9
-1.0
-3.4
-1.9
-2.7
-2.3
-2.0
-1.2
-3.1

-5. 1
-5.5
-4.8
1.5
-1.8
-1.8
-1.9
-2.5
-5.7

at .05 or less.

These results together confirm the first part of the initial hypothesis and also confirm the findings of other studies that revealed the
same differences
in the perceptions of those who were and those who
were not economically
dependent on the tourism industry (Husbands
1989; Milman and Pizam 1988; Pizam 1978; Rothman
1978; Schluter
and Var 1988; Thomason et al 1979). A second attempt was made to
investigate
the possibility of any perceptual
differences
between the
self-employed and those employed by others. The results of the t-tests
did not show any significant differences
in attitudes towards tourism
and its impacts between the two groups. It seems that whether one
is self-employed
or employed by others makes no difference
as to

5I6

PERCEIVED

IMPACTS OF TOURISM

his/her perception of tourism and its impacts. Therefore,


the second
part of the first hypothesis was not confirmed.
The third part of the initial hypothesis required an examination
of
any perceptual differences between those residents who had and those
who did not have any of their family members employed in the industry. It was initially hypothesized that residents who had one or more
members of their family employed in tourism would have more positive
attitudes towards the industry than those who did not have any family
members associated with tourism. The results partially confirmed this
hypothesis. Those with family members employed in tourism were
more supportive of the presence of tourists in the area, advocated an
increase in the volume of tourists, perceived tourism as improving the
image of the town, thought that it improved the socioeconomic position
of women and had an overall more positive opinion about the tourism
industry on the island than those who did not have family members
employed in the industry. However, the same could not be said about
the majority of the impact variables. None of the remaining 28 impact
variables showed a significant difference between those who had family
members employed in tourism and those who did not (Table 3).
A series of t-tests was undertaken
in order to identify any perceptual differences
between male and female respondents.
The results
showed that, with the exception
of one, male respondents
did not
have statistically
different
opinions in any variable
than female
respondents. The only significant difference was found in the variable
related to honesty in commercial
exchanges. While male respondents
believed that tourism had no impact on this issue, females perceived
a negative impact on it (mean = 3.0 vs. 2.3; t = 2.54; p = .013).
A multiple range test (Student, Newman, Keuls) was conducted in
order to investigate
the relationship
between respondents
perceptions and their occupational
status. As indicated
in Table 4, the
majority of significant
differences
were identified between four out
of the six groups under examination.
In particular, the comparison
of group means clearly showed that those residents employed partor full-time had more positive perceptions
of tourism than retired
residents and housewives. The majority of the differences were found
between part-time
and housewives (16), part-time
and retired (15),
full-time and retired (12), and full-time and housewives (12). Out of
a total of 33 variables that were included in the analysis, significant
differences were observed in 26. A number of notable exceptions were
identified with regards to some social issues and variables related to
the socioeconomic
role of young adults in the area, where no significant differences
among respondents were observed.
The results of this range test can be considered
as also confirmArguably, the differences
between
those
ing the first hypothesis.
residents
employed
(either
full- or part-time)
and the retired
residents and housewives can be centered
around the fact that the
latter categories
are not economically
active social groups and,
therefore,
are not among the direct beneficiaries
of tourism spending. This might have led to negative or neutral attitudes
towards
tourism and tourists. Retired
residents
are usually senior citizens
who possibly resist changes in the social and economic life of the

HARALAMBOPOULOS

Table
those

AND

PIZAM

517

3. Perceptual
Differences
between those Residents
Who
did not Have
Immediate
Family
Members
Tourism

Who Had and


Employed
in

Means

Impact

No Family
Members
Employed
in
Tourism

Variables

Tourisms
presence
in the area
Difference
between
locals and tourists
Difference
between
Greek
& foreign
tourists
Volume
of tourists
in the area
Image
of the area
Employment
opportunities
Tax revenue
Personal
income
Standard
of living
Prices of goods and services
Attitude
towards
work
Courtesy
and hospitality
Mutual
confidence
and sincerity
Honesty
Morality
Sexual
permissiveness
Organized
crimes
Individual
crimes
Brawls
Drug addiction
Prostitution
Sexual
harassment
Gambling/illegal
games
Vandalism/damages
Employment
for women
Socioeconomic
position
of women
Womens
participation
in family decisions
Out migration
of young adults
Economic
independence
of young adults
Significant
travel of young adults
Marriage
of young adults
New home after marriage
Overall
opinion
about
tourism
in Samos
,Statistically

significant

3.8
1.3
2.0
3.6
3.7
4.6
3.7
4.4
4.2
2.1
3.3
3.4
3.1
2.6
2.6
4.1
2.8
2.5
1.9
1.9
2.6
2.1
2.8
2.1
4.1
4.0
3.9
1.7
4.3
4.5
3.2
3.6
3.8

Family
Members
Employed
Tourism
4.2
1.3
1.7
4.1
4.3
4.6
4.1
4.6
4.5
2.5
3.6
3.8
3.2
3.0
2.7
4.2
2.9
2.7
2.2
2.1
2.8
2.1
2.9
2.2
4.5
4.5
4.2
1.9
4.4
4.5
3.2
3.6
4.2

in
t
-I .8,
.I9
1.2
-2.1
-2.2
-.34
-1.6
-1.1
-I .4
-1.4
-1.2
-1.5
-.26
-1.4
-.48
-.22
-.65
-1.4
-1.8
-1.3
-1.4
-.09
-.67
-.75
-1.8
-2.5
-1.G
-1.1
-.59
-.43
-.32
.24
-2.9

at .05 or less.

area because of their traditional


mentality. Such changes may occur
as a result of tourism development.
In addition, it would be reasonable to expect a number of significant differences
between employed
and unemployed residents, since the latter were not an economically
active part of local population.
Surprisingly,
such differences
were
not indicated in the results, nor even in economic-related
issues.
Since over 90% of respondents
were either married or single, no
statistical
procedures
were undertaken
to test
the difference

518

PERCEIVED

Table

4. One-Way

Analysis

IMPACTS

OF TOURISM

of Variance between Respondents


Occupational
Status

with Different

Means

Impact

Variables

Tourisms

presence

Fulltimf

Iarttime

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

SNK

4.2

4.5

2.4

4.0

4.0

3.0

1.5

I .3

1.0

2.0

3.0

I.0

1>3,
I>6
2>3,
2>6
n/s

Retired

Uncmp.

Stdn.

Housewife

Difference
between
locals and tourists
Difference
between
Greek
& foreign
tourists
Volume
of tourists

1.7

2.0

I.4

2.0

3.0

1.3

n/s

4.1

4.2

2.0

4.0

4.0

3.0

Image

4.1

4.6

2.0

-1.0

5.0

2.8

Employment
opportunities

4.7

4.8

3.6

4.5

5.0

4.1

Tax

4.0

4.4

2.6

4.0

5.0

2.8

6>3,
4>3
I >3,
I>6
2>3,
2>6
4>3,
5>3
I >3,
I>6
2>3,
2>6
l>3,
I>6
2>3,
2>6
I >3,
I=-6
2~3,
2>6
I >3,
I>6
2>3,
2>6
I >3,
2>3
2~6,
2>l
2>6

of the

area

revenue

Personal

income

4.7

4.7

3.6

4.5

4.0

4.0

Standard

of living

4.3

4.7

3.4

3.5

4.0

4.0

Prices of goods and


services
Attitude
towards
work

2.1

2.6

1.1

2.0

2.0

1.5

3.6

4.0

2.4

2.1)

3.0

2.0

Courtesy

3.7

3.7

3.0

4.5

4.0

2.7

and

hospitality

l>6,
I>3
2~6,
2> 3
1>6,
2>6
continued

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND

519

PIZAM

Table Aontinued
Means
Fulltime

Parttime

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

SNK

2.8

3.5

2.8

33

3.0

2.7

n/s

2.7

3.1

1.6

4.0

3.0

2.0

Morality
Sexual
permissiveness
Organized
crimes

2.3
3.8
2.8

2.9
4.3
3.0

2.0
4.4
2.6

3.0
4.5
2.0

3.0
3.0
4.0

2.5
4.2
3.0

Individual
crimes
Brawls
Drug addiction
Prostitution
Sexual
harassment
Gambling/illegal
games
Vandalism/damages
Employment
for women

2.6
2.2
2.1
2.8
2.2
2.8
2.2
4.4

2.8
2.2
2.1
2.8
2.2
2.9
2.3
4.5

2.2
1.8
1.6
2.2
1.6
2.8
1.4
3.4

1.5
1.5
2,O
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
3.0

3.0
I.0
1.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
5.0

2.0
1.7
1.5
2.5
1.5
2.7
1.7
3.6

2>3,
2~6
2>l
n/s
2>4,
514
2>6
n/s
n/s

Socioeconomic
of women

4.4

4.5

3.4

3.0

4.0

3.6

Womens
participation
in family decisions

4.3

4.2

3.2

4.0

3.0

3.0

Out migration
of young
adults
Economic
independence
of young adults
Marrtage
of young adults

1.8

1.7

2.2

1.5

3.0

2.1

n/s

4.3

4.5

4.4

4.5

4.0

4.0

n/s

3.3

3.4

2.0

3.5

3.0

2.8

I >3,

New home after marriage


Overall
opinion
about
lourism
in Samos

3.6
4.1

3.8
4.4

3.0
2.4

3.0
4.5

3.0
5.0

3.3
3.0

Grand

3.3

Impact

Variables

Mutual
confidence
sincerity
Honesty

mean

and

position

3.5

Retired

2.5

Uncmp.

3.2

Stdn.

3.4

SNK = Student,
Newman,
Keuls range
test.
n/s = none of the groups
are significantly
different
than each other.
1~3 = indicates
that Full-time
group
(1) is statistically
significantly
Retired
group
(3).

Housrwifc

2.7

larger

n/s
n/s
n/s
2>3
I>3
I>6
2>3,
2>6
2>4
1>3,
1>6
2>3,
2~6
1>3,
1>6
2>3,
2~6

2>3
n/s

1>3,
I>6
2>3,
2>6
1~3; 1>6
2~3; 2~6

than

520

PERCEIVE11 IMPACTS OF TOURISM

between the marital status of the respondents beyond comparing the


single to the married respondents.
These tests revealed that single
respondents
believed tourism had minimum or no effect on the issue
of sexual
harassment,
while married
respondents
had negative
perception
of the impact of tourism
on this variable;
and that
married respondents
perceived the impact of tourism on marriage
of young adults to be greater than single respondents
perceived.
At the last stage of the analysis, Pearson product-moment
correlations were conducted between selected sociodemographic
characteristics and all impact variables. The purpose of these tests was to
examine
whether
residents
perceptions
and attitudes
towards
tourism were a function of six demographic
characteristics.
First, generally, the results indicate that the fewer the number of
years respondents
lived in the area, the more positive attitudes they
had towards tourism and tourists and the more supportive they were
for further
tourism
development
(Table
5). Not surprisingly,
economic-related
variables are the most highly correlated,
followed
by some social impact variables.
Second, age is found to be negatively correlated
with 18 impact
variables
(Table 5). In general, the younger the residents, the more
positive
perceptions
they
had towards
the
tourism
industry.
Statistically
significant variables are again those related primarily to
economic issues, followed by some social impact variables
such as
individual crimes, drug addiction, prostitution,
sexual harassment,
vandalism
and womens employment
opportunities.
Undoubtedly,
the results suggest that residents of an older age were less positively
disposed towards tourism.
Third, the results show 14 positive correlations
between number
of family members
in the household
and impact variables.
More
specifically, the higher the number of residents family members, the
more positive were their attitudes
towards the industry and the
higher their level of support for further tourism development
(Table
5). It is evident that high correlations
are the ones that refer to
economic activities and the image of the town. Variables related to
the role of women in the area are also highly correlated.
The only
negative but mild correlation
is found between number of family
members
and sexual permissiveness.
The fewer the number
of
members in the family, the more respondents
perceived tourism to
increase sexual permissiveness.
Fourth, a number of positive correlations
are found between the
number of children under 18 in the family and the impact variables.
Positive correlations
indicate that the more children under 18 respondents had in the family, the more positive were their perceptions of the
impact of tourism on certain socioeconomic issues and the higher their
level of support for the industry (Table 5). It is interesting to note that
sexual permissiveness
is again the only variable with a negative correlation. A rational explanation
might be that respondents with more
children under 18 living in their households were possibly afraid of the
tourism-induced
sexual freedom at a relative young age.
Fifth, the results of the correlations
between education
and all
impact variables
show that the more educated the residents were,

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND

PIZAM

521

Table 5. Pearson Correlations between Impact Variables and Respondents


Demographic Characteristics
Profile

Impact

Years
Living
in the
Area

Variables

Tourisms
presence
in the
area
Difference
between
locals
and tourists
Difference
between
Greek
&
foreign
tourists
Volume
of tourists
in the
area
Image
of the area
Employment
opportunities
Tax revenue
Personal
income
Standard
of living
Prices of goods and services
Attitude
towards
work
Courtesy
and hospitality
Mutual
confidence
and
sincerity
Honesty
Morality
Sexual
permissiveness
Organized
crimes
Individual
crimes
Brawls
Drug addiction
Prostitution
Sexual
harassment
Gambling/illegal
games
Vandalism/damages
Employment
for women
Socioeconomic
position
of women
Womens
participation
in
family decisions
Out migration
of young
adults
Economic
independence
of
young adults
Significant
travel of young
adults
Marriage
of young adults
New home after marriage
Overall
opinion
about
tourism
in Samos
Shadowed

numbers

indicate

Age

*XI
LA@

i&3

-.07

-.oo

-.%O -2E3

No. of
Family
Members

Variables

under
18 in
Family

Education

;:%I

$4

4%

.09

.10

.oo

-.oo

.08

.03

$8

.14

.ll

Household
Income

-.03
.Ol

$8
&@
.15

.08
.03
-.ll
-.05
.09
.35
.06
-.13
-.14
&$
-$J1
_;#
-.07

-.09
.02
.12
-.lO
-.25
-.08
&%I
&+#
&$I
-.16

+;;

+!!a
287
-.05
.I7
.02
.oo

+$

.lO
.oo
-%iis
-.04
.ll
.ll
.07
-.12
.06
.I1
;IE&

.07
-.Ol
-.99
-.08
-.Ol
$38
.12
.oo
-.07
-.Ol
.ll

-.13

-.16

.23
,12

1:

-23
.07
.05

-.15

-.14

a4

.I1

.15

-.14

-.I2

-.Ol

.12

.08

.07

.2tj

-.oo

-.08

.08

-.05
.03

.08
.09
_;s

3I
.03
;$I

statistical

significance

-.07
.03
-.15
-.oo
%I
-.14
-.02
-.oo
.I0
.11

-.15

.08

.Ol

-.09
,zQ
.02
,ar

.14
.ll
-.Ol
.14

at .05 or less.

2%

*sic
.E#
-.08
.I1
.08
.Ol
-.03
-.27
.03
*z@
1:

522

PIRCEIVI:I> IhlPACTS OF TOURISbI

the more positive


perceptions
and attitudes
they had towards
tourism (Table 5). However, only seven out of 33 impact variables
are statistically
significant.
These variables are tourisms presence
in the area, image of the area, employment
opportunities,
personal
income, standard of living, individual crime and vandalism.
Finally, household income is correlated
with the impact variables.
Statistically
significant
correlations
were found in 20 impact
variables
(Table 5). It was found that the higher the household
income of the respondents,
the more positive were their attitudes
towards tourism and the higher their level of support for the industry. Residents
with higher household
incomes
had more positive
perceptions
not only on the effects of tourism development
on the
economy, but also on its positive effects on certain social issues such
as honesty, morality and occurrence
of vandalism.
CONCLUSIONS
The current study investigated
local residents perceptions
of the
social consequences
of tourism on the town of Pythagorion,
Samos.
The results of the study discovered
that respondents
had a mixed
attitude towards tourism. On the one hand, the findings suggest that
there was a high degree of agreement
among respondents
with
regards to the positive economtc impacts of tourism on the area.
Such impacts included employment,
towns overall tax revenue and
personal
income. In addition,
it was found that the majority
of
respondents
had very positive perceptions
of the impacts of tourism
on certain issues related to the role of women and young adults in
the communitys
social and economic life.
On the other hand, despite their very favorable disposition towards
the industry, respondents
recognized the existence of some negative
social impacts. More specifically,
residents
believed that individual
crimes, brawls, vandalism, sexual harassment,
and drug abuse were
worsened or increased because of tourism. Furthermore,
respondents
felt that tourism had no impact on issues like morality, honesty, confidence among people, organized crime, prostitution,
and gambling.
However, they recognized
that local hospitality
towards strangers
also believed that
improved as a result of tourism. Respondents
tourism had a positive impact on the image of the area, and the
majority of them said that the number of tourists visiting the area
should be increased. Although respondents
seemed to be well aware
of the industrys negative impacts, most of them did not oppose the
expansion of tourism in the arca. From this, one can safely conclude
that awareness of tourisms social costs does not necessarily
lead to
opposition towards further development
of the industry.
Another important conclusion is that there is a strong relationship
between respondents
socioeconomic
characteristics
and their perceptions on the impacts of tourism. First, the analysis of the findings
suggest that direct economic dependency on the industry is the most
significant determinant
of residents attitudes toward tourism. Those
residents who had a main business relation with tourism had more
positive attitudes than those who were not involved in or associated

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND

PIZAM

523

with the industry. Second, certain sociodemographic


characteristics
play an important role in understanding
significant perceptual differences between groups of respondents.
The most crucial and explanatory of those were occupational
status, years living in the area,
number of minors in the family, size of household, education, income
and employment
of one or more family members in tourism.
The studies that have been conducted
on the social impact of
tourism, including the present one, undoubtedly
point to a single
conclusion: the social impacts of tourism are never universal. Clearly,
the intensity
and direction
of the impact depend on a variety of
sociocultural
and economic factors related to local areas and destination communities.
Further, it is closely associated with the nature
of tourism activities,
the personal characteristics
of tourists and the
rapidity
and intensity
of tourism
development.
However,
only
through
the accumulation
of knowledge
that results
from the
conduct of such comparative
studies in various regions of the world
can one better understand
tourisms social impacts. 17 0
Acknowledgment

thesis

at the

-This

University

article
is based on data collected
of Surrey,
United
Kingdom.

for the

first

authors

M.Sc

REFERENCES
Andronicou,
A.
1979 Tourism
in Cyprus. In Tourism:
Passport
to Development?
E. de Kadt, ed., pp.
237-264.
Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.
Archer,
B. H.
1973 The Impact
of Domestic
Tourism.
Bangor
Occasional
Papers
in Economics,
No. 2. Cardiff: University
of Wales Press.
1978 Domestic
Tourism
as a Development
Factor.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
.5:126141.
Baud-Boy,
M., and F. I,awson
1977 Tourism
and Recreation
Development.
London: Architectural
Press.
Boissevain,
J.
1979 Impact
of Tourism
on a Dependent
Island: Gozo, Malta. Annals
of Tourism
Research
6:76-90.
Boissevain,
J., and S. P. Inglott
1979 Tourism
in Malta. In Tourism:
Passport
to Development?
E. de Kadt, cd., pp.
265-284.
Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.
Bryden. J.
1973 Tourism
and Development:
A Case Study of the Commonwealth
Caribbean.
New York: Cambridge
University
Press.
Butler,
R. W.
1980 The
Concept
of a Tourist
Area
Cycle
of Evolution:
Implications
for
Management
of Resources.
Canadian
Geographer
24:5-12.
Cater,
B. A.
1987 Tourism
in the Least
Developed
Countries.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
14:202-226.
Chcsney-Lind,
M., and I. Y. Lind
1986 Visitors
as Victims:
Crimes
against
Tourists
in Hawaii.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
13:167-191.
Cohen,
E.
1982a Marginal
Paradises:
Bungalow
Tourism
on the Islands of Southern
Thailand.
Annals of Tourism
Research
9: 189-228.
1982b Thai Girls and Farang
Men: The Edge of Ambiguity.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
9:403428.
1984 The Sociology of Tourism:
Approaches,
Issues and Findings.
Annual
Review of
Sociology
10:373-92.

524

PERCEIVED

IMPACTS

OF TOURISM

1988a Tourism
and AIDS in Thailand.
Annals of Tourism
Research
15:46711-86.
l988b Authenticity
and Commoditization
in Tourism.
Annals of Tourism
Research
15:371-387.
Dogan,
H. Z.
1989 Forms of Adiustment:
So&cultural
lmnacts
of Tourism.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
16:216236.
Dufield,
B. S., and J. Long
1981 Tourism
in the Highlands
and Islands
of Scotland:
Rewards
and Conflicts.
Annals of Tourism
Research
8:X)3-43 1.
Epilogi
1993 The Greek Economy,
1993: Short-Term
Progress
and l,ong-Term
Problems,
Greek Economic
and Demographic
Overview.
Epilogi (Greek Economic
Journal)
Special Annual
Edition
(March).
Evans, N.
1976 Tourism
and Cross-Cultural
Communication.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
3:189-198.
Forster, J.
1964 The
Sociological
Consequences
of Tourism.
International
Journal
of
Comparative
Sociology
.5:2 17-227.
Gampcr,
J. A.
1981 Tourism
in Austria:
A Cast
Studv of the Influence
of Tourism
on Ethnic
Relations.
Annals of Tourism
Research
8:432-446.
Getz, D.
1986 Tourism
and Population
Change:
Long-Term
Impacts
of Tourism
in the
and
Strathspcy
District
of the
Scottish
Highlands.
Scottish
Badenoch,
Geographical
Magazine
102: 113-126.
Georgas,
J.
1989 Changing
Family
Values
in Grrece:
From
Collectivism
to Individualism.
Journal
of Cross-Cultural
Psycholo&?
20:80-9 1.
Graburn,
N. Ii., ed.
1976 Ethnic
and Tourist
Arts:
Cultural
Expressions
from
the Fourth
World.
Berkeley:
University
of California
Press.
Graburn,
N. H.
1983 Tourism
and Prostitution.
Annals of Tourism
Research
10:437-442.
Greenwood,
D. J.
1972 Tourism
as an Agent of Changr:
A Spanish
Basque Case. Ethnology
11:80-91.
1989 Culture
by the Pound:
An Anthropological
Perspective
on Tourism
as
Cultural
Commoditization.
1)~ Hosts and Guests:
The Anthropology
of Tourism
(2nd ed.), V. L. Smith, ed., pp. 17 l-185. Philadelphia:
University
of Pennsylvania
Press.
Hofstedc,
G.
1980 Cultures
Consequences.
Beverly Hills: Sage.
Huit, G.
1989 The Sociocultural
Effects of Tourism
in Tunisia:
A Case Study of Sousse. In
? E. de Kadt, rd., pp. 285-304.
Oxford:
Oxford
Tourism:
Passport
to Development
University
Press.
Husbands,
W.
1989 Social Status
and Perception
of Tourism
in Zambia.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
16~237-253.
Jafari, J.
1974 The Socioeconomic
Costs of Tourism
to Developing
Countries.
Annals
of
Tourism
Research
1:227-2.59.
Jud, G. D.
1975 Tourism
and Crime in Mexico. Social Sricncc
Quarterly
56:324-330.
de Kadt, E.
1979 Tourism:
Passport
to Dcvclopment?
Oxford:
Oxford Univrrsity
Press.
King, B., A. Pizam, and A. Milman,
1993 The Social Impacts
of Tourism
on Nadi, Fiji as Perceived
by its Residents.
Annals of Tourism
Research
2O:G50-665.
Kousis, M.
1989 Tourism
and the Family in a Rural Cretan
Community.
Annals
of Tourism
Research
l6:3 18-332.

HARALAMBOPOULOS

AND

PIZAM

525

LaFlamme,
A. G.
1979 The Imoact of Tourism:
A Case from the Bahamas
Islands. Annals of Tourism
Research
6: 137-148.
Lin, V. L., and P. D. Loeb
1977 Tourism
and Crime
in Mexico:
Some Comments.
Social Science
Quarterly
58:164-167.
Loeb, L. D.
1989 Creating
Antiques
for Fun and Profit:
Encounters
Between
Iranian
Jewish
Merchants
and Touring
Coreligionists.
In Hosts
and Guests:
The Anthropology
of Tourism
(2nd ed.), V. L. Smith, ed., pp. 237-246.
Philadelphia:
University
of
Pennsylvania
Press.
Loukissas,
P. J.
1982 Tourisms
Regional
Develooment
Imoacts:
A Comoarative
Analvsis
of the
Greek Islands. Annals of Tourism
Research
9:523-541.

MacKean,
P. F.
1989 Toward
a Theoretical
Analvsis
of Tourism:
Economic
Dualism
and Cultural
Involution
in Bali. In Hosts and Guests:
The Anthropology
of Tourism
(2nd ed.),
V. I,. Smith, ed., pp. 119-168.
Philadelphiia:
University
of Pennsylvania
Press.
MatNaught,
T. J.
1982 Mass
Tourism
and
the Dilemmas
of Modernization
in Pacific
Island
Communities.
Annals of Tourism
Research
9:359-381.
Mathieson,
A., and G. Wall
1982 Tourism:
Economic,
Physical
and Social Impacts.
London:
Longman.
McElroy, J. L., and K. de Albuquerque
1986 The Tourism
Demonstration
Effect
in the Caribbean.
Journal
of Travel
Research
25:3 l-34.
McPheters,
L. R., and W. B. Strong
1974 Crime
as an Environmental
Externality
of Tourism:
Miami,
Florida.
Land
Economics
50:288-29
1.
Milman,
A., and A. Pizam
1988 The Social Impacts
of Tourism
in Central
Florida. Annals of Tourism
Research
15:191-204.
Ministry
of National
Economy
1992 Annual
Statistical
Report No 2. Athens:
Ministry
of National
Economy.
Monthly
Statistical
Bulletin
of Greece
1994 Monthly
Statistical
Bulletin
39(2):73-85.
Murphy,
P. E.
1985 Tourism:
A Community
Approach.
London:
Routledge.
National
Statistical
Service of Greece
1994 Statistical
Yearbook
of Greece
1990-1991.
Athens:
National
Statistical
Service
of Greece.
Nichols,
L. L.
1976 Tourism
and Crime. Annals of Tourism
Research
3:176181
Noronha,
R.
1979 Paradise
Revisited:
Tourism
in Bali. In Tourism:
Passport
to Development?
E.
de Kadt, ed., pp. 177-204.
Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.
Pearce,
D. G.
1989 Tourist
Development
(2nd ed.). London:
Iongman.
Peck, J. G., and A. S. Lepie
1989 Tourism
and Development
in Three North Carolina
Coastal
Towns. In Hosts
and Guests: The Anthropology
of Tourism
(2nd ed.), V. I,. Smith, ed., pp. 203-222.
Philadelphia:
University
of Pennsylvania
Press.
Pizam. A.
1978 Tourisms
Impacts:
The Social
Costs
to the Destination
Community
as
Perceived
bv its Residents.
Iournal
of Travel Research
16(4):8-12.
1982 Tourism
and Crime:
1; there
a relationship?
Journal
of Travel
Research
20(3):7-l
1.
Pizam, A., and A. Milman
1984 The Social Impacts
of Tourism.
UNEP Industry
and Environment
7(1):1 I-14.
Pizam, A., and J. Pokela
1985 The Perceived
Impacts
of Casino
Gambling
on a Community.
Annals
of
Tourism
Research
12: 147-156.

526

PERCEIVED

IMPACTS

OF TOURISM

Reynoso,
Y., A. Valle, and J. I. de Rrgt
1979 Growing
Pains: Planned
Tourism
Development
in lxtapa
- Zihvatanejo.
In
Tourism:
Passport
to Developmrnt?
E. de Kadt, cd., pp. 11 I-134. Oxford: Oxford
University
Press.
Rothman,
R. A.
1978 Residents
and Transients:
Community
Reaction
to Srasonal
Visitors. Journal
of Travel Research
16(3):8-13.
Schlutrr,
R., and T. Var
1988 Resident
Attitudes
Toward Tourism
in Argentina:
A Research
Note. Annals of
Tourism
Research
15:442-445.
Smaui, A.
1979 Tourism
and Employment
in Tunisia.
In Tourism:
Passport
to Development?
In E. de Kadt, ed., pp. 101-l 10. Oxford:
Oxford University
Press.
Stansfield,
C.
1978 Atlantic
City and the Resort
Cycle:
Background
to the Legalic.ation
of
Gambling.
Annals of Tourism
Rrscarch
5:238-2.5 1.
Stott, M.
1973 Economic
Transition
and the family in Mykonos.
The Greek Review of Social
Rrsearch
17: 122-133.
Thomason,
P., J. Id. Crompton,
and B. 1). Kamp
1979 A Study of the Attitudrs
of Impacted
Groups
Within
a Host Communit)
Toward
Prolonged
Stay Tourist
Visitors. Journal
of Travel Research
17(3):2-6.
Travis, A. S.
1984 Social and Cultural
Aspects
of Tourism.
UNEP Industry
and Environment
7( 1):22-24.
Triandis,
H. C., and V. Vassiliou
1972 A Comparative
Analysis
of Subjective
Culture.
In The Analysis
of Subjective
Culture,
H. C. Triandis,
cd., pp. 29%335.
New York: Wiley.
Triandis,
H. C., el al
1986 The Measurement
of I-tic Aspects
of Individualism
and Collectivism
Across
Cultures.
Australian
Journal
of lsycholo<gy 383237-267.
Tsartas,
P.
1989 The Social and Economic
Impacts
of Tourist
Development
in the Cycladic
Islands,
with Particular
Refercncc
to 10s and Serifos. Brtween
1950-85
(Greek
Text). Athens:
National
Centrc
of Social Research.
Turner,
i., and J. Ash
197.5 The Golden
Hordes:
International
Tourism
and the Plcasure
Periphrn;.
I,ondon:
Constable.
UNESCO
1976 The Effects of Tourism
on Sociocultural
Values. Annals of Tourism
Research
4:74-105.
Urbanowiz,
C. F.
1989 Tourism
in Tonga Revisited:
Continued
Tr.oublrd
Times? In Hosts and Guests:
The
Anthropology
of Tourism
(2nd
ed.), V. L. Smith,
cd., pp.
105-1 18.
Philadelphia:
University
of Pennsylvania
Press.
Vassiliou,
V., and G. Vassiliou
1973 The Implicative
Meaning
of the Greek Concept
of lhilotimo.
Journal
of CrossCultural
Psychology
4(3):32&341.
Williams,
T. A.
1979 Impact
of Domestic:
Tourism
in Host Population:
The Evolution
of a Model.
Tourist
Recreation
Research
4( 1): 15-21.
Wilson, D.
1979 The Earlv Effects
of Tourism
in the Seychelles.
Zri Tourism:
Passport
to
Development3
E. de Kadt, ed., pp. 205-236.
Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.
Young, G.
1973 Tourism:
Blessing
or Blight? 1Iarmondsworth:
Penguin.
Submitted
4 February
1994
Resubmitted
23 October
1994
Accepted
1 December
1994
Refereed
anonymously
Coordinating
Editor: Jeremy
1:. Boisscvain

Centres d'intérêt liés