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Name of student ________________ Murti

Teacher’s Name : Sumathi

 

Class

:

Y7A2

 

Lesson No

:

48

Date

:

22-8-2016(Mon)

 

Time

:

10.20am-12.40pm

SERI OMEGA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

Subject

:

Science

Topic

:

9 The Earth

Sub-Topic:

:

Soil More about soil

____________________________________________________________________

Vital soil

  • 1. Soil is vital. It holds plant

.....................

in place, and provides plants with

essential

...........................

Without soil, there would be few ................

Without plants, there would be few animals.

What is soil?

2. Soil is a .............................. The pie chart shows its main components. The components of a
2. Soil is a
..............................
The pie chart shows its main components.
The components of a typical soil
Water; 25; 25%
Humus; 5; 5%
Rock Fragments; 45; 45%
Air; 25; 25%

3.

A typical soil is made up of the following components:

  • a) Rock fragments - small pieces of

........................

They come from

rocks that have been broken up by ..........................

  • b) Air- all plant organs respire, including their roots. They need a good

supply of

When water is removed from soil, air

 

replaces it.

  • c) Water-is a vital part of soil. Plants use their roots to absorb water.

Soil nutrients

..................

in water, so plant roots can take them in.

  • d) Humus- is made up of decayed

and

It is a

store of nutrients for microbes.

  • 4. Soil is also

...........................

to lots of living things, like earthworms,

insects, and other small animals. These help with decay processes and

change soil structure.

Soil types

  • 5. Rock fragments in soil have different sizes. Their sizes help determine the

properties of a soil, and how well plants grow in it.

  • 6. Scientists have classified the size of rock fragments as following:

Name of rock fragment

Fragment diameter (mm)

Small stones

More than .........

Sand

0.05-2.00

Silt

0.002-0.05

Clay

Less than .........

  • 7. The different types of rock fragment can be separated by adding water to

soil in a measuring cylinder, shaking and leaving it to settle.

  • 8. The main types of soils are:

  • a) Clay soil- At least 40 % of the rock fragments are clay

  • b) Sandy soil -Most of the rock fragments are sand.

  • c) Loam-The rock fragments in this soil are 40 % sand, 40 % silt, and 20 % clay.

Soil Properties

9. The properties of

Soil Properties 9. The properties of a soil determine how well things grow in it. You

a soil determine how well things grow in

it. You can compare several important soil properties in the laboratory- or

outside.

Soil texture

  • 10. To find out about the texture of a soil, rub it between your thumb and

fingers.

  • a) Sandy soil feels ..................

  • b) Dry silty soils feel ...................

  • c) Clay soils feel

Soil drainage

..............

when wet and

..............

when dry.

  • 11. Water drains quickly through some soils, and slowly through others.

  • 12. You can use the apparatus below to test soil drainage.

a) Salama takes three soil samples (a, b and c) of the same mass. b) She
a)
Salama
takes three
soil samples (a, b and c) of the same mass.
b)
She pours 100 cm 3 water on each sample.
c)
She measures the volume of collected water in the beaker after 30

minutes. Her results are in table.

Type of soil

Volume of water collected in 30

minutes (cm 3 )

clay

19

sand

91

loam

52

Y7A2 Science/Chemistry Chapter 9: The Earth

3

  • 13. The results show that water drains most quickly through sandy soil.

    • 14. This means that, in sandy soil, water is available to plant roots for just

a short time. Soluble nutrients leave the soil quickly.

 

Note!

 

Soil is made up of rock fragments, humus, living things, air and water.

The main types of soil are clay, loam, and sand.

You can test soils for texture and drainage.

Practise

  • 1. Name the four main components of soil. i)

______________________________________________ ii) ______________________________________________ iii)

______________________________________________

iv)

______________________________________________

  • 2. Describe how to separate soil components. ___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___

  • 3. Describe and explain three differences between a sandy soil and a clay soil.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___

  • 4. Predict which will drain more quickly- sandy soil or clay soil. Explain why.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___

  • 5. Draw lines

 

Plants need this for respiration

Rock fragments

Helps to give the soil its structure

humus

Plants need this for photosynthesis

way water in

A store of nutrients for

air

microorganisms

to match each soil

components to one

which it is useful.

More about soil

Soil water content

  • 1. Different types of soil can hold different amounts of water in their (space

between the solid matter). The table below the percentage of soil that is

water for three different soil samples.

Type of

Percentage of soil that is water when the smallest

soil

pores are filled with water and the biggest pores

are filled with air and water

Sand

7

Loam

18

Clay

23

Soil air content

  • 2. The amount of

___________________________________________________________________________ ___ 5. Draw lines Plants need this for respiration Rock fragments Helps to give the

air in a sample

of soil depends on how wet the soil is. Soil pores can be filled with air or

water.

  • 3. The more water in the soil, the

..............

space there is for air.

4.

Pavan and Badal take soil samples to school. They want to compare the

amounts of air in the two soils. This is what they do:

  • a) Place 100 cm 3 soil in a measuring cylinder

  • b) Add water to the 200 cm 3 mark

  • c) Stir until there are no more air bubbles leaving the soil.

  • d) Read the new water level on the measuring cylinder.

  • e) Calculate the volume of air in the soil. This is: the original water level(200cm 3 ) – new water level after stirring.

The students’ results are in the table below

Soil

First reading of

Final water level

Volume of air in

sample

water level(cm 3 )

reading (cm 3 )

soil sample

(cm 3 )

Pavan

200

190

Badal

200

170

Soil pH

  • 5. Ayu and Dian are at the same school. Ayu’s family grow cassava and

sweet potatoes on their farm. They tried growing peanuts, but the crop

was poor. Dian’s family grow peanuts and soya beans.

  • 6. Ayu and Dian asks a question:

Why do different crops grow well on the two farms?

  • 7. The students wonder if soil pH is the reason. They collect evidence to test their idea. Ayu and Dian each take sample of soil. They record their soil pH values

Farm

Soil pH

Ayu

7.5

Dian

6.0

8. Ayu and Dian also collect evidence from secondary sources on the

Internet. They find out the preferred soil pH for four crops.

Crop

Preferred soil pH

Cassava

4.5 to 7.5(tolerates 4 to 8)

Sweet potatoes

5.5 to 6.5(tolerates 4.5 to 7.5)

Peanuts

Best is 6.0

Soya beans

Best is 6.0

9. Ayu and Dian write an explanation to answer their question:

Soil pH explains why different crops grow well on our farms. Dian’s

crops grow well on soil of pH 6.0. Ayu’s crops grow in soil of higher

pH.

  • 10. If Ayu’s family want to grow peanuts and soya beans they will

need to lower their soil pH by adding acid.

Soil Colour

  • 11. Soil colour provides evidence for the

................

in soil. Red soils

may be rich in ............

minerals.

Humus-rich soils are

or

dark brown.

 
 

Note!

 

You can measure soil air content and pH.

 

Different crops grow best in soils of different pH.

Practise

1.

Name the elements present in red soil minerals.

i)

______________________________________________

ii) ______________________________________________

 
 

iii)

______________________________________________

iv)

2.

______________________________________________

Describe how to measure the amount of air in a soil sample.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___

  • 3. A third student measured soil air content, like Pavan and Badal. The first water level reading was 200 cm 3 . The final water level reading was 180 cm 3 . Calculate the volume of air in the soil.

  • 4. The steps below describe how to measure the amount of air in the soil sample. They are in the wrong order.

A. Place 100 cm3 soil in measuring cylinder

  • B. Do a calculation to work out the volume of air in the original soil

  • C. Add water to the 200 cm3 mark

  • D. Read the new water volume on the measuring cylinder

  • E. Stir until air bubbles stop leaving the soil.

Write the correct order in the boxes below. The first one has been done for

you.

A
A

5.The students collected soil samples from home. At school, they used the

method described in question 4 to find the volume of air in their samples.

Their results are in table.

Soil sample

First reading of

Final reading of

Volume of air in

from ...

water level

water

soil

(cm 3 )

level(cm 3 )

sample(cm 3 )

Hannah

200

186

Ruth

200

164

Rachel

200

190

  • a) Complete the table by calculating the volume of air in each soil sample.

  • b) Whose soil has the most air in it?

___________________________________________________________________________

_

6. Three students measured the pH of the soil on their farms. They also

wrote down the soil pH preferred by different crops.

Soil sample

Soil pH

from ..

Chenzira

7.0

Maiba

6.5

Zuka

8.5

Crop

Preferred soil

pH

Maize

5.5 to 7.0

Spinach

6.0 to 7.0

Sweet potato

5.0 to 6.0

  • a) Suggest two crops that would grow well on Maiba’s farm. ___________________________________________________________________________ _

  • b) On whose farm or farms is maize likely to grow well? ___________________________________________________________________________ _

  • c) Zuka wants to grow spinach on his farm. What type of substance might he add to the soil? Suggest why. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ __