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FCE 401 DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES (SDOF)

TUTORIAL QUESTIONS No. 1 FREE VIBRATION

 Q1. A beam of 1.5m length is simply supported at its ends and carries a mass of 450kg at mid-span. The beam is rectangular in cross-section, 300mm wide x 50mm deep. The modulus of elasticity E = 70kN/mm 2 . If the weight of the beam is ignored, determine: (i). The natural angular velocity of the system. (ii). The angular frequency of vibration when it has a damping force of 0.25 x the critical value. Q2. A body of mass 10kg is hung on a spring of stiffness 1000N/m. It is pulled down 60mm below the position of static equilibrium and released so that it executes vertical vibrations. There is a viscous damping force of 50Ns/m. Obtain an expression for the displacement as function of time. Q3. An instrument consists essentially of a mass of 100g whose movement is controlled by a spring a viscous damper. A free, damped vibration of periodic time 0.5s gives the followings for successive displacements on either side of the equilibrium position at which the reading is 60: 70, 55, 62.5, 58.75, 60.62. Determine: (i). The logarithmic decrement, δ (ii). The damping ratio, ξ (iii). The natural angular frequency of the system, ω. (iv). The angular frequency of the damped motion, ω D . (v). The stiffness of the spring, k. (vi). The force exerted by the damper at a speed of 1m/s, c. Q4. A body of mass 5kg is supported on a spring of stiffness 2500N/m. The mass is initially displaced downwards by 100mm from the equilibrium position and the released. (i). Determine the expression for the displacement ignoring the effects of air resistance and friction. (ii). What will the position and velocity of the mass be 3s from the time of release? Q5. A 453g mass attached to a light spring elongates 7.87mm. Determine the natural frequency of the system. Q6. A spring – mass system k 1 , m has a natural frequency f 1 . If a second spring is k 2 is added in series with the first spring, the natural frequency is lowered to 0.5f 1 . Determine k 2 in terms of k 1 . Q7. A machine of mass 2 metric tones is supported on springs which have an equivalent stiffness of 25kN/m. A dashpot with a damping constant of 1kNs/m is is attached between the machine and the ground parallel with the springs. The machine is displaced downwards by 15mm and then released. Determine the maximum upwards displacement from the equilibrium position and the time taken to reach this position. Q8. A body of mass 10kg is hung on a spring of stiffness 1.5kN/m. It is pulled down 50mm below the position of static equilibrium and then released so that it executes vertical vibrations. There is a viscous damping force acting on the system with a damping ratio of 0.20. Calculate the time taken by the mass to reach the highest position of its motion after release and the highest distance traveled by the mass above the position of rest. Q9. A cantilever beam of length L carries a mass of 150kg at its free end. The beam has a modulus of elasticity E = 210kN/mm 2 and a moment of inertia I = 1.60 x 10 6 mm 4 . The system has a damping coefficient c = 3000Ns/m. Ignoring the weight of the beam, determine: (i). The length of the beam, L C below which oscillatory motion cannot take place. (ii). The angular frequency, ω D and the period of vibration, T D when L = 0.5L C . Q10. Determine the natural frequency and period of vibration of a mass ‘m’ attached to the free end of a light cantilever beam of length ‘L’ and flexural rigidity ‘EI’. Ignore damping. Q11. If the amplitude of free vibration of a system with one degree of freedom decreases by 50% in 3 cycles, what is the damping coefficient. Q12. A wooden beam of length 2m is simply supported at its ends. The beam is rectangular in cross-section. 300mm wide x 30mm deep. The modulus of elasticity E = 11 x 10 3 N/mm 2 . A concentrated mass of 300kg is attached to the beam at mid-span. Determine the equivalent stiffness of the beam and the natural frequency of the system. Ignore the weight of the beam and all damping forces.

Q13. A mass of 25kg is suspended from springs arranged as shown. All springs are of equal stiffness with a value of 2N/mm. The mass is pulled down 100mm and then released to vibrate freely. A careful observation of the motion revealed that the mass completed 135 up and down motions in one minute. Determine:

 (i). The effective stiffness of the springs. (ii). The angular frequency of the motion in cycles per second. (iii). The damping ratio of the system. (iv). The maximum speed of the mass.
k1
k2
k3
m

Q14.

Q15.

The beam shown in has one end built-in and one end free. The beam projects over a cantilever span of 2m. The beam has a unit mass of 23.07kg/m, a moment of inertia in the vertical direction, I = 4.86 x 10 6 mm 4 , and a modulus of elasticity, E = 205kN/mm 2 . When the end of the beam is pulled down by 10mm and released the beam vibrates and attains a maximum displacement above its initial position of rest of 8.6mm, reducing by 10% every third peak above the initial position of rest. Determine the inherent resistance to vibratory motion in the system in N/ms -1 .

2m

A frame ABCD is built in at A and D. Column AB is of height 2m and column CD is of height 3m. The beam BC

is of length 4m. The frame is of steel of modulus of elasticity 210kN/mm 2 and has other properties as listed below:

 Unit mass of beam, q b = 25.2 kg/m. Unit mass of columns, q c = 23.0 kg/m. Moment of inertia in the direction of motion of the system, I = 1250 x 10 4 mm 4 .

A force is applied at point B that displaces by 10mm towards C. When the force is removed the frame vibrates and the following displacements of point B from its position of rest are taken: 10mm, -5.00mm, 2.50mm,m -1.25mm, 0.62mm. Determine:

 (i) The damping force in the system. (ii) The equation of the motion of the system.