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AS/NZS 2033:2008 Installation of polyethylene pipe systems

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

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(Incorporating Amendment Nos 1 and 2)

AS/NZS 2033:2008

Australian/New Zealand Standard

Installation of polyethylene pipe


systems

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AS/NZS 2033:2008
This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical
Committee PL-006, Polyolefin Pipe Systems. It was approved on behalf of the
Council of Standards Australia on 10 April 2008 and on behalf of the Council of
Standards New Zealand on 9 April 2008.
This Standard was published on 19 May 2008.

The following are represented on Committee PL-006:


AUSTAP
Certification Interests (Australia)
CSIRO Manufacturing & Infrastructure Technology
Energy Networks Association
Engineers Australia
Master Plumbers, Gasfitters and Drainlayers New Zealand
New Zealand Water and Waste Association
Plastics Industry Pipe Association of Australia
Plastics New Zealand
Water Services Association of Australia

Keeping Standards up-to-date


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systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and
new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.
Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves
they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments which
may have been published since the Standard was purchased.
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visiting the Standards Web Shop at www.standards.com.au or Standards New
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Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at the address shown on the back
cover.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 07337.

AS/NZS 2033:2008

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(Incorporating Amendment Nos 1 and 2)

Australian/New Zealand Standard


Installation of polyethylene pipe
systems

Originated as AS 20331977.
Previous edition 1980.
Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 2033:2008.
Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (October 2008).
Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 2 (June 2009).

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Jointly published by Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001 and Standards
New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6020

ISBN 0 7337 8705 3

AS/NZS 2033:2008

PREFACE

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This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
Committee PL-006, Polyolefin Pipe Systems to supersede AS 20331980.
This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (October 2008) and Amendment No. 2 (June
2009). The changes required by the Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar
and amendment number against the clause, note, table, figure or part thereof affected.
The objective of this Standard is to provide uniform procedures for the installation of
polyethylene (PE) pipe systems for both above and below ground applications.
The objective of this revision is to update the Standard with respect to current practice and
publish it as a joint Australian/New Zealand Standard.
This Standard primarily addresses the installation of polyethylene (PE) pipes and fittings
for plumbing, industrial and irrigation applications and is not intended to replace industry
specific installation codes or regulations.
For plumbing applications, reference should also be made to AS/NZS 3500, Plumbing and
drainage (all parts). For above ground applications using structured wall pipes, reference
should also be made to the manufacturer.
For installations conveying gaseous fluids, reference should be made to AS 5601, Gas
installations and AS 3723, Installation and maintenance of plastics pipe systems for gas, as
appropriate and in New Zealand NZS 5258, Gas distribution.
NOTE: Reference to AS 3723 correct at time of publishing, however, future reference will be
made to AS 4645, Gas distribution networks, Part 3: Plastics pipe systems.

For water supply and sewerage network infrastructure involving the design and installation
of PE pipe systems, reference should be made to Water Services Association of Australia
(WSAA) codes.
For design and installation of buried flexible pipelines, reference should be made to
AS/NZS 2566.1, Buried flexible pipelines Part 1: Structural design and AS/NZS 2566.2,
Buried flexible pipelines, Part 2: Installation or ISO 21138-1.
A bibliography is provided in Appendix A for references that may be used to provide more
detailed explanations or information regarding the installation of PE pipes.
For electrical installations, reference should be made to AS/NZS 3000, Electrical
installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules).
Australian and New Zealand Standards generally do not
(a)

restate the duties of employers, employees, designers and installers; or

(b)

determine the applicability of regulatory limitations; or

(c)

determine appropriate health and safety practices.

Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables are deemed to be requirements


of this Standard. Notes to text are for information and guidance only.
The term informative has been used in this Standard to define the application of the
appendix to which it applies. An informative appendix is only for information and
guidance.

AS/NZS 2033:2008

CONTENTS

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Page
SECTION 1 SCOPE, DEFINITIONS AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 5
1.3 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 6
SECTION 2 PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ................................................................................................. 8
2.2 PIPE AND FITTINGS ................................................................................................. 8
2.3 HANGERS AND CLIPS ............................................................................................. 9
2.4 PIPE EMBEDMENT AND TRENCH-FILL MATERIALS ........................................ 9
2.5 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................... 9
SECTION 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 10
3.2 TRANSPORT, HANDLING AND STORAGE ......................................................... 10
3.3 PRE-INSTALLATION INSPECTION ...................................................................... 10
3.4 PROTECTION AGAINST DAMAGE ...................................................................... 11
3.5 REPLACEMENT OF METALLIC WATER SUPPLY PIPELINES.......................... 11
3.6 STATIC ELECTRICITY ........................................................................................... 11
3.7 TEMPERATURE CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................... 11
3.8 EFFECT OF WATER HAMMER OR PRESSURE SURGES ................................... 13
SECTION 4 JOINTING METHODS
4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 14
4.2 FUSION JOINTS....................................................................................................... 14
4.3 MECHANICAL COMPRESSION FITTINGS .......................................................... 14
4.4 ELASTOMERIC SEAL JOINTS............................................................................... 14
4.5 FLANGED JOINTS .................................................................................................. 15
4.6 THREADED JOINTS................................................................................................ 15
4.7 REPAIR FITTINGS .................................................................................................. 15
4.8 CONNECTION OF PE PIPES AND FITTINGS TO PIPES AND FITTINGS OF
OTHER MATERIALSOTHER THAN THREADS AND FLANGES ................... 16
4.9 SERVICE CONNECTIONS ...................................................................................... 16
SECTION 5 INSTALLATION OF BURIED PIPES AND FITTINGS
5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 17
5.2 PIPELINE INSTALLATION USING TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY................... 17
5.3 PIPE INSTALLATION IN A TRENCH .................................................................... 17
5.4 PIPE INSTALLATION IN AN EMBANKMENT..................................................... 21
SECTION 6 INSTALLATION OF PIPES ABOVE GROUND
6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 22
6.2 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 22
6.3 SUPPORT OF PIPELINES........................................................................................ 23
6.4 PROVISION FOR EXPANSION ............................................................................. 25

AS/NZS 2033:2008

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Page
SECTION 7 TESTING OF PIPE SYSTEM
7.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 30
7.2 TESTING OF PRESSURE PIPE SYSTEMS............................................................. 30
7.3 TESTING OF NON-PRESSURE PIPELINES........................................................... 32
7.4 DEFLECTION TESTING ......................................................................................... 34
7.5 CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV) INSPECTION...................................... 34
SECTION 8 COMMISSIONING ........................................................................................... 37
SECTION 9 COMPRESSED GASES
9.1 SCOPE ...................................................................................................................... 36
9.2 CONTENTS IDENTIFICATION .............................................................................. 36
9.3 PRESSURE RATING (PN, SDR) AND TEMPERATURE RERATING .................. 36
9.4 JOINT TYPES........................................................................................................... 37
9.5 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE...................................................................................... 37
9.6 UV RESISTANCE .................................................................................................... 37
9.7 PRECAUTIONS........................................................................................................ 37

APPENDICES
A
BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................... 38
B
COMMISSIONING GUIDE...................................................................................... 39

AS/NZS 2033:2008

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND


Australian/New Zealand Standard

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Installation of polyethylene pipe systems

SECT ION 1
SCOPE, DEF I N I T I ONS
MAT E R I A L RE Q U I RE M E N T S

AND

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard sets out methods for handling, storage, installation, testing and
commissioning of polyethylene (hereinafter referred to as PE) pipelines, above or below
ground, for both pressure and non-pressure applications conveying fluids.
NOTE: Where PE pipelines are to be installed underground the safe installation depths are
calculated by reference to AS/NZS 2566.2.

This Standard applies to PE pipe systems that carry liquids under either pressure or gravity
flow situations and the components of which comply with, but are not limited to, the
following:
(a)

AS 2698.2PE rural pipe.

(b)

AS/NZS 4129Fittings for PE pipes for pressure applications.

(c)

AS/NZS 4130PE pipes for pressure applications.

(d)

AS 4176Polyethylene/aluminium and cross-linked polyethylene/aluminium macrocomposite pipes for pressure applications.

(e)

AS/NZS 4401PE pipe for soil and waste discharge.

(f)

AS/NZS 4798(Int)PE maintenance shafts.

(g)

AS 4799Underground installation within railway boundaries.

(h)

AS/NZS 5065PE and PP pipes for drainage and sewerage.

1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES


The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
AS
1345

Identification of the contents of pipes, conduits and ducts

1646

Elastomeric seals for waterworks purposes (all parts)

2698
2698.2

Plastics pipes and fittings for irrigation and rural applications


Part 2: Polyethylene rural pipe

4176

Polyethylene/aluminium and cross-linked polyethylene/aluminium macrocomposite pipe systems for pressure applications

4799

Installation of underground utility services and pipelines within railway


boundaries

AS/NZS
2566
2566.1
2566.2

Buried flexible pipelines


Part 1: Structural design
Part 2: Installation

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

AS/NZS
2648
2648.1

Underground marking tape


Part 1: Non-detectable tape

3500
3500.0
3500.1
3500.5

Plumbing and drainage


Part 0: Glossary of terms
Part 1: Water services
Part 5: Domestic

4020

Testing of products for use in contact with drinking water

4129

Fittings for polyethylene (PE) pipes for pressure applications

4130

Polyethylene (PE) pipes for pressure applications

4327

Metal-banded flexible couplings for low-pressure applications

4401

Plastics piping systems for soil and waste discharge (low and high temperature)
inside buildingsPolyethylene (PE)

4793

Mechanical tapping bands for waterworks services*

4798(Int)

Polyethylene maintenance shafts

5065

Polyethylene and polypropylene pipes and fittings for drainage and sewerage
applications

ISO/TR
10358

Plastics pipes and fittingsCombined chemical resistance classification table

WSAA
PS-318

Marking tape, detectable

01

Polyethylene pipeline code

05

Sewer inspection reporting code of Australia

NZWWA

Pipe Inspection Manual, 2006

1.3 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard the definitions in AS/NZS 3500.0 and those below apply.
1.3.1 Embankment and trench zones
Embankment and trench zones as shown in AS/NZS 2566.2.
1.3.2 Fixed point
A point at which axial movement of the pipe or fitting is restrained.
NOTE: For example
(a)

at the fixed (clipped) part of an expansion joint fitting;

(b)

at junctions and bends except where alternative provision for expansion is made
(see Clause 6.4.3(c)); or

(c)

at connections to fixtures [except where movement is accommodated at a trap,


(see Clause 6.4.3(d))] and drains [except where movement is possible at the drain
connection (see Clause 6.4.3(b))].

1.3.3 Permeation
The passage or diffusion of a gas, vapour, liquid or solid through a product without the
product being physically or chemically affected.

* In course of preparation.
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AS/NZS 2033:2008

1.3.4 Shall
Indicates a mandatory requirement.
1.3.5 Should

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Indicates a recommendation, i.e. text that is not a mandatory requirement but given for
guidance.

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

SECT ION

PRODUCTS

AND

MATE R IA L S

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2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies requirements for products and materials used for the installation of
PE pipe systems.
2.2 PIPE AND FITTINGS
2.2.1 PE pipes and fittings
Pipes and fittings installed in accordance with this Standard shall comply with the relevant
Standards given in Clause 1.1.
In Australia, for plumbing and drainage applications, PE pipes and fittings shall be
authorized in accordance with the Plumbing C
ode of Australia (PCA). In New Zealand, for plumbing and drainage applications, PE pipes
and fittings shall meet the requirements of the AS/NZS 3500 series of standards.
2.2.2 Chemical resistance
Where the application is for the conveyance of chemicals, information on the suitability of
PE pipe for that application may be found in ISO/TR 10358 or obtained from
manufacturers.
It shall be necessary to assess the effects of external chemical contamination.
For installations in contaminated ground the suitability of PE for that service shall be
determined. Such contamination may take the form of actual attack on the material,
affecting the systems structural integrity, or it may permeate the pipe or fitting, not
adversely affecting structural strength but potentially tainting pipe contents. Such
permeation might not be an issue for pipes that do not convey drinking water (see
Clause 2.3).
In drainage applications, the tables of chemical resistance may need to be varied to take
account of the concentration of the chemicals, temperature of the liquid, and the duration of
contact (e.g. a laboratory drainage system).
For pipes joined with elastomeric seals consideration shall be given to the chemical
resistance of the seals.
Mechanical joint fittings and their components may also need to be considered.
NOTE: Further guidance on chemical resistance is available from the relevant sources listed in
Appendix A. Alternatively, refer to the pipe manufacturer.

2.2.3 Permeation
Permeation of pipes and fittings by chemicals may be a consideration arising from the fluid
to be transported, or an external influence such as ground contamination.
For PE, as with other materials, including those used for jointing, permeation depends upon
the concentration of the contaminant and its nature.
In instances involving significant levels of contamination, expert advice should be sought.
2.2.4 Elastomeric seals
Elastomeric seals shall comply with the applicable Parts of the AS 1646 series of Standards
and shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer of the socketed
pipe or fitting. For drinking and recycled water applications, elastomeric seals shall comply
with AS/NZS 4020.
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AS/NZS 2033:2008

2.2.5 Lubricants for elastomeric seals and expansion joints


Lubricants used in conjunction with elastomeric seals shall be those specified by the
manufacturer of the socketed pipe or fitting. For drinking and recycled water applications,
lubricants shall also comply with AS/NZS 4020.

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2.3 HANGERS AND CLIPS


Sliding joints, pipe hangers and clips shall be constructed so that, when fully tightened,
longitudinal movement of the pipe is possible without damage to the pipe or fitting.
Anchor clips for fixed points shall be constructed so that, when fully tightened, the fitting
or pipe is securely and evenly clamped to prevent movement. Care shall be taken to ensure
that pipes and fittings are not distorted by over-tightening.
2.4 PIPE EMBEDMENT AND TRENCH-FILL MATERIALS
Embedment and trench-fill materials shall comply with the AS/NZS 3500 series,
AS/NZS 2566 parts 1 and 2 or specific industry standards, as required.
2.5 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Specialized tools and equipment used in the installation, repair, testing and commissioning
of PE pipes and fittings shall be as recommended by the pipe and fittings manufacturers.

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

SEC T I O N

10

G E N E RA L

RE Q U IRE M E N T S

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3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies general requirements for the installation of PE pipe systems and their
handling, transport, storage and inspection.
3.2 TRANSPORT, HANDLING AND STORAGE
3.2.1 General
PE pipes and fittings shall be transported, handled and stored with care by the installer at all
times to avoid physical damage (e.g. gouging, scoring, scratching, localized deformation,
excessive ovalization or impact damage) that could adversely affect performance.
3.2.2 Transportation
When being transported, pipe shall be supported in a secure manner to prevent damage or
excessive distortion of the pipe.
3.2.3 Storage
The storage area provided for pipe shall
(a)

be a flat surface free of any sharp stone or projection, which may cause damage or
localized deformation to the pipe; and

(b)

be suitable for the use of the proposed loading and unloading equipment without the
risk of accidental damage to the pipe.

For pipes to AS/NZS 4130 other than plain black pipes, if the total period of exposed
storage outdoors is likely to exceed 24 months, pipes and fittings shall be covered.
Pipes and fittings that are not UV stabilized shall be covered at all times or stored indoors.
Stacking of pipes during storage shall be in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.
Joint lubricants shall be stored in sealed containers until ready for use.
3.3 PRE-INSTALLATION INSPECTION
3.3.1 Correct supply
Before installation, pipes and fittings shall be inspected to ensure that they are of the type,
size and classification specified for the installation. Any items that are not according to the
specifications shall be replaced.
3.3.2 Cleanliness
Pipes and fittings shall also be inspected to ensure they are free of obstructions and foreign
materials, which might interfere with the performance of the pipeline, and be cleaned if
necessary.
3.3.3 Fitness for use
The outside surfaces of pipes and fittings shall be visually checked for damage immediately
prior to installation. The allowable damage to the external surface shall be up to 10% of the
wall thickness. Kinks in pipe shall not be installed, re-rounded or repaired by reheating.
Pipe and fitting spigot ends, and spigot ends of cut pipe lengths, shall also be checked for
excessive ovality. Excessively oval pipe and fitting spigots ends may be re-rounded.
Pipes may be cut to remove damaged sections and the remaining sections may be used.
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11

AS/NZS 2033:2008

3.4 PROTECTION AGAINST DAMAGE


3.4.1 General
Pipework installed in locations or operating under conditions where they may be subject to
mechanical damage shall be suitably protected, including during the construction stage.

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3.4.2 Protection from heat


Pipelines shall not be installed adjacent to heat sources, such as boilers, naked flame, hot
water or steam lines, where the temperature of the pipework may exceed the design
temperature of the pipe system.
3.5 REPLACEMENT OF METALLIC WATER SUPPLY PIPELINES
Any work on existing metallic pipe shall be conducted in accordance with the appropriate
Section of AS/NZS 3500.1 or AS/NZS 3500.5.
NOTE: Metallic water pipes often serve as an earth for electric systems within the property.

3.6 STATIC ELECTRICITY


Static electric charges may be generated on the surface of PE pipes by the effects of friction
during handling, laying and operation of pipes. Where the discharge of electricity from
static electricity build-up could cause problems (e.g. in explosive atmospheres) steps shall
be taken to ensure that static electricity is not generated or that it can be discharged safely.
3.7 TEMPERATURE CONSIDERATIONS
3.7.1 Pressure re-rating due to thermal effects
3.7.1.1 Temperature of pipe wall
The pressure rating of PE pressure pipe shall be based on the temperature of the pipe wall,
which may be determined from
(a)

an assumption of a constant pipe wall temperature typical for continuous service at a


set temperature, e.g. cold water service; or

(b)

the determination of an average service temperature where temperature variations are


likely to occur in a predictable pattern, e.g. in cavity walls or roof spaces; or

(c)

the maximum service temperature less 10C for installations where large
unpredictable temperature variations occur up to a maximum of 80C, e.g. aboveground installations such as irrigation systems.

For Items (a) (b) and (c), the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) shall be in
accordance with values in Tables 3.1 and Table 3.2.
NOTE: The values tabled are for materials typically used in Australia and New Zealand.

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

12

TABLE 3.1
MAOP, METRES HEAD
PE 80B

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Temperature
C

PN 3.2

PN 4

PN 6.3

PN 8

PN 10

20

32

40

63

80

100

25

32

40

63

80

30

28

35

55

35

26

32

40

24

45

PN 12.5

PN 16

PN 20

125

160

200

100

125

160

200

70

88

109

140

175

50

64

80

100

128

160

30

47

60

75

94

120

150

22

28

44

56

70

88

112

140

50*

21

26

41

52

65

81

104

130

55*

19

24

38

48

60

75

96

120

* At 50 and 55C the extrapolated performance of the pipe cannot be predicted beyond 36 and 24 years
respectively based on current data.

TABLE 3.2
MAOP, METRES HEAD
PE 100
Temperature
C

A1

PN 3.2

PN 4

PN 6.3

PN 8

20

32

40

63

80

25

32

40

63

30

30

38

35

29

40

PN 10

PN 12.5

PN 16

PN 20

PN 25

100

125

160

200

250

80

100

125

160

200

250

59

75

94

118

150

188

235

36

56

71

89

112

143

179

224

27

34

53

68

84

106

135

169

221

45

25

32

50

64

80

100

127

159

199

50*

24

30

48

60

76

95

121

151

189

55*

23

29

45

57

72

89

115

143

179

* At 50 and 55C the extrapolated performance of the pipe cannot be predicted beyond 36 and 24 years
respectively based on current data.

3.7.1.2 Predictable temperature variations


For installations where predictable temperature variations occur, the average material
temperature shall be determined from Item (a) or Item (b) as follows:
(a)

Across the wall of the pipe, the material temperature taken as the mean of the internal
and external pipe surface temperatures, where a temperature differential exists
between the fluid in the pipe and the external environmental.

(b)

The pressure and temperature condition, where flow is stopped for prolonged periods,
shall also be checked. In this event, fluid temperature and outside temperature may
equalize.

(c)

With respect to time, the average temperature may be considered as the weighted
average of temperatures for the proportion of time spent at each temperature under
operational pressures; it shall be calculated from the following equation:

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13

AS/NZS 2033:2008

T m = T 1L 1 + T 2L 2 + + Tn L n
where

Tn

= average pipe material temperature for a proportion of pipe life, in C

= proportion of life spent at temperature T n

NOTE: This approximation is reasonable provided the temperature variations from the mean
do not exceed 10C, which is generally the case for pipes buried at depths 300 mm below
finished surface level.

3.7.2 Provision for expansion and contraction


Figure 3.1 shows the thermal linear expansion of PE pipe. PE 80 and PE 100 have a coefficient of expansion of 18 10 5/C.

       

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T m = average pipe material temperature for the period of time under


consideration, in C


 

 

   

 

   




          

FIGURE 3.1 THERMAL LINEAR EXPANSION OF PE PIPE

Where a pipe is being buried during hot or cold weather, expansion or contraction of the
pipeline may take place as the pipe adjusts to ground temperature during backfilling. In
these cases, where no elastomeric seal joints are included, final connection and backfilling
should not take place until the pipe is at approximately the normal service temperature. In a
system using elastomeric seal joints this precaution may not be necessary.
For above-ground sanitary plumbing and drainage, in most circumstances the greatest
thermal movements will be caused by variations in environmental temperature because the
duration of most waste discharges is short and the temperature response of the material is
slow. Provision for expansion and contraction shall be in accordance with Clause 6.4.
When a downpipe is connected to a stormwater pipe, or otherwise restrained at the
discharge point, provisions shall be made to allow the pipe to expand and contract.
3.8 EFFECT OF WATER HAMMER OR PRESSURE SURGES
Water hammer or pressure surges are a design consideration.
NOTE: Information on surge and fatigue can be found in WSA 01 Polyethylene Pipeline Code
and other documents (see Appendix A) and PIPA POP 10A and 10B, www.pipa.com.au.
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14

SECT ION

JOI NT I N G

METHODS

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4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out requirements for the jointing of PE pipe and fittings in PE pipe
systems.
4.2 FUSION JOINTS
Acceptable methods for fusion jointing are electro-fusion, butt-fusion and socket-fusion.
Extrusion welding shall only be used for non-pressure applications.
NOTES:
1

For electro-fusion refer to PIPA POP-001.

For butt welding parameters refer to PIPA POP-003.

Only trained and certified operators shall carry out fusion jointing. For guidance refer to
http://www.pipa.com.au/Training.html.
4.3 MECHANICAL COMPRESSION FITTINGS
Mechanical compression fittings for the connection of PE pipes shall be used in accordance
with the manufacturers instructions.
4.4 ELASTOMERIC SEAL JOINTS
4.4.1 Application
Only elastomeric seals and lubricants recommended by the pipe or fitting manufacturer
shall be used.
NOTE: Unrestrained elastomeric seal joints for use with PE are applicable only to low or nonpressure applications.

4.4.2 Procedure
The following procedure shall apply to joints where the elastomeric seal is incorporated in
the socket:
NOTE: This procedure does not apply to expansion joints (see Clause 6.4).

(a)

Where pipes are required to be cut in the field


(i)

cut the spigot end square and remove all burrs;

(ii)

chamfer the cut end of the pipe with a taper of approximately 15 to


approximately half the wall thickness, or as specified by the pipe manufacturer;
and

(iii) as appropriate, witness mark the pipe at the distance specified by the
manufacturer.
NOTES:
1

A witness mark is normally positioned on the spigot by the manufacturer to show the
optimum insertion depth.

Where spigots and sockets are not made by the same manufacturer reference should be
made to the socket manufacturer for the correct marking depth.

(b)

Ensure that the inside of the socket is clean.

(c)

Where elastomeric seals are required to be fitted, clean and fit the seal. Check that the
elastomeric seal sits evenly in the housing.

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15

AS/NZS 2033:2008

(d)

Apply the manufacturers specified lubricant to the end of the spigot and chamfer of
the pipe. Keep the elastomeric seal and its housing free of lubricant, unless otherwise
recommended by the manufacturer.

(e)

Align the pipes so that there is no deflection at the joints, then insert the spigot in the
socket and push it home to the witness mark.

(f)

Hold the socket end firmly during the jointing to prevent previously assembled joints
from moving.

NOTES:
1

Similar procedures apply for making joints where the socket is pushed on to a spigot, e.g.
socketed valves or fittings.

After the joint is made, it may be deflected up to the limit specified by the socket
manufacturer.

4.5 FLANGED JOINTS


4.5.1 Application
Flanges may be installed for the jointing of PE pipelines, but their principal application is
for connecting pipes (particularly those with larger diameters) to valves and vessels where
disconnection or strength in tension is required.
4.5.2 Requirements
Flanges are typically PE stub flanges that are fitted with loose metal backing rings.
In all flanged joints a gasket or seal ring shall be provided. The gasket or seal ring type,
thickness and composition shall be selected to suit the application. It shall be resistant to
the fluid that is to be carried through the pipeline.
Metallic components liable to corrode shall be supplied in a corrosion-resistant material
suitable for the intended environment or otherwise protected using an appropriate corrosion
protection system e.g. petrolatum tape wrapping.
NOTE: Refer to PIPA POP-007 for specifications and dimensional details.

4.5.3 Procedure
Manufacturers requirements for alignment and bolt tightening (torque and sequence) shall
be applied to the joints.
4.6 THREADED JOINTS
4.6.1 Application
Only threads produced by the pipe or fitting manufacturer shall be used. Only thread
sealants nominated by the pipe or fitting manufacturer shall be installed.
4.6.2 Procedure
Care shall be taken to avoid over-tightening or damaging joints, and to provide adequate
support to prevent excessive shear forces on threaded joints.
4.7 REPAIR FITTINGS
Various types of repair fittings are available and installation shall be in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations.

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4.8 CONNECTION OF PE PIPES AND FITTINGS TO PIPES AND FITTINGS OF


OTHER MATERIALSOTHER THAN THREADS AND FLANGES

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For pressure and non-pressure applications, mechanical couplings shall be used in


accordance with the manufacturers instructions to join PE pipes (or fittings) to pipes (or
fittings) of other materials.
For gravity or low-pressure applications, metal-banded flexible couplings complying with
AS/NZS 4327 may be installed to join PE pipes (or fittings) to pipes (or fittings) of other
materials having the same or similar nominal diameter.
4.9 SERVICE CONNECTIONS
When tapping bands or saddles complying with AS 4129 or AS 4793 are installed for
service connections, they shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions. Such bands shall be suitable for use with PE pipes and be so designed and
constructed that they do not damage the pipe.
Equipment for tapping under pressure may be employed with service connections in
accordance with the fitting manufacturers recommendations.
Ferrules shall not be screwed directly into PE pipes.

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SECT ION

AS/NZS 2033:2008

5
I NSTA L L A T I ON O F
P IPES AND F I TT I N GS

B U R IED

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5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out specific requirements for the installation of buried pipes and fittings.
NOTE: For further information refer to AS/NZS 2566, all parts.

5.2 PIPELINE INSTALLATION USING TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY


Trenchless technology may be adopted by methods such as directional drilling, thrustboring, micro-tunnelling and pipe-jacking.
NOTE: For further information refer to www.astt.com.au (see Appendix A).

5.3 PIPE INSTALLATION IN A TRENCH


5.3.1 Provision of a trench
The trench shall be excavated, trimmed to the required grade and as narrow as practicable,
taking into account the native soil type and the need to make joints, install fittings and
compact the pipe embedment material. Where required, the trench shall be wide enough to
allow for jointing, compaction and inspection.
The trench depth shall be sufficient to allow for the specified grade, the required depth of
bedding, foundation material if required (see Figure 5.1), and the minimum cover over the
pipe as specified in Table 5.1.
NOTES:
1

The trench should be kept free of water as far as practicable. Surface water should also be
prevented from entering the trench.

Narrow trenches may be used where the system design permits and person access is not
required.

TABLE 5.1
MINIMUM COVER OVER PIPE
Minimum cover
m

Loading condition
Not subject to vehicular loading

0.30

Subject to vehicular loading


(a) no carriageways;
(b) sealed carriageways;
(c) unsealed carriageways

0.45
0.60
0.75

Pipes in embankments or subject to


construction equipment loads

0.75

5.3.2 Excavation across improved surfaces


For bitumen, asphalt and concrete surfaces, neat straight lines shall be saw cut at least
50 mm beyond the outer limits of the excavation. For paved surfaces, pavers, blocks or
bricks shall be removed by hand, then cleaned and set aside for later replacement. Trench
fill shall be adequately compacted to avoid subsequent subsidence of the reinstated
improved surface.

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18

5.3.3 Minimum cover


Minimum cover over the pipe shall be as specified in Table 5.1, based on the future finished
surface level.

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Where the trench depth is such that the minimum cover specified cannot be provided for
pipelines subject to vehicular loading, additional protection may be specified.
Notwithstanding the minimum covers specified in Table 5.1, pipelines shall have sufficient
cover to
(a)

ensure any vehicular loading that is in excess of the loading capability of the pipe is
transferred to the soil strata beyond the pipeline;

(b)

suit the height dimensions (locally) of fittings such as valves and hydrants; and

(c)

meet the requirements of the road owner (for pipelines in roadways).

Where a pipeline may be subject to abnormal loading during construction, temporary (or
permanent) measures shall be taken to ensure that the pipeline is not overloaded.
5.3.4 Buckling under external load and vacuum
PE pipes and fittings subjected to negative pressure or installed below the water table are
subjected to external loads and may buckle. The pipe class selected in the installation shall
be high enough to ensure stability against
(a)

the minimum (vacuum) design pressure; and

(b)

buckling failure when subjected to the maximum external hydrostatic pressure


possible for the deepest pipe in the installation.

Typically consideration shall be given to negative pressures for pipes of SDR greater than
SDR 13.6. In these circumstances advice may be sought from the manufacturer of the pipe.
When grouting is undertaken, the grouting pressures and temperatures should be determined
to ensure that empty pipes do not deflect or buckle beyond acceptable criteria as a result of
grout pressure. Where the contribution of grouting pressure to buckling forces on an empty
pipe is uncertain, grouting should be carried out with the pipe internally pressurized.
5.3.5 Anchorage
For systems with mechanically or fusion restrained joints, anchorage is not usually
necessary. For those without end-load resisting joints, anchorage at changes of direction
and other points of potential pull-out forces shall be provided, e.g. at bends, valves, tees,
etc.
Construction of anchor and thrust blocks shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 2566.1.
When concrete is being placed on a PE pipeline, complete encasement of the pipe shall be
avoided if possible. The maximum encasement shall be 180, unless flexible joints are
provided at each concrete face entered. Where a pipe is completely concrete encased, it
shall be fully wrapped prior to encasement with a compressible material such as geotextile
or polyethylene foam to a nominal thickness of 6 mm.
5.3.6 Encasement in concrete
Where pipes are to be encased in concrete precautions shall be taken to prevent movement,
flotation or deformation of pipes while pouring concrete.

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

Where damage to pressure pipe surfaces could occur as a result of differential movement of
the encased pipe, the pipe and fittings shall be protected.

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NOTES:
1

Protection may be by wrapping in a compressible membrane e.g. made of polyethylene, PVC,


petrolatum tape or felt.

Encasement in concrete may compromise the inherent flexibility of a PE pipeline and should
only be used in special circumstances. In unstable ground conditions, the use of geotextile to
form a ground beam (as shown in AS/NZS 2566.2) may provide a superior solution.

5.3.7 Foundations and foundation stabilization


The floor of the excavated trench is required to provide a foundation suitable for the
adopted construction method.
Where the bottom of an excavation is unable to provide a firm foundation with minimum
bearing capacity of 50 kPa (e.g. in clay soils that can easily be penetrated 40 mm with a
thumb or in sand or gravel that makes a footprint more than 10 mm deep) at the required
level without abrupt irregularities or undulations, engineering advice should be sought on
how to provide a satisfactory foundation.
5.3.8 Prevention of flotation
Flotation of the pipe due to groundwater or inundation before completion of filling shall be
prevented.
Flotation of pipes and fittings may be prevented by one or more of the following methods:
(a)

Using trench stops.

(b)

Placing and compacting sufficient height of fill material.

(c)

De-watering.

Where trench de-watering is necessary, embedment and fill material shall be placed and
compacted while de-watering systems are operating.
NOTE: PE has a density less than that of water and pipes can float even when full of water.

5.3.9 Trench floor preparation


On excavation, the trench floor shall be inspected for rock outcrops and soft and loose areas
so that appropriate action can be taken to ensure that the pipe or fitting or other
appurtenance or structure will not be subject to differential settlement in the future.
Where the pipeline is to be laid on the trench floor, the trench shall be free from hard
objects such as stones, sharp projecting rocks and tree roots, and the trench floor shall be
trimmed to provide continuous support for the pipes.
Where rock outcrops are present, the trench floor shall be trimmed and filled with granular
material to restore the design trench floor level limits. Soft and loose areas shall be treated
as specified in Clause 5.3.7.
All fill and all disturbed areas shall be compacted to not less than the density of the natural
ground.
Where the excavation is in unstable or waterlogged ground or rock, or where excessive
excavation occurs, the depth of excavation and bedding preparation shall be as specified to
provide a uniform base to the bedding.
De-watering shall be carried out to below the pipe level until sufficient backfill has been
placed to prevent flotation of the pipe. The trench floor shall be stabilized to provide an
adequate foundation for the bedding.
All debris shall be removed before placement of any bedding material.

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20

5.3.10 Placement of bedding

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Bedding shall be placed and spread so as to provide uniform support for the pipe. Chases
may be provided at sockets, couplings and other appurtenances to achieve uniform support.
The bedding shall not be compacted and the centre of the bedding shall not be walked on
either during or after placement.
The depth of bedding shall be appropriate to the trench floor condition and the diameter and
classification of the pipe. For pipes in clay soils and rock, a graded continuous cushion of
bedding material of minimum thickness 75 mm should be provided at the trench floor.
Where cement mortar is used as bedding, it shall be packed into the space between the
trench floor and the pipe laid in the trench to attain the line, grade and specified minimum
cover over the pipe. Cement mortar-based material shall not be installed as a haunch.
5.3.11 Pipe laying and jointing
Pipes may be jointed at ground level and then lowered into position. If elastomeric seal
joints have been used for jointing, they shall be checked after the pipe is in position to
ensure that the socket is still correctly positioned on the pipe. The manufacturers
instructions shall be adhered to. The pipes may be snaked in the trench to minimize the
effects of thermal movement.
5.3.12 Bending of pipes
For curves of smaller radius, post-formed bends, moulded fittings or purpose-made sockets
shall be used. PE pipes may be bent during pipe laying to allow a pipeline to follow a
curved path.
For profile wall pipes, reference should be made to the manufacturer for bending
requirements.
Generally, a pressure pipeline can be bent without difficulty in the vertical plane to follow
changes in the ground surface. Where it is not possible to bend the pipe by hand, preformed
bends or moulded fittings shall be installed. The form of the trench floor provides support
for the pipes and bending occurs more or less uniformly along the length of the pipes
involved.
Bending in the horizontal plane is more difficult as pipes tend to move in the trench and the
deflection tends to be concentrated in a few places. There is a tendency for excessive loads
and deformation if pipes are not adequately supported. As the structural stiffness of pipes
increases (small SDRs), the forces required to bend a pipe to a designed curvature increase
considerably, and support along the full length of the pipe becomes more important.
The use of pegs or stakes in the trench to define the radius of the designed curve, or to
restrain the pipe during installation, is not permitted. Bending tends to be localized at the
pegs or stakes and, if they are left in the trench when it is filled, highly localized stresses
may cause premature failure of the pipeline.
5.3.13 Pipe embedment
Embedment material shall be placed uniformly along and around the whole length of the
pipe barrel, couplings and other appurtenances in a manner to ensure uniform density of
side support (including haunch support) and overlay without distortion, dislodgment or
damage to the pipeline.
Where a sewer or drain is supported on concrete, overlay material shall not be placed until
the concrete has attained its initial set.
Following pipe placement, the haunch, side support and overlay materials shall be
compacted in layers not greater than 150 mm to uniformly support the pipe.
Compaction equipment or methods that produce horizontal or vertical earth pressures that
may cause damage to, or excessive distortion of, the pipe shall not be employed.
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AS/NZS 2033:2008

Flooding compaction may be suitable in some types of soil.


Flooding compaction shall be used only beneath non-trafficable areas, in situations where
embedment material is non-cohesive (i.e., no clays) and the surrounding native soil and the
embedment material are completely free draining.

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5.3.14 Trench fill


Trench fill material shall be placed on the pipe embedment and compacted as specified to
fill the trench, with care taken to avoid impact loading of the pipeline.
For non-pressure pipelines, the voids behind timber ground support in close-timbered
tunnels, drives and shafts should be filled by pressure or gravity grouting using a sand-limecement slurry or pneumatic placement of appropriate trench fill material.
Any deficiencies of trench filling exposed by settlement shall be corrected.
5.3.15 Removal of trench supports, pegs and packing
All levelling pegs or temporary packing, such as wooden blocks, shall be removed from the
trench before pipe laying.
Temporary trench support systems shall be lifted progressively above each layer of
embedment or fill to ensure that each layer is compacted against undisturbed native soil
(trench wall).
5.3.16 Marking tape
Marking tape, where installed, shall be located at the top of the embedment zone (see
Figure 5.1).
Refer to AS/NZS 2648.1 for non-detectable tape. Refer to WSAA PS-318 for detectable
tape.

Trenchfill

H min.
(see Table 5.1)

Marking tape
Compacted
overlay

100
min.

100
min.

Compacted pipe
side support

Pipe overlay
150 min.
D

Haunch zone

Bedding depth (C)


75 min.

Bedding
B min.
DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 5.1 TYPICAL INSTALLATION IN A TRENCH

5.4 PIPE INSTALLATION IN AN EMBANKMENT


Pipe installation in an embankment shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 2566.2.
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SECT ION

22

I NSTA L L A T I ON
ABOVE GRO UND

O F

P IP ES

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6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out specific requirements for the installation of pipes above ground.
6.2 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
6.2.1 Grade and alignment
When PE sanitary plumbing systems are being installed, particular care shall be taken to
establish the correct grade and alignment.
6.2.2 Pipe bending
Refer to Clause 5.3.12.
6.2.3 Setting of pipes in concrete
Where a pipe is set in concrete and damage to pipe surfaces could occur as a result of
movement of the pipe relative to its surrounding, a membrane (e.g. of polyethylene, PVC,
petrolatum tape, or felt) shall surround the pipe and fittings to permit movement without
scoring. Where fittings are installed with insufficient space for them to move, expansion
joints shall be provided to accommodate thermal movement (see Clause 6.4).
NOTE: PE pipe may be totally enclosed in concrete without protection where the installation is
designed for total enclosure.

6.2.4 Pipes passing through floors and walls


Any pipe or fitting passing through any floor or wall shall be wrapped with a suitable
flexible material, or a permanent annular clearance of not less than 6 mm shall be provided
between the pipe or fitting and the floor and wall. Suitable measures shall be taken to
maintain this clearance, and to permit the pipe to be sealed in position without restricting its
axial movement.
6.2.5 Pipe installation in a sleeve or duct
When a pipe is being laid through a sleeve or duct, it shall be suitably protected against
damage from sharp ends or edges on the sleeve or duct. The pipe shall be restrained within
the duct to prevent excessive movement under pressure transients. This may be achieved by
using slippers, a purpose-designed product for installation of pipes in sleeves or ducts, or by
using timber skids strapped to the pipe (see Figure 6.1).

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23

AS/NZS 2033:2008

FIGURE 6.1 TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF DN 560 PE PIPE IN A HOST PIPE (DUCT)

6.2.6 Penetration of fire-resistant structures


Where fire-resistant structures are penetrated by PE pipe, devices such as intumescent fire
stoppers that will maintain the integrity of the structure in the event of a fire shall be
installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
6.3 SUPPORT OF PIPELINES
6.3.1 Supports
6.3.1.1 General
All supports shall be of fixed or sliding type, and shall be rigidly fixed to the adjacent wall
or floor.
6.3.1.2 Sliding supports
Sliding supports shall provide a guide, without restraint, for the axial movement of pipes
subject to thermal expansion. The support shall allow for a pipe to be surrounded with a
layer of suitable flexible material, or incorporate a plastics coating.
Sliding supports shall be provided in accordance with Table 6.1.

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TABLE 6.1
MAXIMUM SPACING OF SUPPORTS

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Nominal outside
diameter of pipe

Recommended maximum spacing of supports, m


Horizontal or graded
pipes

Vertical pipes

16
20
25

0.25
0.30
0.35

0.50
0.60
0.70

32
40
50

0.38
0.43
0.45

0.75
0.85
0.90

63
75
90

0.50
0.60
0.67

1.05
1.20
1.35

125
140
160

0.75
0.85
1.00

1.50
1.70
2.00

200
225
250

1.10
1.15
1.25

2.20
2.30
2.50

280
355

1.30
1.50

2.60
3.00

6.3.1.3 Fixed supports


Fixed supports shall restrain movement of the pipe or fitting either by being clamped to the
structure with a fixed bracket or by being set firmly into the structure. Care shall be taken
to ensure that pipes and fittings are not distorted by over-tightening. The support shall be
securely attached to the fitting and located in the clamping groove, if one is provided on the
fitting.
Fixed supports shall be provided at every expansion fitting, and at every fitting that
incorporates provision for expansion, to prevent movement of the fittings. This includes the
sockets of all pipes with elastomeric seal joints used in the installation. Where expansion
joints are installed, fixed supports shall alternate with expansion joints throughout the
installation.
6.3.2 Spacing of supports
6.3.2.1 Pressure pipes
Pipes shall be supported at intervals dependent on the density of the fluid being conveyed
and the maximum temperature likely to be reached by the pipe material. The maximum
spacings of supports for all classes of pressure pipe where water at temperatures up to 20C
is being conveyed shall be as given in Table 6.1.
Where ambient temperatures or the temperature of piped fluids are such that the
temperature of the material is likely to be greater than 20C, the support distances shall be
reduced accordingly. For PE pipes where material temperatures are likely to approach 60C
and the pipe is horizontal, the pipe shall be continuously supported; for vertical
installations, the values in Table 6.1 for horizontal support shall be used.
Heavy fittings, such as valves, shall be supported independently and large plastics fittings
(e.g. flanges, particularly those with metal backing rings) shall be supported on each side.
Where pipes are continuously supported, flanged connections and other protrusions shall be
allowed room for movement.

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6.3.2.2 Non-pressure pipes


Cold non-pressure pipes (see Clause 6.4.2.2) shall be supported at intervals not exceeding
the distances set out in Table 6.1. For hot pipelines (see Clause 6.4.2.2), the supports shall
be at intervals not exceeding half the distances set out in Table 6.1.

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Pipelines shall be supported at, or adjacent to, every bend, including fittings where
pipelines emerge from a wall.
6.4 PROVISION FOR EXPANSION
6.4.1 General
Provision shall be made for thermal movement by fitting expansion joints, unless the
movement can be accommodated by other means as described in Clause 6.4.3. An
expansion joint shall permit an axial movement of the connecting pipe of not less than
10 mm in either direction.
Elastomeric seal joints on pipes may be regarded as expansion joints if recommended as
such by the manufacturer.
6.4.2 Maximum spacing of expansion joints
6.4.2.1 General
The maximum spacing of expansion joints depends upon the maximum temperature
differential expected in service and the magnitude of the axial movement that the selected
expansion joint can accommodate.
NOTE: The thermal expansion or contraction of PE pipe is shown in Clause 3.7.2 and Figure 3.1.

6.4.2.2 Cold and hot pipelines


Unless there is alternative provision for thermal movement, pipelines shall be fitted with
expansion joints in accordance with the following:
(a)

PE pipe systems located within buildings or outside buildings that are out of direct
sunlight and not subject to pipe material temperatures greater than 60C (cold
pipelines) shall be fitted with expansion joints at spacings no greater than 6 m or as
recommended by the manufacturer. Where the length of pipeline between fixed points
is no greater than 1.5 m, provision for thermal movement is not required.

(b)

Water supply and sanitary plumbing pipe systems installed for conveying hot fluids
(e.g. from dishwashers, washing machines, knife sterilizers etc.) or located outside
buildings in direct sunlight, or in roof spaces, so that the pipe material temperature
might exceed 60C (hot pipelines), shall be fitted with expansion joints at spacings
no greater than 4 m. Where the length of pipeline between fixed points is no greater
than 1 m, provision for thermal movement is not required.

6.4.2.3 Stacks and vertical pipes


Expansion joints shall be located in stacks and vertical pipes
(a)

at each floor at which fixtures or branch pipes are connected, and shall be
immediately above the highest branch connection; and

(b)

at the base of a stack.

This is illustrated in Figure 6.2.


6.4.2.4 Graded pipelines
When required by Clause 6.4.2.2, expansion joints shall be provided in graded pipelines
immediately upstream of the entrance to a vertical stack (as illustrated in Figure 6.3).

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6.4.3 Alternative provision for expansion

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Expansion joints may be omitted in the following locations (as illustrated in Figure 6.4):
(a)

Above the highest branch connection on a stack where the stack is free to move
through a weatherproofed sleeve through the roof.

(b)

At a junction, bend or expansion loop in a graded pipeline where the thermal


movement in the pipeline can be accommodated by deflection of the offset leg
without affecting the grade of the pipeline. The minimum length of the offset leg, as
defined by fixed supports, shall conform to the values in Table 6.3.

(c)

At a junction or bend in a graded pipeline where the thermal movement in the


pipeline can be accommodated at a trap of plastics material, provided that the length
of the pipeline does not exceed 6 m for cold pipelines or 4 m for hot pipelines (see
Clause 6.4.2.2), and the trap is in alignment with the pipeline.
TABLE 6.3
ALTERNATIVE EXPANSION PROVISION
Nominal size
of pipe
mm

Maximum pipe
length
m

Minimum length
of offset leg
ms

40, 50, 63

2.0
3.0
4.0
6.0

0.5
0.6
0.8
1.0

75, 90, 125

2.0
3.0
4.0
6.0

0.75
1.0
1.1
1.2

140, 160

2.0
3.0
4.0
6.0

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.2

6.4.4 Installation of expansion joints


Expansion joints shall be supported at the socket section of the fitting by a fixed support.
Care shall be taken to ensure that expansion fittings are correctly installed in accordance
with the manufacturers instruction and that the pipe is not bottomed in the expansion
socket.
The following procedure shall be adopted where no temperature markings are provided on
the movable part of the fittings:
(a)

Insert the pipe in the expansion socket to the full depth and mark the pipe.

(b)

Withdraw the pipe a distance equal to the temperature engagement depth and mark
the pipe. The temperature engagement depth shall be determined according to the
average environmental or pipe material temperature at the time of installing the
system.

(c)

Hold the pipe in this position until the installation is complete.

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

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Expansion joint
a b ove h i g h e s t b r a n c h
c o n n e c ti o n (m ay b e o m i t te d
u n d e r C l a u s e 6 .4. 3 (a))

Clau se 6.4. 2. 2(a)


6 m m a x. wi th o u t
ex p a n s i o n j o i n t
(c o l d p i p e l i n e s)

S li d i n g s u p p o r t
at a ll f l o o r s

Clau se 6.4. 2. 3(a)


Expansion joint
a b ove h i g h e s t
b r a n c h c o n n e c ti o n
from each floor
L EG EN D:
= E x p a n s i o n j o i nt
= Fi xe d p o i nt
Cl a u s e 6.4. 2. 3 ( b)
Expansion joint at
b a s e of s t a c k

FIGURE 6.2 EXPANSION JOINTS AND FIXED POINTS IN VERTICAL STACKS

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

28

 

   


    
     

 

  
  

 


  
   
  
! " #$%
&  
& (  
FIGURE 6.3 EXPANSION JOINTS AND FIXED POINTS IN GRADED PIPELINES

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C l a u s e 6.4.3 ( a )
E x pa ns i o n j o i nt o m i t te d w h e re
a l te r n ati ve ex pa ns i o n p rov i d e d
th ro u g h ro of

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C l a u s e 6.4.3 ( c )
E x pa ns i o n j o i nt o m i t te d w h e re
a l te r n ati ve ex pa ns i o n p rov i d e d
by p l a s ti c tra p
C l a u s e 6.4.3 ( c )
E x pa ns i o n j o i nts o m i t te d w h e re
a l te r n ati ve ex pa ns i o n p rov i d e d

l3
l2
l1

L2

L3

L1

C l a u s e 6.4.3 ( c )
E x pa ns i o n j o i nts o m i t te d w h e re
a l te r n ati ve ex pa ns i o n p rov i d e d

l2

l3

l2

L1
C l a u s e 6.4.3 ( c )
E x pa ns i o n j o i nts o m i t te d w h e re
a l te r n ati ve ex pa ns i o n p rov i d e d
L

L EG EN D :
= Pi p e s u p p o r t
= E x pa ns i o n j o i nt
= F i xe d p o i nt
= E x pa ns i o n j o i nt d e l ete d
S e e Ta b l e 6.3 fo r va l u e s of L a n d l

FIGURE 6.4 ALTERNATIVE EXPANSION PROVISIONS IN VERTICAL AND GRADED


PIPELINES

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SEC T I ON

30

T EST I N G

O F

P IPE

SY ST E M

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7.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out the requirements for testing pipelines and systems after their
installation or repair. Where appropriate, the procedures in AS/NZS 3500 series may be
used as an alternative.
7.2 TESTING OF PRESSURE PIPE SYSTEMS
7.2.1 Pre-test precautions
Above-ground installations shall be tested when all fittings and supports have been
installed.
Pipelines shall be pressure-tested when sufficient time has elapsed to allow curing of
concrete thrust blocks.
NOTE: While it is preferable for all joints in underground pipelines to be left exposed during the
testing procedure, this is seldom practical.

7.2.2 General requirements


Pressure testing PE pipes may require special processes since they may continue to expand
significantly throughout the test period. When a PE pipe is sealed under a test pressure
there may be decay, even in a leak free system, due to the creep response and stress
relaxation of the PE material. Due to this material behaviour, standard pipe testing
procedures used for other pipe materials such as PVC, DI and steel, may not be suitable for
PE pipe.
The following factors can affect a PE pipe pressure test:
(a)

Length of section and pipe diameter.

(b)

Test pressure, rate of pressurisation and duration of the test.

(c)

Presence of air.

(d)

Relative movement of mechanical fittings.

(e)

Level of support from pipe embedment.

(f)

Accuracy of test equipment.

(g)

Ambient temperature changes during testing.

(h)

Presence of fittings and other materials in the test section.

(i)

The presence of leaks.

Long test sections may incorporate a large number of joints that should be checked for
leakage. The longer the test section the harder it is to locate a leak. Pipes above about DN
250 cause additional effects to further complicate the test process. Where site or production
reasons require longer lengths to be tested, radio links between test operatives to minimize
the test duration should be employed.
The pipeline or system may be tested as a whole or in sections, depending on test pressure
requirements, the length and diameter of the line, the availability of water, and the spacing
between sectioning valves or blanking ends. The pipeline (or section) shall be properly
supported and, if it includes non end load bearing joints, be anchored to prevent the
movement of pipes or fittings during the test.

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The test section shall be filled with water, taking care to purge all free air from the section.
Where a motorized positive displacement pump is used for the test, it shall be fitted with an
effective form of pulsation damping. Also, to minimize the risk of potentially damaging
over-pressurization occurring, a pressure relief valve shall be fitted. This relief valve shall
be set correctly and have sufficient capacity to limit any possible pressure rise to a
maximum of 100 kPa above the test pressure.
The pressure shall be monitored at the lowest part of the pipeline or, if that is not possible,
at some other convenient point and the test pressure adjusted to take account of the
elevation difference between the pipelines lowest point and the test rig. The adjustment
shall be made by subtracting 10 kPa for every metre that the rig is elevated above the
lowest part of the line. The source of any leak shall then be ascertained and any defects
repaired. The pipeline shall then be retested.
The pressure test shall be conducted using two pressure measuring instruments that shall
agree within 5% of gauge reading.
7.2.3 Basic pressure test (Visual)
A test pressure of 1.25 times the operating pressure (but not more than 1.25 times the
MAOP of the lowest rated component in the system) shall be applied to the section under
test. The test section shall then be allowed to stand without make-up pressure. Where the
joints are accessible for inspection and there is no evidence of leaks of the test water after
at least 15 minutes under pressure, the section is deemed to have passed the test.
Where the joints are not accessible for inspection and the apparent loss of water is less than
that calculated from the following equation, the section is deemed to have passed the test.
Q 0.14LDH
where
Q

= allowable make-up water, in litres per hour

= nominal diameter of the test length, in metres

= length of the test length, in kilometres

= average test head over length of pipeline under test, in metres

NOTES:
1

The make-up water is not a leakage allowance, but is an allowance to cover the effects of the
test head forcing small quantities of entrapped air into solution. Normally the test should last
for a minimum of 2 h and be concluded within 5 h to 8 h. The make up water requirement
should reduce with time as air goes into solution. Where, after 12 h the make up water still
exceeds the allowable limit, testing should cease and the cause of loss investigated.

It is assumed that if the pipeline passes the test, the anchorages are sound.

Pressure testing against a closed valve should normally only be undertaken when there is no
practicable alternative or when any leakage from the valve can be observed and measured
during the test.

7.2.4 General pressure test (Technical)


7.2.4.1 General
For plastics pipes that are subjected to internal pressure, there will be a progressive drop in
that pressure due to stress relaxation. Accordingly, it may be difficult to assess whether a
pipeline is leaking or simply subject to stress relaxation.
In order to overcome this difficulty, this method is based on the principle that if the
pressure is held constant, there will be a linear relationship between hoop strain and
logarithmic time.

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Variables such as pipe stiffness and soil compaction are irrelevant, as the test result is based
on actual performance during the test. Temperature may be considered constant, as with
other test methods, unless special conditions exist.
7.2.4.2 Test procedure

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Maximum system test pressure (STP) shall be at least 1.25 times the maximum working
pressure of pipeline but not to exceed 1.25 times MAOP of lowest rated pipe/fitting in line.
The pipelines shall be tested as follows:
(a)

Raise pressure to STP, close off main and allow to settle for at least 12 hours. During
this period, pressure will fall as a result of pipe expansion.

(b)

Using water of the same temperature as that in the pipeline (3C) restore and
maintain STP,

(c)

Measure and record water volume added at 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, and 5 h from start.

(d)

Conclude test 5 hours after commencement.


For optimum test protocol, the following tolerances are recommended:
(i)

Water volume: 10D litres, where D = pipe nominal diameter in metres.

(ii)

Time: 1 min.

(iii) Pressure: 1 kPa.


Suggested tolerances are included even though the current method does not include
tolerances. Accordingly, they are included as recommendations only.
(e)

Calculate the water volume added between the second and third hour, V(3h2h) and
the volume added between the fourth and fifth hour, V(5h4h).

(f)

Calculate Vall = 0.14.L.D.H (ref. AS/NZS 2566.2, Clause 6.3)


where

(g)

V all

= Volume makeup allowance, in litres/hour

= Test length, in kilometres

= Pipe nominal diameter, in metres

= Average test head over pipeline length, in metres

Test passes if V(5h4h) 0.55V(3h2h) + Vall .

7.2.5 Joints between test sections


The joints between the new pipeline and existing pipelines shall be subjected to the
operating pressure for at least 1 h and then inspected for leakage. This inspection shall only
be carried out in dry weather or if a suitable shelter is erected over the joints and the area
dried sufficiently to show any dripping or weeping.
7.3 TESTING OF NON-PRESSURE PIPELINES
7.3.1 General
Where specified, new sewers, sanitary and stormwater drainage and other non-pressure
installations shall be pressure tested.
Appropriate methods are described in Clauses 7.3.2, 7.3.3 or and 7.3.4. The tests shall also
be applied to any section of existing pipeline or drain that has been repaired or replaced. All
openings in the pipeline below the top of the section under test shall be sealed.

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7.3.2 Method 1Hydrostatic test


The pipeline shall be filled with water to a height of not less than 1 m above the natural
ground level at the highest point of the section being tested, or to the flood level of the
lowest sanitary fixture, but not exceeding 5 m at the lowest point of the test section.

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The pressure shall be maintained without leakage for at least 15 minutes. The source of any
leak shall then be ascertained and any defects repaired. The pipeline shall then be retested.
NOTE: If groundwater is present, the test pressure should be increased to compensate for the
depth of groundwater at a rate of 10 kPa for every 1 m of groundwater depth above the pipe.

7.3.3 Method 2Low pressure air test


Air shall be introduced slowly by suitable means until a pressure of 50 kPa is obtained. This
pressure shall then be maintained for a period of at least 3 minutes. If no leaks are apparent
at the end of 3 minutes, the air supply shall be shut off and, provided that the pressure of air
contained in the pipes under test does not fall below 35 kPa within 60 s, the pipeline shall
be considered satisfactory. If the pressure is not maintained within the specified limits, the
air shall be re-introduced and the pipeline examined for leaks by pouring a concentrated
solution of soft soap and water over the joints and fittings. The source of the leak shall then
be ascertained and any defects repaired. The pipeline shall then be retested.
NOTE: If groundwater is present, the test pressure should be increased to compensate for the
depth of groundwater at a rate of 10 kPa for every 1 m of groundwater depth up to a maximum of
60 kPa.

7.3.4 Method 3Vacuum testing


All inlets and outlets shall be plugged and any other access points in the test length of
pipeline shall be capped and sealed.
An initial test vacuum pressure (negative pressure) of approximately 27 kPa shall be
applied. The valve on the vacuum line shall be closed and the vacuum pump shut off. The
air pressure shall be allowed to stabilize for at least 3 minutes to identify any initial
leakage.
When the pressure has stabilized and is at or below the starting test vacuum of 23.6 kPa, the
test shall commence by allowing the gauge pressure to drop to 23.6 kPa, at which point time
recording shall be initiated. The drop in vacuum over the test period shall be recorded.
The length of pipeline under test shall be accepted if the test vacuum loss is 7 kPa for the
relevant time interval specified in Table 7.1.
If the pipeline fails the test, the vacuum shall be reapplied to identify any leaks.
All defects shall be rectified prior to conducting any further testing.
Any visible or audible faults shall be rectified even if the vacuum testing is satisfactory.

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TABLE 7.1
VACUUM AIR TESTING
ACCEPTANCE TIMES FOR 7 kPa PRESSURE CHANGE
Test length, metres

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Pipe size
DN

50

100

150

200

250

300

Minimum test duration, minutes


<100
100
150

2
2
3

2
2
3

2
2
3

2
2
5

3
3
6

3
3
6

225
300
375

4
6
7

5
9
14

8
14
22

10
18
29

13
23
36

15
29
43

450
525
600

10
14
18

21
28
37

31
42
55

41
56
73

52
70
92

66
86
106

675
750
900

23
29
41

46
57
83

70
86
124

93
115
165

116
143
207

144
168
243

1000
1050
1200

51
56
73

102
112
147

153
169
220

204
225
294

255
281
367

300
319
460

1500

115

230

344

459

574

700

NOTES:
1

Timing of the test duration shall commence after the 3 minutes initial period.

Test duration times for other combinations of pipe size and test length may be interpolated.

7.4 DEFLECTION TESTING


Where required, deflection testing shall be carried out in accordance with AS/NZS 2566.2
unless otherwise specified.
7.5 CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV) INSPECTION
Where required, a CCTV inspection of new sewers, sanitary and stormwater drainage and
other non-pressure installations shall be carried out in accordance with WSAA 05 or the
NZWWA Pipe Inspection Manual, 2006.
The following requirements apply:
(a)

Certified CCTV operators shall be used.

(b)

Only CCTV records of such quality that an accurate assessment of the internal
condition of the pipeline can be made shall be accepted.

(c)

The CCTV records shall be provided as specified.

The acceptance/rejection criteria set out in WSAA 05 shall be applied.


All defects shall be rectified prior to conducting any further inspection.
If CCTV equipment used to conduct the inspection is not calibrated for quantifying
observations, the estimated value shall be recorded as an addendum to the test report.

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SECT ION

AS/NZS 2033:2008

COMM ISS I ON I NG

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In most instances acceptance testing (see Section 7) of the installation is all that is required.
In the case of more complex projects that may involve supply and installation of equipment,
formal commissioning may be required.
Where commissioning is required, a commissioning plan should be developed to ensure that
the installation is fully operational to the satisfaction of the installation owner. This plan
would normally address
(a)

inspection and test plans for construction;

(b)

pre-commissioning;

(c)

handover;

(d)

sign-off; and

(e)

supply of documentation at hand-over and sign-off.

The installer would generally be required to test and inspect all products, materials,
equipment, installation and workmanship included in the works covered by the project
specification to prove compliance with the specification requirements, and to provide all
equipment, materials, water and power supplies required to carry this out.
Testing includes pre-commissioning, field testing and performance testing of each item of
the whole installation.
NOTE: Further guidance and relevant information is given in Appendix B.

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36

SECT ION

COMPRESSED

GASES

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9.1 SCOPE
This Section describes some of the special considerations that apply to the use of PE for
compressed air but excluding fuel gas.
When polyethylene pipe systems are used for the conveyance of compressible fluids, such
as compressed air, special considerations apply.
This Section describes some of these.
9.2 CONTENTS IDENTIFICATION
The recommended colour for identification of compressed air systems above ground is blue
in accordance with AS 1345.
This colour identification may be achieved by pipe colour, adhesive labels, or other means.
Hence pipes for the conveyance of compressed air may be black, blue, or some other
colour, provided identification is achieved in accordance with the users specification.
9.3 PRESSURE RATING (PN, SDR) AND TEMPERATURE RERATING
Compressed gas that is under pressure contains substantial stored energy more so than a
liquid under the same pressure. If that energy is released suddenly there is an increased risk
of injury to anyone nearby. For that reason there is a greater factor of safety applied to pipe
for compressed air applications than would be applied to a pipe carrying water at the same
pressure and temperature. Therefore the allowable working pressure of a compressed air
pipeline is less than the PN rating of the pipe.
Accordingly, pipes manufactured specifically for compressed air conveyance are typically
branded as follows:
PE100

SDR 7.4

PN 25

1600 kPa at 20C

Compressed Air

This means that it is a PN 25 pipe made from PE 100 material but you should only use this
pipe on a compressed air system that has an allowable working pressure that does not
exceed 1600 kPa at an operating temperature that does not exceed 20C.
Tables 9.1 and 9.2 provide recommended relationships between PN rating, SDR,
temperature, and pressure.
TABLE 9.1
MAOP, kPa
PE80B
A2

Classification
of pipe

Standard
dimension
ratio (SDR)

Operating
temperature
20C

Operating
temperature
25C

Operating
temperature
30C

Operating
temperature
35C

Operating
temperature
40C

PN 8

17

500

470

440

400

380

PN 10

13.6

630

600

560

510

480

PN 12.5

11

800

750

700

640

600

PN 16

1000

940

880

800

750

PN 20

7.4

1250

1180

1100

1000

940

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TABLE 9.2
MAOP, kPa
PE100

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A2

Classification
of pipe

Standard
dimension
ratio (SDR)

Operating
temperature
20C

Operating
temperature
25C

Operating
temperature
30C

Operating
temperature
35C

Operating
temperature
40C

PN 10

17

630

620

590

560

530

PN 12.5

13.6

800

780

750

710

670

PN 16

11

1000

990

940

890

840

PN 20

1250

1240

1108

1120

1060

PN 25

7.4

1600

1540

1470

1390

1320

9.4 JOINT TYPES


Where socket fusion, butt fusion, electrofusion, and mechanical joints, including threads
and flanges, are used in compressed gas systems, the manufacturers recommendations
should be followed. (See AS/NZS 4129).
9.5 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
PE is suitable for use in contact with compressor oils, but some synthetic oils, including
aromatic, polyester, and di-ester types, are not resistant. If in doubt, the advice of the
manufacturer should be sought.
9.6 UV RESISTANCE
Whilst coloured pipes may be used where exposed to UV radiation, the following points
need to be considered:
(a)

100% UV stabilization does not equate to immunity from UV degradation for


coloured pipes.

(b)

Correctly stabilized coloured pipes are estimated to be suitable for at least two years
exposure to direct sunlight.

(c)

Black pipes to AS/NZS 4130 are suitable for exposure periods up to 50 years.

9.7 PRECAUTIONS
Compressed air systems contain substantial stored energy, which if released suddenly,
could cause injury. It is recommended that pipe system design, installation and maintenance
be conducted by those with appropriate knowledge and experience. Care is needed to avoid
unplanned overheating of the system. Air compressors will produce air which may be
considerably above ambient temperature. Connection between a piston compressor and
receiver should not be in plastics due to the likelihood of unacceptably high temperatures.
Industry best practice of shielding equipment and pipework from direct heat sources, e.g.
sunlight, should be adopted to prevent excessive heat buildup. It is also recommended that
oil traps be fitted immediately downstream of the compressor.

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38

APPENDIX A

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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(Informative)
The following listing is not intended to be comprehensive. Links to other relevant sites and
information can be made via the websites shown below.
An Effective Barrier Pipe System for Contaminated Land. M Christodoulou, K Wilson,
M Hunter and J Bowman. Uponor Ltd. Plastic Pipes XIII, Washington DC, October 2006.
Chemical resistance data sheets. Volume 1: Plastics. Shrewsbury, UK. RAPRA Technology
Ltd.
Chemical resistance data sheets. Volume 2: Rubbers. Shrewsbury, UK. RAPRA
Technology Ltd.
Chemical Resistance. Volume 1; Thermoplastics. NY, USA. Plastics Design Library.
ISO/TR 10358, Plastics pipes and fittingsCombined chemical resistance classification
table.
Australasian Society for Trenchless Technology, www.astt.com.au
Plastics Industry Pipe Association of Australia, www.pipa.com.au
Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI), www.plasticpipe.org
Water Services Association of Australia, www.wsaa.asn.au

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

APPENDIX B

COMMISSIONING GUIDE

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(Informative)
B1 GENERAL
No pipeline should be placed in service before it has been cleaned of contaminants, before
it has satisfied test requirements and, in the case of water mains, before the quality of water
supplied from the pipeline has met the asset owners standards.
Possible contaminants include
(a)

materials that enter the pipes and fittings during storage and transport;

(b)

construction debris;

(c)

materials introduced during construction, e.g. lubricants used with elastomeric seal
joints;

(d)

bacterial contaminants, which often colonize other contaminants; and

(e)

materials that may be extracted from the pipes or fittings in service.

Drinking water lines must be commissioned before going into service to remove any
extraneous matter or toxic materials. Any pipeline that is to carry drinking water must not
be placed in service before the installing engineer is satisfied that the water supplied from
the pipeline will meet the responsible authoritys standards for quality of drinking water.
B2 REMOVAL OF PARTICULATE MATERIALS
Soil and other particulate materials may be removed from a pipeline by flushing. However,
the water velocities required to suspend and remove even sand-sized particles are high
(greater than 2 m/s for 100 mm pipe) and it may not be possible to achieve suitable
velocities in practice. Prolonged flushing at low velocities is not effective.
If high velocity flushing is not possible, consideration should be given to swabbing the
pipeline or using air scouring to ensure particulate contaminants are removed.
B3 WATER QUALITY
B3.1 Disinfection
To enable the conveyed water to meet bacteriological and biological quality standards,
pipelines, including those involved in extensions and repairs, must be disinfected before
use. Disinfection procedures vary depending on the size of the works. Reference should be
made to the responsible authority for details of acceptable disinfection procedures.
B3.2 Materials extracted from the pipe or fittings during service
Drinking water can extract minor amounts of various substances from pipes and fittings in
all materials, including PVC. In most cases the concentration of the extracted material in
the conveyed water is low and of little concern.

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AS/NZS 2033:2008

40

Good manufacturing practice, including compliance with the clauses relating to effect on
water in the relevant pipe or fitting Standards, ensures that there is no long-term effect on
water quality as a result of contact with the pipe or fitting. Short-term increases in the
concentration of potential contaminants have been observed in water conveyed through new
pipelines, particularly where the water is allowed to stand in the pipeline for long periods.
In most cases the concentrations of these contaminants in the conveyed water are well
below the acceptable limits recommended by WHO and other authorities. The responsible
authority should consult with the manufacturers to determine the range of likely
contaminants that might be extracted by drinking water, and the likely level of these
substances in the conveyed water.
Where there is concern about the risk of unacceptably high levels of particular substances
being extracted by water from a new pipeline, consideration should be given to
implementation of an appropriate commissioning procedure to ensure that the levels of
these contaminants are below acceptable limits in water supplied from the pipeline. The
responsible authority should be consulted to determine the commissioning procedure to be
adopted.
B4 COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
Commissioning procedures, including disinfection, and acceptance criteria, should be
specified in the project specification. The asset owner, or party carrying out the works
should be consulted to determine the procedures to be used.
B5 PROCEDURE FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY PIPELINES
New and repaired drinking water supply pipelines may be commissioned using the
following procedure:
(a)

Slowly fill the pipeline.

(b)

Clean by any one of the following methods:


(i)

Swabbing, followed by flushing to completely turnover the water contained in


the pipelinepreferred method.

(ii)

Air scouring (that is, where compressed air is injected into the water in the
main to create unsteady flow conditions during the flushing process)generally
not as effective and usually more difficult than swabbing.

(iii) High velocity flushing (e.g. 2.0 m/s to 2.5 m/s for 15 min)not generally
practical or possible for water mains >DN 300.
(c)

Fill and disinfect.

(d)

Flush or neutralize, or both.

(e)

Refill the main.

(f)

Sample for the presence of bacteria.

(g)

Certify acceptance.

(h)

Introduce the main into service.

COPYRIGHT

41

AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET

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AS/NZS 2033:2008
Amendment No. 1 (2008)
CORRECTION
SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to Table 3.2.
Published on 31 October 2008.

Amendment No. 2 (2009)


CORRECTION
SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to Tables 9.1 and 9.2.
Published on 22 June 2009.

AS/NZS 2033:2008

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AS/NZS 2033:2008
42

NOTES

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43

NOTES

AS/NZS 2033:2008

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NOTES

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