Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

SPE 59752

Experimental Investigation on the Rheology of Foams


Luis Fernando Bonilla, Universidad Surcolombiana, Neiva, Huila, Colombia, and Subhash N. Shah, SPE, The University
of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2000 SPE/CERI Gas Technology Symposium
held in Calgary, Alberta Canada, 3-5 April 2000.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
presented, has not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineer and are subject to
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Paper presented at
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300
words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous
acknowledgement of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
Box833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract
In this study, the rheology of foams was investigated
using aqueous foams and gelled foams and employing a pipe
type viscometer. Water was used as the liquid phase for the
aqueous foams while guar was used as the gelling agent for
the gelled foams. Surfactant at 0.5% (vol.) concentration was
used as the foaming agent. The flow data showed that foams
behave like Herschel-Bulkley model fluids.
New empirical correlations have been developed
from the experimental data to predict foam fluid apparent
viscosity. These correlations are function of liquid phase
properties and foam quality and are applicable to the foam
systems tested in the wide range of shear rates and
temperatures investigated. The use of these new correlations
will provide more accurate estimation of the foam fluid
rheological properties.
Introduction
Currently, the use of foam fluids is increasing rapidly
in the petroleum industry because these fluids exhibit
properties that are desirable in many field operations1 . In
drilling, the reduced density of the foam fluids, their high
carrying capacity, and their minimum filtrate and circulation
losses are among the desirable properties of the drilling fluids
during underbalanced drilling operations. The use of foams as
a fracturing fluid also presents several advantages. The high
carrying capacity, the minimum amount of fluid placed in the
formation, and the excellent fluid recovery after treatment are
some of the advantages that foam fluids present when used
during fracturing operations. Although not limited to, foams
have also been used successfully in oil and gas fields in well
stimulation, clean up, and fishing operations.

Foams are complex mixtures of a gas, a liquid, and a


surfactant whose rheological properties are strongly
influenced by parameters like temperature, absolute pressure,
foam quality, texture, foam-channel wall interactions, liquid
phase properties, and type and concentration of surfactant2, 3.
Therefore, the rheology of foams is more complex than that of
simpler fluids.
When used in oil field operations, foam exists in an
unsteady state due to constant changes in temperature,
pressure, composition, and shear rates. These changes affect
the flow properties of the foam fluids and may drastically alter
their hydraulic behavior. Consequently, all the variable values
predicted during the design process depend on the changes of
the foam properties. For this reason, the calculation and
prediction of the friction losses in laminar and turbulent flow
for foam fluids is a major challenge in oil field operations.
In order to improve the prediction of the friction
losses when pumping foams in tubular goods, a
comprehensive study of the effects of liquid phase type, shear
rate, pipe diameter, temperature, and quality on the rheological
properties of foams was conducted using the new foam loop of
the Well Construction Technology Center (WCTC) of The
University of Oklahoma. Tests were run in laminar flow
regime for aqueous and gelled foams at 1000 psia, for qualities
ranging from zero to 80%, and temperatures ranging from
75o F to 175 F using two different pipe sizes.
Experimental Setup
Tests of the foam systems were run in the
recirculating foam loop of the Well Construction Technology
Center (WCTC) of the University of Oklahoma. Figure 1
depicts a schematic of the experimental setup. This
recirculating loop was specially designed to characterize the
rheological behavior of foam fluids of different chemical
compositions and qualities under various conditions. This
equipment is pipe type viscometer, which is able to determine
dynamic rheological properties of foamed fluids under flow
conditions.
The loop mainly consists of the following
components:
Two different internal diameter straight pipes to test with:
in., and 3 /8 in. These pipes are smooth and made of
stainless steel. See Table 1 for dimensions of the loop.

LUIS FERNANDO BONILLA AND SUBHASH N. SHAH

The differential pressure is measured across a 10-ft


length.
A triplex pump which is used to pump the liquid phase
from the tank into the loop until the desired absolute
pressure was achieved. Two backpressure regulators act
as relief valves and also maintain the absolute pressure at
the desired values. They can be set up accordingly with
the test conditions.
A rotary gear pump is used to recirculate the fluid inside
the loop at different flow rates. The maximum flow rate
of the recirculating pump depends on the type of fluid and
the differential pressure, but it averages 2.5 gal/min. This
rotary gear technology provides a smooth and accurate
flow.
A differential pressure sensor that determines the
frictional pressure losses across a 10-ft section of each
pipe and can be set up to work in different calibration
ranges between 0 to 100 psi. Settings are applied
according to the expected pressures.
An absolute pressure sensor that measures the absolute
pressure of the system.
A 20-gal tank where the foam liquid phase is prepared
and pumped by the triplex pump.
Gas phase supply, which is a cylinder that contains
nitrogen gas under high pressure. A pressure regulator
controls the nitrogen flow rate into the loop to obtain a
desired foam quality.
A mixer that can be used in certain cases as the foam
generation device.
A Micromotion Elite Model CMF050 Sensor that
measures: Flow rate in the range of 0-30 gal/min, density
with accuracy of 0.0005 g/cc, and temperature with
accuracy of 1C 0.5% of reading in C.
A glass inspection cell to allow a visual inspection of the
circulating fluid.
Heating system equipped with medium temperature
heating tapes, temperature controller, and fiber glass tapes
as isolation system. The heating tapes are silicone rubber
extruded heating tapes that are wrapped around the pipes
in direct contact with the metal pipes to increase
temperature up to 600 F. A temperature controller is
responsible for the temperature control at the desired set
point values.
Wireless data acquisition system and a microcomputer to
perform on-line processing and saving of data.
The maximum working pressure of the foam loop is 1200
psia.

Procedure
For the purpose of this investigation, foams were
prepared using water and gel as liquid phases, nitrogen as the
gas phase, and an anionic surfactant was used as the foaming
agent. Gels were prepared using Guar as the gelling agent at
concentrations of 20, 40, and 60 lb/Mgal of water. For all the
foam systems the foaming agent concentration used was 0.5%
(vol.). The supplier of this product recommends this
concentration at these test conditions.

SPE 59752

All the tests were run under an average absolute


pressure of 1000 psia. This level of absolute pressure allows
making the assumption that foam quality is constant and
homogeneous inside the loop. Although this is not absolutely
true, this assumption is necessary for data analysis purposes
and does not lead to significant errors given the shortness of
the loop.
Tests were run at temperatures of 100, 125, 150, and
175 F using the 1/2-in. and 3/8-in. diameter pipes. The test
matrix of the foam fluids tested is shown in Table 2.
The general test procedure used was as follows: First,
the liquid phase was prepared at the desired composition and
sufficient time was given for complete gel hydration. Pipe
diameter, temperature controller, and differential pressure
sensors were set according to expected values. Then, sufficient
amount of liquid phase was pumped from the 20-gal tank into
the loop using the triplex pump to remove completely any
fluid that may contaminate the foam liquid phase. After
satisfactory flushing, the recirculating pump was started, the
triplex pump was turned off, the drain valve was shut off, and
1000 psia pressure was applied using the nitrogen cylinder.
The backpressure regulators controlled this gauge pressure.
The liquid phase was recirculated until the desired
temperature was achieved. At this point, the data gathering
process began. Liquid phase data, known as 0% quality, were
obtained. This liquid rheological behavior was the reference
point and was taken as the base line for the variation analysis
of the rheological behavior of the foam systems. Flow rate,
fluid density, differential pressure, temperature, and absolute
pressure were read and stored using the microcomputer while
recirculating fluid at various flow rates.
The liquid phase testing was followed by the foam
generation process and testing. As an example, to obtain a
foam fluid at 30% quality, liquid phase was drained gradually
using the draining valve. As liquid phase was exiting from the
loop, gas phase was introduced into the loop reducing the fluid
density and generating the foam system.
The density of the newly combined fluid at the given
conditions of pressure and temperature was the parameter used
to determine the foam quality. Once the predetermined fluid
density was reached, the draining process ended, the addition
of nitrogen was stopped, and the foam fluid was recirculated
to get a homogeneous foam with stable readings of fluid
density, differential pressure, and flow rate.
The shearing effects in the pipe and the gears of the
pump acted as the foam generation device. Then, to obtain the
rheology data for the foam system, the foam fluid was
recirculated in the same way mentioned previously for the
liquid phase. Friction pressure losses were obtained reducing
the flow rate gradually from the maximum possible to the
minimum.
Once a rheology test for a given quality was
completed, the process continued going for a higher quality.
This was achieved by draining fluid out of the loop using the
draining valve. Hence, gas phase entered into the loop,
decreasing fluid density and increasing foam quality until the
desired level. The rheology test for this new foam quality was
performed as mentioned earlier. Step by step, the process was

SPE 59752

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAMS

repeated progressively until the maximum desirable foam


quality was achieved or possible. Foams at qualities ranging
between 30% to 80% were recirculated at several flow rates in
order to gather data for wide range of shear rate.
The driving mechanism for fluid flow inside the loop
was the recirculating pump. It was assumed that the confining
condition of the two phases and the shearing effects created a
foam texture that was equilibrated at the given pressure and
shear rate. Although the original bubble size created at the
moment of foam generation may change with time and energy
input, for the purpose of this work it was given sufficient time
for foam generation and texture to reach equilibrium. This
equilibrium produced an average texture that offered stable
readings of foam density and differential pressure when
flowing at constant rates.
Data Processing
Data obtained from loop tests included time,
differential pressure, temperature, fluid density, absolute
pressure, and flow rate. Only data obtained under steady state
conditions were used in the calculations. The time reading was
used as a reference to determine the steady state conditions
and screen the useful data from the raw data. Since the
gathered experimental values represent the properties of the
fluid under circulation at a given conditions of pressure,
temperature, and flow rate, formulas and principles may be
applied to estimate the flow properties at the flow conditions.
For the case of foam fluids, the raw data processing
begins with the calculation of foam quality based on the
known conditions of temperature, pressure, and fluid density.
The flow loop is a closed system; hence, the total mass in
system remains constant in every test. The total mass in the
foamed system is equal to the sum of the mass of liquid and
the mass of gas, and the total volume of foamed fluid is equal
to the sum of the liquid volume and the gas volume.
During this investigation the nitrogen gas was used as
the internal phase of the foamed fluid. As a gas, nitrogen
density is a function of the average pressure and temperature
of the system. The equation of state was used to calculate gas
density. For the case of nitrogen, density can be expressed as,
N 2 =

MP
ZRT

(1)

Nitrogen z-factor was calculated using a table given


by Eilerts et al4 . This table shows the z-factors as a function of
pressure and temperature. It was considered that the volume
of gas entering into solution with the liquid phase was
negligible.
Water, the foaming agent, and the gelling agent
composed the liquid phase of the foam. Due to both the small
concentration of foaming agent and foaming agent density
value close to water density, the effect of the surfactant on
liquid density was not considered when calculating liquid
phase density. Hence, the liquid density was obtained from a
weighted average of the water and gelling agent densities,
which can be summarized as follows,

L =

mw + mGuar
Vw + VGuar

(2)

Foam quality is defined as the percentage of gas


volume contained within the foam,

V g ( T , P)

Q=

Vg (T , P ) + Vl (T , P )

x100

(3)

or,
Q=

L f
L N 2

x100

(4)

The foam quality in Eq. 4 is a function of liquid


density, gas density, and foam density.
The flow data for every foam system under conditions of
steady, fully developed flow through the pipes was processed
using the definition of shear rate at the wall, which was
calculated using the following equation,
w =

8v
d

(5)

and shear stress at the wall was obtained from,


w =

d P
4L

(6)

Results and Discussion


Although all plots are not shown here, logarithmic
plots of shear stress versus shear rate were prepared for data
gathered with all fluids. As an example, Figs. 2 through 5
exhibit some of the results for aqueous and gelled foams.
Shear stresses and shear rates were calculated using Eqs. 5 and
6. Discussion of results is presented in the following sections.
Wall Slip Analysis
The detection of wall slip phenomenon requires the
use of at least two sets of flow data using tubes of different
diameters but constant length5 . When the two sets of flow data
are plotted on the same figure they will coincide if there is no
slip at the wall; otherwise, an apparent slip is present and
correction methods should be applied to obtain a slip
coefficient which itself depends on the wall stress. Because
some investigators [David and Marsen6 , Enzendofer et al.7 ]
have reported wall slip phenomenon when pumping foams
through pipes, during this investigation foam fluids were
tested using two different pipe sizes.
As mentioned earlier, to verify the existence of this
phenomenon, some tests were carried out in two different
diameter pipes, 1/2-in. and 3/8-in., having the same 10-ft long
section. To facilitate the observation of any slip at the wall, all
the flow data obtained in both pipe sizes was plotted on the
same figure for every quality as shown in Fig. 6 for a gelled
foam of 70% quality. The observation of these plots leads to
the conclusion that all sets of data for 1/2-in. and 3/8-in.
diameter pipes coincide and there is no slip at the wall for

LUIS FERNANDO BONILLA AND SUBHASH N. SHAH

these foam systems. Hence, it is not necessary to apply any


correction method.
Gas Fraction Effects
The gas fraction in a foam system is represented by the
foam quality. As mentioned earlier, foam quality is defined as
the percentage of gas volume present in the foam relative to
the total foam volume. Composite plots of apparent viscosity
versus shear rate with quality as the parameter were prepared
for all the foam systems. Prior to the calculation of apparent
viscosity, a quick determination of the slope of the flow curves
on the logarithmic plots was done to verify the presence of
laminar flow regime data. All of the slopes were found to be
less than unity, which leads to the conclusion that the flow
regime was laminar. Apparent viscosity was calculated using
the experimental data applying the following equation:

a = 47880

(7)

Figures 2 through 5 are composite plots of shear stress as a


function of shear rate for some foam systems. All the
composite plots exhibited similar results. It can be observed in
these composite plots that shear stress (or, viscosity) increases
when quality increases for a fixed shear rate. This is valid for
all the foam systems at their respective temperatures. Apparent
viscosity increases gradually at low qualities and shows a
remarkable increase at high qualities. The reason is that foam
rheology is a function of foam structure. Bubbles will flow
freely and will not interfere with each other to produce
significant increases in foam viscosity at low qualities.
Interference appears around 50 to 60% quality where the
increase in viscosity is substantial.
Guar Concentration Effects
An analysis of the effects of polymer concentration was
also performed and an example of the results is shown in Fig.
7. It is evident from the rheograms that the viscosity of the
liquid phase has a significant effect on the final viscosity of
foam because more viscous liquids produce higher shear
stresses, and vice versa. It is concluded that more viscous
liquid phases produce higher viscosity foams when compared
at the same quality and temperature.
Temperature Effects
Figure 8 is an example of composite plots prepared to
observe the temperature effects on foam rheology. It depicts
the flow data with temperature as a parameter for various
qualities. All these charts showed that shear stress steadily
decreases with increasing temperature. It is important to
clarify that the foam generation became gradually more
difficult when increasing temperature. For this reason it was
not possible to obtain flow data for some high qualities and at
high temperatures. One of the factors that may explain this
fact is that increasing temperature causes destabilization of the
foam. High temperatures have thermal thinning effects on the
liquid phases and film thickness, which accelerate the liquid
drainage in the lamellae and reduce foam stability.

SPE 59752

Development of Correlation
Some authors have modeled foam fluids as Bingham
Plastic 8 , 9, and others as either Power Law10 or HerschelBulkley11, 12, 13, 14 fluids. These models are expressed
mathematically as:
Bingham Plastic:
Power Law:

= o + p

= K n

Herschel-Bulkley:

= o + K n

(8)
(9)
(10)

Although all of the rheology plots are not shown here, a


detailed examination of them leads to the following remarks
(see Figs. 2 through 5). Shear stress and apparent viscosity
increase when foam quality increases but decrease when shear
rate decreases. Consistency index increases gradually at low
qualities and shows a more dramatic increase at higher
qualities. Although data at low shear rates were not available
for some tests, some rheograms indicate that foams exhibit
yield stress. The presence of the yield stress is indicated by the
change in slope at low shear rates on the rheograms, which is
more visible with high quality foams.
Under the previous considerations and given that the
Herschel-Bulkley model is suitable for yield-pseudoplastic,
pseudoplastic, or a simple Newtonian fluid, this model was
found to be the most appropriate to describe the rheological
behavior of the foam systems tested. A computer program was
used to do the curve fitting of the experimental data and obtain
the Herschel-Bulkley model parameters for every foam system
with results that are listed in Tables 3, 4, and 5. These tables
show that the values of the linear regression coefficient, R2 ,
are greater than 0.95. This means that the correlation was
excellent and the Herschel-Bulkley model parameter values
describe correctly the rheological behavior of the foam
systems under investigation. Based on the rheological
behavior observed in these figures and the Herschel-Bulkley
parameters obtained by the curve fitting some findings and
inferences will be discussed in the following paragraphs.
All the foam systems exhibited a flow behavior index, n f,
equal to the flow behavior of the liquid phase at the same
temperature. Foam flow behavior index was found to be
independent of foam quality.
Foams having 60 lb/Mgal Guar gel did not exhibit yield
point, while the other foam systems had yield points that
increase exponentially with foam quality as shown in Figs. 9
and 10. Although it was expected that yield stress would
increase with guar concentration, no such relationship was
apparent. There was no good correlation between yield point
and temperature. Yield points for aqueous and gelled foams
may be estimated using the following Eqs. 11 and 12
respectively.

o = e ( 7 .7414+ 8. 7414Q )

(11)

0 = 0.0002265e ( Q / 0 .1061)

(12)

SPE 59752

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAMS

The variation of the foam consistency indices is shown in


Figs. 11 through 14. The ratio between the foam consistency
index to the liquid phase consistency index at the same
temperature versus foam quality is plotted in these figures. It
is observed that the foam consistency indices also increase
exponentially with foam quality. This variation can be
represented by the following equations (solid lines in Figs. 11
through 14).
For aqueous foams,

Kf
KL

= e (3 .4 Q + 2. 0965Q )
2

(13)

For 20 lb/Mgal Guar foams,

Kf
KL

2
= e (0 .5168Q + 4 .1224Q )

(14)

For 40 lb/Mgal Guar foams,

Kf
KL

2
= e (0 .01182Q + 2 .9396Q )

(15)

For 60 lb/Mgal Guar foams,

Kf
KL

2
= e ( 0 .0759Q + 3. 06Q )

(16)

Conclusions
The research presented in this investigation reasonably
supports the following conclusions:
Experimental correlations to predict the apparent viscosity
of foam fluids have been developed. They are functions of
the liquid phase properties and foam quality and
applicable to both the aqueous and guar base gelled
foams.
Foam fluids rheology can adequately be characterized by
the Herschel-Bulkley model.
Higher qualities produce higher shear stresses and higher
viscosities. At higher foam qualities apparent viscosity
increases exponentially with foam quality.
In general, the consistency index of the foam systems
investigated decreases as temperature increases at the
same quality and guar concentration. This means that
temperature has an adverse effect on foam stability.
More viscous liquid phase produces higher foam viscosity
at the same quality, shear rate and temperature.
There was no evidence of wall slip phenomenon present
for the foam systems investigated.
Acknowledgments
The authors express their appreciation to The University of
Oklahoma and The School of Petroleum and Geological
Engineering for the financial support and use of equipment
and facilities. We wish to recognize the assistance of the staff

of the Well Construction Technology Center (WCTC),


especially for help in designing and building the foam flow
loop.
Nomenclature
d
= Pipe Diameter
K

= Consistency index

Kf

= Foam consistency index, lb f.s n /ft2

= Pipe Length

= Nitrogen molecular weight, lb/lb-mol

mf

= Mass of foam

mGuar

= Mass of guar

mL

= Mass of liquid

mN2

= Mass of nitrogen

mW

= Mass of water

= Flow behavior index, dimensionless

n 75

= Flow behavior index of liquid phase at 75 F

nf

= Foam flow behavior index, dimensionless

= Absolute pressure, psia

= Foam quality, fraction

= Foam temperature, F

Vf

= Foam volume

VG

= Gas Volume

VGuar

= Guar Volume

Vl

= Liquid volume

VW

= Water Volume

= Compressibility factor

= Gas constant, 10.73 psia.ft 3 /(o R.lb mole)

Greek Symbols
w
= Shear Stress at the wall, lb f/ft 2
w

= Shear rate at the wall, 1/s

= Plastic viscosity

= Differential Pressure, psi

= Yield stress, lb f/ft 2

N2

= Nitrogen density

= Liquid viscosity, cP

= Liquid density

Guar

= Guar density

= Foam viscosity, cP

= Foam density

LUIS FERNANDO BONILLA AND SUBHASH N. SHAH

= Apparent viscosity, cP
7.

= Shear stress

= Shear rate

= Constant of proportionality known as the

8.

Newtonian viscosity of the fluid


References
1. Schramm, L.: FOAMS: Fundamentals and Applications in
the Petroleum Industry, Advances in Chemistry Series
242, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.
(1994).
2. Heller, J. P., and Kuntamukkula, M. S.: "Critical Review
of the Foam Rheology Literature," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
Vol. 26, No.2, 1987.
3. Phillips, A. M., Couchman D. D. and Wilke, J. G.:
"Successful Field Application of High-Temperature
Rheology of CO2 Foam Fracturing Fluids," paper SPE
16416 presented at the SPE/DOE Low Permeability
Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, Colorado, May 18-19,
1987.
4. Eilerts, C. K., Carlson, H. A., and Mullens, N. B.: "Effect
of Added Nitrogen on Compressibility of Natural Gas,"
World Oil, pp. 129, June 1948.
5. Mooney, M: "Explicit Formulas for Slip and Fluidity,"
Journal of Rheology, Vol. 2, No.2, pp. 210-222, April
1931.
6. David, A., and Marsden, S. S.: "The Rheology of Foam,"
Paper SPE 2544 presented at the 44th Annual Meeting of

No.
1
2
3

9.
10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

the SPE, Denver, CO, September 28, 1969.


Enzendofer, C., Harris, R. A., Valk, P., Economides, M.
J., Fokker, P. A., Davies, D. D.: "Pipe Viscometry of
Foams," Journal of Rheology, 39, pp. 345, March/April
1995.
Blauer, R. E., and Kohlaas, C. A.: Formation Fracturing
with Foams, paper SPE 5003 presented at the 49th
Annual Fall Meeting of the SPE, Houston, TX, October 69, 1974.
Mitchell, B.J.: Rheology of Foams, Ph.D. Dissertation,
1970.
Patton, J. T., Holbrook, S. T., and Hsu, W.: "Rheology of
Mobility Control Foams," SPE Journal, June 1983, pp.
456-460.
Harris, P. C.: "Rheology of Crosslinked Foams," Paper
SPE 28512 presented at the SPE Annual Technical
Meeting, New Orleans, LO, September 25-28, 1994.
Harris, P. C., Reidenbach, V. G.: "High-Temperature
Rheological Study of Foam Fracturing Fluids," paper SPE
13177, Journal of Petroleum Technology, May 1987.
Gardiner, B. S., Dlugogorski, B. S., Jameso, G. J., and
Chabara, R. P.: "Yield Stress Measurements of Foams,"
Journal of Rheology 42(6), November-December 1998,
pp 1437-1450.
Reidenbach, V. G., Harris, P. C., Lord, D. L. and Lee Y.
N.: "Rheological Study of Foam Fracturing Fluids Using
Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide," Paper SPE 12026
presented at the 58th Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition, San Francisco, CA, October 5-8, 1983.

Table 1. Foam Flow Loop Dimensions


Nominal
Internal
Length Across
Diameter (in.)
Diameter (in.)
P Ports (ft)

0.4348
10
3
/8
0.3055
10
1/4

Liquid Phase
Water
20 lb/Mgal Guar
40 lb/Mgal Guar
60 lb/Mgal Guar

0.1824

SPE 59752

10

Table 2. Test Matrix


Temp. (F)
Quality (%)
75
40 to 80
100 to 125
0 to 80
100 to 175
0 to 80
100 to 175
0 to 70

Total
Length (ft)
37.0
35.5
34.5

Pipe size (in.)

and 3 /8
and 3 /8
and 3 /8

Table 3. Herschel-Bulkley Model Parameters for Aqueous Foams.


QUALITY (%)
Liquid Phase
Parameters
0
30
40
50
60
70
80
n
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0.009
0.014
0.030 0.210 0.480
o (lb f/ft 2 )
Water 75 F
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 ) 0.00002 - 0.00008 0.00015 0.00034 0.001 0.0012
R
1
1
1
0.99
0.99
0.99

SPE 59752

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAMS

Table 4. Herschel-Bulkley Model Parameters for 20 and 40 Lb/Mgal Guar Gelled Foams
Liquid Phase

20# Guar 100 F

20# Guar 125 F

40# Guar 100 F

40# Guar 125 F

40# Guar 150 F

40# Guar 175 F

Parameters
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R

0
0.77
0
0.0007
1
0.84
0
0.00021
1
0.49
0
0.0143
1
0.52
0
0.0088
1
0.6
0
0.0047
1
0.65
0
0.0029
0.99

QUALITY (%)
30
40
50
60
70
80
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.0030
0.009
0.025
0.065
0.166 0.426
0.0011 0.0015 0.0024 0.0043 0.0095 0.0148
1
1
1
0.99
1
0.96
0.84
0.84
0.84
0.84
0.84
0.84
0.0030
0.009
0.025
0.065
0.166 0.426
0.00032 0.00039 0.00055 0.00085 0.002 0.0024
1
0.99
0.98
0.93
0.96
0.8
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.0030
0.009
0.025
0.065
0.166 0.426
0.0177 0.0225 0.0297 0.0419 0.069 0.0946
0.99
0.99
0.98
0.98
1
0.97
0.52
0.52
0.52
0.52
0.0030
0.009
0.025
0.065
0.0141 0.0165
0.023
0.0291
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.98
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.0030
0.009
0.025
0.065
0.0072 0.0092 0.0126 0.0179
1
0.99
0.99
0.97
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.0030
0.009
0.025
0.065
0.0047 0.0057 0.0067
0.01
1
0.99
0.98
0.95
-

Table 5. Herschel-Bulkley Model Parameters for 60 Lb/Mgal Guar Gelled Foams


Liquid Phase

60# Guar 100 F

60# Guar 125 F

60# Guar 150 F

60# Guar 175 F

Parameters
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R
n
o (lb f/ft 2 )
K (lb f.Sn /ft 2 )
R

0
0.35
0
0.0589
1
0.37
0
0.0522
1
0.4
0
0.039
1
0.44
0
0.0246
1

30
0.35
0.0000
0.0825
1
0.37
0.0000
0.064
1
0.4
0.0000
0.0496
0.99
0.44
0.0000
0.0314
0.96

QUALITY (%)
40
50
0.35
0.35
0.000
0.000
0.0979 0.1211
0.99
0.98
0.37
0.37
0.000
0.000
0.0779 0.0962
0.99
0.99
0.4
0.4
0.000
0.000
0.059
0.0717
0.99
0.99
0.44
0.44
0.000
0.000
0.037
0.0463
0.95
0.98

60
0.35
0.000
0.1646
0.99
0.37
0.000
0.1293
0.99
0.44
0.000
0.0652
0.96

70
0.35
0.000
0.252
0.98
-

LUIS FERNANDO BONILLA AND SUBHASH N. SHAH

SPE 59752

PDI

Diff. Press. Sensor

1/2 OD
3/8 OD
1/4 OD

Inj. Port

Mixer

20-gal Tank

Triplex Pump
Pressure Regulator

Nitrogen Tank

Gear Pump

Choke

Press. Sensor Micromotion


PI

SUMP

Sight Glass

B. P. Regulator

Figure 1. Schematic of the Foam Loop

Shear Stress, lbf/ft

10

40%
50%
60%
70%
80%

0.1

0.01

10

100

1000

Shear Rate, 1/s


Figure 2. Rheograms for Aqueous Foams from 40% to 80% Quality in -in Diameter Pipe at 75 F.

SPE 59752

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAMS

Shear Stress, lbf/ft

1
0%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
0.1

0.01
10

100

1000

Shear Rate, 1/s


Figure 3. Rheogram for 20 lb/Mgal Guar Foams from 0% to 80% Quality at 125 F.

Shear Stress, lbf/ft

0%
30%
40%
50%
60%
0.1

0.01
10

100

1000

Shear Rate, 1/s


Figure 4. Rheograms for 40 lb/Mgal Guar Foams from 0% to 60% Quality at 150 F

10

LUIS FERNANDO BONILLA AND SUBHASH N. SHAH

SPE 59752

Shear Stress, lbf/ft

0%
30%
40%
50%
60%

0.1
10

100

1000

Shear Rate, 1/s


Figure 5. Rheograms for 60 lb/Mgal Guar Foams from 0% to 60% Quality at 175 F

Shear Stress, lbf/ft

10

1/2"
3/8"

0.1
10

100

1000

10000

Shear Rate, 1/s


Figure 6. Rheogram for 40 lb/Mgal Guar Foam of Q=70% in -in and 3 /8 -in Diameter Pipe at 100 F

SPE 59752

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAMS

11

10

Shear Stress, lbf/ft

20 lb/Mgal
40 lb/Mgal
60 lb/Mgal

0.1
10

100

1000

Shear Rate, 1/s


Figure 7. Rheogram for 70% Quality Foam at 100 F. Effect of Guar Concentration

Shear Stress, lb f/ft

100
125
150
175

F
F
F
F

0.1
10

100

1000

Shear Rate, 1/s

Figure 8. Rheograms for 40 lb/Mgal Guar Foams at 50% Quality. Effect of Temperature.

12

LUIS FERNANDO BONILLA AND SUBHASH N. SHAH

SPE 59752

0.8

Exptal. Data

0.7

Trendline

Yield Point, lb

f/ft

0.6

o =e (-7.7414+8.7414Q)

0.5

R2=0.98
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Quality, fraction
Figure 9. Yield Stress for Aqueous Foams as a Function of Quality

0.8

Exptal. Data

0.7

Trendline

Yield Point, lb

f/ft

0.6

o =0.0002265e (Q/0.1061)

0.5

R2=0.95

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Quality, fraction
Figure 10. Yield Stress as a Function of Quality for 20 lb/Mgal and 40 lb/Mgal Guar Foams at Various Temperatures

SPE 59752

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAMS

13

80

Exptal. Data

70

Trendline

KFoam /K Liq

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Quality, %

Figure 11. Consistency Index Ratio for Aqueous Foams at 75 F

26
100 F
125 F
Trendline

KFoam/K Liq

21

16

11

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Quality, %

Figure 12. Consistency Index Ratio for 20 lb/Mgal Guar Foams at Various Temperatures

14

LUIS FERNANDO BONILLA AND SUBHASH N. SHAH

SPE 59752

7
100 F
6

125 F
150 F

KFoam/K Liq

175 F
Trendline

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Quality, %

Figure 13. Consistency Index Ratio for 40 lb/Mgal Guar Foams at Various Temperatures

7
100 F
125 F

150 F

KFoam/K Liq

175 F
Trendline

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Quality, %

Figure 14. Consistency Index Ratio for 60 lb/Mgal Guar Foams at Various Temperatures