Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

1

Marikina Polytechnic College


Marikina, City

The Level of Reading Competency


and its Influence on the Academic Achievement
of Grade Five Students of Pinagbuhatan Elementary
School: Basis for Developmental Reading Program.

Lovely Rollaine E. Borja


Master in Education
Major in Educational Management
2015
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem,
significance of the study, and the scope and delimitation.
Background of the Study
The ability to read is an essential skill for students to master because information
is presented in text throughout the world. Web sites, books, magazines, and
newspapers, while sometimes including pictures for visual reference, utilize print to
share information with the reader.
Reading competency is equally dependent on two critical skills: the ability to
understand the language in which the text is written, and the ability to recognize and
process printed text. Each of these competencies is likewise dependent on lower level
skills and cognitive abilities.
Children who readily understand spoken language and who are able to fluently
and easily recognize printed words do not usually have difficulty with reading
comprehension. However, students must be proficient in both competencies to read
well; difficulty in either domain undermines the overall reading process. At the
conclusion of reading, children should be able to retell the story in their own words
including characters, setting, and the events of the story. Reading researchers define a
skilled reader as one who can understand written text as well as they can understand
the same passage if spoken.

There is some debate as to whether print recognition requires the ability to


perceive printed text and translate it into spoken language, or rather to translate printed
text directly into meaningful symbolic models and relationships. The existence of speed
reading, and its typically high comprehension rate would suggest that the translation
into verbal form as an intermediate to understanding is not a prerequisite for effective
reading comprehension. This aspect of reading is the crux of much of the reading
debate.
By the time students reach elementary school, many teachers expect students to
build their background knowledge by reading at home and then demonstrate their
understanding during in-class discussions. The textbooks that students utilize in
Science, Math, and MAKABAYAN are typically several hundred pages in length,
featuring diagrams, pictures, and, primarily, text to transmit knowledge about the subject
to the reader. English teachers also assign novels and stories for reading at home.
Unfortunately, textbooks are challenging for students to access.
Textbooks use advanced vocabulary, cover a vast number of topics, use direct
language that doesnt engage the reader, and lack the structure that promotes reading
comprehension (Bryce, 2011). In primary school, students are still building their reading
competence, but as they finish the elementary grade they are expected to have the
necessary skills.
Additionally, the battery of standardized tests that students take to demonstrate
competence in each of the tested subject areas, such as English, Math, and Science,
requires them to be able to read at increasingly higher levels. For example, in Grade

Five the Reading portion of thePHIL-IRI test is around 95 words, but at higher grade
levels 135 words. The students in higher grade levels are responsible for reading and
comprehending all of the directions, passages, and other printed information within the
test.
Public schools are evaluated based on student performance on these
standardized tests and approximately forty percent of students going to public school
are attending schools undergoing program improvement for failing to achieve the
goals of No Child Left Behind (Crane,2010).
Students are not performing well on their tests; it could be because they are
struggling to read and comprehend the test questions that they are being confronted
with.
Students need practice reading in order to develop their phonemic awareness,
phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The mastery of these skills will grant
them access to increasingly complex knowledge in other academic subject areas.
As has been demonstrated in the results of the PHIL-IRI test, the elementary
school of Pinagbuhatan has experienced a dramatic demographic transformation in less
than a year, Increases in economic diversity of the student body, and the number of
students who lack competency in the Reading create special challenges for the district
as it makes efforts to raise the reading level of all students, especially those students
experiencing, or at-risk for, reading failure.

Statement of the Problem


This study attempted to determine the level of reading competency and its
influence on the academic achievement of Grade Five students of Pinagbuhatan
Elementary School: Basis for Developmental Reading Program.
1. How competent are Grade Five students based on the following reading skills:
a. Word recognition
b. Reading speed
c. Reading comprehension
d. Vocabulary
2. What is the level of the academic achievement of the respondents?
90-above - Advance (A)
85-89 - Proficient (P)
80-84 - Approaching Proficiency (AP)
75-79 - Developing (D)
74-below

- Beginning(B)

3. Is there a significant relationship between the students academic performance


and their reading competency?

4. What strategies/intervention can you perform in order to develop the reading


competency of the students?
Significance of the Study
This study gives utmost importance to the educational system because of the
benefits that it could offer to the different stakeholders who are presented, as follows:
To the teachers, the results of the study will help teachers recognize pupils
achievements and disabilities which they may use in formulating guidelines and
remedial measures to help them improve their reading competency.
Result may also yield significant information as regards to the influence of
reading competency to their academic performance, hence, remedial measures maybe
instituted.
To the School Administrators, the findings of the study may also serve as basis
for in-service trainings of teachers to further upgrade their competencies.
To the Parents, the results may also redound to a better and more sympathetic
understanding between parents and teachers as regards their children reading
proficiency and academic performance in the three major subjects. It will give the
parents an understanding of the learners reading development, will help them in
assisting the students needs in developing their reading skills.
To the Grade Five Pupils, more importantly, results may benefit the Grade Five
pupils with reading disabilities because their problems will be properly and timely
addressed. It may provide clues in understanding the obstacles that hinder the students

from becoming an effective reader, and will serve as a guide in developing their least
mastered language.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
The study focused on the The Level of Reading Competency and its influence on
the academic achievement of Grade Five Students of Pinagbuhatan Elementary
School: Basis for Developmental Reading Program.
Its included the item statement on competency of Grade Five students based on
the result of PHIL-IRI in the following reading skills, word recognition, reading speed,
reading comprehension, vocabulary. Its also included the level of academic
achievement based on the grades on the major subjects: Math, Science and English.
Also the strategies that may implement to heightened the academic performance of the
students.
It is important to understand the relationship between reading competency and
academic performance in other subject areas at the elementary grade level and to
determine if there are key factors where the relationship is strong enough to consider
utilizing a reading intervention program as the primary intervention for low student
performance in other academic areas.
Academic performance encompasses student performance on summative
assessments in the three major subjects based on the Form 138.
The PHIL-IRI as a source of data for reading competency level of students, has
the same limitations of a typical IRI. Its findings are to be interpreted cautiously and are
not to be thought of as an absolute measure and encompassing of the total pupils

reading ability. The PHIL-IRI only provides an approximation of the pupils ability in word
recognition and comprehension within his/her grade level. The findings are to be
regarded only as very tentative indicators of pupils reading levels and competencies to
modify, when necessary, a classroom reading program (Lalunio, 2010). They should
never be the sole bases for promoting or retaining the child in the grade level.
The respondents of the studies are Grade Five students who are randomly
selected.

CHAPTER II
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies , the conceptual
model of the study, the research hypotheses, and the definition of terms used.
Review of Related Literature and Studies

The following related literature and studies were reviewed in order to give the
researcher valuable insights.
The connection between reading and other academic subject areas or skill sets
has been explored by several researchers who have approached the concept from
various perspectives. Researchers whose work is included in this review have
performed correlation studies relating reading with another academic subject area
utilizing data on student performance. Some have examined behavioral factors; others
explored genetic factors through the use of twin studies; some have examined the
socio-economic factors; and still others have examined the relationship from the
perspective of disabilities and special education. Current research highlights the
importance of reading in the success of students and citizens in industrialized nations.
Reading Competency and Academic Performance
The relationship between reading competency and academic performance
seems like a logical connection since textual information is prevalent in our society.
Espin and Deno (2010) found that a relationship exists between basic reading literacy
and student academic success. Their study involved 121 tenth-grade students in a rural
school in a small mid-western community. Their study was based on the connection
between a students reading measure and that student's score from a classroom study
task, grade point average, and achievement test results.
Another recent study focusing on secondary students was conducted by Cromley
(2011).This study focused specifically on reading and proficiency in science with an
international perspective and included several countries, including the United States.
Cromley found that there was a very high correlation between reading comprehension

10

and science proficiency, with the mean for all of the nations being .819. The United
States was among the nations with the highest correlation between reading and
science. Cromley noted that the 2011 tests used in this study to
measure science achievement, the Programme on International Student Assessment
(PISA), was designed to require less reading, which emphasizes the high correlation
between reading and science achievement.
Mathematics is another subject area in which performance can be linked to
reading ability. A study conducted by Vilenius-Tuohimaa, Aunola, and Nurmia (2011)
looked at the relationship between students ability to solve math word problems and
students text comprehension skills. Their study included 225 fourth grade students and
found that the better a students reading comprehension skills, the better his or her
performance on mathematical word problems. In addition to the correlation between
reading comprehension and word problem solving, the study also found that both of
those skills were related to technical reading.
Although their results showed that technical reading ability could predict a higher
skill level at reading comprehension and math problem solving, when they controlled for
technical reading, the covariance between word problem solving and reading
comprehension was still present. The authors explain that a reader with poor decoding
skills struggles with the text itself and isn't able to perform the tasks requiring logical
reasoning strategies. It is a reasonable explanation that a student who struggles to
decode text is going to perform poorly in all subject areas because there are more
hindrances in comprehending text .

11

There are several components to reading which can impact mathematical


performance. A study conducted by Grimm (2010) examined the relationship between
early reading skills and growth in math skills. His study examined third grade students
and found that students who had a higher level of reading comprehension tended to
learn problem solving and data interpretation skills faster than those with weaker
reading comprehension. Interestingly, student computational
skills were unaffected by early reading comprehension, which indicates that reading
comprehension is linked to a more conceptual understanding of math (Grimm,2010). A
study with a focus on reading comprehension explicitly related to math was conducted
in Turkey by Duru and Koklu (2011). The authors looked at middle school students
ability to read a mathematical text and convert it into an algebraic equation and viceversa. The data from the study indicated that students had low reading comprehension
which prevented them from comprehending the mathematical texts and algebraic
equations representing those texts.
The impact that reading ability has on the future of students is especially clear in
the Shippen et al. (2010) study showing that the prison population in the study lacked
the ability to pass a high school equivalency exam. The studies reviewed indicate the
many hurdles to reading development, they highlight the links between reading
achievement and achievement in other areas, and they show the long term implications
of reading development.
Guthrie, Benneth & McGough, (2013) believe that reading is the act of getting
meaning from printed or written words, which is the basis for academic success and
one of the most important skills in everyday life. (Issa et al 2012) further explain that

12

reading is usually associated with books as only the written words provide a complete
picture of the act of reading. It means that through reading, the individual is able to
build or fix things, enjoy stories, discover what others believe and develop ideas or
beliefs of their own. Thus, reading provides the key to all forms of information necessary
for our day-to-day survival and growth which is visible in their academic performance in
school.
In other studies, Heyman (2011) proposed a reciprocal relationship between
reading competencies and achievement. A high sense of reading skill enhances ones
motivation to strive towards goals and to persevere on difficult tasks. In addition, people
with high academic perform better than people with low academic performance after an
initial failure, and are more likely to persevere when confronted with obstacles
(Heyman, 2010). Following success, these students attempt to maintain that success,
and as a result, demonstrate sustained effort, attention, and concentration when
involved in academic tasks (Heyman,2011). Conversely, students with low academic
success are inclined to low reading competencies.

eading Competency and Instruction


In the state of Florida, roughly twenty percent of students are receiving
reading intervention. Interventions in Kindergarten focuses on phonological
awareness, phonics, and word recognition and are usually taught by a
paraprofessional in the classroom, while 15 interventions in third grade focuses on
engaging students for longer periods of time with lengthier texts involving more
complex skills and are taught by specialized reading intervention teachers (Wanzek
& Cavanaugh, 2010). The shift from intervention being offered by a paraprofessional
to a reading intervention teacher may be because students reading scores at the
second-grade and third-grade levels consistently grow more rapidly than their peers
when they are engaged in high-level thinking about the texts that they read
(Peterson & Taylor, 2012). In another study, which examined English language
learners fluency and comprehension, over half of the students assessed had a
significant gap between their reading fluency and comprehension scores and found
that fluency increased at a greater rate than reading comprehension (Quirk & Beem,
2012). On average, roughly 15% of students in grades two and three are word
callers, which means that they decode words and can say them, but they do not
know the meaning of the words.
This demonstrates the risk that textbooks pose to students who are learning
English or who have strong decoding skills combined with a limited vocabulary
because they may be decoding the words, but they may not be correctly interpreting
them. This is the most true of English learner students at the intermediate
proficiency level (Quirk & Beem, 2012). One method to scaffold for those English

learner students is to provide them with cognate instruction in order to connect root
words in English to root words in their native language when they share historical
roots (Goodwin, Lipsky, & Ahn, 2012)
PHIL-IRI Background
The Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) is one of the most useful classroom
tools in assessing a pupils reading competency. It can give the teachers information
on the level of their pupils performance in reading by actual observation. A typical
IRI is administered individually and consists of graded stories followed by
comprehension questions of different dimensions. Depending on the purpose, an IRI
may contain comprehension questions on a few or more of the following reading
skills: getting the main idea, inferencing, sequencing events, finding cause-effect
relationships, and noting details. Most IRIs would include measures of word miscues
and comprehension as well as provision for pupil retelling of the passage read.
Thus, the IRI provides the teachers with a comprehensive profile of their pupils
ability in reading, whether orally or silently, including their reading habits and
attitudes. The teachers may then use this information in planning their classroom
reading instruction.
The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI)-Oral Test is one variation
of IRI. It is adapted in the context of IRI to help teachers determine the reading
abilities and needs of their pupils in order to provide bases for planning their
classroom instruction.
The Phil-IRI-Oral Test is an informal measure that assesses the pupils word
identification, vocabulary and comprehension skills in oral reading. It consists of
graded reading passages from Grade I to Grade VI. Each graded passage is

followed by 5-7 comprehension questions. The questions are categorized into three
dimensions namely literal, interpretive and applied. The critical questions are
subsumed in the applied dimension. The definitions of each dimension can be found
in the glossary of this manual.
The passages may either be narrative and expository texts. They are carefully
written to ensure that the characters, setting and plot appeal to the children. They
are culture-neutral, gender-free and without biases against religion, ethnicity/race
and socio-economic status. They are also laden with values and real-life lessons.
The Phil-IRI-Oral Test gives both quantitative and qualitative information
about the pupils oral reading capabilities. Quantitative information shows the
reading levels namely: frustration, instructional and independent. Qualitative
information emphasizes word recognition, patterns of word errors, comprehension
strengths and difficulties as well as oral reading behaviors and attitudes. It also
reveals the reading growth of the pupils over time. The information in the Phil-IRIOral Test should help the teachers; school managers and divisions plan appropriate
interventions and strategies in teaching reading.
Level of Questions
passage

these are the questions asked regarding a


arranged in order of difficulty as:

a) Literal

- questions whose answers are explicitly


stated/given in the story

b) Interpretive

read
answers

these are questions which require children to


between the lines to find the answer. The
are not directly stated in the text

c) Critical
these are questions which elicit analysis,
synthesis,
judgement in the context of the authors
point of view as well as the readers point of view

d) Applied
- these are questions that draw from the child his
own way of visualizing things based on his own scheme
these are
questions that elicit the readers
opinion/decision as applied in daily life situations
Reading levels
a) Frustration

This is the lowest reading level

The pupils scores 75% & below in


comprehension and classified as slow reader with the following reading
speed grade level:
Grade V - 140 below
b) Instructional
The pupil scores 75-89% in comprehension and
classified as average reader with the following reading speed per grade level:
Grade V - 141-169
c) Independent

This is the highest reading level.

The pupil scores 90-100% in comprehension and


classified as fast reader with the following reading speed
per grade level:
Grade V - 170 above
Reading teacher
child tested.
135 Respondents

Identified the reading


Content validation of
- one who teaches reading or the teacher-adviser of the
competency of the
the Questionnaire
Grade V students

References Swearigen, Rebecca and Allen, Diane.


reading Process 2nd ed. USA:
Administration and

retrieval of
Questionnaire

ClassroomAssessment of
Identified the academic
performance of Grade
V pupils in the 3 major
subjects ( Math,
English, Science )

AcademicPerformance
of
Grade V pupils
in of the Study
Conceptual
Model
three major subjects.
Significant relationship
Statistical treatment of
between the result of
To lead the researcher ondata
the and
conduct
of this study, Figure 1 has been drawn
information
Phil-Iri in identifying the
gathered.
reading competency
Result
of PhilIri and and Output model.
using Input,
Process
and academic
questionnaires
performance of the
Input
Process
GradeOutput
V
Proposed intervention
to shore up the reading
disabilities of students

Figure 1 Conceptual Model of the Study


The first frame consists of input, containing 135 respondents, the level of
competency of pupils in reading based on the PHIL-IRI results and their grades in
the three major subjects, English, Science and Math.
The second frame, the process, includes the administration and retrieval of
questionnaires, analysis of data, statistical treatment of data, and the analysis and
interpretation of data.
The last frame, the output, includes the level of reading competency of Grade
Five pupils and the influence of the latter in their academic performances, including

the strategies and intervention that they will implement for the developmental
reading program.
Research Hypothesis
The study will answer the following hypothesis:
1. There is no significant relationship between the levels of reading competency
of Grade five to their academic performance.
Definition of Terms Used in the Study
The following key terms are operationally defined for purposes of clarity and
better understanding of the readers.
Academic Performance

- this refers to the achievement of the pupils in

their academic subject based on the Form 138.


Academic Subject-

this refers to the three major subject in Elementary

Science, Math and English.


Assessment Tool
- this refers to a set of passage given to the child
to determine
his/her reading level
Comprehension this refers to a type of understanding such that the
individual knows what is being communicated without necessarily relating it to other
material or seeing its fullest application. It refers to the ability to read between the
lines, to read beyond the lines.

Comprehension Skills this refers to the ability to understand or interpret


the material read or speech language based on previous experiences recalled and
related to the present situation.
Informal Oral Reading

- this refers to an assessment on the childs word

recognition and comprehension skills


Informal Silent reading
and

- this refers to an assessment on the childs speed

comprehension skills
Intervention Strategy

this refers to a scheme, device or activity, a

teacher may provide to remedy or overcome a reading difficulty.


Learning this refers to the process of gaining knowledge, information, and
skills through experience and study.
Learning Disability this refers to significant discrepancies along learners
sensory motor, perceptual, cognitive academic and other related developmental
which interfere with the performance of academic tasks.
Mispronunciation this refers to attempting to pronounce the word but
produces a nonsense word, rather than a real one.
Non-reader this refers to a pupil who has not mastered the ability to read
any reading material suited to his age level or even below his age level.
Omission this refers to omitting a word or a continuous sequence of words
in the text but continues to read. .
Phil-IRI this refers to the assessment tool that evaluates the reading
competency level of elementary school pupils. It is the acronym for Philippine
Informal reading Inventory.

Philippine Informal

- this refers to

a set of oral and silent reading

passages for Reading Inventory the elementary grades in order to get the ( Phil-IRI )
reading level of the public elementary school pupils
Prompt- this refers to brief questions, description, discussion as a motivation
and background of the passage to help the child read and understand it. It activates
prior knowledge of the child.
Pupil Factor this refers to the proper motivation to read the printed page,
the pre-reading preparation and the ability to cope and understand the lessons
presented in Reading.
Reading this refers to the purposeful activity which involved the
comprehension and interpretation of ideas symbolized by written or printed
language. It is the ability of the pupils to see, think, interpret and pronounce printed
matters or written symbols in one setting. It is a developmental task which a child
must perform in order to satisfy his own needs, so that he may satisfy the demands
made upon him by the society and so that he is better prepared to handle
subsequently development task.
Reading Deficiency this refers to a mild severe retardation in learning to
read which is desperate with the individuals general intelligence and with their
cultural, linguistic and educational experience.
Reading Difficulties this refers to the handicap that interferes with reading,
lack of ability to read with average or normal achievement for ones age and grade
level. These are children who seem normal but they are not making the growth in

reading in his maturity limits due to the handicap that interferes with his
comprehension.
Reading Skills this refers to the skills that are readers possess in order to
attain a level of functional literacy, the level at which he can independently handle
reading materials. They also refer to the reading skills, literal comprehension and
interpretative skills.
Refusal to Pronounce this refers to neither pronouncing the word nor
attempting to do so.
Remedial Reading this refers to the instruction given to the learners who
operate reading levels below their capabilities, the purpose of which is to overcome
difficulties discovered in any aspect of the reading process.
Repetition this refers to repeating one or more words that have been read.
Groups of adjacent words that are repeated count as one repetition.
Retarded Reader - this refers to one whose reading achievement is less
than that of what is expected of his peer group.
Reluctant Reader this refers to the pupil who can read but will not the root
cause of which is the mental attitude of the individual.
Retained Non-readers this refers to the Grade Five pupils who were
retained in Grade Five as a result of reading disability.
Reversal- this refers to the reversing of the order of words or letters.
Substitution this refers to substituting a real word that is incorrect.

Underachiever in Reading this refers to the restriction to those whose


reading performance is not below age and grade standards but who are judged to be
functioning significantly below their own potential level in reading.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESIGN
This chapter presents the methods of research, population of the study,
sampling procedure, research instrument, validation, data gathering procedure, and
statistical treatment of data.
Methods of Research

The descriptive type of research was used by the researcher to find out and
determine the Level of Reading Competency and its influence on the academic
achievement of Grade Five Students of Pinagbuhatan Elementary School.
The researcher believed that this type of research will best describe the
results of the investigation since according to Bes and Khan (2013), the descriptive
type of research describes and interprets what is. It is concerned with conditions or
relationships that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs, point of views, or attitudes that
are help, processes that are going on, effects that are felt, and the trends that are
developing.
Population of the Study
The population of the study involved selected Grade Five students school
year 2014-2015 which is the inclusive period of the study.

Sampling Procedure
Stratified random sampling is a technique which attempts to restrict the
possible samples to those which are ``less extreme'' by ensuring that all parts of the
population are represented in the sample in order to increase the efficiency ( that is
to decrease the error in the estimation).

If a simple random sample selection scheme is used in each stratum then the
corresponding sample is called a stratified random sample.
Sources of Data
The sources of data in this study were 8 teachers and 135 students. Total
numbers of teachers will be taken while in determining the number of students the
Slovins formula will be used and selection through stratified random sampling. The
distribution of teachers and students is presented in the table

Table 1
Distribution of Respondent
Respondent

Population

Percentage

Samples

(100%)
Teachers

5%

Students

154

95%

252

Total

162

100%

260

Note: For teachers we used universal sampling while for students we used
Slovins formula.
It could be seen in the table that there were 154 students taken from the total
population of 252, while 8 teachers were used for the study. Finally, 162 will be the
total respondent for the study.
Research Instrument
The Phil-IRI data results will be used to determine the level of reading
competency of the students, while Form 138 will be the basis for the academic
performance of students.
Informal interviews with Grade Five pupils and Grade Five teachers who were
subjected to Phil-IRI were conducted by the researcher to supplement the data
gathered from the test.
Validation of the Instrument
The instrument was no longer validated since the Phil IRI is a standardized
instrument, while Form 138 is a permanent record of a student that show their
academic performance, It was however submitted to her adviser and panel of
examiners for approval.
Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher waited for the memorandum when to administer the Phil-IRI
test from the Division Superintendent of DepEd Pasig, also she asked permission
from the Division Superintendent to conduct informal interviews and gather the
needed data for the study.
Upon approval, she personally administered the questionnaires to her target
respondents, the Grade Five teachers, for her to be able to explain the mechanics of
answering and the actual purpose of the study.
On the part of the Grade Five pupils their respective advisers conduct the
Phil-IRI test comprising of oral reading, silent reading, speed and comprehension.
Informal interview was conducted to the Grade Five teachers to gather
information on how to increase the reading competency of the students.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The data gathered through the Phil-IRI tests were treated statistically using
the following statistical tools:
According to Copino (2011), Problem one can be answered by computing the
mean scores. The scores in each area was converted to percent scores by dividing
the mean by the total number of items. The results were placed in a scale of five with
twenty intervals from excellent to poor.
Levels of competence

Score Interval

Excellent -----------------------------------------------------------81%-100%

Above Average ---------------------------------------------------61%-80%


Average ------------------------------------------------------------41%-60%
Below Average ---------------------------------------------------21%-40%
Poor ------------------------------------------------------------ 20% and below
Courtesy of Rhodelia P. Copino
In problem number two, a copy of the students 138A will be used to obtain the
data. The problem will be answered by getting the average mean of their total
academic performance from first grading to fourth grading in the three major
subjects. Their grade will then be ranked based to the guidelines given by the
Department of Education.

90-above

- Advance (A)

85-89

- Proficient (P)

80-84

- Approaching Proficiency (AP)

75-79

- Developing (D)

74-below

- Beginning(B)

For problem number three, the Pearson r correlation coefficient will be used in
order to determine the relationship of reading competency to their academic
performance of Grade Five students.
The formula of the Pearson r correlation coefficient:

Where:

the Pearson r correlation coefficient

reading comprehension test results ( PHIL-IRI Oral)

reading comprehension test results ( PHIL-IRI Silent )

xy

The summation of the products of x and y

the sum of the score obtained by the students in the Oral

English reading comprehension test results.


y

the sum of the score obtained by the students in the

Silent English reading

comprehension test results.

x2

the square of summation of x

y2

the square of the summation of y

the number of tests

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. Books
Bryce, N. (2011). Meeting the reading challenges of science textbooks in the primary
grades. The Reading Teacher, 64(7), 481.
Copino, Rhodelia. ( 2011). Reading Assessment in Philippines Curiculum .p 67-68
Crane, E. W (2010). Characteristics of California school districts in program
improvement (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2008No. 055). Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for

Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory


West.
Cromley, J. (2011). Reading achievement and science proficiency: International
comparisons from the programme on international student assessment. Reading
Psychology, 30, 89- 118.

Duru, A. & Koklu, O. (2011). Middle school students reading comprehension of


mathematical texts and algebraic equations. International Journal of Mathematical
Education in Science and Technology, 42(4), 447-468.
Espin, C., & Deno, S. (2010). Performance in reading from content area text as an
indicator of achievement. Remedial & Special Education, 14(6), 47.
Goodwin, A., Lipsky, M., & Ahn, S. (2012). Word detectives: Using units of meaning
to support literacy. The Reading Teacher, 65(7), 467.
Grimm, K. (2010). Longitudinal associations between reading and mathematics
achievement. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 419-420.
Heyman, W. (2011). The self-perception of a learning disability and its relationship to
academic self-concept and self-esteem. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 472475.
Lalunio,Lydia

Dean

College

Philippine Normal University(2010 )

of

Languages,

Linguistics

and

Literature

Quirk, M., & Beem, S., (2012). Examining the relations between reading fluency and
reading comprehension for English language learners. Psychology in the Schools,
49(6), 545-549.
Peterson, D., & Taylor, B. (2012). Using higher order questioning to accelerate
students growth in reading. The Reading Teacher, 65(5), 304.
Shippen, M., Houchins, D., Crites, E., Derzis, N., & Patterson, D. (2010). An
examination of the basic reading skills of incarcerated males. Adult Learning, 21(34), 9.
Swearigen, Rebecca and Allen, Diane. Classroom
Assessment of reading Process 2nd ed. USA:
P. Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. (2011). The association between mathematical word
problems and reading comprehension. Educational Psychology, 28(4), 409-426.
Wanzek, J., & Cavanaugh, C. (2010). Characteristics of general education reading
interventions implemented in elementary schools for students with reading
disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 33, 199-200.
B. Unpublished Materials
Samira, Lyndio Andres (2013) School, Teachers, and Parent Related Factors and
Pupils Academic Achievement in Balangay Elementary School San Juan east
District, San Juan Batangas. Unpublished Masters Thesis. Rizal Technological
University,Mandaluyong.

Sanchez, Liza (2010) Factors Associated with the Reading Competencies of Grade
Five Pupils in District II, DCS; Manila: Basis for Policy Formulation. Unpublished
Masters Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines, Manila.

Guthrie J.T. Benneth, L & McGough, K (2013), Concept-oriented Reading


Instruction: An Integrated Curriculum to Develop Motivations and Strategies for
Reading.

C. Internet Sources

http://www.phil-iri.com.ph
http://www.slideshare.net/mobile/NoopurSahu1/researchandmethodologymethodsbycrkothari
http://.en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Correlation_and_dependence
http://www.dictionary.com
www.uk.pearson.com/enjoy-reading/why-is-reading-so-important.html
www.learn-to-read-george.com/why-is-reading-important.html
http://curry.virginia.edu/go/clic/nrrc/corri_rlo.html Retrieved on November, 28 2013.

I. Factors Affecting Reading Competency of Grade Five Pupils


Instruction: Please put a checkmark (/) in the column provided opposite each
item to signify your answer. Use the scale that follows:
5_______to a very great extent
4 _______great extent
3 _______moderate extent
2 _______ slight extent
1 _______ no extent at all
A. Parent Factor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Item Statement
Sufficient educational support and concern from
parent
Obtains proper nourishment needed for their
studies
Obtains the needed physical needs form parent
Rewards their children whenever they obtain high
grades
Keeps children away from family problems and
frequent quarrels which directly and indirectly
affect their studies

6. Gives praises for whatever success their children

obtain from school


7. Listens to childrens explanations before scolding
and beating them
8. Involve themselves to improve the reading
deficiencies of their children
9. Assists or help their children in preparing
homework
10. Have regular communication with their children as
regards their studies
11. Does not allow their children to go to any place
around instead of studying their lessons at home
12. Attends to their childrens emotional, social,
intellectual, and health needs.

B. Home Factor
Item Statement

1. Provides for the study needs of the children


2. Have provisions for tables, chairs, lights, and
ventilation to encourage their children to do their
homework and study their lessons
3. Free from too much noise and disturbances
4. Near the school and very accessible to reach the
place
5. Small family size allowing no disturbance on
childrens studies

C. Pupil Factor
Item Statement
1. Interested in studying particularly in reading
2. Obtains the proper motivation to read the printed
page
3. Can cope and understand the lessons presented
in Reading
4. Have pre-reading preparation before engaging in
beginning reading activities

5. Have enough low level materials for reading


practice
D. Teacher Factor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Item Statement
Have time to supervise each pupil with reading
disabilities
Have enough materials for pupils with reading
disabilities
Very focus on the regular work loads
Employs/utilizes different methods/strategies of
teaching
Have patience to handle pupils with reading
difficulties and disabilities
Have enough trainings in handling pupils with
varied reading disabilities

---------- End of Questionnaire ----------

Thank you,

LOVELY ROLLAINE E. BORJA


Researcher

Marikina Polytechnic College


GRADUATE SCHOOL
College of Education
Marikina
June, 2016
DR. AURORA A. FRANCO
Division Supervisor
Pasig District
Madam:
Greetings!
The undersigned is currently conducting a study entitled The Level of
Reading Competency and its influence on Academic Performance of Grade
Five Pupils of Pinagbuhatan Elementary School: Basis for Developmental
Reading Program in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of
Arts in Education major in Educational Management and Supervision at Marikina
Polytechnic College, Marikina.
In this connection, she is requesting that she be allowed to distribute
questionnaires and conduct informal interviews among Grade Five teachers and
pupils in Pinagbuhatan Elementary School.
In anticipation of your favourable response, the warmest gratitude.

Very respectfully yours,

LOVELY ROLLAINE E. BORJA


Researcher
Approved:
AURORA A.FRANCO
Division Supervisor