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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL AND TRANSPORTATION


ENGINEERING
TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY
LABORATORY REPORT
Subject Code
Lab Work Title

TR3 SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE


ANALYSIS

Course
Date of Lab Work
Name of Student
Group
Name of

1.

Group Members

2.
3.
4.
5.

Name of Instructor
Marks

Attendance & Discipline

/ 10%

Involvement

/ 15%

Data Analysis

/ 30%

Results

/ 25%

Discussion & Conclusion

/ 20%

TOTAL

/ 100%
Stamp of Receipt:

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
1.0

INTRODUCTION
The capacity of a street is related primarily to the signal timing and the geometric characteristics of the
facility as well as to the composition of traffic on the facility. Geometrics are a fixed characteristic of a facility.
Thus, while traffic composition may vary somewhat over time, the capacity of a facility is generally a stable
value that can be significantly improved only by initiating geometric improvements.
At signalized intersections, the additional element of time allocation is introduced into the concept of
capacity. A traffic signal essentially allocates time among conflicting traffic movements that seek to use the
same space. The way in which time is allocated significantly affects the operation and the capacity of the
intersection and its approaches.
In analyzing a signalized intersection, the physical unit of analysis is the lane group. A lane group consists
of one or more lanes on an intersection approach. The outputs from application of the method in this manual
are reported on the basis of each lane group.
Capacity at intersections is defined for each lane group. The lane group capacity is the maximum hourly rate
at which vehicles can reasonably be expected to pass through the intersection under prevailing traffic,
roadway, and signalization conditions. Capacity is stated in vehicles per hour (veh/h).
The level of service (LOS) at signalized intersections is expressed in terms of delay, which relate to control,
geometrics, traffic and incidents.
Stopped delay may be used to determine the LOS. It is defined as the time a vehicle waits at a traffic light.
Stopped delay is stated in seconds per vehicle (sec/veh).

2.0

OBJECTIVE
The objective is to determine the capacity and level of service of the UTHM intersection using JKR Arahan
Teknik (Jalan) 13/87 procedure.

Prepared by:
Name: Basil David Daniel
Date: 1 November 2007

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
3.0

APPARATUS / EQUIPMENT
1. Measuring Tape / Odometer
2. Stopwatch
3. Analog Counter (optional)
4. Safety Vest
5. Safety Cones
6. Flags

4.0

PROCEDURE
1. Conduct a traffic movement count at each approach for one hour in segments of 15 minutes.
Record the data in Tables 1 6.
2. Measure the lane width, W (in meter) for each approach and record the data in Table 7.
3. For each phase, measure the green time, g (sec) and cycle time, C (sec). Record the data in Table
8.
4. Convert traffic volumes recorded in Tables 1 6 to passenger car unit (p.c.u.). This is taken as the
design flow, q (pcu/hr) which will then be used in Table 7.
5. Determine the saturation flow, S (pcu/hr) for each approach and transfer the values to Table 7.
6. Using Table 7, compute y, which is the ratio of design flow to saturation flow and determine the Y
value, which is the total value of y for each approach.
7. Then, calculate the intergreen time, I (sec) and total lost time per cycle L (sec),
8. Determine the practical capacity, Yprac and reserve capacity, RC of the intersection.
9. Determine the average stopped delay per vehicle, d (sec) and level of service for each approach.

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
5.0

DATA ANALYSIS & RESULTS


Table 1
Location: PARIT RAJA APPROACH (THROUGH) Day: __________________
Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Weather: _______________
Traffic Count
Vehicle Class

Time
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

Total
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
Table 2
Location: PARIT RAJA APPROACH (RIGHT TURN) Day: _________________
Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Weather: _______________
Traffic Count
Vehicle Class

Time
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

Total
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
Table 3
Location: UTHM APPROACH (LEFT TURN)
Day: __________________
Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Weather: _______________
Traffic Count
Vehicle Class

Time
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

Total
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
Table 4
Location: UTHM APPROACH (RIGHT TURN) Day: __________________
Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Weather: _______________
Time

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

Total
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
Table 5
Location: BATU PAHAT APPROACH (THROUGH) Day: __________________
Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Weather: _______________
Time

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

Total
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
Table 6
Location: BATU PAHAT APPROACH (LEFT TURN) Day: __________________
Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Weather: _______________
Time

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

Total
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
Table 7
Phase
Diagram

Movement
W (m)
S *(pcu/hr)
q (pcu/hr)
y = q/S
y

PRThrough

BPTh+Left

PRThrough

PRRight

KLeft

KRight

* Saturation flow (S) must be corrected for effect of gradient, turning radius, left-turn and right-turn (whichever
required).
* Assume turning radius for this intersection is between 10 15 m.

Example Calculation of Saturation Flow, S

Y = y1 + y2 + y3 =
(Note: Y must be 0.85 or below, in order to proceed with calculations.)
Amber time, a = 3 sec
All-red period, R = 2 sec
Intergreen time, I = a + R =
Drivers reaction time, l = 2 sec
Number of phases, n = 3
Total lost time, L = n(I a) + nl =

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS

Practical capacity, Yprac = 0.9 0.0075L =

Reserve capacity, RC = 100% ( Yprac Y ) / Y =

Table 9
Phase
Movement
C (sec)

1
PRThrough

2
BPTh+Left

PRThrough

3
PRRight

KLeft

KRight

g (sec)

= g/C
S (pcu/hr)
q (pcu/hr)
qs(pcu/sec)
x = q/S
d (sec)
LOS

10

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
Example calculation for delay and determination of LOS

11

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
6.0

DISCUSSION
Comment on the LOS of UTHM intersection? Based on the LOS, do you think the
intersection needs to be upgraded? Why? What upgrading is required?

12

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
7.0

CONCLUSION

13

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
8.0

APPENDIX
(A) Saturation Flow Estimation
If W < 5.5 m, use the following table:
W (m)
S (pcu/hr)

3.0
1845

3.25
1860

3.5
1885

3.75
1915

4.0
1965

4.25
2075

4.5
2210

4.75
2375

5.0
2560

5.25
2760

If W 5.5 m, use the equation S = 525W


(B) Saturation Flow Adjustment
Sadj = S Fg Fr Fl Ft
Correction factor for the effect of gradient, Fg is taken as 1.00 for 0% gradient.
Correction factor for the effect of turning radius, Ft
Correction Factor, Ft
Description
0.85
for turning radius R < 10 m
0.90
for turning radius where 10 m < R < 15 m
0.96
for turning radius where 15 m < R < 30 m
Correction factors for turning traffic, Fr and Fl
% Turning Traffic
Factor for right-turn, Fr
5
0.96
10
0.93
15
0.90
20
0.87
25
0.84
30
0.82
35
0.79
40
0.77
45
0.75
50
0.73
55
0.71
60
0.69

Factor for left-turn, Fl


1.00
1.00
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.91
0.90
0.89

14

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION LEVEL OF SERVICE ANALYSIS
(C) Average Stopped Delay per Vehicle
Average delay per vehicle, d on a particular intersection arm is given by the formula:

d=

9 C (1 )2
x2
+

10 2(1 x ) 2qs (1 x )

where
C = cycle time (sec)
= proportion of the cycle that is effectively green for the phase = g/C
qs = flow in pcu/sec
x = degree of saturation = q/S
(D) Level of Service Criteria for Signalized Intersection
LEVEL OF SERVICE
DELAY PER VEHICLE
A
< 5.0 seconds
B
5.1 to 15.0 seconds
C
15.1 to 25.0 seconds
D
25.1 to 40.0 seconds
E
40.1 to 60.0 seconds
F
> 60.0 seconds
Source: JKR ATJ 13/87
(E) UTHM Intersection Layout

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