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INT N A LA

RODUC
CI
MICOLOGA.
BUEN AS ICAS TD
PRC
RECOLECCIN

Dr. Mario Honrubia


CatedrBco de Biologa
Vegetal

Universidad

de

Murcia

INTRODUCCIN A LA
MICOLOGA.
BUENAS PRCTICAS DE
RECOLECCIN
Necesitamos:
hongos

denicin para el concepto de

U6lizamos trminos como: Setas, trufas, carpforos, esporocarpos,


micelio, conidios.
Difcil dar definicin precisa, debido a la gran variedad de formas,
Comportamientos y ciclos de vida que presentan.
Ms de 80.000 especies estimadas.(otras estimaciones: 200.000 especies)
Grupo heterogneo, sin entidad taxonmica, actualmente segregado
en varios Reinos:

R. Protozoos (hongos mucilaginosos)


R. Cromista (hongos algas)
R. Fungi (Hongos verdaderos)

INTRODUCCIN

Concepto de hongos.

A LA

Organismos eucariticos, multinucleados (homo o heterocariticos, haploides,


dicariticos o diploides);
Hetertrofos (sin plastidios), nutricin absortiva (osmotrofia; nunca fagotrofia),
lisotrofia (digestin externa)
con aparato vegetativo mayoritariamente filamentoso (hifas+micelio: septado o no)
o unicelular (levuriforme), paredes celulares quitinosas (quitina y -glucanos).
Mitocondrias con crestas aplanadas y peroxisomas casi siempre presentes.
Golgi o cisternas individuales presentes (dictiosomas).
Ciclo biolgico simple o complejo. Fase diploide muy corta.
Sexualidad: asexuales o sexuales y homo o heterotlicos.
Esporocarpos micro o macroscpicos, mostrando una diferenciacin tisular limitada.
Reproduccin por esporas (sexuales o asexuales; mayormente aplanosporas; solo un
grupo con esporas flageladas
sin mastigonemas-)
Hbitat: ubiquistas (saprfitos, parsitos o simbiontes);
Distribucin cosmopolita
FASE MICELIAR (LEVADURA) VS FASE REPRODUCTORA

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

Figura 1.- los Cinco Reinos (Bacterias, Protozoos, Plantas, Animales y Hongos o Reno Fungi), en los que se
distribuyen los seres vivos actualmente, con dos Superreinos: Procariota y Eucariota.

(8/97;3/43<

Fechas de inters:
600-1.200 Ma origen

)/-:3;-3

hongos

(CAM-PRECAM)

400 Ma origen micorrizas arbusculares


(ORDOV_DEV)
380-400 Ma ascomicetos (SILUR-DEV)
300 Ma diversicacin Basidiomicetos (PER)
76=4=>=3
+ +

90 Ma
hongos con laminillas y ECT-
micorrizas (CRET)

0'#)%"$%)
AB7-:4;-,<5<7+

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INTRODUCCIN

A LA

!
Figura 3.- Lophodermium pinastri

Figura 4.- Armillaria mellea

234546447+
Figura 2.- Grandes grupos de hongos, originados a partir de los Protozoos. Ascomicetos y Basidiomicetos son los
mas evolucionados y diversificados.

cmo crecen y
cmo se
reproducen los
hongos?
Estructuras
reproductoras
Micelio (conjunto
de hifas),
fase de
crecimiento
y
desarrollo
(el
mayor
organismo del mundo es
una especie
de
Armillaria,
que ocupa supercie
mayor de 12 hectreas.
BASIDIOMAS/
Carpforos
(cuerpo
esporocarpo)

ASCOMAS:
fruc`fero,

SETAS (epigeos)
(hipogeos)

vs

TRUFAS

cmo se alimentan,
crecen y
cmo se reproducen los
hongos?
Estructuras
reproductoras

Xanthoria parietina

Todos los hongos crecen y se alimentan igual.


Crecen a par6r de los pices lamentosos
de las hifas.
Las hifas se ramican sub-apicalmente en
ngulos de 45
en forma radial.
Su nutricin se denomina indiferentemente:
digesBn externa,
porque vierten al
medio enzimas
que transforman
macromolculas (lignina) en otras mas
pequeas que absorben al interior de la hifa.
Tambin se denomina digesBn
absorBva, lisotroUa

u osmotroUa
Como son HETERTROFOS:
sus estrategias nutricionales
pasan por:
SAPROFITISMO,
PARASITISMO y/o
MUTUALISMO
SIMBIOTICO (Lquenes y las
MICORRIZAS)
NO NECESARIAMENTE
EXCLUYENTES

SAPROFITOS
Hongos y Bacterias (algunos protozoos) son los
mayores descomponedores de materia orgnica
de origen animal o vegetal (movilizan taninos y
terpenos).
Humcolas
Coprfilos
Fimcolas
Terrcolas

Folcolas
Queratinfilos
Ligncolas Celulolticos
Corticcolas Ligninolticos

Areos Acuticos

Ganoderma lucidum

Aeroacuticos

Clathrus

ruber

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

SIMBIONTES (MUTUALISTAS)
TODOS LOS ORGANISMOS QUE
INTERVIENEN EN LA RELACIN TRFICA
RESULTAN BENEFICIADOS

LIQUENES

ANIMALES
Asociacin con
termitas
MICORRCIC
OS Asociacin hongo +
fotobionte
Planta vascular o helechos o
britos

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

PARSITOS
Son

causantes de daos directos al


hospedante
obligator
ios
a veces gran dependencia del
hospedante,
no suelen ser demasiado
dainos.
facultaB
vos
o
pueden causar la muerte del
hospedante

La misma especie puede tener un


comportamiento
dual, actuando en una
fase de su ciclo como
Saprto y en
otra como parsit
Sobre todo los parsitos

faculta6vos

Fomitopsis pinicola
Heterobasidium annosum

Us8lago maydis

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

ESTRUCTURAS
BIOLGICOS
Todos los hongos
Asexuales, que se
complejas,

se

DE REPRODUCCIN

reproducen

por

esporas,
forman

que
en

Y CICLOS

pueden

estructuras

ser

Sexuales o

ms

menos

segn las
especies.
Cuando se ha producido suciente can6dad
de micelio (biomasa miceliar), aunque es
dis6nta para cada especie y desconocemos el
mnimo necesario en cada caso, el micelio
cambia de estrategia nutricional y pasa a la
fase
de reproduccin, formando
los
carpforos.

Factores que
inuyen:
-disponibilidad de agua (sin encharcamientos), para crecimiento
miceliar
-temperatura: el micelio de la mayora crece entre 17-25C
con p6mos de 21-23C. Pero esto es muy variable, de-

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

pendiendo de las especies, entre 15C, incluso menos,


hasta 30-35C. Un brusco choque trmico, normalmente
de fro, es6mula la fruc6ccin
-oxigenacin / bajada de CO2
- pH: las hay especies baslas y acidas y otras indiferentes

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

VERSATILIDAD NUTRICIONAL
REPRODUCCIN

La frontera entre saprtos y parsitos es fcil de atravesar ,


como la de micorrcico y saprto.
La evolucin no 6ene un camino unidireccional, es el caso de
algunas especies de
Russula, que en su mayora son micorrcicas, pero tambin las hay
saprtas.
Despus de la fase vegeta6va se pasa a la reproductora: VARIAS
SEXUAL y ASEXUAL, y en este caso pueden tener
ESTRATEGIAS
unociclos
o varios
Asexuales

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

INTRODUCCIN

A LA

ESTRUCTURAS
REPRODUCTORAS
Y CICLOS
BIOLOGICOS

(CARPFORO,
SEXUALES:

con

ESPOROCARPO, ESPORANGIOFORO,
REPRODUCTOR)

intercambio gen6co : fases TELEOMORFAS

Basidiomas:

exclusivos

ASEXUALES:

Ascomas:

de basidiomicetos
exclusivos

Agaricus

CUERPO

de ascomicetos

Auricularia
no hay intercambio gen6co:Fases

ANAMORFAS

Conidio
mas

Conidifo
ros

INTRODUCCIN
Aspergillus
Alternaria

A LA
Spatularia

Morchella

CICLO
BIOLGICO
Fase
SEXUAL+
ASEXUALES
Ceratocys8s ulmi

BASIDIOMAS
ASCOMAS

cmo recolectar
cardo, boletus??

ESTRUCTURAS

las

setas

DE REPRODUCCIN

y trufas?,

los nscalos, seta de

El

buen

Recolector
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