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.......................................................................

2553

.................................................................

1 (Basic Industrial Water)


1.1
1
1.2
2
1.3
10
1.4
13
1.5
14
2 (Clarification)
2.1
2.2
2.3

16
22
24

3 (Sand Filtration)
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

29
34
35
39

4 (Iron and Managanese Removal)


4.1
40
4.2
42
4.3
43
5 (Softener System)
5.1
44
5.2
46
5.3
54
5.4
59
5.5

60
5.6
60

...................................................................
6 (Reverse Osmosis System)
6.1
6.2 RO
6.3

62
65
68

7
(Open Recirculating Cooling Water System)
7.1
7.2 LSI/RSI
7.3

71
76
80

8 (Boiler Water System)


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

96
97
98
105
109
111
113
115

9
(Water Saving Practice)
9.1 1A3R
9.2

120
121

133

151

................................................................
1.1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
6.1
6.2
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Solids Contact

Coagulation

1
2

3
16
17
20
26
30
32
33
33
34
38
38
41
46
50
55
56
64
66
72
82
82
83

..............................................................
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
9.1
9.2
9.3

Elution Study ()
Elution Study ()

()

84
89
90
92
92
96
97
98
105
106
107
107
108
110
111
112
115
123
124
132

.........................................................
1.1
2
1.2
1
9
1.3
11
3.1
35
5.1
44
7.1 A
76
7.2 B
77
7.3 C
77
7.4 D
78
8.1 99
8.2
104
8.3
114
-1
136
-2 (... .. 2535)
138
-3 ASME
143
-4 ASME 143
-5
Babcock & Wilcox
144
-6 British Standard
()
145
-7 British Standard
()
146
-8 JIS 147
-9 ()
148
-10 ()
149
-11
150

1.1







..........................................................................................................................................

(Basic Industrial Water)

........................................................ 1 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

1.2





1.1

.... 2

.............................................................

(Suspended Solids)

(Dissolved Solids)

1.1

(Total Dissolved Solids) (-


)


105

= x

0.5 - 0.7

..........................................................................................................................................

........................................................ 3 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Suspended Solids) (-)


105

(Turbidity) (- NTU/FTU/JTU)



3 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) Jackson
Turbidity Unit (JTU) Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU)

(Colliod)

(Hardness) (-ppm as CaCO3)



.... 4

.............................................................



1 3


ppm as CaCO3
= -

..........................................................................................................................................

(Total Hardness)
2
1. (Carbonate or
Temporary Hardness)

54.5

2. (Noncarbonate or Permanent Hardness)


(Ca2+) (Mg2+)

........................................................ 5 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Silica) (- ppm as SiO2)


(HSiO3-)










(Phosphate) (- ppm as PO43-)




3

.... 6

(Chloride) (-ppm as Cl-)

.............................................................

(Chlorine) (-ppm as Cl2)


(Chlorine Demand)


(Free Residue Chlorine, FRC)


0.5-1.0




(Iron) (-ppm as Fe)



2 (Fe2+)
(Fe3+)

..........................................................................................................................................





250

........................................................ 7 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Oil & Grease) (-)





 Free Oil 150
 Dispersed Oil 50
150
 Emulsion
50
 Soluble Oil

(Grease
Trap)
(Dissolved Air Flotation, Induced Air Flotation)

.... 8

.............................................................

(Carbon dioxide) (-ppm as CO2)





Deaerator Degassifier
Demineralization
1.2 1

()
20
25
30
35

()
8.84
8.11
7.53
6.92

..........................................................................................................................................

(Oxygen) (- ppm as O2)



1
1.2


Pittiing



Deaerator

........................................................ 9 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

1.3
(pH)
-
0-14
7 7
7


(Alkalinity)
(Alkalinity)






Dealkalizer/Degassifier

2 Phenolphthalein Alkalinity
(P-Alkalinity) 8.3

(Total Alkalinity) Methyl Orange Alkalinity
(M-Alkalinity)
4.5
CaCO3 (ppm as CaCO3)

.... 10

.............................................................

(Temperature) ( - oC/ oF/ oK)





(Celsius)
(Fahrenheit) (Kelvin)
1.3

/ 













Grease Trap
 Demulsifier
Coagulant
 DAF

..........................................................................................................................................

(Electrical Conductivity) (-S/cm


micromho)



(S/cm)

........................................................ 11 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

1.3 ()

.... 12

Pitting


 Deaerator


 Deaerator






Stress Corrosion Cracking 















  pH
 Dealkalizer


/Degassifier

(Embrittlement)


.............................................................


mg/l
(parts per million) ppm ()
1 1,000,000
1 1 1,000,000
1
1.0

 /




..........................................................................................................................................

1.4

........................................................ 13 ....

..........................................................................................................................................


(m/s)

(/) = (../)
(..) x 3600


(Loading)


/
(/) = (/) X (../)
1,000

1.5

= () x ()
1,000

= () x (..)
(/)
1,000

.... 14

.............................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

(Clarification)

................................................. 15 ....

..........................................................................................................................................


1. (Clarification)
2.
2.1
2.2 (Coagulant Aids)
3.

2.1 Solids Contact

2.1

2
Clarification Filtration

.... 16

.................................................................

1.
2. (Coagulation)
3. (Flocculation)
4. (Sedimentation)





(Coagulation)
6.0-7.8 2.2

2.2

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 17 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Coagulation)



10-9 . (0.000001 .) 10-6 . (0.001 .)







(Pin Floc)


.... 18

.................................................................




1. static mixer
static mixer
()

20
2.
5





..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 19 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

2.3 Coagulation

(Flocculation)


(Floc)


.... 20

.................................................................


45 -2



7-15 Center Well
Solids Contact
2

1-4 .
(Sedimentation)
Coagulation
Flocculation

..........................................................................................................................................





1 .

................................................. 21 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

2.2
(Coagulant)


(Coagulant Aids)

- (Al2(SO4)314H2O)
Alumina
(Al2O3) Alumina 17
Alumina 8


6.0-7.8

.... 22

.................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

- Polyaluminium Chloride-PAC : (Aln(OH)mCl(3n-m) )


PAC
PAC


Active Al2O3 30%PAC
PAC


5-11
(Coagulant Aids or
Polyelectrolytes)

3
(Anionic Polymer) (Cationic Polymer)
(Nonionic Polymer)
(Anionic Polymer)

................................................. 23 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

0.1- 0.2%
1-2 1 ..


2-3

2.3

.... 24

.................................................................









1.

2.
pH
3.

4.

5.

6.

..........................................................................................................................................

6
2.4

................................................. 25 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

2.4


1.-

6.0-7.8


2.




5.0-7.8

.... 26

.................................................................

4.

5.



6.

..........................................................................................................................................

3.
20 NTU

20-100
NTU

100 NTU

................................................. 27 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

7.

.... 28

.................................................................

3.1


(Cake)




(Backwash)
3.1

..........................................................................................................................................

(SAND FILTRATION)

................................................. 29 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

3.1

3-15

.... 30

......................................................................

40-50

1. (Slow Sand Filter)




2 gpm/ft2

..........................................................................................................................................

1. Differential Pressure 0.5-1.0


kg/cm2
2.5 kg/cm2 Differential Pressure

1.0 kg/cm2
2.
(Specification)

3. 72

................................................. 31 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

2. (Rapid Sand Filter)



3 gpm/ft2
3.
30-60 psi 5 psi
3-4.5 gpm/ft2

.... 32

3.2

......................................................................


(Turbidity)


2
1.
5 6
2 3.4

3.4 1

..........................................................................................................................................

3.3

................................................. 33 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

2.
(Clarifier)
7 6
0 3.5

3.5 2

3.2

3.1


.... 34

......................................................................

(.)

NO.R 0
NO.R 1
NO.R 2
NO.R 3
NO.R 4
NO.R 5
NO.R 6
NO.R 7
NO.R 8

0.1-0.3
0.5-0.8
1.0-2.0
3.0-5.0
5.1-10.0
10.1-15.0
15.1-20.0
20.1-30.0
30.1-40.0

3.3

..........................................................................................................................................

3.1

................................................. 35 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

1.





3.6
 Strainer


3.6

Differential Pressure


3.7









2-4.5 gpm/ft2 8-15 gpm/ft2

.... 36

......................................................................





Sight Glass
3.

4.












1


..........................................................................................................................................

2.

................................................. 37 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

3.6

3.7

.... 38

......................................................................


1.
()
( 5 NTU)
(
1-6% )
2.

Differential Pressure
1.0 kg/cm2
3.


..........................................................................................................................................

3.4

................................................. 39 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Iron and Manganese Removal)



1. (Insoluble Iron and Manganese)
2. (Soluble Iron and
Manganese)
3. (Organic Iron and Manganese)
4. 3
3

4.1 (Precipitation and Filtration)


(Aeration or Air Oxidation)

.... 40

...............................................................

4.1

(
)

..........................................................................................................................................

7.0
10

10



................................................ 41 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

()

4.2 (Ion Exchange)


2 (Batch)
(Continuous)

.... 42

...............................................................

4.3 (Chelating Agent)


(Complex
Formation)


EDTA NTA

..........................................................................................................................................

20-60



7.5-8.0






(Buffer)



................................................ 43 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Softenter System)

5.1
5.1

.... 44

10% ()

38-50%

.......................................................................



()



Ca2+ + R-Na
Mg2+ + R-Na
() ()

=>
=>

R-Ca + Na+
R-Mg + Na+
() ()

..........................................................................................................................................

Crosslink
Crosslink

Crosslink


................................................. 45 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Na+)
(NaCI)
R-Ca +
2NaCI
R-Mg + 2NaCI
() ()

=> R-Na + Ca2


=> R-Na + Ma2
() ()

5.2

6
(Service)

()


5.1

.... 46

5.1
.......................................................................

(Backwash)




Channeling (Channeling
)

..........................................................................................................................................

5-40
BV/. (Bed Volume (BV) )
2 .. (1 BV = 2
..) 10-80
../.( 2 .. x 5-40 BV/.)




()
1-2 /


(
)

................................................. 47 ....

..........................................................................................................................................



50-80
Sight Glass

10-15

(Setting) (Draining)

5


(
)
(Regeneration)


(NaCl)

10%

.... 48

.......................................................................

() = (/) x ()


10%

10% 107.1 /
100%
115 /

1,500

120 /
% 10%

= 120 x 1,500
= 180

..........................................................................................................................................

(Regeneration Level)


/


(
)
 120
/


................................................. 49 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

= 10%
= 115 /
= 0.115 ./
10% = 180/0.115
= 1,595
( 180 .
1595 )

1.
115 /
2. Refractometer
3. ( 10%
1.074)

5.2



10%

.... 50

.......................................................................

(Ejector)


10% Ejector
10%

25%
Ejector
10%

Ejector 10%
Ejector

Ejector


30

..........................................................................................................................................


30 -

................................................. 51 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Slow Rinse)



2-5 BV
(Fast Rinse)

1

5-40 BV/.



(Basic Capacity)
(Net Capacity)
/ (g as CaCO3/l-resin)

.... 52

.......................................................................

Basic Capacity Net Capacity




Basic Capacity
70 g as CaCO3/l-resin


./.

= (.)
(.)

1.8-2.0 ./.

..........................................................................................................................................

Basic Capacity = (./.) x ( + ) (..)


()
Net Capacity = (./.) x (..)
()

................................................. 53 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

135 mg/l as CaCO3



400 ..

15 ..

180 .

1000

Basic Capacity
= 135 x (400 + 15)
1500
= 56 /

= x
1000
= 135 x 400
1000
= 54
= 180 .
54 .
= 3.33 ./.

5.3




5.3


.... 54

.......................................................................

1.

2



Channeling


..........................................................................................................................................

5.3

................................................. 55 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

5.4

2.



Ejector



(120 /)

.... 56

3.

.......................................................................

4.








10%
 (Sight Glass)

: -

..........................................................................................................................................


Strainer

................................................. 57 ....

..........................................................................................................................................



0
5

(Double Softener)
Polisher Polisher


 1 NTU

 0.1

 (

.... 58

.......................................................................

5.4 (Resins Storage)


1.
40-50%



2.



..........................................................................................................................................

)
()









................................................. 59 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

5.5



De-crosslink

(Resin Fouling)

5.6
1. 1
10
2. Basic Capacity
70 g as CaCO3/l-resin
3.
8-12%
4.

.... 60

.......................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

5.




5
5

................................................. 61 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Reverse Osmosis System)

6.1





(Membrane Filtration)




(Reverse Osmosis, RO)

.... 62

...................................................................

(pore size)
(Molecular Weight Cut-off)





0.1-0.3 2


1,000-100,000 1-10

..........................................................................................................................................




(Nanofiltration, NF)
(Ultrafiltration, UF) (Microfiltration,
MF) 6.1

................................................. 63 ....

...................................................................

6.1 /

..........................................................................................................................................

.... 64


250-1000 2+
5-35

100
15-150

6.2 RO


(Reject)






6.2

1.
( 2)

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 65 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

6.2

Silt
Density Index (SDI)
SDI
3-5 SDI
() SDI
()

.... 66

...................................................................



Langelier Saturation
Index (LSI) +0.5

..........................................................................................................................................

2.



2 ( 3 4 )
3. ( 5)
( 6)
(Vessel) Clean-in-process (CIP) ( 7)

CIP

................................................. 67 ....

..........................................................................................................................................





2-6

6.3

.... 68

...................................................................




(Permeate)



10-30 10-30
10



40
 Concentrate


Permeate

4

..........................................................................................................................................

(Permeate Flow) (Differential Pressure)


(Normalized Permeate Flow)
(Normalized Differential Pressure)


10-15%

................................................. 69 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

38 4
152 8


10
CA PA
Peracetic Acid 400 Hydrogen Peroxide
2,000

.... 70

...................................................................

7.1

..........................................................................................................................................

(Open Recirculating Cooling Water System)

..................................................... 71 ....

..........................................................................................................................................


( 1
kcal/kg.oC)
(
540 kcal/kg.oC)

Evaporation
Drift

Windage
Make Up
Leaks

Blowdown

7.1

(E: Evaporation Loss)


.... 72

................................................................

= (RR x T x C)/HL

E
RR
T
C

=
=
=
=

(../.)
(../.)

(kcal/kg .C)
( 40 C 0.998 kcal/kg .C)
HL = (kcal/kg)
( 40 C 578 kcal/kg)

(W: Windage Loss or D: Drift Loss)





0.05
0.2%

(BD: Blowdown)


(Cycle of Concentration)
(Cycle of Concentration)

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................... 73 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

N = CR/CM

N =
CR =
CM =


CM x MU = CR x (BD + W)

CM
MU
CR
BD
W

=
=
=
=
=

(..)

(..)
(..)

= MU/ (BD + W)

(MU: Makeup Water)





.... 74

MU

= E + BD + W

................................................................

RT = 13 LPM x 5 oC x 60 min = 3900 kcal

RT 1 (2000
lb) 24 1 RT
3024 kcal (
144 BTU/lb)
RT = 2000 lb x 144 BTU/lb = 12000 BTU (3024 kcal)
24

RT RT

..........................................................................................................................................

(Refrigerant Ton)

5
RT (Refrigerant Ton)
100 RT 1 RT 3900 kcal

..................................................... 75 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

7.2 LSI/RSI
Langelier (Langelier Saturation Index: LSI)
Langelier
(pHs, Saturation
pH)
Calcium Hardness
M-Alkalinity
pHs
pHs = (9.3 + A + B)-(C + D)

A =
B =
C = Calcium Hardness
D = M-Alkalinity
7.1 A

.... 76

................................................................

7.3 C

..........................................................................................................................................

7.2 B

..................................................... 77 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

7.4 D

pHs
mg/l
C Calcium Hardness M-Alkalinity
mg/l as CaCO3 A B C
D 7.1-7.4
pHs LSI

.... 78

LSI = pH - pHs

pH =

................................................................

RSI = 2pHs-pH

pHs
LSI RSI
RSI 6.0
6.0
RSI 2
/ (0.6/)

..........................................................................................................................................

pHs
LSI
pHs
LSI

LSI


LSI +2.5
LSI

Ryznar (Ryznar Stability Index : RSI)


LSI

Ryznar (RSI) pHs pH

..................................................... 79 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

7.3
3
(Corrosion) (Deposition)
(Biofouling) 3


1. (Corrosion Coupons)


Corrosion Coupon Rack 7.2

.... 80

................................................................

mpy = 22,300 (WI - WF) / A x d x D

mpy
WI
WF
D
A
d

:
:
:
:
:
:

(/)
()
()
(/..)
()
()

(Millimeter per year) (Mil per year)


1 mpy = 0.025 mm/y


1 mm/y = 40 mpy

2. (Corrosion Meters)

..........................................................................................................................................

30 90



1

(mpy : mils per year)


1 1/1000

..................................................... 81 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

7.2

7.3

.... 82

................................................................



3-5 mpy


: Corrosion Inhibitor

1.
Passivator
(
) (Anodic
Protection) -Fe2O3


2.

..........................................................................................................................................

7.4

..................................................... 83 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Cathodic
Protection)
OH-

7.5

3.








 (Phosphate)

.... 84

................................................................

(Zinc)






 (Azole)

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................... 85 ....

..........................................................................................................................................




6-9




1







(Scale) (Fouling)

.... 86

................................................................



LSI


..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................... 87 ....

..........................................................................................................................................




150-200



7.6





1,000,000 8.8

8.8 1,000,000

.... 88

................................................................



LSI LSI
+2.5

..........................................................................................................................................

7.6

..................................................... 89 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

50%
HEDP () PBTC (
) AMP ()

7.7


STPP TKPP







PAA
Copolymer Terpolymer

.... 90

................................................................




7.8

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................... 91 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

7.8

Dip Slide 3M Petrifilm


Colonies Form Unit/ml CFU/ml
102-103 CFU/ml

.... 92

7.9
................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................





 (Oxidizing Biocide)


( 100%)
( 10%)
( 65%)
(Free Residue
Chlorine) 0.2-1.0

1. (Continuous Feed)
0.2-0.5


2. (Intermittent Feed)
0.5-1.0 2-3

..................................................... 93 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Non-oxidizing Biocide)










Isothiazolone DBNPA
Bronopol Glutaraldehyde Quats
(Single Active)
(Multiple Active)

Shot Dose

25%

.... 94

................................................................

= 1.385 x V/BD

T = ()
V = (..)
BD = (..)

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................... 95 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Boiler Water System)

8.1






.... 96

8.1
.........................................................................



(Carry over)

(Manual Blowdown)



(Continuous Blowdown)

(Surface
blowdown)

Bottom blowdown valve

8.2

..........................................................................................................................................

8.2 (Blowdown)

................................................. 97 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

TDS
(ppm)

Bottom Blowdown

TDS
(ppm)

Continuous Blowdown

8.3

8.3

3
1.
2.
3. (Carry over)

1)


2
 (Deaerator)


88 C 104 C

.... 98

.........................................................................




1.
( 900
)

8.1

8.1

psig
300
301-600
601-900
900-1,200
1,200-1,500


SO3
30-60
20-40
15-30
5-15
5-10

2.
0.05-0.1
600 psig
0.01-0.1

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 99 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

2)



2
1.
Neutralizing Amine
2. (Filming Amine)







ASME JIS
4
2
1. (Precipitation)


.... 100

.........................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................


Calcium hydroxyapatite


Calcium hydroxyapatite
11-12 9.5
Calcium hydroxyapatite

4







(P-Alkalinity)

 (Sludge Conditioner)

(Sludge Conditioning)

................................................. 101 ....

..........................................................................................................................................




(Disperse)

CMC






Threshold
Effect

.... 102

.........................................................................

(Carry Over)

()




-
2
1.
(Turbulence) (Priming)


..........................................................................................................................................

2. (Solubilizing)

(Chelant)



EDTA NTA



................................................. 103 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

2. 2
1) (Foaming)


2) (Vaporous Carry over)




8.2

0.005-0.01

.... 104

.........................................................................

8.4 (Steam Trap)




3
1.



 (Bimetallic Trap) 20 oC

8.4 (Bimetallic Trap)

..........................................................................................................................................



(Antifoam)

................................................. 105 ....

..........................................................................................................................................








(Bellows Type Trap)


Bimetallic (Membrane Capsule)

-

8.5 (Bellows Type Trap)







2.

Orifice Orifice

.... 106

.........................................................................

(Float Trap)

8.6 Float and lever ()









(Inverted Bucket Trap)

8.7 Inverted Bucket ()




..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 107 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

3.



 (Conventional Disc Trap)

8.8 (Conventional Disc Trap)









0.3

(30%)

:

(
/)

Steam trap
2
1.
2.

.... 108

.........................................................................



 by-pass
 ( )






8.5 (Flash Steam)


5
7 170 C
719 kJ/kg
100 C (Steam
trap) 719 kJ/kg 419 kJ/kg
300 kJ/kg

..........................................................................................................................................



2
(Failed Open)

(Failed Closed)


................................................. 109 ....

..........................................................................................................................................





300 kJ/kg

8.9

(Steam trap)
8.10


(Steam trap) A B

(Steam trap) C
B D (Steam
trap)
(Relief valve)

.... 110

.........................................................................

8.6

..........................................................................................................................................

8.10

................................................. 111 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

8.11

1.

2.



3.


.... 112

.........................................................................



100







= ( - )
= x x

2
150
91 C
35 C
8.3 132 W/m
19.8 kW

..........................................................................................................................................

8.7

................................................. 113 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

8.3 (/)

5-15




20


.... 114

.........................................................................

8.12

= +

(kcal/kg) = x (
)1
(kcal/kg) = x (
)1
(kcal/kg) = x

(%) = ( x 100)/(
x )

Bar
1 (Bar+1)

..........................................................................................................................................

8.8

................................................. 115 ....

..........................................................................................................................................


../ ../.

Thermometer

 (
EC, TDS, Cl,
M-Alk limit
)

 /
Steam Table OC
( = )

Steam Table
 (
)

6

.... 116

.........................................................................

Nozzle 80%
Rotary 85% Bench Mark

..........................................................................................................................................

(
)

()


................................................. 117 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

16 /.
nozzle 60 C
5
(1 ) 9,390
= 137 .. EC = 2,150 S/cm
EC (B/D) = 11,860 S/cm
= EC(B/D)
EC(FW)
% B/D
B/D
Steam

= 11,860
2,150

= 5.5

= FW / N
= 100 / 5.5 = 18.13%
= 181.3 liters/m3 of FW
= 1,000-181.3 = 818.7 liters/m3 of FW

Steam Table Enthalpy Absolute pressure 6 kg/


cm
2
 Enthalpy of 6 kg/cm Saturated water... HBW = 159.25 kcal/kg
2
 Enthalpy of 6 kg/cm Saturated steam... HS
= 658.1 kcal/kg
 Enthalpy of 60 OC Feed water............... Hf
= 59.94 kcal/kg
 Gross heat of combustion of fuel oil........ Ff
= 9,850 kcal/lit
2


= +-

Total heat = (658.1 x 818.7) + (159.25 x 181.3) - (59.94 x 1,000)


= 507,718.5 kcal/ton of FW .............theoretical

= 80%
= 9,850 kcal/liters

.... 118

.........................................................................

heat required

= 507,718.5 = 634,648 kcal/ton of FW


0.80
= 634,648 = 64.48 liters/ton of FW
9,850
= 64.43
= 78.7 lit/ton of steam
1 - 0.1813

= 9,390
= 68.54 liters/ton of FW
137
= 68.54
= 83.72 liters/ton of steam
1 - 0.1813
= 507,718.5 x 100
= 75.2%
9,850 x 68.54
= (137 x 0.8187)
= 112.16 ton/day

Bench Mark (Eff. 80%) FW 1 ton = 68.54 - 64.48


= 4.06 liters/ton of FW
1 = 556 liters ()
18

= 10,008
1 (300 )
= 3,002,400 /

..........................................................................................................................................

Total

................................................. 119 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(Water Saving Practice)

9.1 1A3R

1A3R (Avoid, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle)



Avoid-





Reduce-

.... 120

..................................................

Recycle -

9.2




7
1A3R
1 (Avoid)
C
1,105 ..
5.82%



100

..........................................................................................................................................

Reuse-

................................................. 121 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

./
100 ./





516.24 ../
1,836 /
29,229 /
2 (Reduce)

A 12
3,750

.... 122

..................................................

Basic Capacity 32 g-TH/ (


Basic capacity 70 g-TH/)
9.1

9.1 Elution Study ()


27
2
1. 5-6% (
8-10%)
2. 10% 3
( 30 )

..........................................................................................................................................

24
1
600 ../

................................................. 123 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

Basic Capacity

300 450 (
120-150 1 )
1,200 1,500

19% 24%
8-12% 30
7-8%
30 9.2

9.2 Elution Study ()




71,280 ../
32,400 /
664,320 /

.... 124

..................................................

E 7
1

1,500 S/cm

2


2

1 1,200 S/cm
1,500 S/cm

..........................................................................................................................................

3 (Reduce)

................................................. 125 ....

..........................................................................................................................................


1,500 S/cm

1


5,508 ../
25%
564,420 /
4 PET (Reuse)

B PET





PET 1,300 ../ 3%

.... 126

..................................................

PET

90% 1,170
../


800 ../

240 ../
14,280 ../

8,000 /
145,344 /

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 127 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

5 RO (Reuse)
D RO 12 ../
RO 8 ../
RO 4 ../ 20
/ RO 1,823 S/cm
RO


RO


RO




RO

RO




()
0.93 ../
 Wet Scrubber
 34.07 ../
35 ../

.... 128

..................................................


45,000



12,600 ../
189,629 /

= /
= 45,000/189,629 = 2.88
6 RO (Reuse)

F RO 13 ../
8.7 ../ 20
/
RO
994 S/cm
RO 261
../

RO


RO

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 129 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

RO

RO
RO


RO

RO
RO

RO

RO
3%



140,000



3,132 ../ 53,714
210,314 /

= /
= 140,000/210,314 = 8.04

.... 130

..................................................

J
(Direct Cooling Water) 5,064 ../
(Indirect
Cooling Water)
2,889 ../
2,175 ../

9.3










2,175 ../

..........................................................................................................................................

7
(Recycle)

................................................. 131 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

9.3 ()


90,000



2,175 ../ 913,500
913,500 /

.... 132

= /
= 90,000/913,500 = 1.18

..................................................









 (Turbidity)











()


Sight Glass ()
Sight Glass ()

Turbidity Meter

Sight Glass ()
Sight Glass ()
Sight Glass ()

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 133 ....

..........................................................................................................................................






RO



 Vessel




 Product
 Brine
 ()



 Product
 Brine
 pH

 Product
 SDI
 MB (Microbiogical)

.... 134

2
4

()

.............................................................................

 Fill

 Cooling
 Cooling

 ()


 Cooling
 Cooling
 pH
 Cooling
 Cooling

 Cooling




 Blowdown
 Condensate Return

 ()

Blowdown Tank

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 135 ....

..........................................................................................................................................


 Boiler
 Boiler
 Condensate
 pH
 Boiler
 Boiler
 Condensate

2
-1


(Colour)
5.0
15.0
(Taste)

(Odour)
(Turbidity)
5.0
20.0

(pH)
6.5-8.5
9.2

.... 136

.............................................................................

(Hg)
(Pb)
(As)
(Se)
(Cr Hexavalent)
(Cn)
(Cd)
(Ba)

0.001
0.05
0.05
0.01
0.05
0.2
0.01
1.0

..........................................................................................................................................

( ./.)


500
1,500

(Total Solids)
0.5
(Fe)
1.0
0.3
(Mn)
0.5
0.5
(Fe&Mn)
1.0
5.0
(Cu)
1.5
75
(Zn)
15.0
50
(Ca)
200
200
150
(Mg)
250
(SO4)
250
(Cl)
0.7
600
(F)
45
1.0
(NO3)
0.5
45
(ABS)
0.5
1.0
(Phenol)
0.001
0.002

................................................. 137 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

(/)
(
100 )
(E.coli)

500
2.2

-2 (... .. 2535)

(Color)
5 (-) 50 (-)
(Turbidity) 5 ()
20 ()
- 7.0-8.5
6.9-9.2

.... 138

.............................................................................



(Fe)
0.5
1.0
(Mn)
0.3
0.5
(Cu)
1.0
1.5
(Zn)
5.0
15
(SO4)
200
250
(Cl)
200
600
(F)
1.0
1.5
(NO3)
45
45

300
500
(Total hardness as CaCO3)

200
250
(Non-carbonate hardness as CaCO3)

750
1,500
(Total solids)
(/)

(As)
(CN)
(Pb)
(Hg)
(Cd)
(Se)

0.05
0.01
0.05
0.001
0.01
0.01

..........................................................................................................................................

(/) ()

................................................. 139 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

Standard plate count

500

Most probable number


2.2
of coliform organism (MPN)
Escherichia Coli

500

2.2

.... 140

.............................................................................

Normal Regeneration

Regeneration Channeling

Insufficient Salt Draw

Salt Over Dosage

..........................................................................................................................................

3 Elution Study

................................................. 141 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

.... 142

Prolonged Low Brine Concentration

Prolonged Fast Rinse

Fast Rinse

Salt Hideout
.............................................................................

-3 ASME

psig
0-300
301-450
451-600
601-750
751-900
901-1,000
1,001-1,500
1,501-2,000

mg/l Fe
0.100
0.050
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.020
0.010
0.010

mg/l Cu
0.050
0.025
0.020
0.020
0.015
0.015
0.010
0.010

CaCO3 mg/l
0.300
0.300
0.200
0.200
0.100
0.050
0.000
0.000

-4 ASME

mg/l
**
psig
SiO2

CaCO3

0-300
301-450
451-600
601-750
751-900
901-1000
1000-1500
1501-2000

150
90
40
30
20
8
2
1

700*
600*
500*
400*
300*
200*
0***
0***

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
150
100

* 10
** (OH-Alkalinity) 1000 psi

*** Free Sodium P-Alkalinity
Congruent Control Volatile Treatment

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 143 ....

0-600

* (Feed Water)
**

pH 25 C
7.0-9.5

mg/l
0.007
(Fe)
mg/l
0.01
(Cu) mg/l
0.05
mg/l
0
(CO2) mg/l
0
(SiO2) mg/l

mg/l
0

(lb/in2)

0.007
0.05
0.03
0
0
0

8.0-9.5
8.5-9.5
*8.5-9.2
** 9.3-9.5
*9.2-9.5
0-0.007
0-0.007
0.01
0.01
0.005 0.005
0
0
0
0
0.07-0.25 0.02-0.07
0
0

*8.8-9.2

0-0.007
0.01
0.005
0
0
0

600-1,000 1,000-1,500 1,500-2,000 2,000

-5 Babcock & Wilcox

..........................................................................................................................................

.... 144

.............................................................................

20

, mg/l
CaCO3
10
pH
8.5-9.5
mg/l
O2
0.05

mg/l

ND

kg/cm2

0.02
0.02
0.01
ND
ND
ND

0.005

ND

0.005

0.01

ND
8.5-9.5

100

0.02

ND
8.5-9.5

80

0.5
8.5-9.5

60

2
8.5-9.5

40

-6 British Standard ()

0.01
ND

0.005

ND
8.5-9.5

120

0.01
ND

0.005

ND
8.5-9.5

130

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 145 ....

mg/l
Na3PO4
mg/l
CaCO3
mg/l
CaCO3
mg/l SiO2
mg/l Na2SO4
mg/l N2H4
(SS) mg/l
(DS) mg/l
mg/l Cl

kg/cm2

150

300
700
500

30-50
20-40
0.1-1.0
0.1-0.5
200
50
3000
2000
-

30-70

40

50-100

20

300
20
15-30
0.05-0.3
1200
-

30

20-50

60

200
10
10-20
0.05-0.1
700
-

10

10-40

80

100
*
*
*
350
10

5-20

100

-7 British Standard ()

40
*
*
*
100
5

3-10

120

10
*
*
15
1

130

..........................................................................................................................................

.... 146

.............................................................................

-8 JIS

..........................................................................................................................................

................................................. 147 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

5
-9 ()

.... 148

.............................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

-10 ()

................................................. 149 ....

..........................................................................................................................................

6
-11

.... 150

.............................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................

.. 3.
: , 2549.
U.S.Filter. Water and waste treatment data book. 2 nd ed. New York : U.S.Filter,
1991.
Osmonics Asia Pacific Ltd. Application engineer guidelines. 2 nd ed. New York
: Osmonics Asia Pacific Ltd, 1994.
. . :
, 2522.
Camp, T.R. and Meserve, R.L. Water and Its Impurities. Pennsylvania : Dowden,
Hutchison & Ross 1974.
Degremont. Water Treatment Handbook. Paris : Degremont S.A, 1965.
Hammer, M.J. Water and Waste-Water Technology. New York : John
Wiley & Sons, 1975.
Oulman, C.S., Saatci, A.M. and Baumann, E.R. Direct Filtration : Particle Removal
with Polymers. AIChE Symposium Series. Vol. 75. 1979.
The Permutit Co. Permutit Automatic Valveless Gravity Filter Bulletin 4351-G.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Process Design Manual for Suspended
Solid Removal (January 1975).
Betz. Handbook of Industrial Water Conditioning. 8th edition. Betz Laboratories,
1980.
Adams, J. Iron and Manganese Removal. Water & Sewage Works (July
1969).
Drew. Principle of Industrial Water Treatment. Drew Chemical, 1977.
Kemmer, F.N. The NALCO Water Handbook. New York : McGraw-Hill Book
Co., 1979.
Kurita Water Treatment Manual. Japan : Kurita Water Industries, 1970.
Pincus, L.I. Practical Boiler Water Treatment. New York : McGraw-Hill Book
Co., 1962.
. . 1.
: 2540

................................................. 151 ....