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Chapter 4: Solution Chemistry and the Hydrosphere Solutions (homogeneous mixtures)  Solvent: the component of a

Chapter 4: Solution Chemistry and the Hydrosphere

Solutions (homogeneous mixtures) Solvent: the component of a solution that is present in the largest amount Solute: any component in a solution besides the solvent (more than one possible) Aqueous Solutions: liquid water is the solvent (aq) Dissociation: ionic compounds break up into their component ions in water

Electrolyte A substance that dissociates into ions when it dissolves, enhancing conductivity of solvent Strong: dissociates completely into ions when it dissolves in water Weak: only partly dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water Nonelectrolyte: does not dissociate into ions (does not enhance the conductivity of water)

|||Conductivity: Is it a STRONG electrolyte? How many ions? Dissolved vs. Dissociated: has to dissolve b4 dissociation, but dissociation doesn’t have to follow dissolving Reactions take place – we observe the reaction or we may need additional chemical analysis Precipitation Rxns – a rxn where an insoluble product is formed upon mixing two solutions (“double


or “metathesis” rxn)

Types of Chemical Equations:

Molecular – every molecule is neutral/reactants not written as dissociated Ionic –strong electrolytes written as component ions, spectators included Net Ionic – no spectator ions; describes the actual reaction in the solution

Concentration of a Solute:

Standard Unit: Molarity (M) = moles of solute/liters of solution

Molarity is also know as Molar concentration

Concentration in moles can be denoted by […] Also ppm and ppb: mass/mass * 1,000,000(,000)






mg of solute

Chapter 4: Solution Chemistry and the Hydrosphere Solutions (homogeneous mixtures)  Solvent: the component of a

kg of solvent(NOT SOLUTION )

Double Displacement Rxns – some things that can be asked…

Write molecular, ionic, and/or net ionic equations (partially insoluble aq. solutions do not dissociate)

Consult solubility table for states & Remember mass balance, charge balance, state symbols

Calculate mass of ppt that forms

Figure out chemical formula of ppt: this is needed to do the stoichiometry correctly

Treat each reactant as limiting; calculate mass of ppt that forms; choose the smaller mass. The reactant that gives the smaller mass is the limiting reagent; the other is the excess reagent.

Calculate final concentration (M) of ions

Calculate total volume of solution after mixing

Spectator ions: calculate initial moles of each spectator ion, then divide by

total volume Limiting/excess reagent (ion): Final concentration of limiting ion will be zero; Excess reagent – figure out left over moles (original – consumed in ppt)


Calculate initial moles of each ion Calculate the moles of ppt formed Convert moles of ppt to moles of excess reagent consumed Subtract this value from the initial moles of excess reagent to determine how many moles are left over

Divide by total volume


Many solutions come as concentrated stock solutions

C i V i = C f V f (concentration/vol of solution); i = concentrated stock solution; f = diluted solution Acid-Base Rxns

Hydronium ion: exists as, H 3 O + (aq), but write as, H + (aq), in equations

Hydronium: an H+ ion plus a water molecule, H 2 O; the form in which the hydrogen ion is found in an aqueous solution

The volume of pure water is the difference of the initial and final volume of solution
The volume of pure
water is the difference
of the initial and final
volume of solution

Acid (Brønsted-Lowry) – a proton donor & Base (Brønsted-Lowry) – a proton acceptor Neutralization rxn: an acid and a base react to form water and a salt (def: product of a neut. rxn) Strong Acid/Base – completely dissociates in aqueous solution Weak Acid/Base – partially dissociates (limited ability to donate protons to/ accept p+ in the medium)

Monoprotic – 1 acidic H + per acid mole (HCL), Diprotic - 2 acidic H + per acid mole (H 2 SO 4 ), Triprotic - 3 acidic H + per acid mole (H 3 PO 4 ) Amphiprotic – a substance that can behave as either an acid or base Strong Acids to memorize 

    Monoprotic – 1 acidic H per acid mole (HCL), Diprotic - 2

All other acids are weak unless otherwise stated

Strong Basses: Group 1 and 2 hydroxides (NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 , etc.) Other types of bases besides hydroxide bases: you have seen these in studio

    Monoprotic – 1 acidic H per acid mole (HCL), Diprotic - 2

Titration – finds out how much of something you have

Commonly used with acids/bases

Analytical method for determining the concentration of a solute in a sample by reacting it with a

standard solution of known concentration

Standard Solution: a solution of known concentration

Titrant: the standard solution added to the sample

Equivalence Point: when you’ve added enough titrant to react w/ all of the unknown (based on

stoich.) End Point: end of titration (when just enough titrant is added to cause the indicator to change color)

Different but the same

Remember: 1OH - for every 1H +

Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Rxn

Transfer of e-






Reduction = gaining of e-

Oxidation = losing of e-

Oxidation Agent species that oxidizes something else (OA is reduced)

Reduction Agent species that reduces something else (RA is oxidized)

LEO (the lion) says GER


Oxidation Number (O.N.)/State – determined by rules


A number based on the number of e- the atom gains/loses when it forms an ion, or that it shares when it forms a covalent bond with another element


Sum of O.N. of each component element must add up to overall charge on molecule/ion


Pure elements–O.N. always 0

Fluorine–O.N. always-1 (except F 2 )

Oxygen–O.N. usually -2

Hydrogen–O.N usually +1

Chlorine & Bromine–O.N. usually -1 (not true when combined w/ oxygen or fluorine)


Fe 2 O 3 2(3+)+3(2-)=0 BaSO 4 (2+)+(6+)+4(2-)=0 CO 2 (4+)+2(2-)=0

Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (2+)+2((5+)+3(2-))=0  (5+)+3(2-)=-1 HClO 3 (1+)+(5+)+3(2-)=0

Balancing Redox Reactions (½, balance, H 2 O, H + , e - , combine, base OH - )

  • 1. Identify what is being oxidized, reduced

  • 2. Write half reactions

  • 3. Balance everything except hydrogen, oxygen

  • 4. Balance oxygen with liquid water

  • 5. Balance hydrogen with protons

  • 6. Balance charge with electrons


2+¿ (aq)+Cl 2 (g)

  • 1. ¿ (aq)→Cu ¿ Cu (s)+ClO 3




¿ (aq)→Cl 2 (g)

  • 7. Multiply so that when the half reactions are added together no electrons appear in the final exn

Clean up equation if necessary (i.e. combine H 2 O) If in acidic solution this is the

Clean up equation if necessary

last given solute cations


  • 8. IF in base add OH- to both sides to remove H+


Ion Exchange – a process by which one ion is displaced by another.


Hard water Lab

Saturated Solution – a solution that contains the maximum concentration of a solute possible at a given temperature.

Solubility – the maximum amount of a substance that dissolves in a quantity of solvent at a given temperature.

Supersaturated Solution – contains more than the max quantity of predicted to be soluble in a given volume of solution at a given temp. Zeolites – natural crystalline minerals or synthetic materials with three- dimensional networks of channels that contain sodium or other 1+