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2 vues10 pagesA three-step computational approach is proposed to help establish the effect of various self-piercing riveting (SPR) process and material parameters on the quality and the mechanical performance of the resulting SPR joints. Using the results of a virtual-testing procedure, the constitutive relations for the simplified SPR connectors are determined, parameterized and validated. The availability of such connectors is mandatory in large-scale computational analyses of whole-vehicle crash.

Aug 31, 2016

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A three-step computational approach is proposed to help establish the effect of various self-piercing riveting (SPR) process and material parameters on the quality and the mechanical performance of the resulting SPR joints. Using the results of a virtual-testing procedure, the constitutive relations for the simplified SPR connectors are determined, parameterized and validated. The availability of such connectors is mandatory in large-scale computational analyses of whole-vehicle crash.

© All Rights Reserved

2 vues

A three-step computational approach is proposed to help establish the effect of various self-piercing riveting (SPR) process and material parameters on the quality and the mechanical performance of the resulting SPR joints. Using the results of a virtual-testing procedure, the constitutive relations for the simplified SPR connectors are determined, parameterized and validated. The availability of such connectors is mandatory in large-scale computational analyses of whole-vehicle crash.

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Modeling and Simulations

M. Grujicic *1, J.S. Snipes1, S. Ramaswami1, F. Abu-Farha2

Departments of: 1Mechanical Engineering; and 2Automotive Engineering, Clemson University

Clemson, SC 29634, USA

gmica@clemson.edu

2014 Science and Engineering Publishing Company

Abstract

A three-step computational approach is proposed to help

establish the effect of various self-piercing riveting (SPR)

process and material parameters on the quality and the

mechanical performance of the resulting SPR joints. Using

the results of a virtual-testing procedure, the constitutive

relations for the simplified SPR connectors are determined,

parameterized and validated. The availability of such

connectors is mandatory in large-scale computational

analyses of whole-vehicle crash.

Keywords

Self-Piercing Riveting; Process Modeling; Virtual Testing; Joint

Connectors

Introduction

Self-piercing riveting falls into the category of fast,

spot-type, sheet-metal mechanical-fastening processes.

In contrast to traditional riveting, self-piercing riveting

does not require pre-drilled or pre-punched holes and,

therefore, no alignment between the rivet-setting

machine and the sheets to be joined is required.

Consequently, self-piercing riveting is typically a highspeed, one-step joining process. The results of the SPRprocess modeling displayed in Figures 1(a)(d) reveal

the four basic stages (i.e. clamping, piercing, flaring

and releasing) of this process.

A comprehensive list of the main advantages and few

limitations of SPR relative to the alternative

joining/fastening technologies can be found in Abe et

al. (2006). In the same reference, a brief overview of the

main areas of application of SPR can also be found.

A review of the open-domain literature carried out as

part of the present work revealed a number of

experimental studies of the SPR process [Abe et al.

20

studies are focused mainly on the following aspects of

this process: (a) an investigation of the effect of various

process parameters such as rivet shape/material,

worksheet materials and thicknesses, die shape,

clamping force, punch force vs. time profile, etc. on the

overall structural integrity of the resulting joint; (b)

mechanical testing of the joints to determine their

static, dynamic and cycling strengths under various

combinations of shear and normal-types of loading;

and (c) establishment of the functional relationships

between the SPR process parameters and the

mechanical properties of the riveted joints.

Besides real-time monitoring of the punch force vs.

time profile during the SPR process, most of the

aspects of this joining process could not be monitored

(and, thus, controlled) in real time. Consequently, the

effect of various SPR process parameters on the

quality,

structural

integrity

and

mechanical

performance of the self-piercing riveted joints relies

upon the use of various post-mortem characterization/

measurement techniques. To overcome this limitation,

computer modeling of the SPR process has been the

subject of a number of investigations. A review of the

open-domain literature carried out as part of the

present work revealed a number of modeling studies

of the SPR process and the structural behavior of the

resulting joints [Sthmeyer (2005); Sommer and Maier

(2008)]. The main limitation of these modeling/

simulation studies is that they focus on particular

aspects of the process or joint performance. In other

words, no attempt is made to relate the SPR process

parameters to the SPR-joint mechanical performance

as well as with the construction of SPR-joint line

connectors used in large-scale computational

simulations.

www.seipub.org/sas

tests performed on the SPR joints; and (c)

determination and parameterization of the

constitutive relations for the simplified SPR

connectors, using the results obtained in (b). The

availability of such connectors is mandatory in

large-scale computational analyses of whole-vehicle

crash or even in simulations of vehicle component

manufacturing, e.g. car-body electro-coat paintbaking process. In such simulations, explicit threedimensional representation of all SPR joints is

associated with a prohibitive computational cost.

Spr Process Modeling

Problem Definition

The problem analyzed in this portion of the work

involves finite-element analysis of a prototypical SPR

joining process.

Modeling and Computational Analysis

1)

Geometrical Model

domain for the problem analyzed in this portion of

the work is depicted in Figure 1(a). Since the tools

(i.e. the punch, the pad and the die) undergo only

(small) elastic deformation, they are modeled as

rigid bodies, while the rivet and the two sheets are

considered as elasto-plastic deformable bodies.

Furthermore, due to the inherent axisymmetric

nature of the region surrounding the rivet axis, the

geometrical domain is treated as being

axisymmetric. It should be noted that in order to

reveal interior details of the computational model,

a 300, rather than 360, angular portion of the

model is shown in Figure 1(a).

2)

SINGLE SPR PROCESS CYCLE, CALLED: (A) CLAMPING; (B)

PIERCING; (C) FLARING; AND (D) RELEASING.

finite-element modeling and simulations of the SPR

process; (b) determination of the mechanical

properties of the resulting SPR joints through the

Meshed Model

in the SPR-process modeling was determined by

carrying out a mesh-sensitivity analysis and

represents

a

compromise

between

the

computational efficiency and accuracy. Typically,

the meshed model contained between ca. 30,000

and

10,000

quadrilateral

plus

triangular

axisymmetric elements with finer elmements being

used in the top/bottom sheet regions near the rivet.

3)

Computational Algorithm

21

www.seipub.org/sas

4)

Initial Conditions

components of the computational model are

assumed to be stationary, and the deformable

components are assumed to be stress-free.

5)

Boundary Conditions

employing the classical Johnson-Cook progressivedamage/ductile-failure model.

Typical Results

The results presented in this subsection were obtained

for the following set of process/material parameters

[Porcaro et al. (2006b)]: (a) sheets material: A 6060 T4

and T6; (b) sheet thicknesses 2 mm; (c) Boellhoff rivet

C 5 x 6 made of high strength steel; (d) Boellhoff DZ

090 2025 die; (e) stroke-control piercing as defined in

Figure 2; and (f) time-dependent clamping force as

defined in Figure 2.

the computational domain:

(c) Die Completely fixed with respect to all its

translational and rotational degrees of freedom.

(d) Rivet, top sheet and bottom sheet Only the

boundary

conditions

consistent

with

the

axisymmetric character of the problem are

prescribed.

6)

Contact Interactions

rivet/sheets and bottom-sheet/die interactions are

all modeled using the penalty-type normal-contact

algorithm combined with a generalized Coulomb

friction law [Grujicic et al. (2012a, 2014)].

7)

Material Models

Since the punch, pad and die are all treated as rigid

bodies, and a dynamic analysis was carried out, the

only material property required for these

components is their mass density.

The mechanical response of the rivet and sheets is

assumed to be governed by the same isotropic

(linearly) elastic, and (strain-hardenable, strain-rate

sensitive, thermally-softenable) plastic constitutive

model

(with

different

parameterizations).

Furthermore, it is assumed that this response can

be mathematically represented using the JohnsonCook material-model formulation.

To enable piercing of the top and bottom sheets by

the rivet, in addition to the deformation model, a

progressive damage model had to be defined for

22

Punch Stroke

-1

-2

Clamping force

Punch Stroke, mm

-4

-2

-6

-3

-8

-4

-10

Clamping Force, kN

explicit finite-element algorithm [Grujicic et al.

(2007, 2013)]. Since the SPR process is generally not

associated with significant thermal effects, such

effects are neglected in the present work.

-5

-12

-6

-14

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Time, s

RELATIONSHIPS SHOWING TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF

PUNCH STROKE AND CLAMPING FORCE.

the SPR process is shown in Figures 1(a)(d). The four

previously mentioned stages of this process can be

readily identified by examining the results displayed

in these figures. Figure 3 depicts the results pertaining

to the functional relationship between the punch force

(output) and the punch stroke (input). Examination of

the results displayed in Figure 3 reveals that initially,

as the rivet is piercing the top sheet, the increase in the

magnitude of the (negative) punch force is relatively

small. However, as the rivet penetrates the bottom

sheet, approaches the rigid die, and begins to flare, the

punch-force magnitude increases at a progressively

higher rate.

Virtual Mechanical Testing of SPR Joints

The self-piercing riveting process is associated with a

relatively large number of process and material

parameters (e.g. rivet geometry and material, top and

bottom sheet-metal materials and thicknesses, die

www.seipub.org/sas

process with respect to obtaining the desired

combination of the SPR-joint properties, using purely

experimental means, is generally impractical or even

infeasible. To help overcome this problem, virtual

mechanical testing of the SPR joints can be employed.

0

Punch force, kN

-10

-20

2)

-30

-40

-50

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Punch stroke, mm

FORCE VS. PUNCH STROKE FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

Problem Definition

The problem analyzed in this portion of the work

deals with virtual mechanical testing of the SPR joints.

Four types of virtual mechanical tests are used: (a)

normal-pull test; (b) shear test; (c) 45 oblique-pull test;

and (d) peel test.

Modeling and Computational Analysis

The virtual mechanical-testing procedure employed in

the present work utilizes the same type of finiteelement formalism as the one described in the

previous section.

1)

finite-element modeling of the SPR process to a full

three-dimensional computational domain. The

remainder of the upper and lower sheets are

reconstructed by simply assuming that their

geometries/thicknesses were not affected by the

SPR process. The vertical and oblique end sections

are obtained by bending the sheet ends over a 4.0

mm-radius rigid/immobile rod. For each test

specimen, the direction of the applied loading is

indicated, in Figures 4(a)(d), using arrows, and

the (vertical) symmetry plane is labeled.

Geometrical Model

aforementioned four virtual mechanical tests are

depicted in Figures 4(a)(d). It should be noted that

in these cases the geometrical models are no longer

axisymmetric, but instead, possess a vertical plane

of symmetry. The test-specimen geometries differ

only in the number (one or two, per sheet), location

(top/bottom, left/right) and orientation (vertical vs.

oblique) of the bent end sections. These end

sections are used for specimen gripping during

virtual testing. Geometrical boundaries for the rivet

and for the upper and lower sheets (in the vicinity

of the rivet joint) are obtained by mapping the

Meshed Model

4(a)(d) are not axisymmetric, the computational

model had to be treated and meshed as a threedimensional body. Consequently, the computational

domain for each of the four test- specimen

geometries is meshed using continuum eight-node,

first-order hexahedron elements with reduced

integration. The mesh size in the vicinity of the

SPR joint was chosen to match the corresponding

mesh size used in the SPR-process model. Sections

of the upper and lower sheets further away from

the SPR joint, including the vertical/oblique

sections, are modeled using a coarser mesh.

3)

Computational Algorithm

for SPR-process modeling is employed in this

portion of the work.

4)

Initial Conditions

plastic deformation of the rivet and the two sheets

and introduces residual stresses and damage into

the region surrounding the joint, the plastic strain,

residual stress and damage fields obtained at the

end of the SPR-process modeling had to be

mapped onto the test specimens and used as initial

conditions.

5)

Boundary Conditions

boundary conditions are applied along the vertical

symmetry plane. In adition, constant-velocity

loading is applied in the test-specific direction, as

indicated in Figures 4(a)(d). The velocity-type

loading is applied to the affected faces of the test

specimen using a translator-type connector (a

connector in which the only available degree of freedom

23

www.seipub.org/sas

the corresponding degrees of freedom of a reference

node, i.e. the node which coincides with one of the

connector nodes). The stiffness of the translator

connector is then selected in such a way as to match

the combined stiffness of the loading piston and the

specimen-gripping device.

6)

Contact Interactions

process modeling is employed in this portion of the

work.

7)

Material Models

process modeling are employed in this portion of

the work. However, as mentioned above, the rivet

and sheet materials are assigned initial values of

plastic deformation and damage in accordance

with the results obtained at the end of the SPR

process modeling.

Typical Results

Figures 5(a)(d) show typical results pertaining to the

spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the rivet,

top-sheet and bottom-sheet materials during the

normal-pull test. Examination of the results displayed

in Figures 5(a)(d) reveals that: (a) during the test, the

rivet is being pulled out from the bottom sheet while

still attached to the top sheet; and (b) in this process,

the bottom sheet experiences most of the damage

while the top sheet suffers substantially less damage.

Typical load vs. displacement curves obtained in this

portion of the work for the normal-pull, shear, 45

oblique-pull, and peel tests are depicted in Figures

6(a)(d) and labeled as 3-D SPR Joint. The results

displayed in these figures will be discussed in the next

section, when they will be compared with their

counterparts obtained using the shell representation of

the sheets and connector representation of the rivet.

Construction of the SPR-Joint Connectors

Problem Definition

FIG. 4. GEOMETRICAL MODELS USED IN THE SPR-JOINT

VIRTUAL MECHANICAL TESTING: (A) NORMAL-PULL; (B)

SHEAR; (C) 45 OBLIQUE-PULL; AND (D) PEEL TEST

SPECIMENS.

connecting them) and a coupling-type kinematic

constraint (a constraint which couples the degrees of

24

involves derivation, parameterization and validation

of the governing equations of the SPR-joint connectors.

Derivation of the Line-type SPR-Joint Connector

Constitutive Relations

The constitutive relations for the SPR-joint connector are

www.seipub.org/sas

described in a manner similar to the conventional

metal plasticity and involves specifications of the yield

potential, flow rule and the hardening/constitutive

relations; and (f) damage initiation and damage

evolution relations are assumed to mimic those

encountered in the case of ductile failure involving

voids nucleation, growth and coalescence.

1)

Elastic behavior

as well as regarding free rotation about the

connector axis (x3), the elastic response of the SPR

connector is fully defined by using five elastic

stiffnesses Ei , i = 15 (E6=0).

2)

Plastic behavior

connector is assumed to be governed by the

following yield-potential function:

1

F F

=

P N + S

RN RS

(1)

equivalent shear force, FS , are respectively defined

as:

FN =+

f3

=

FS

K

m12 + m22

r

(2)

(3)

f12 + f 22

vector associated with the three coordinate axes, f

denotes a force, m a moment, r is the rivet radius,

and RN , RS , and K are the connector yieldpotential parameters.

FIG. 5. AN EXAMPLE OF THE RESULTS PERTAINING TO THE

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF

THE RIVET, TOP-SHEET AND BOTTOM-SHEET MATERIALS

DURING THE PULL TEST.

and simplifications: (a) a local connector coordinate

system is used, within which the connector is aligned

in the x3-direction, while directions x1 and x2 lie in the

plane of the riveted sheets; (b) elastic responses of the

connector associated with each of the three

translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs)

are assumed to be independent/decoupled; (c) the

riveted joint is assumed to be axisymmetric; (d) since

the riveted joint can be readily rotated about its axis of

symmetry, zero elastic stiffness is assigned to this

is then assumed to be governed by the following

yield criterion:

( )

= P ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 , m1 , m2 ) F 0 u pl 0

(4)

strength, and u pl is the equivalent plastic relative

motion (a quantity analogous to the equivalent

plastic strain in metal plasticity).

Evolution

pl

of

the

plastic

T

u1pl , u2pl , u3pl , urpl1 , urpl2

relative

(where

motion

subscript

25

www.seipub.org/sas

u pl = u pl .

f

(5)

f = [ f1 , f 2 , f 3 , m1 , m2 ]T

relative motion are then defined as:

(u ) .(u )

pl T

u pl =

t

u pl = u pl dt

0

pl

.

f T f

(6)

shear in direction 1 and u pl = RN u3pl for the case

of pure tension in the axial direction x3 .

As plastic deformation proceeds, the connector is

assumed to experience isotropic strain-hardening.

Consequently, F 0 in Eq. (4) controls the size of the

(fixed-shape) yield surface. As plastic deformation

proceeds, u pl and, thus, F 0 increase, causing an

expansion of the yield surface. Thus, hardening

behavior is fully described by the F 0 vs. u pl

(7)

functional relationship.

FIG. 6. A COMPARISON OF THE LOAD VS. DISPLACEMENT RESULTS OBTAINED IN THE VIRTUAL TESTING OF SOLID SPR-JOINTS

AND SHELL-SECTIONS RIVETED BY SPR-JOINT CONNECTORS: (A) NORMAL-PULL; (B) SHEAR;

(C) 45 OBLIQUE-PULL; AND (D) PEEL TESTS.

26

3)

www.seipub.org/sas

2)

Plastic Behavior

plastic relative motion crosses a critical value

beyond which the connector continuously incurs

peak load under normal-pull, pure-shear and 45

oblique-pull loading, the connector acquires the

pl

and

generally found to be functions of the connector

loading angle (i.e. loading mode-mixity) m ,

defined as:

initial level of the connector strength, F00 , is

0

same (maximum) level of its strength, Fmax

; and (c)

m = tan

FS

2

1 FN

(8)

pl

Damage initiation is then fully defined by a u DI

vs.

m functional relationship, where subscript DI

As internal damage accumulates within the

connector, its strength is assumed to decrease

linearly with an increase in u pl . At u pl = u fpl ,

connector strength becomes zero, causing it to fail.

Under this simplifying assumption, damage

pl

evolution is fully defined by a u fpl u DI

vs. m

relation.

relation:

is

the force vs. displacement curves (up to the onset

of damage), and a curve-fitting procedure,

RN = 20.3 and RS = 31.5 are obtained.

The parameter is obtained by curve-fitting the

45 oblique-pull force vs. displacement results in

the plastic region (up to the onset of failure) to the

relation obtained by combining Eqs. (1) and (4).

This procedure yielded = 1.55 .

The F 0 vs. u pl relationship is obtained by: (i)

extrapolating the elastic response of the connector

into the elastic/plastic region; and (ii) estimating

the plastic relative displacement (as a difference

between the total and the elastic relative

displacements) at different levels of F 0 . This

oblique-pull loading, the contribution of the bending

moments m1 and m2 to the overall loading is

moments to the overall loading is proportional to the

parameter K in Eq. (2), the results of these tests are

first used to determine the remaining parameters and

functional relations defining the connector constitutive

behavior. Then, the peel-test results are used to

determine K .

1)

Elastic Behavior

displacement results obtained under normal-pull,

pure-shear and 45 oblique-pull loading conditions,

and employing a curve-fitting procedure, the first

three elastic-stiffness constants are determined as

follows: E1 = E2 = 2.97 MN/m and E3 = 3.54 MN/m.

Following prior work of Weyer et al. (2006), E4 and

E5 are assumed to be infinite (a rigid-elastic

approximation).

HARDENING BEHAVIOR OF THE SPR-JOINT CONNECTOR.

27

www.seipub.org/sas

3)

pl

To define the u DI

vs. m functional relationship, it

was first assumed that damage initiates at the point

of maximum load. Then the sought-after functional

relationship is obtained by simply determining the

equivalent plastic relative displacement associated

with the corresponding peak loading for different

tests, each corresponding to a different value of m .

1.2

3.9

1.1

3.8

3.7

3.6

0.9

3.5

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

pl

The resulting u DI

vs. m functional relationship is

depicted in Figure 8.

0.8

Mode Mixity

PLASTIC MOTION AT DAMAGE INITIATION, AND THE

ADDITIONAL POST-DAMAGE-INITIATION EQUIVALENT

PLASTIC MOTION AT THE POINT OF FAILURE.

To calibrate the

(u

pl

f

pl

u DI

pl

f

pl

vs. m functional relationship depicted

u DI

in Figure 8 is obtained.

4)

optimization procedure was employed in

conjunction with the finite-element simulations (for

the peel test) as described in the next section.

Within these simulations, riveted sheets are

modeled as shell structures while the SPR-joint is

28

Validation Procedure

To validate the fidelity of the derived and

parameterized constitutive relations for the SPR-joint

connectors (described above), virtual (normal-pull,

shear, 45 oblique-pull and peel) tests of riveted shelltype specimens are carried out. In these simulations,

the riveted connections between the sheets are

represented using the just-derived SPR-joint

connectors. Temporal evolution of the material within

the two riveted shells during the pull test is depicted

in Figures 9(a)(b). A comparison of these results with

their counterparts in Figures 5(b)(d) reveals that in

both cases, the ultimate failure of the SPR joint takes

place by the degradation and fracture of the (mainly

bottom) sheet material surrounding the rivet. This was

an expected outcome since the bottom sheet has

acquired the largest extent of damage during the SPR

process.

(a)

vs. m functional

relationship, it is first recognized that in the postdamage-initiation portion of the load vs.

displacement curves, the mixity ratio changes

during loading (except for the cases of pure normal

and pure shear loading). Taking this into account,

combining all the post-damage-initiation force vs.

displacement data, and utilizing a linear regression

analysis, the piecewise linear form of the

(u

parameterized in this section. Within the

optimization procedure, parameter K was used as

a single design variable while the extent of

agreement between the peel-test load vs.

displacement results obtained in the previous

section and in the present section was defined as

the objective function. This procedure yielded

K = 0.53 .

(b)

THE TWO RIVETED SHELLS DURING THE PULL TEST.

results (labeled as SPR-Joint Connector) for the

normal-pull, shear, 45 oblique-pull and peel tests

obtained in this portion of the work. A comparison of

the two sets of results reveals that the overall level of

agreement for each of the four tests is satisfactory,

relative to the joint strength (as quantified by the

maximum force), joint ductility (as quantified by the

maximum displacement before a complete loss of the

load-carrying capacity), and the overall toughness (as

www.seipub.org/sas

curve). This finding suggests that the SPR-joint

connectors can reasonably well account for the

mechanical response of the very detailed threedimensional continuum SPR joints.

(LFW)."

Journal

of

Materials

Grujicic, M., Galgalikar, R., Snipes, J. S., R. Yavari,

Ramaswami,

S.

Multi-Physics

Modeling

of

the

following main summary remarks and conclusions can

be drawn: (a) a three-step computational procedure is

developed to establish dependence of the mechanical

properties of the self-piercing rivets (SPRs) on the SPR

process parameters; (b) this procedure involves finiteelement modeling and simulations of the SPR process

and virtual testing of the resulting SPR joints under

different types of loading such as normal-pull, shear,

45 oblique-pull and peeling; (c) the results of the

virtual mechanical testing are used to construct and

parameterize SPR-joint point-to-point line-connector

elements. These elements are used in large-scale

simulations of whole-vehicle crash in the vehicle-body

manufacturing process (e.g. car-body electro-coat

paint-baking process); and (d) virtual testing of the

shell components riveted using the joint connectors

validated the ability of these line elements to

realistically account for the strength, ductility and

toughness of the three-dimensional SPR-joints.

Grujicic, M., Yavari, R., Snipes, J. S., Ramaswami, S., Yen, C.F., and Cheeseman, B. A. Linear Friction Welding

Process Model for Carpenter Custom 465 Martensitic

Precipitation-Hardened

Stainless

Steel.

Journal

of

10.1007/s11665-014-0985-9

Porcaro, R., Hanssen, A.G., Langseth, M., and Aalberg, A. "

Self-piercing riveting process: An experimental and

numerical investigation." Journal of Materials Processing

Technology 171 (2006b): 1020.

Sthmeyer, A. "Self-piercing riveting." Paper presented at

the 5th LS-DYNA European Conference, Birmingham,

UK, 2005.

Sommer, S., and Maier, J., Failure modeling of a selfpiercing riveted joint using LS-DYNA, Paper presented

at the 8th LS-DYNA European Conference, Strasbourg,

France, 2008.

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tensile strength steel and aluminium alloy sheets using

conventional rivet and die." Journal of Materials

Processing Technology 209 (2009): 39143922.

Grujicic, M., Pandurangan, B., Zecevic, U., Koudela, K.L.,

Cheeseman,

Alumina/S-2

Welding

and

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Polymer-Matrix

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Cheeseman, B.A. Process Modeling of Ti-6Al-4V Linear

for self-piercing rivets and resistance spot welds joining

similar and dissimilar metals." International Journal of

Impact Engineering 34 (2007): 16681682.

Sun, X., Stephens, E. V., and Khaleel, M.A. "Fatigue

behaviors of self-piercing rivets joining similar and

dissimilar sheet metals." International Journal of Fatigue

29 (2007): 370386.

Weyer, S., Hooputra, H., Zhou, F., Modeling of SelfPiercing Rivets Using Fasteners in Crash Analysis,

Paper presented at the 2006 ABAQUS Users Conference,

Cambridge, MA, USA.

29

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