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Vibrationofsingledegreeof

Vibration
of single degree of
freedomsystems
y
Assoc.Prof.Dr.PelinGundesBakir
Assoc.
Prof. Dr. Pelin Gundes Bakir
gundesbakir@yahoo.com

Course Schedule
CourseSchedule

A h
Ashortreviewonthedynamicbehaviourofthesingledegreeoffreedomsystems
i
h d
i b h i
f h i l d
ff d

Ashortreviewonthedynamicbehaviourofmultidegreeoffreedomstructures

Objectivesforvibrationmonitoring

FourierSeriesExpansion,FourierTransforms,DiscreteFourierTransform

Digitalsignalprocessing,problemsassociatedwithanalogtodigitalconversion,sampling,
aliasing,leakage,windowing,filters
l
l k
d
fl

Stepsininstrumentingastructure,selectionandinstallationofinstruments,maintenance,
vibrationinstrumentation,exciters,transducers,performancespecification,dataacquisition
ib ti i t
t ti
it
t
d
f
ifi ti
d t
i iti
systems,strongmotiondataprocessing

Course Schedule
CourseSchedule

Randomvariables,stochasticprocesses,statisticalanalysis,correlationandconvolution,
R
d
i bl
h i
i i l
l i
l i
d
l i
coherence,timeandfrequencydomainrepresentationofrandomdynamicloads

Dynamic response of single and multi degree of freedom systems to random loads
Dynamicresponseofsingleandmultidegreeoffreedomsystemstorandomloads

Modalanalysis

Applicationsinbridges,buildings,mechanicalengineeringandaerospacestructures

MATLABexercises

TermProjects

References
Modalanalysis:
M
d l
l i
HeylenW.,LammensS.AndSasP.,ModalAnalysisTheoryandTesting,Katholieke
UniversiteitLeuven,1997.
EwinsD.J.,ModalTesting,Theory,Practice,andApplication(MechanicalEngineering
Ewins D J Modal Testing Theory Practice and Application (Mechanical Engineering
ResearchStudiesEngineeringDesignSeries),ResearchStudiesPre;2edition(August2001)
ISBN13:9780863802188
Maia,N.M.M.andSilva,J.M.M.TheoreticalandExperimentalModalAnalysis,Research
Maia, N. M. M. and Silva, J. M. M.Theoretical and Experimental Modal Analysis, Research
StudiesPressLtd,,Hertfordshire,1997,488pp.,ISBN0863802087
Signalprocessing:
Blackburn,JamesA,Moderninstrumentationforscientistsandengineers,NewYork:
,
,
f
g
,
Springer,2001

StearnsS.D.andDavid,R.A.,SignalProcessingAlgorithmsinMatlab,PrenticeHallInc,1996
MitraS.K.,DigitalSignalProcessing,AComputerbasedapproach,McGrawHill,3rdEdition,
2006.
HeylenW.,LammensS.AndSasP.,ModalAnalysisTheoryandTesting,Katholieke
UniversiteitLeuven,1997.
KeithWordenSignalProcessingandInstrumentation,LectureNotes,
http://www.dynamics.group.shef.ac.uk/people/keith/mec409.htm

References
Signalprocessing:

Lynn,P.A.IntroductoryDigitalSignalprocessingWithComputerApplications.JohnWiley&
Sons,1994.

StearnsD.D.andDavid,R.A.,SignalProcessingAlgorithmsinMatlab,PrenticeHallInc,1996

Ifeachor E.C.andJervisB.W.DigitalSignalProcessing:APracticalApproach,AddisonWesley,
1997

Generalvibrationtheory

RaoS.S.,Mechanicalvibrations,Pearson,PrenticeHall,2004.

InmanD.J.,EngineeringVibration,PrenticeHall,1994.

MeirovitchL.,Fundamentalsofvibrations,McGrawHill,2001.

References
R d
Randomvibrations:
ib i

BendatJ.S.andPiersolA.G.,Randomdataanalysisandmeasurementprocedures,WileySeriesin
ProbabilityandStatistics,3rdEdition,2004.
y
,
,

LutesL.D.andSarkani S.,RandomVibrations:Analysisofstructuralandmechanicalsystems,Elsevier,631
pp,2004.

NewlandD.E.,Anintroductiontorandomvibrations,spectralandwaveletanalysis,Longman,
1975/1984/1993.

SoongT.T.andGrigoriu,Randomvibrationofmechanicalandstructuralsystems,PrenticeHall,1993.

Wirsching P.H.andPaez T.L.andOrtizK.Randomvibrations:TheoryandPractice,JohnWileyandsons,


1995.
199

Bendat J.S.and Piersol A.G.Engineeringapplicationsofcorrelationandspectralanalysis,JohnWileyand


Sons,2
, nd Edition,1993.
,

References
Vib i I
VibrationInstrumentation:
i

Vibration,monitoring,testingandinstrumentationhandbook,CRCPress,TaylorandFrancis,
Edited by Clarence W De Silva
Editedby:ClarenceW.DeSilva.

AszklerC.,Acceleration,shockandvibrationsensors,Sensorshandbook,Chapter5,pages
137 159
137159.

McConnellK.G.,Vibrationtesting,theoryandpractice,JohnWileyandSons,1995.

Prerequisites: Basicknowledgeonstructuralanalysis.

Vibration based health monitoring


Vibrationbasedhealthmonitoring
B i I f
BasicInformation:
ti

Instructor:Assoc.Prof.Dr.PelinGundesBakir
Instructor:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pelin Gundes Bakir
(http://atlas.cc.itu.edu.tr/~gundes

Email:gundesbakir@yahoo.com

OfficehoursTBDbyemailappointment

Website:
W b it
http://atlas.cc.itu.edu.tr/~gundes/lectures

Lecture time: Wednesday 14 0017


Lecturetime:Wednesday14.00
17.00
00

Lecturevenue:NH404

Vibration based health monitoring


Vibrationbasedhealthmonitoring
Vibrationbasedstructuralhealthmonitoringisamultidisciplinary
Vibration
based str ct ral health monitoring i
ltidi i li
researchtopic.Thecourseissuitablebothforundergraduateand
graduatestudentsaswellasthefollowingdepartments:
Civilengineering
Earthquakeengineering
Mechanicalengineering
Mechanical engineering
Aerospaceengineering
Electricalandelectronicengineering

Vibration based health monitoring


Vibrationbasedhealthmonitoring
BasicInformation:

70%attendanceisrequired.

Grading:
Quiz+homeworks:35%
Midtermproject:25%
Finalproject:40%

Introduction
Concepts
Conceptsfromvibrations
from vibrations
Degreesoffreedom
Classificationofvibration

Concepts from vibrations


Conceptsfromvibrations
NEWTONSLAWS

Firstlaw:
First
law:
Iftherearenoforcesactinguponaparticle,thentheparticlewillmovein
astraightlinewithconstantvelocity.
Secondlaw:
A particle acted upon by a force moves so that the force vector is equal to
Aparticleacteduponbyaforcemovessothattheforcevectorisequalto
thetimerateofchangeofthelinearmomentumvector.
Thirdlaw:
Whentwoparticlesexertforcesupononeanother,theforcesliealongthe
line joining the particles and the corresponding force vectors are the
linejoiningtheparticlesandthecorrespondingforcevectorsarethe
negativeofeachother.

Definition

Theminimumnumberofindependentcoordinatesrequiredtodetermine
h
b
f d
d
d
d d
completelythepositionsofallpartsofasystematanyinstantoftime
definesthedegreeoffreedomofthesystem.A singledegreeoffreedom
system requiresonlyonecoordinatetodescribeitspositionatanyinstant
oftime.

Single degree of freedom system


Singledegreeoffreedomsystem

FForthesimplependuluminthefigure,themotioncanbestatedeitherintermsof
th i l
d l
i th fi
th
ti
b t t d ith i t
f orxandy.Ifthe
d If th
coordinatesxandyareusedtodescribethemotion,itmustberecognizedthatthesecoordinatesarenot
independent.Theyarerelatedtoeachotherthroughtherelation

x2 + y2 = l 2
wherelistheconstantlengthofthependulum.Thusanyonecoordinatecandescribethemotionofthe
pendulum.Inthisexample,wefindthatthechoiceof astheindependentcoordinatewillbemore
convenient than the choice of x and y.
convenientthanthechoiceofxandy.

Two degree of freedom system


Twodegreeoffreedomsystem

SSomeexamplesoftwodegreeoffreedomsystemsareshowninthefigure.Thefirstfigureshowsatwo
l
ft d
ff d
t
h
i th fi
Th fi t fi
h
t
mass twospringsystemthatisdescribedbytwolinearcoordinatesx1 andx2.Thesecondfiguredenotes
atworotorsystemwhosemotioncanbespecifiedintermsof1and2.Themotionofthesysteminthe
thirdfigurecanbedescribedcompletelyeitherbyXand orbyx,yandX.

Discrete and continuous systems


Discreteandcontinuoussystems

Alargenumberofpracticalsystemscanbedescribedusingafinitenumberofdegreesoffreedom,suchas
A
l
b
f
ti l t
b d
ib d i
fi it
b
fd
ff d
h
thesimplesystemshowninthepreviousslides.

Somesystems,especiallythoseinvolvingcontinuouselasticmembers,haveaninfinitenumberofdegrees
offreedomasshowninthefigure.Sincethebeaminthefigurehasaninfinitenumberofmasspoints,we
needaninfinitenumberofcoordinatestospecifyitsdeflectedconfiguration.Theinfinitenumberof
coordinatesdefinesitselasticdeflectioncurve.Thus,thecantileverbeamhasinfinitenumberofdegrees
offreedom.

Discrete and continuous systems


Discreteandcontinuoussystems

SSystemswithafinitenumberofdegreesoffreedomarecalleddiscrete
t
ith fi it
b
fd
ff d
ll d di
t or
lumpedparametersystems,andthosewithaninfinitenumberofdegrees
offreedomarecalledcontinuous ordistributedsystems.

Mostofthetime,continuoussystemsareapproximatedasdiscrete
systems,andsolutionsareobtainedinasimplemanner.Although
treatmentofasystemascontinuousgivesexactresults,theanalytical
methodsavailablefordealingwithcontinuoussystemsarelimitedtoa
narrowselectionofproblems,suchasuniformbeams,slenderrodsand
thinplates.
hi l

Hence,mostofthepracticalsystemsarestudiedbytreatingthemasfinite
,
p
y
y
g
lumpedmasses,springsanddampers.Ingeneral,moreaccurateresults
areobtainedbyincreasingthenumberofmasses,springsanddampers
thatisbyincreasingthenumberofdegreesoffreedom.

Classification of vibration
Classificationofvibration
Free
Freevibration:Ifasystem,afteraninitialdisturbanceisleftto
ibration If
t
ft
i iti l di t b
i l ft t
vibrateonitsown,theensuingvibrationisknownasfreevibration.
Noexternalforceactsonthesystem.Theoscillationofasimple
pendulum is an example of free vibration
pendulumisanexampleoffreevibration.
Forcedvibration:Ifasystemissubjectedtoanexternalforce(often
arepeatingtypeofforce),theresultingvibrationisknownasforced
ti t
ff
) th
lti
ib ti i k
f
d
vibration.
Ifthefrequencyoftheexternalforcecoincideswithoneofthenatural
frequenciesofthesystem,aconditionknownasresonanceoccurs,
andthesystemundergoesdangerouslylargeoscillations.Failuresof
such structures as buildings bridges turbines and airplane wings
suchstructuresasbuildings,bridges,turbines,andairplanewings
havebeenassoicatedwiththenoccurrenceofresonance.

Classification of vibration
Classificationofvibration

Undampedvibration:Ifnoenergyislostordissipatedinfrictionorother
d
d ib i
f
l
d
d f
h
resistanceduringoscillation,thevibrationisknownasundampedvibration.
Ifanyenergyislostinthiswayhowever,itiscalleddampedvibration.

Whilethespringformsaphysicalmodelforstoringkineticenergyandhence
p g
p y
g
gy
causingvibration,thedashpot,ordamper,formsthephysicalmodelfor
dissipatingenergyanddampingtheresponseofamechanicalsystem.A
dashpotconsistsofapistonfitintoacylinderfilledwithoil.Thispistonis
p
p
y
p
perforatedwithholessothatmotionofthepistonintheoilispossible.The
laminarflowoftheoilthroughtheperforationsasthepistonmovescausesa
dampingforceonthepiston.
p g
p

Classification of vibration
Classificationofvibration

Linearvibration:If
Li
ib ti
If allthebasiccomponents
ll th b i
t
ofavibratorysystemthespring,themass,
andthedamper,behavelinearly,the
resulting vibration is known as linear
resultingvibrationisknownaslinear
vibration.Thedifferentialequationsthat
governthebehaviourofvibratorylinear
y
,
p
p
systemsarelinear.Therefore,theprincipleof
superpositionholds.

Nonlinearvibration:Ifhowever,anyofthe
Nonlinear
vibration: If however, any of the
basiccomponentsbehavenonlinearly,the
vibrationiscallednonlinearvibration.The
differentialequationsthatgovernthe
behaviourofvibratorynonlinearsystems
arenonlinear.Therefore,theprincipleof
superpositiondoesnothold.

Classification of vibration
Classificationofvibration
Linearandnonlinearvibrationscontd:
Li
d
li
ib ti
td
Thenatureofthespringforcecanbe
deducedbyperformingasimplestatic
experiment With no mass attached the
experiment.Withnomassattached,the
springstretchestoapositionlabeledasxo=0
inthefigure.
Assuccessivelymoremassisattachedtothe
As successively more mass is attached to the
spring,theforceofgravitycausesthespring
tostretchfurther.Ifthevalueofthemassis
recorded, along with the value of the
recorded,alongwiththevalueofthe
displacementoftheendofthespringeach
timemoremassisadded,theplotofthe
force(massdenotedbym,timesthe
accelerationduetogravity,denotedbyg),
versusthisdisplacementdenotedbyx,yields
acurvesimilartothatshowninthefigure.

Classification of vibration
Classificationofvibration
Linearandnonlinearvibrationscontd:
d
l
b
d
Notethatintheregionofvaluesforx
between0andabout20mm,thecurveis
,
astraightline.Thisindicatesthatfor
deflectionslessthan20mmandforces
less than 1000 N the force that is applied
lessthan1000N,theforcethatisapplied
bythespringtothemassisproportional
tothestretchofthespring.

Theconstantofproportionalityistheslope
ofthestraightline.
g

Classification of vibration
Classificationofvibration

Deterministicvibration:Ifthevalueormagnitudeoftheexcitation(forceor
i i i ib i
f h
l
i d f h
i i (f
motion)actingonavibratorysystemisknownatanygiventime,theexcitationis
calleddeterministic.Theresultingvibrationisknownasdeterministicvibration.

Nondeterministicvibration:Insomecases,theexcitationisnondeterministic or
random;thevalueofexcitationatagiventimecannotbepredicted.Inthese
cases,alargecollectionofrecordsoftheexcitationmayexhibitsomestatistical
regularity.Itispossibletoestimateaveragessuchasthemeanandmeansquare
valuesoftheexcitation.

Classification of vibration
Classificationofvibration

Examplesofrandomexcitationsarewindvelocity,roadroughness,and
l
f
d
d l
d
h
d
groundmotionduringearthquakes.
Iftheexcitationisrandom,theresultingvibrationiscalledrandom
,
g
vibration.Inthecaseofrandomvibration,thevibratoryresponseofthe
systemisalsorandom:itcanbedescribedonlyintermsofstatistical
quantities.
quantities

Mathematicalbackground
Homogeneous
HomogeneouslinearODEswith
linear ODEs with
constantcoefficients
NonhomogeneousODEs
N h
ODE

Introduction
Th
Thedynamicbehaviourofmechanicalsystemsisdescribedbywhat
d
i b h i
f
h i l t
i d
ib d b h t
wecallsecondorderOrdinaryDifferentialEquations.
Theinputtothemechanicalstructureappearsontherighthand
sideoftheequationandistheForceandthesolutionofthe
equationgivestheoutputwhichisusuallythedisplacement.
Inordertobeablesolvetheseequations,itisimperativetohavea
solidbackgroundonthesolutionofhomogeneousand
g
g
nonhomogeneousOrdinaryDifferentialEquations.
Homogeneous
HomogeneousOrdinaryDifferentialEquationsrepresentthe
Ordinary Differential Equations represent the Free
Free
VibrationsandthenonhomogeneousOrdinaryDifferential
EquationsrepresentForcedVibrations.

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients

WeshallnowconsidersecondorderhomogeneouslinearODEswhose
h ll
d
d d h
l
h
coefficientsaandbareconstant.

y + ay + byy = 0

ThesolutionofafirstorderlinearODE:

y + ky = 0

Byseparatingvariablesandintegrating,weobtain:
dy
= kdx
y

ln y = kdx + c *

Taking exponents on both sides:


Takingexponentsonbothsides:
y ( x) = ce

kdx

= ce kx

Letstrytheabovesolutioninthefirstequation.Usingaconstant
y
q
g
coefficientk: x
y=e

Substituti
Subs
u ngg itss de
derivative
v ves : y = e x
(2 + a + b)e x = 0

andd y = 2 e x

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients

Henceif
f isasolutionoftheimportantcharacteristicequation(or
l
f h
h
(
auxiliaryequation)

2 + a + b = 0

y = e x
Thentheexponentialsolutionisasolutionofthe

y + ay + byy = 0

Nowfromelementaryalgebrawerecallthattherootsofthisquadratic
equation are:
equationare:
1
= (a + a 2 4b)
1

2
1
2 = (a a 2 4b)
2

Thefunctionsbelowaresolutionsto y + ay + by = 0
y1 = e 1x and

y 2 = e 2 x

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients

Fromalgebraweknowthatthequadraticequationbelowmayhavethree
l b
k
h h
d
b l
h
h
kindsofroots:
2 + a + b = 0

CaseI:Tworealrootsif a 2 4b > 0
CaseII:Arealdoublerootif a 2 4b = 0
CaseIII:Complexconjugaterootsifa 2 4b < 0

CASEI:Inthiscase,abasisofsolutionsof
CASE
I: In this case a basis of solutions of y + ay + by = 0
x
x
inanyintervalis: y1 = e and y2 = e
becauseyy1 andyy2 aredefinedandrealforallxandtheirquotientisnot
q
constant.Thecorrespondinggeneralsolutionis:
1

y = c1e 1x + c2 e 2 x

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients
CASEII:Realdoubleroot=a/2
l d bl
/
a 2 4b
Ifthediscriminantiszero,weseefrom
1
2
1
2 = (a a 2 4b)
2

1 = (a + a 2 4b)

thatwegetonlyoneroot:

= 1 = 2 = a / 2,
hence only one solution :
y1 = e ( a / 2) x

TToobtainasecondindependentsolutiony
b i
di d
d
l i
2 neededforabasis,weusethe
d df
b i
h
methodoforderofreduction.Setting
y2 = uy1 , Substituting this and its derivatives y 2 ' = u ' y1 + uy1 ' and y2 ' ' into

y + ay + by = 0

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients
CASEII:Realdoubleroot=a/2
l d bl
/
Wehave: (uy1 + 2uy1 + uy1) + a(uy1 + uy1 ) + buy1 = 0
Collectingterms
Collecting terms uy + u(2 y + ay ) + u( y + ay + by ) = 0
Thisexpressioninthelastparanthesisiszero,sincey1 isasolutionof
1

y + ay + by = 0

2 y = ae
Theexpressioninthesecondparanthesisiszerotoosince
Wearethusleftwith
1

u y1 = 0
Hence
u = 0

By two integrations
u = c1 x + c2

ax / 2

= ay1

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients
CASEII:Realdoubleroot=a/2
l d bl
/
Togetasecondindependentsolutiony2=uy1,wecansimplychoosec1=1
andc2=0andtakeu=x.Thenyy2=xyy1.Sincethesesolutionsarenot
proportional,theyformabasis.Henceinthecaseofadoublerootof
2 + a + b = 0
abasisofsolutionsof
b i f l i
f
onanyintervalis:

y + ay + by
b =0

e ax / 2 , xe ax / 2

Thecorrespondinggeneralsolutionis: y = (c1 + c2 x)e ax / 2

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients
CASE III: Complex roots a/2+i anda/2i
CASEIII:Complexrootsa/2+i
and a/2 i

Thiscaseoccursifthediscriminantofthecharacteristicequation

2 + a + b = 0

isnegative.Inthiscase,therootsoftheaboveequationandthusthesolutionsoftheODE
comeatfirstoutcomplex.However,weshowthatfromthemwecanobtainabasisofrealsolutions:

y + ay + by = 0

y1 = e ax / 2 cos x ,

where

y 2 = e ax / 2 sin
i x

1
4

2 = b a2

Thisisprovedinthenextslides.Itcanbeverifiedbysubstitutionthatthesearesolutionsinthepresent
case.Theyformabasisonanyintervalsincetheirquotientcotxisnotconstant.Hence,arealgeneral
solutioninCaseIIIis:
l ti i C
III i

y = e ax / 2 ( A cos x + B sin x )

( A , B arbitrary )

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients:Proof

Complexnumberrepresentationofharmonicmotion:Since
l
b
fh
r
r
X = OP
this vector can be represented as a complex number:
thisvectorcanberepresentedasacomplexnumber:
r
X = a + ib
r
X
i = 1
whereandaandbdenotexandycomponentsof.Components
aandbarealsocalledtherealandtheimaginarypartsofthevectorX.IfA
denotesthemodulusortheabsolutevalueofthevectorX,and denotes
r
X
theargumentoftheanglebetweenthevectorandthexaxis,thencan
g
g
,
alsobeexpressedas:

HomogeneouslinearODEswithconstantcoefficients:
P f
Proof
Complexnumberrepresentationofharmonicmotion

r
r
X = OP
r
X = a + ib

r
X

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients:Proof

A
Asapparentwehavetwocomplexroots.Theseare:
t
h
t
l
t Th
1
2

1
2

1 = a + i and 1 = a i

Weknowfrombasicmathematicsthatacomplexexponentialfunctioncan
beexpressedas:
r + it
r it
r
e

= e e = e (cos t + i sin t )

ThustherootsofthesecondorderOrdinaryDifferentialEquationcanbe
e x = e ( a / 2) x +ix = e ( a / 2) x (cos x + i sin x)
expressedas:
1

e 2 x = e ( a / 2 ) x ix = e ( a / 2) x (cos x i sin x)

Wenowaddthesetwolinesandmultiplytheresultby.Thisgives:
y1 = e ax / 2 cos x
Thenwesubtractthesecondlinefromthefirstandmultiplytheresultby
1/2i.Thisgives:
y 2 = e ax / 2 sin x

HomogeneouslinearODEswith
constantcoefficients
Case

Roots

Distinctreal

Basis

General solution

e 1x , e 2 x

y = c1e 1x + c2 e 2 x

1,2
II

Realdoubleroot
=a/2

III

ax / 2

, xe

ax / 2

y = (c1 + c2 x)e ax / 2

Complex
Complex
conjugate
1
2
1
2 = a i
2

1 = a + i

y1 = e ax / 2 cos x
y2 = e ax / 2 sin x

y = e ax / 2 ( A cos x + B sin x )

Nonhomogeneous ODEs
NonhomogeneousODEs

Inthissection,weproceedfromhomogeneoustononhomogeneous
h
df
h
h
ODEs.

y + p ( x) y + q ( x) y = r ( x)

Thegeneralsolutionconsistsoftwoparts:
y ( x) = yh ( x) + y p ( x)
where yh = c1 y1 + c2 y2 is a general solution of the homogeneous ODE.
ODE

Terminr(x)

Choiceforyp(x)

kex

Cex

kx n (n = 0,1,2,...)

K n x n + K n 1 x n 1 + .... + K1 x + K 0

k cos x
k sin x
kex cos x
kex sin x

K cos x + M sin x

ex ( K cos x + M sin x)

Nonhomogeneous ODEs
NonhomogeneousODEs
Choicerulesforthemethodofundeterminedcoefficients
a)

Basicrule:Ifr(x)isoneofthefunctionsinthefirstcolumnintheTable,
choose yp inthesamelineanddetermineitsundeterminedcoefficients
choosey
in the same line and determine its undetermined coefficients
bysubstitutingyp anditsderivativesinto
y + p ( x) y + q ( x) y = r ( x)

b) Modificationrule:Ifaterminyourchoiceforyp happenstobeasolution
ofthehomogeneousODEcorrespondingtotheaboveequation,multiply
yyourchoiceofyyp byx(orx^2ifthissolutioncorrespondstoadoubleroot
y (
p
ofthecharacteristicequationofthehomogeneousODE)
c) Sumrule:Ifr(x)isasumoffunctionsinthefirstcolumnofthetable,
choose for yp thesumofthefunctionsinthecorrespondinglinesofthe
choosefory
the sum of the functions in the corresponding lines of the
secondcolumn.

FreeVibrationofSingleDegree
Free
Vibration of Single Degree
ofFreedomSystems
y
HarmonicMotion
FreevibrationofundampedSDOFsystems
FreevibrationofdampedSDOFsystems
p
y

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
O
Oscillatorymotionmayrepeatitselfregularly,as
ill t
ti
t it lf
l l
inthecaseofasimplependulum,oritmay
display considerable irregularity as in the case of
displayconsiderableirregularity,asinthecaseof
groundmotionduringanearthquake.
Ifthemotionisrepeatedafterequalintervalsof
time, it is called periodic motion.
time,itiscalledperiodicmotion.
The
Thesimplesttypeofperiodicmotionisharmonic
simplest type of periodic motion is harmonic
motion.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Showninthefigureisavector
Shown
in the figure is a vector
OPthatrotates
counterclockwisewith
g
y
constantangularvelocity.

Atanytimet,theanglethat
OPmakeswiththehorizontal
is=t.

Let
Letybetheprojectionof
y be the projection of
OPontheverticalaxis.Then
y=Asint.Herey,a
functionoftimeisplotted
p
versust.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Aparticlethatexperiencesthis
A
particle that experiences this
motionissaidtohaveharmonic
motion.

Themaximumdisplacementofa
vibratingbodyfromitsequilibrium
positioniscalledtheamplitudeof
vibration Amplitude A is shown in
vibration.AmplitudeAisshownin
thefigure.

Range2Aisthepeaktopeak
displacement.

Nowconsidertheunitsof.LetC
be the circumference of the circle
bethecircumferenceofthecircle
showninthefigure.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Thus C=2A Or we can write C=A


ThusC=2A.OrwecanwriteC=A,
where=2 foronerevolution.Thus
defined, issaidtobeinradiansandis
equivalentto360.Therefore,one
radian is approximately equal to 58.3..
radianisapproximatelyequalto58.3

Ingeneral,foranyarclength,
s=A ,where isinradians.Itfollows
that inthefigurewouldbeinradians
that
in the figure would be in radians
persecond.

Asseeninthefigure,thevectorial
method of representing harmonic
methodofrepresentingharmonic
motionrequiresthedescriptionofboth
thehorizontalandverticalcomponents.

Thetimetakentocompleteonecycle
Th
ti
t k t
l t
l
ofmotionisknownastheperiodof
oscillationortimeperiodandis
denotedby.Theperiodisthetimefor
the motion to repeat (the value of in
themotiontorepeat(thevalueof
in
thefigure).

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Notethat =2 where denotesthe


angularvelocityofthecyclicmotion.The
angularvelocity isalsocalledthe
circularfrequency.
i l f

Themovementofavibratingbodyfrom
itsundisturbedorequilibriumpositionto
itsextremepositioninonedirection,
thentotheequilibriumposition,thento
itsextremepositionintheother
direction,andbacktoequilibrium
positioniscalledacycleofvibration.
ii i
ll d
l f ib i

Onerevolution(i.e.,angular
displacementof2
p
radians)ofthepinP
)
p
inthefigureoronerevolutionofthe
vectorOPinthefigureconstitutesa
cycle.Cycleisthemotioninoneperiod,
asshowninthefigure.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Frequencyisthenumberofcyclesperunittime.
h
b
f
l

Themostcommonunitoftimeusedinvibrationanalysisisseconds.
The
most common unit of time used in vibration analysis is seconds
CyclespersecondiscalledHertz.

ThetimethecycletakestorepatitselfistheperiodT.Intermsofthe
period,thefrequencyis:
1

f =

Thefrequencyfisrelatedto: f =
2
= 2f

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Phaseangle:Considertwovibratorymotionsdenotedby:
h
l
d
b
d
db
x1 = A1 sin t
x2 = A2 sin(t + )

Thesetwoharmonicmotionsarecalledsynchronous becausetheyhave
thesamefrequencyorangularvelocity.Twosynchronousoscillations
neednothavethesameamplitude,andtheyneednotattaintheir
g
maximumvaluesatthesametimeasshowninthefigure.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Inthisfigure,thesecondvectorOP
h f
h
d
2 leadsthefirstoneOP
l d h f
1 byanangle
b
l
knownasthephaseangle.Thismeansthatthemaximumofthesecond
vectorwouldoccur radiansearlierthanthatofthefirstvector.These
twovectorsaresaidtohaveaphasedifferenceof.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Fromintroductoryphysicsanddynamics,thefundamentalkinematical
d
h
dd
h f d
lk
l
quantitiesusedtodescribethemotionofaparticlearedisplacement,
velocityandaccelerationvectors.
Theaccelerationofaparticleisgivenby:

dv d 2 x
a=
= 2 = &x&
dt dt

Thus,displacement,velocity,andaccelerationhavethefollowing
Thus
displacement velocity and acceleration have the following
relationshipsinharmonicmotion:

x = A sin t
v = x& = A cos t
a = &x& = A 2 sin t

Operations on harmonic functions


Operationsonharmonicfunctions

Usingcomplexnumberrepresentation,therotatingvectorcanbe
l
b
h
b
X
writtenas:
r
X
where denotesthecircularfrequency(rad/sec)ofrotationofthevector

incounterclockwisedirection.Thedifferentiationoftheharmonicsgiven
b h b
bytheaboveequationgives:
i
i

Thusthedisplacement,velocityandaccelerationcanbeexpressedas:

Operations on harmonic functions


Operationsonharmonicfunctions

Itcanbeseenthatthe
b
h h
accelerationvectorleadsthe
velocityvectorby90degrees
andthevelocityvectorleads
thedisplacementvectorby90
degrees.
g

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion

Naturalfrequency:
lf
Ifasystem,afteraninitialdisturbance,isleftto
f
f
ld
b
l f
vibrateonitsown,thefrequencywithwhichitoscillateswithoutexternal
forcesisknownasitsnaturalfrequency.Aswillbeseen,avibratory
systemhavingndegreesoffreedomwillhave,ingeneral,ndistinct
naturalfrequenciesofvibration.
Beats: Whentwoharmonicmotions,withfrequenciesclosetoone
When two harmonic motions with frequencies close to one
another,areadded,theresultingmotionexhibitsaphenomenonknown
asbeats.Forexampleif:
x1 (t ) = X cos t

x2 (t ) = X cos( + )t
where is a small quantity.

The addition of these two motions yield:


Theadditionofthesetwomotionsyield:
x(t ) = x1 (t ) + x2 (t ) = X [cos t + cos( + )t ]

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
Beats:
x(t ) = x1 (t ) + x2 (t ) = X [cos t + cos( + )t ]

Usingtherelation

A+ B A B
cos A + cos B = 2 cos
cos

2
2

Thefirstequationcanbewrittenas:

x(t ) = 2 X cos

cos( + )t
2
2

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
Beats:
Itcanbeseenthattheresultingmotionx(t)representsacosinewave

+
withfrequencywhichisapproximatelyequalto
q
y
pp
y q
andwithavarying
y g
2
t
amplitude 2 X cos 2 .Whenever,theamplitudereachesamaximumitis
calledabeat.
Inmachinesandinstructures,thebeatingphenomenonoccurswhenthe
In machines and in structures the beating phenomenon occurs when the
forcingfrequencyisclosetothenaturalfrequencyofthesystem.Wewill
laterreturntothistopic.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
O
Octave:
t
Wh th
Whenthemaximumvalueofarangeof
i
l
f
f
frequencyistwiceitsminimumvalue,itisknown
as an octave band
asanoctaveband.
For
Forexample,eachoftheranges75150Hz,150
example each of the ranges 75 150 Hz 150
300Hz,and300600Hzcanbecalledanoctave
band.
In
Ineachcase,themaximumandminimumvalues
each case the maximum and minimum values
offrequency,whichhavearatioof2:1,aresaidto
y
differbyanoctave.

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

Considerthesingledegreeoffreedom(SDOF)systemshowninthefigure.
d h
l d
ff d
(
)
h
h f
Thespringisoriginallyintheunstretchedpositionasshown.Itisassumed
thatthespringobeysHookeslaw.Theforceinthespringisproportional
todisplacementwiththeproportionalityconstant(springconstant)equal
tok.

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

Thestiffnessinaspringcanberelatedmoredirectlytomaterialand
h
ff
b
l d
d
l
l d
geometricpropertiesofthespring.Aspringlikebehaviourresultsfroma
varietyofconfigurations,includinglongitudinalmotion(vibrationinthe
directionofthelength),transversemotion(vibrationperpendiculartothe
length),andtorsionalmotion(vibrationrotatingaroundthelength).

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

Aspringisgenerallymadeofanelasticmaterial.Foraslenderelastic
ll
d f
l
l
l d
l
materialoflengthl,crosssectionalareaAandelasticmodulusE(or
Youngsmodulus),thestiffnessofthebarforvibrationalongitslengthis
givenby:
EA
k=

The modulus E has the units of Pascal (denoted Pa) which are N/m2
ThemodulusEhastheunitsofPascal(denotedPa)whichareN/m2.

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

Whenthemassm(weightW)isapplied,thespringwilldeflecttoastatic
h
h
(
h )
l d h
ll d fl
equilibriumpositionst.

Atthisposition,wefindthat:
W = mg = k st

Ifthemassisperturbedandallowedtomovedynamically,the
displacementx,measuredfromtheequilibriumposition,willbeafunction
oftime.Here,x(t)istheabsolutemotionofthemassandtheforceinthe
, ()
springcanbeexpresssedas:
k ( x + st )

TTodeterminethepositionasafunctionoftime,theequationsofmotion
d
i
h
ii
f
i
f i
h
i
f
i
areemployed;thefreebodydiagramsaredrawnasshowninthefigure.
Notethatxismeasuredpositivedownward.

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

ApplyingNewtonssecondlaw,
l

dl
W k ( x + st ) = m&x&

Butfromthestaticcondition,notethatW=k
But
from the static condition note that W=kst.
st Thus,theequationof
Thus the equation of
motionbecomes:
m&x& + kx = 0

Withthestandardformof:

Sinceintheaboveequation:

k
x=0
m
ThisisCaseIIIthathascomplexrootswherethegeneralsolutionwas
This is Case III that has complex roots where the general solution was
computedas:
x = e ax / 2 ( A cos t + B sin t )

a=0

&x& +

1
4

2 = b a2

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

Itisshownthat
h
h
x(t ) = A cos nt + B sin nt

where A and B are constants of integration and


whereAandBareconstantsofintegrationand
k
(rad / sec)
m
Heren definesthenaturalfrequencyofthemass.Thisisthefrequencyat
whichthemasswillmoveregardlessoftheamplitudeofthemotionas
long as the spring in the system continues to obey Hookesslaw.The
longasthespringinthesystemcontinuestoobeyHooke
law The
naturalfrequencyinHertzis:

n =

fn =

1
2

k
m

( Hz )

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

Theinitialconditionsx
h
l
d
= xo at t=0
0 andd x& = x& o at t = 0 are usedd to evaluate
l
the constants of integration A and B. When substituted into the equation
x(t ) = A cos nt + B sin nt

weget:
A = xo and B =

x&o

andconsequently x(t ) = xo cos n t +

The sum in the equation


Thesumintheequation

x& o

sin n t

x(t ) = A cos nt + B sin nt

C = A2 + B 2
canalsobecombinedtoaphaseshiftedcosinewithamplitude
p
p
andphaseangle=arctan(B/A).Forthispurposelet:

A = C cos and B = C sin

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

IntroducingthenewvaluesofAandBinto
d
h
l
f
d
x(t ) = A cos nt + B sin nt
weget:

x(t ) = C cos cos nt + C sin sin n t

Since

x(t)canbeexpressedas:
()
b
d

Where =arctan(B/A)
Where
arctan(B/A)andconsequently:
and consequently:

cos( x y ) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y


x(t ) = C cos(nt )

x&o
x&o
2
2
2

=
+
=
+
C
A
B
x
= arctan
and
o

n xo
n

FreevibrationofundampedSDOF
systems

x&

x(t ) = xo cos n t + o sin


i nt
Theequationisaharmonicfunctionof
h
h
f
f

time.Thus,thespring
time
Thus the springmass
masssystemiscalledaharmonicoscillator.The
system is called a harmonic oscillator The
natureofharmonicoscillationisshowninthefigure.IfCdenotesavector
ofmagnitudeC,whichmakesananglent withrespecttotheverticalx
axis then the solution x(t ) = C cos(nt ) can be seen to be the
axis,thenthesolutioncanbeseentobethe
projectionofvectorConthexaxis.

Damping

Undampedanddampedvibration:Theresponseofaspringmassmodelpredicts
U
d
d dd
d ib ti
Th
f
i
d l
di t
thatthesystemwilloscillateindefinitely.However,everydayobservationindicates
thatmostfreelyoscillatingsystemseventuallydieoutandreducetozeromotion.
Th h i
Thechoiceofrepresentativemodelfortheobserveddecayinanoscillatingsystem
f
i
d lf h b
dd
i
ill i
isbasedpartiallyonphysicalobservationandpartiallyonmathematical
convenience.Thetheoryofdifferentialequationssuggeststhataddingatermto
equation m&x&(t ) + kx(t ) = 0 of the form cx& where c is a constant will result in a
equationoftheform,wherecisaconstant,willresultina
solutionx(t)thatdiesout.
Physicalobservationagreesfairwellwiththismodelanditisusedvery
successfullytomodelthedampingordecayinavarietyofmechanicalsystems.
f ll t
d l th d
i
d
i
i t f
h i l t
Thistypeofdampingiscalledtheviscousdamping.

Damping
Thelaminarflowoftheoilthroughtheperforationsasthepistonmoves
h l
fl
f h l h
h h
f
h
causesadampingforceonthepiston.
Theforceisproportionaltothevelocityofthepiston,inadirection
p p
y
p
,
oppositethatofthepistonmotion.Thisdampingforcehastheform:
f c = cx& (t )
wherecisaconstantofproportionalityrelatedtotheoilviscosity.The
h
i
f
i
li
l d
h il i
i
h
constantc,calledthedampingcoefficient,hasunitsofNs/m,orkg/s.

Damped free vibration of SDOF system


DampedfreevibrationofSDOFsystem

Considerthespringmasssystemwithanenergydissipatingmechanism
d h
h
d
h
describedbythedampingforceasshowninthefigure.Itisassumedthat
thedampingforceFD isproportionaltothevelocityofthemass,asshown;
thedampingcoefficientisc.WhenNewtonssecondlawisapplied,this
modelforthedampingforceleadstoalineardifferentialequation,

m&x& + cx& + kx
k =0

Damped free vibration of SDOF system


DampedfreevibrationofSDOFsystem

TheODEishomogeneouslinearandhasconstantcoefficients.The
h
h
l
dh
ff
h
characteristicequationisfoundbydividingthebelowequationbym:
s2 +

c
k
s+ =0
m
m

Bytherootsofaquadraticequation,weobtain:
s1 = + , s2 = ,
where
c
=
2m

and =

1
c 2 4mk
2m

Itisnowmostinterestingthatdependingontheamountofdamping
(much,mediumorlittle)therewillbethreetypesofmotion
correspondingtothethreecasesI,IIandIII.

Damped free vibration of SDOF system


DampedfreevibrationofSDOFsystem
C
Case
I

Roots

c > 4mk
2

Definition
fi i i

Distinctrealroots
Overdamping
s1,s2

II

c 2 = 4mk

Realdoubleroot

Criticaldamping
p g

III

c 2 < 4mk

Complexconjugateroots

Underdamping

Damped free vibration of SDOF system


DampedfreevibrationofSDOFsystem

Definethecriticaldampingcoefficientc
f
h
ld
ff
casthatvalueofcthatmakesthe
h
l
f h
k h
radicalequaltozero,
cc = 2m

Definethedampingfactoras:
=

k
= 2mn
m

c
c
=
cc 2mn

Introducingtheaboveequationinto
2

s1, 2

k
c
c
=


2m
2m m

Wefind:
s1, 2 = 2 1 n
Thenthesolutioncanbewrittenas:

x(t ) = Ae

+ 2 1 t

+ Be

2 1 t

Three cases of damping


Threecasesofdamping
Heavydampingwhenc>cc
Criticaldampingc=cc
Lightdamping0<c<cc

Heavy damping (c > cc or>1)


Heavydamping(c>c
or >1)

Therootsarebothreal.Thesolutiontothedifferentialequationis:
h
b h
l h
l
h d ff
l

x(t ) = Ae s1t + Be s2t


whereAandBaretheconstantsofintegration.Boths
where
A and B are the constants of integration Both s1 ands
and s2 willbe
will be
2
2
2
= k /m <
negativebecause >0, >0,and.Since
s1 = + , s2 = , where =

c
2m

and =

1
c 2 4mk
2m

Thus,givenanyinitialdisplacement,themasswilldecaytothe
equilibriumpositionwithoutvibratorymotion.Anoverdampedsystem
doesnotoscillatebutratherreturnstoitsrestpositionexponentially.
p
p
y
2
2
x(t ) = Ae ( + 1 )nt + Be ( 1 )nt

Critical damping (c = cc,or=1)


Criticaldamping(c=c
or =1)

=
c 2 4mk
Sinceiszerointhiscase,s
h
1=s2==cc/2m=
/
n.
2m
x(t ) = ( A + Bt )e t
Bothrootsareequalandthegeneralsolutionis:.
Substitutingtheinitialconditions,x
g
, = xo at t=0 and x& = x& o at t = 0
A = xo and B = x&o + n xo
n

and the solution becomes :


x(t ) = [xo + ( x&o + n xo )t ]e nt

Themotionisagainnotvibratoryanddecaystotheequilibriumposition.

Light damping (0 < c < cc or<1)


Lightdamping(0<c<c
or <1)

Thiscaseoccursifthedampingconstantcissosmallthat
h
f h d
ll h

c 2 < 4mk
Then isnolongerrealbutpureimaginary.
is no longer real but pure imaginary
Then
1
k
c2
2
4mk c =
= i * where * =

2m
m 4m 2

Therootsofthecharacteristicequationarenowcomplexconjugate:
s1 = + i*,

s2 = i *

with
=

c
2m

Hence the corresponding general solution is:


Hencethecorrespondinggeneralsolutionis:
x = e t ( A cos * t + B sin * t ) = Ce t cos( * t o )
where
C 2 = A 2 + B 2 and tan o = B/A

Light damping (0 < c < cc )


Lightdamping(0<c<c
)

Thesolutioncanalsobeexpressedas:
h
l
l b
d

x(t ) = e nt A cos 1 2 nt + B sin 1 2 nt

Therootsarecomplex.Itiseasilyshown,usingEulersformulathatthe
t
generalsolutionis: x(t ) = [C cos(d t o )]e
n

whereCand aretheconstantsofintegration.Thedampednatural
2
frequencydisgivenby d = n 1

Light damping (0 < c < cc )


Lightdamping(0<c<c
)

Fortheinitialconditions
h
l
d
x(t = 0) = xo
x& (t = 0) = x&o

Theequation

x(t ) = e nt A cos 1 2 nt + B sin 1 2 nt


canbeexpressedas:

x(t ) = e
where

n t

x&o +
n xo
2
2
xo cos 1 nt +
sin 1 nt
d

c
2mn

Natureoftherootsinthecomplex
plane

FFor=0,weobtaintheimaginaryroots
0
bt i th i
i
t
in andin andasolutionof
x(t ) = A cos nt + B sin nt

For0<<1,therootsarecomplex
conjugate and are located symmetrically
conjugateandarelocatedsymmetrically
abouttherealaxis.

Asthevalueof approaches1,
bothrootsapproachthepoint
n
n ontherealaxis.
on the real axis

If isgreaterthan1,bothrootslieonthe
realaxis,oneincreasingandtheotherdecreasing.

Logarithmic decrement
Logarithmicdecrement

Thelogarithmicdecrementrepresentstherateatwhichtheamplitudeof
h l
h
d
h
h h h
l d f
afreedampedvibrationdecreases.Itisdefinedasthenaturallogarithm
oftheratioofanytwosuccessiveamplitudes.

Lett1 andt2 denotethetimescorrespondingtotwoconsecutive


amplitudes (displacements) measured one cycle apart for an
amplitudes(displacements)measuredonecycleapartforan
underdampedsystemasshowninthefigure.

Logarithmic decrement
Logarithmicdecrement

t
Using,wecanformtheratio:
f
h
x(t ) = [ A cos(d t )]e
n

x1 X o e nt1 cos(d t1 o )
=
x2 X o e nt2 cos(d t 2 o )

Butt2=t1+d ,hence

Logarithmic decrement
Logarithmicdecrement

Thelogarithmicdecrementcanbefoundfrom:
h l
h
d
b f
df

Forsmalldamping,theaboveequationcanbeapproximatedas:

Logarithmic decrement
Logarithmicdecrement

Figureshowsthevariationofthe
h
h
f h
logarithmicdecrement with
as shown in the equations:
asshownintheequations:

Itcanbenoticedthatforvaluesupto
It
can be noticed that for values up to
=0.3,thetwocurvesaredifficultto
distinguish.

Logarithmic decrement
Logarithmicdecrement

Thelogarithmicdecrementisdimensionlessandisactuallyanotherform
ofthedimensionlessdampingratio.Once isknown, canbefoundby
solving:
g

Ifweuse

insteadof
wehave:

Logarithmic decrement
Logarithmicdecrement

Ifthedampinginthegivensystemisnotknown,wecandetermineit
f h d
h
k
d
experimentallybymeasuringanytwoconsecutivedisplacementsx1 and
x2.Bytakingthenaturallogarithmoftheratiox1 andx2,weobtain.By
using

wecancomputethedampingratio.
Infactthedampingratio
p g
canalsobefoundbymeasuringtwo
y
g
displacementsseparatedbyanynumberofcompletecycles.Ifx1 andxm+1
denotetheamplitudescorrespondingtotimest1 andtm+1=t1+md wherem
is an integer we obtain:
isaninteger,weobtain:

Logarithmic decrement
Logarithmicdecrement

Sinceanytwosuccessivedisplacementsseparatedbyonecyclesatisfythe
d l
db
l
f h
equation:

theequation
becomes:

Theaboveequationyields
whichcanbesubstitutedintotheeitheroftheequationstoobtainthe
q
viscousdampingratio:

ForcedVibration
Harmonic
Harmonicexcitation
excitation
Baseexcitation

Harmonically excited vibration


Harmonicallyexcitedvibration

Amechanicalorstructuralsystemissaidtoundergoforcedvibration
h
l
l
d
d
f
d b
wheneverexternalenergyissuppliedtothesystemduringvibration.
Externalenergycanbesuppliedtothesystemthrougheitheranapplied
forceoranimposeddisplacementexcitation.
Theappliedforceordisplacementexcitationmaybeharmonic,
nonharmonic but periodic nonperiodic or random in nature The response
nonharmonicbutperiodic,nonperiodicorrandominnature.Theresponse
ofasystemtoharmonicexcitationiscalledharmonicresponse.
Thenonperiodicexcitationsmayhavealongorshortduration.The
responseofadynamicsystemtosuddenlyappliednonperiodicexcitations
f d
i
dd l
li d
i di
i i
iscalledtransientresponse.
Inthispartofthecourse,weshallconsiderthedynamicresponseofa
p
,
y
p
singledegreeoffreedomsystemunderharmonicexcitationsoftheform
F (t ) = Fo ei (t + ) or F(t) = Fo cos (t + ) or F(t) = Fo sin (t + )
h
where
Fo is the amplitude, is the frequency, and is the phase angle of the harmonic excitation.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Somesingledegreeoffreedom(SDOF)systemswithanexternalforceare
l d
ff d
(
)
h
lf
showninthefigure.ForcecanbeappliedbothasanexternalforceF(t),or
asabasemotiony(t),asshown.Thecoordinatex(t)istheabsolutemotion
ofthemass.TheforcesWandkst areignoredinthefreebodydiagrams
asweknowtheywilladdtozerointheequationofmotion.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Considertheforceexcitedsystemofthefigure,wheretheappliedforceis
d h f
d
f h f
h
h
l df
F (t ) = Fo sin t
harmonic,

ApplyingNewtonssecondlaw,theequationofmotionbecomes:
pp y g
,
q
m&x& + cx& + kx = Fo sin t

Thegeneralsolutionforthissecondordernonhomogeneouslinear
diff
differentialequationis
i l
i i x(t ) = xh (t ) + x p (t )
wherexh isthecomplementarysolutionorsolutiontothehomogeneous
equation.Butthissolutiondiesoutsoon.Ourinterestfocusesonx
q
p,,the
particularsolution.Invibrationtheory,theparticularsolutionisalsocalled
thesteadystatesolution.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Thevariationsofhomogeneous,particular,andgeneralsolutionswith
h
fh
l
d
l l
h
timeforatypicalcaseareshowninthefigure.
)
()
p((t)aftersometime(
)
(
Itcanbeseenthatxh((t)diesoutandx(t)becomesx
inthefigure).
Thepartofthemotionthatdiesoutduetodamping(thefreevibration
part) is called transient The particular solution represents the steady
part)iscalledtransient.Theparticularsolutionrepresentsthesteady
statevibrationandispresentaslongastheforcingfunctionispresent.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Theverticalmotionsofamassspringsystemsubjectedtoanexternal
h
l
f
b
d
l
forcer(t)canbeexpressedas:

mx + cx + kx = r ((t )

Mechanically,thismeansthatateachtimeinstantt,theresultantofthe
internalforcesisinequilibriumwithr(t).Theresultingmotioniscalleda
forced motion with forcing function r(t) which is also known as the input
forcedmotionwithforcingfunctionr(t),whichisalsoknownastheinput
forceorthedrivingforce,andthesolutionx(t)tobeobtainediscalledthe
output ortheresponseofthesystemtothedrivingforce.
Ofspecialinterestareperiodicexternalforces,andweshallconsidera
drivingforceoftheform:
r (t ) = Fo cos t
Then we have the nonhomogeneous ODE:
ThenwehavethenonhomogeneousODE:
m x + c x + kx = Fo cos t

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation
SolvingthenonhomogeneousODE
Tofindyp,weusethemethodofundeterminedcoefficients:

x p (t ) = a cos t + b sin
i t
x p (t ) = a sin t + b cos t
x p (t ) = 2 a cos t 2 b sin t
Substitutingtheaboveequationsinto
m x + c x + kx = Fo cos t
Andcollectingthecosineandthesineterms,weget
[( k m 2 ) a + cbb ] cos t +[ ca + ( k m 2 )b ] sin t = Fo cos t

Thecosinetermsonbothsidesmustbeequal,andthecoefficientofthe
sinetermontheleftmustbezerosincethereisnosinetermontheright.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Thisgivesthetwoequations:
h
h

(k m 2 )a + cb = Fo
ca + (k m 2 )b = 0

fordeterminingtheunknowncoefficientsaandb.Thisisalinearsystem.
for
determining the unknown coefficients a and b This is a linear system
Wecansolveitbyeliminationtofind:

k m 2
a = Fo
(k m 2 ) 2 + 2 c 2
c
b = Fo
(k m 2 ) 2 + 2 c 2
m(o2 2 )
a = Fo 2 2
m (o 2 ) 2 + 2 c 2
c
b = Fo 2 2
m (o 2 ) 2 + 2 c 2

Ifweset,weobtain:
If
we set m = we obtain:

WethusobtainthegeneralsolutionofthenonhomogeneousODEinthe
form:
x(t ) = xh (t ) + x p (t )

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation
CaseI:Undampedforcedoscillations:
d
df
d
ll
Ifthedampingofthephysicalsystemissosmallthatitseffectcanbe
neglectedoverthetimeintervalconsidered,wecansetc=0.Then
g
,
a = Fo

m(o2 2 )
m 2 (o2 2 ) 2 + 2 c 2

b = Fo

c
m ( 2 ) 2 + 2 c 2

reducesto

a=

2
o

Fo
m(o2 2 )

b=0

Hence
becomes

x p (t ) = a cos t + b sin t
x p (t ) =

Fo
Fo
=
cos
cos t

t
2
m(o2 2 )
k[1 ( ) ]

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Wethushavethegeneralsolutionoftheundampedsystemas:
h h
h
l l
f h
d
d
x(t ) = C cos(o t ) +

Fo
cos t
m(o2 2 )

Weseethatthisoutputisasuperpositionoftwoharmonicoscillationsof
thenaturalfrequencyo/2 [cycles/sec]ofthesystem,whichisthe
f
frequencyoftheundampedmotionandthefrequency/2
f h
d
d
i
d h f
/
[ l / ]
[cycles/sec]
ofthedrivingforce.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
Beats:
Asmentionedbefore,ifthefrequencyoftheforcingfunctionandthe
frequency of the system are very close to each other, then again beating effect
frequencyofthesystemareveryclosetoeachother,thenagainbeatingeffect
shouldbeexpected.

If we for example take the particular soluton:


Ifweforexampletaketheparticularsoluton:
x(t ) =

Fo
(cos t cos ot )
2
2
m(o )

( o )

which can be rewritten as :


x(t ) =

2 Fo
o + o
t sin
t
sin

m(o2 2 ) 2
2

Since isclosetoo,thedifferenceo issmall.Hencetheperiodofthelast


sinefunctionislarge.Thisisbecausethegreaterthequantityunderthesine,
thesmallertheperiodis.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
Beats:

Tb =

2TTo
4
=
o T To

4
+ o

x(t ) =

Fo
o + o
sin
t sin
t

2
2
m(o ) 2
2

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
Beats:
Thisphenomenonisalsofrequentlyobservedinlightlydampedsytemswithclosecouplingofthetorsional
andtranslationalfrequencies.
A typical example is the thirteen storey steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building as reported in :
AtypicalexampleisthethirteenstoreysteelframedSantaClaraCountyOfficeBuildingasreportedin:
CelebiandLiu,Beforeandafterretrofit responseofabuildingduringambientandstrongmotions,
JournalofWindEngineeringandIndustrialAerodynamics,77&78(1998)259268.
Theproximityofthetorsionalfrequencyat0.57Hztothetranslationalfrequencyat0.45Hzcausesthe
observedcouplingandbeatingeffectinthisstructure.

Harmonic motion
Harmonicmotion
Comparisonofthefrequenciesofthebuilding
ThirteenstoreysteelframedSantaClaraCountyOfficeBuildingasreportedin:
CelebiandLiu,Beforeandafterretrofit responseofabuildingduringambientandstrongmotions,
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 77&78 (1998) 259 268
JournalofWindEngineeringandIndustrialAerodynamics,77&78(1998)259268.

Resonance

Ifthedampingofthesystemissosmallthatitseffectcanbeneglected
If
th d
i
f th
t
i
ll th t it ff t
b
l t d
overthetimeintervalconsidered,wecansetc=0.Thentheparticular
responsecanbeexpressedby:
xp =

Fo
Fo
cos t =
cos t
2
m( o )
2
k 1
o
2

Puttingcost=1,weseethatthemaximumamplitudeoftheparticular
g
,
p
p
solutionis:
F
ao =

where =

If

1
2


1 -
o
o , then and ao tend to infinity.

Thisexcitationoflargeoscillationsbymatchinginputandnatural
frequenciesiscalledresonance.

Resonance
F

&x& + o2 x = o cos ot
Inthecaseofresonanceandnodamping,theODE
h
f
d
d
h
m
becomes: m&x& + cx& + kx = Fo cos t
Thenfromthemodificationrule,theparticularsolutionbecomes:
Then from the modification rule the particular solution becomes:

x p (t ) = t (a cos ot + b sin ot )

Bysubstitutingthisintothesecondequation,wefind:
x p (t ) =

Fo
t sin ot
2mo

Weseethatbecauseofthefactort,theamplitudebecomeslargerand
larger Practically speaking systems with very little damping may undergo
larger.Practicallyspeaking,systemswithverylittledampingmayundergo
largevibrationsthatcandestroythesystem.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation
CaseII:Dampedforcedoscillations:Ifthedampingofthemassspring
df
d
ll
f h d
f h
systemisnotnegligiblysmall,wehavec>0andadampingtermcxin
m&x& + cx& + kx = r ((t )
m&x& + cx& + kx = 0
Thenthegeneralsolutionyh ofthehomogeneousODEapproacheszeroas
tgoestoinfinity.Practically,itiszeroafterasufficientlylongtime.Hence
the transient solution given by
thetransientsolutiongivenby

y (t ) = yh (t ) + y p (t )

approachesthesteadystatesolutiony
pp
y
yp.Thisprovesthefollowing:
p
g
Steadystatesolution:Afterasufficientlylongtime,theoutputofa
d
dampedvibratingsystemunderapurelysinusoidaldrivingforcewill
d ib i
d
l i
id l d i i f
ill
practicallybeaharmonicoscillationwhosefrequencyisthatoftheinput.

Responseofadampedsystemunder
harmonicforce

Iftheforcingfunctionisgivenbytheequationofmotion
f h f
f
b
h
f
becomes:

Theparticularsolutionisalsoexpectedtobeharmonic;weassumeitin
thefollowingform:
whereXand areconstantstobedeterminedthatdenotetheamplitude
p
g
p
, p
y y
g
andthephaseangleoftheresponse,respectively.Bysubstitutingthe
secondequationintothefirst:

Ui
Usingthetrigonometricrelationsbelowintheaboveequation
h i
i l i
b l i h b
i

Responseofadampedsystemunder
harmonicforce

Weobtain:
b

If we solve the above equation we find:


Ifwesolvetheaboveequation,wefind:

Ifweinserttheaboveintothe,wefindthe
particularsolution.Using:

r=

Responseofadampedsystemunder
harmonicforce

Weobtain:
b

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

ThequantityM=X/
h
/st isknownasthemagnificationfactor,amplification
k
h
f
f
lf
factor ortheamplituderatio.Theamplitudeoftheforcedvibration
becomessmallerwithincreasingvaluesoftheforcingfrequency(thatis,
M0asr)
Xo
1
=
Fo / k
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Afactthatcreatesdifficultyfordesignersisthattheresponsecanbecome
f
h
d ff l f d
h h
b
largewhenriscloseto1orwhen iscloseton.Thisconditioniscalled
resonance.ThereductioninMinthepresenceofdampingisvery
significantatornearresonance.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Foranundampedsystem(=0),thephaseangleiszerofor0<r<1and180
d
d
( ) h h
l
f
d
degreesforr>1.Thisimpliesthattheexcitationandresponseareinphase
for0<r<1andoutofphaseforr>1when=0.
2r
2
1 r

= arctan

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

For>0and0<r<1,thephaseangleisgivenby0<<90,implyingthatthe

d
h h
l
b

l
h h
responselagstheexcitation.
2r
2
1 r

= arctan

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

For>0andr>1,thephaseangleisgivenby90<<180,implyingthatthe

d
h h
l
b

l
h h
responseleadstheexcitation.
2r
2
1 r

= arctan

Responseofadampedsystemunder
p
p
y
F (t ) = Fo e it

Usingcomplexalgebra,lettheharmonicforcebe:
l
l b l h h
f
b
F (t ) = Fo eit
where Fo isarealconstantandi
whereF
is a real constant and i istheimaginaryunit.Assumethatthe
is the imaginary unit Assume that the
responsehasthesamefrequencyastheforce,butis,ingeneral,outof
phasewiththeforce

~
x(t ) = X o e i (t + ) = Xe it

~
X
whereXo istheamplitudeofthedisplacementandisthecomplex
displacement,
p
,
~
i

X = X oe

Substitutingthisintothedifferentialequationofmotion
~
(m 2 + ic + k ) Xeit = Fo eit

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Definethetransferfunction(orfrequencyresponsefunction)H()asthe
f
h
f f
( f
f
) ( )
h
complexdisplacementduetoaforceofunitmagnitude(Fo=1).Thus,

H ( ) =

1
(k m 2 ) + ic

Rationalizing,thetransferfunctionbecomes:
(k m 2 ) ic
H ( ) =
(k m 2 ) 2 + (c ) 2

Thisisalsotheratiobetweenthecomplexdisplacementresponseandthe
p
p
p
complexinputforcingfunction.

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Definethegainfunctionasthemodulusofthetransferfunction
f
h
f
h
d l
f h
f f

H ( ) = H ( ) H * ( ) = (Re H ) 2 + (Im H ) 2
whereH*isthecomplexconjugate.Fortheforceexcitedsystemunder
consideration,
H ( ) =

(k m 2 ) 2 + (c ) 2

ThegainfunctionistheamplitudeofthedisplacementforFo=1.Thus,
Xo
= H ( )
Fo

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

Itisconvenienttodevelopanondimensionalformofthegainfunction.
d l
d
lf
f h
f
Firstdefinethefrequencyratio

r=

Multiplyingtheequation
H ( ) =

1
(k m 2 ) 2 + (c ) 2

bykandemployingthedefinitionsfor,cc andn,itiseasilyshownthat
Xo
1
=
Fo / k
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

andthephaseangleis:
p
g

2r
2
1 r

= arctan

ForcedExcitedSystem:Harmonic
Excitation

TTransferfunctionsexpressingthevelocityandaccelerationresponsescan
f f ti
i th
l it
d
l ti
bewrittenbasedonequation

x(t ) = X o e

i (t + )

bymultiplyingH()inequation
H ( ) =

~ i t
= Xe

1
(k m 2 ) 2 + (c ) 2

byi and(i)^2=^2 respectively.Theresultinggainfunctionforthe


velocityoutputwouldbederivedbymultiplyingbothsidesoftheabove
equation and the equation
equationandtheequation
Xo
1
=
Fo / k
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

by andnotingthatXoistheamplitudeofthevelocity.Similarly,the
gainfunctionfortheaccelerationcanbeobtainedbymultiplyingboth
sidesby^2.

Quality factor and bandwidth


Qualityfactorandbandwidth

Forsmallvaluesofdampingwecantake:
ll l
fd
k
X

st


max st

=
=Q
2

= n

where
X denotes the amplitude of the response and
F
st = o = deflection under the static force Fo
k

ThevalueoftheamplituderatioatresonanceiscalledtheQfactororthe
Th
l
f h
li d
i
i
ll d h Q f
h
qualityfactorofthesystem.ThepointsR1 andR2,wheretheamplification
factorfallstoQ/2,arecalledhalfpowerpointsbecausethepower
absorbed(W)bythedamper(orbytheresistorinanelectricalcircuit),
respondingharmonicallyatagivenfrequency,isproportionaltothe
q
p
squareoftheamplitude.

Quality factor and bandwidth


Qualityfactorandbandwidth

Thedifferencesbetweenthefrequencies
h d ff
b
h f
associatedwiththehalfpowerpointsR1
and R2 iscalledthebandwidth
andR
is called the bandwidth ofthesystem.
of the system

TofindthevaluesofR1 andR2,weset
sothat

or

Fromwhich,wecanget:

Quality factor and bandwidth


Qualityfactorandbandwidth

Forsmallvaluesof,theroots
ll l
f h

canbesimplifiedas:

Then
Then

Quality factor and bandwidth


Qualityfactorandbandwidth

Usingtherelationintheequation
h
l
h
we find that the bandwidth isgivenby:
wefindthatthebandwidth
is given by:
Combiningtheaboveequationandtheequation
X

st


max st

=
=Q
2

= n

W b i
Weobtain:

ItcanbeseenthatthequalityfactorQcanbeusedforestimatingthe
equivalentviscousdampinginamechanicalsystem.

Electrical systems
Electricalsystems

Anelectroniccircuitisaclosedpathformedbytheinterconnectionof
An
electronic circuit is a closed path formed by the interconnection of
electroniccomponentsthroughwhichanelectriccurrentcanflow.

WehavejustseenthatlinearODEshaveimportantapplicationsin
We
have just seen that linear ODEs have important applications in
mechanics.Similarly,theyaremodelsofelectriccircuitsastheyoccuras
portionsoflargenetworksincomputersandelsewhere.

Thecircuitsweshallconsiderherearebasicbuildingblocksofsuch
networks.

Theycontainthreekindsofcomponents,namely,resistors,inductorsand
capacitors.

KirchhoffsVoltageLaw(KVL): Thevoltage(theelectromotiveforce)
impressedonaclosedloopisequaltothesumofthevoltagedropsacross
p
theotherelementsoftheloop.

Electrical systems
Electricalsystems

FigureshowssuchaRLCcircuit.Initaresistorofresistance
Fi
h
h RLC i i I i
i
f i
R (ohms),aninductorofinductanceLH(Henrys)anda
capacitorofcapacitanceCF(farads)arewiredinseriesas
shown,andconnectedtoanelectromotiveforceE(t)
,
()
V(volts)(ageneratorforinstance),sinusoidalasshownin
thefigureorsomeotherkind.

R,L,C,andEaregivenandwewanttofindthecurrentI(t)
A(Amperes)inthecircuit.

AnODEforthecurrentI(t)intheRLCcircuitinthefigureis
obtainedfromtheKirchhoffsVoltageLaw.

Inthefigure,thecircuitisaclosedloopandtheimpressed
voltageE(t)equalsthesumofthevoltagedropsacrossthe
threeelementsR,L,C,oftheloop.

Electrical systems
Electricalsystems

Voltagedrops:
l
d
ExperimentsshowthatthecurrentIflowingthrougha
h
h h
fl
h
h
resistor,inductorandcapacitorcausesavoltagedrop(voltagedifference,
measuredinvolts)atthetwoends.Thesedropsare:

RI(Ohmslaw)VoltagedropforaresistorofresistanceRohms
dI
LI = L
l
d
f
i d
fi d
h
( )
dt VoltagedropforaninductorofinductanceLhenrys(H)
Q VoltagedropforacapacitorofcapacitanceCfarads(F)

HereQcoulombsisthechargeonthecapacitor,relatedtothecurrentby

I (t ) =

dQ
equivalently Q(t) = I(t)dt
dt

Electrical systems
Electricalsystems

TableElementsinanRLCcircuit
bl l
Name

Symbol

Notation

Unit

Voltage
Drop

Ohms
resistor

Ohms
resistance,R

Ohms
()

RI

Inductor

Inductance,L

henrys
(H)

LdI/dt

Capacitor
p

Capacitance,C
p
farads
(F)

Q/C

AccordingtoKirchhoffvoltagelawwethushaveanRLCcircuitwith
electromotiveforceE(t)=E
( ) o sint(E
( o constant)asamodelfortheintegro
)
g
differentialequation.
1
LI + RI +

Idt = E (t ) = Eo sin t

Electrical systems
Electricalsystems

T
Togetridoftheintegralin
t id f th i t
li
LI + RI +

1
Idt = E (t ) = Eo sin t
C

Wedifferentiatetheaboveequationwithrepecttot,obtaining:
LI + RI +

1
I = E (t ) = Eo cos t
C

ThisshowsthatthecurrentinanRLCcircuitisobtainedasthesolutionof
thisnonhomogeneoussecondorderODEwithconstantcoefficients.
1
LI + RI + Idt = E (t ) = Eo sin t
UsingandnotingthatI=QandI=Q,we
C
havedirectly:
1
LQ + RQ +

Q = Eo sin t

Butinmostpracticalproblems,thecurrentI(t)ismoreimportantthanthe
chargeQ(t)andforthisreason,weshallconcentrateonthebelow
q
equationratherthantheabove.
LI + RI +

1
I = E (t ) = Eo cos t
C

Solving ODE for the current


SolvingODEforthecurrent

A general solution of
LI + RI +

1
I = E (t ) = Eo cos t
C

is the sum II=IIh+Ip , where Ih is a general solution of the homogeneous ODE


corresponding to the above equation and Ip is a particular solution. We first
determine Ip by the method of undetermined coefficients. We substitute:
I p = a cos t + b sin t
I p = (a sin t + b cos t )
I p = 2 (a cos t b sin t )

into the first equation. Then we collect the cosine terms and equate them to
Eocost on the right, and we equate the sine terms into zero because there
i no sine
is
i term on the
h right.
i h
a
= Eo
C
b
L 2 (b) + R ( a) + = 0
C
L 2 ( a) + Rb +

(Cosine terms)
(Sine
Si terms
t
)

Solving ODE for the current


SolvingODEforthecurrent

TTosolvethissystemforaandb,wefirstintroduceacombinationofLandC,
l thi
t
f
db
fi t i t d
bi ti
fL dC
calledthereactance:
1
S = L

Dividingtheprevioustwoequationsby,orderingthemandsubstitutingS
gives:
Sa + Rb = E
o

Ra Sb = 0

WenoweliminatebbymultiplyingthefirstequationbySandthesecondbyR,
andadding.ThenweeliminateabymultiplyingthefirstequationbyRand
secondbyS,andadding.Thisgives:
a=

Eo S
R2 + S 2

b=

Eo R
R2 + S 2

I p = a cos t + b sin t

I p = (a sin t + b cos t )
I p = 2 (a cos t b sin t )

EquationforIpwithcoefficientsaandbasgivenaboveisthedesired
particularsolutionofthenonhomogeneousODEgoverningthecurrentIinan
RLCcircuitwithsinusoidalelectromotiveforce.

Solving ODE for the current


SolvingODEforthecurrent

E S
R +S

ER
R +S

a= 2 o 2
b= 2 o 2
UsingwecanwriteI
p intermsofphysically
f h
ll

visiblequantities,namely,amplitudeI
visible
quantities namely amplitude Io andphaselag
and phase lag ofthecurrent
of the current
behindtheelectromotiveforce,thatis,
I p (t ) = I o sin(t )

where
Io =

a2 + b2 =

tan =

Eo
R2 + S2

a
S
=
b
R

The q
quantity
y

R 2 + S 2 is called the impedance.


p
Our formula shows that the impedance
p
equals
q
the ratio

This is somewhat analogous to E/I = R (Ohm' s law)

Eo
.
Io

Solving ODE for the current


SolvingODEforthecurrent

Ageneralsolutionofthehomogeneousequationcorrespondingto
l l
f h h
d
LI + RI +

is:

1
I = E (t ) = Eo cos t
C

I h = c1e 1t + c2 e 2t

where1 and2 aretherootsofthecharacteristicequation:


2 +

R
1
+
=0
L
LC

We can write the roots in the form 1=+


Wecanwritetherootsintheform
+ and
and 2=,
,where
where
R
R2
1
1
4L
2
=
, =

R
2L
4 L2 LC 2 L
C

Nowinanactualcircuit,Risneverzero(henceR>0).Fromthis,itfollowsthat
pp
,
y
,
p
y
Ihapproacheszero,theoreticallyast,butpracticallyafterashorttime.

Solving ODE for the current


SolvingODEforthecurrent

HencethetransientcurrentI=I
h
h+Ip tendstothesteadystatecurrentI
d
h
d
p and
d
aftersometimetheoutputwillpracticallybeaharmonicoscillation,
whichisgivenby:
I p (t ) = I o sin(t )

andwhosefrequencyisthatoftheinput(oftheelectromotiveforce)

Analogyofelectricalandmechanical
quantities

EEntirelydifferentphysicalorothersystemsmayhavethesame
ti l diff
t h i l
th
t
h
th
mathematicalmodel.Forinstance,theODEofamechanicalsystemand
theODEofanelectricRLCcircuitcanbeexpressedby:
LQ + RQ +

1
Q = Eo sin t
C

m y + c y + ky = Fo cos t

TheinductanceL correspondstothemass,andindeedaninductor
p
,
opposesachangeincurrent,havinganinertiaeffectsimilartothatofa
mass.
The resistance R correspondstothedampingconstantcandaresistor
TheresistanceR
corresponds to the damping constant c and a resistor
causeslossofenergy,justasadampingdashpotdoes.
Thisanalogyisstrictlyquantitativeinthesensethattoagivenmechanical
system we can construct an electrical circuit whose current will give the
systemwecanconstructanelectricalcircuitwhosecurrentwillgivethe
exactvaluesofthedisplacementinthemechanicalsystemwhensuitable
scalefactorsareused.

Analogyofelectricalandmechanical
quantities

Thepracticalimportanceofthisanalogyisalmostobvious.Theanalogymaybe
h
i li
f hi
l
i l
b i
h
l
b
usedforconstructinganelectricalmodelofagivenmechanicalmodel,resulting
insubstantialsavingsoftimeandmoneybecauseelectriccircuitsareeasyto
assmeble,andelectricquantitiescanbemeasuredmuchmorequicklyand
bl
d l ti
titi
b
d
h
i kl
d
accuratelythanmechanicalones.
1
m y + c y + ky = Fo cos t
LQ + RQ + Q = Eo sin t
C
Table:Analogyofelectricalandmechanicalquantities
Electricalsystem

Mechanicalsystem

Inductance,L

Massm

Resistance,R

Dampingc

Reciprocal of capacitance 1/C


Reciprocalofcapacitance,1/C

Spring modulus k
Springmodulusk

ElectromotiveforceEo sint

DrivingforceFocost

Current,I(t)=dq/dt
, ( ) q/

Velocity,v(t)=dy/dt
y , ( ) y/

Charge,Q(t)

Displacement,y(t)

Base excited systems: absolute motion


Baseexcitedsystems:absolutemotion

Considerthebaseexcitedsystem
d h b
d
ofthefigure.Thegoaloftheanalysis
will be to determine the absolute
willbetodeterminetheabsolute
responsex(t)(typicallyaccelerationor
displacementofthemass)giventhebase
motiony(t).

FFromthefreebodydiagram,application
h f
b d di
li i
ofNewtonssecondlawleadsdirectlyto
the differential equation:
thedifferentialequation:

m&x& + cx& + kx = ky + cy&

Base excited systems: absolute motion


Baseexcitedsystems:absolutemotion

Assumethatthebasemotionisharmonic,
h h b
h

y (t ) = Yo e it

And assume that the response will be harmonic


Andassumethattheresponsewillbeharmonic,

~
x(t ) = Xe it
~
X is the complex response. The transfer function and the gain
whereisthecomplexresponse.Thetransferfunctionandthegain
where
functionarederivedinthesamemannerasfortheforceexcitedsystem.
Thetransferfunctionis:
k + ic
H ( ) =
(k m 2 ) + ic

The gain function is


Thegainfunctionis
Xo
k 2 + (c ) 2
1 + (2r ) 2
= H ( ) =
=
2
2 2
2
Yo
(k m ) + (c )
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r )

Base excited systems: absolute motion


Baseexcitedsystems:absolutemotion

Xo
1 + (2r ) 2
Innondimensionalform
d
lf
=
Yo
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

Thegainfunctionfortheabsolutedisplacementforthebase
The
gain function for the absolute displacement for the baseexcited
excited
systemisshowninthefigure.

Base excited systems: absolute motion


Baseexcitedsystems:absolutemotion

ThevalueofT
h
l
f d isunityatr=0andclosetounityforsmallvaluesofr.
i
i
0 d l
i f
ll l
f
Foranundampedsystem=0,Td
atresonance(r=1).
ThevalueofTd islessthanunity(Td<1)forvaluesofr>2(foranyamountof
damping)
ThevalueofTd isequaltounity(Td=1)forallvaluesof atr=2

Xo
1 + (2r ) 2
=
Yo
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

Base excited systems: absolute motion


Baseexcitedsystems:absolutemotion

Theequations
h
Xo
1 + (2r ) 2
=
Yo
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2
Xo
k 2 + (c ) 2
= H ( ) =
Yo
(k m 2 ) 2 + (c ) 2

canbeinterpretedasthegainfunctionsforaccelerationoutputgiven
acceleration input And again note that the transfer function for velocity
accelerationinput.Andagainnotethatthetransferfunctionforvelocity
andaccelerationresponsescanbederivedbymultiplyingtheequation
k + ic
H ( ) =
(k m 2 ) + ic
byi and^2,respectively.

Base excited system: Relative motion


Baseexcitedsystem:Relativemotion

Considerthefreebodydiagraminthe
C
id th f
b d di
i th
figure.Nowtheresponsevariableunder
considerationwillbetherelative
displacement,
displacement

z (t ) = x(t ) y (t )

Inthemodel,thespringrepresentsa
structuralelement.Thestressinthat
elementwillbeproportionaltoz.Thus,
thisproblemwouldberelevantto
designersofstructuressubjectedtobase
motions,forexample,earthquakes.

Lettingz=x-y intheequationofmotion
eads d ec y o m&z& + z& + kz = m&y&
leadsdirectlyto

Base excited system: Relative motion


Baseexcitedsystem:Relativemotion

Assumingthatthebasemotionisharmonic,
h h b
h

y (t ) = Yo e it

Andassumingtheresponseisalsoharmonic,

~
z (t ) = Z eit

Followingtheprocedureasdescribedabove,thetransferfunctionis:

m 2
H ( ) =
(k m 2 ) + ic
Andthegainfunctionis
And the gain function is
Zo
m 2
= H ( ) =
Yo
(k m 2 ) 2 + (c ) 2

Base excited system: Relative motion


Baseexcitedsystem:Relativemotion

2
Z
r
o
Innondimensionlessform,
d
l
f
=
Yo
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

Thegainfunctionfortherelativemotionforthebase
The
gain function for the relative motion for the baseexcited
excitedsystemis
system is
showninthefigure:

Base excited system: Relative motion


Baseexcitedsystem:Relativemotion

Againnotethatthetransferfunctionforrelativevelocityandacceleration
h h
f f
f
l
l
d
l
responsescanbederivedbymultiplying

m 2
H ( ) =
(k m 2 ) + ic
byi and^2,respectively.
Thegainfunctionsforvelocityandaccelerationresponsescanbeobtained
by multiplying both sides of the equations
bymultiplyingbothsidesoftheequations
Zo
m 2
Zo
r2
= H ( ) =
=
2
2
2
Yo
Yo
(k m ) + (c )
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2
by and^2,respectively.

Gainfunctionsforforceexcited
systems

Gainfunctionsforbaseexcited
systems

Example

Afixedbottomoffshorestructureissubjectedtooscillatorystormwaves.
A
fi d b tt
ff h
t t
i
bj t d t
ill t
t
Inafirstapproximation,itisestimatedthatthewavesproduceaharmonic
forceF(t)havingamplitudeF=122kN.Theperiodofthesewavesis=8
sec The structure is modeled as having a lumped mass of 110 tons
sec.Thestructureismodeledashavingalumpedmassof110tons
concentratedinthedeck.Theweightofthestructureitselfisassumedto
benegligible.Thenaturalperiodofthestructurewasmeasuredasbeing
n=4.0sec.Itisassumedthatthedampingfactoris=5%.Itisrequiredto
= 4 0 sec It is assumed that the damping factor is =5% It is required to
determinethesteadystateamplitudeoftheresponseofthestructure.
Solution: Asmodeled,thiswillbeaforceexcitedsystem,andthe
response can be computed from the gain function of
responsecanbecomputedfromthegainfunctionof
Xo
1
=
Fo / k
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

Theproblemreducestooneoffindingthefrequencyratiorandthe
stiffnessk.

Example

Becauseristheratiooftheforcingfrequencytothenaturalfrequency,it
h
f h f
f
h
lf
followsthatrwillalsobetheratioofthenaturalperiodtotheforcing
period.Thus,

4
r=

= 0.25 Hz.

Then noting that the expression for the natural frequency is


Thennotingthattheexpressionforthenaturalfrequencyis
fn =

= 0 .5

8
Tocomputek,firstnotethatthenaturalfrequencyis
fn =

Wecomputek=27667N/m

1
2

k
W /g

Example

Finallysubstitutinginto
ll
b
Xo
1
=
Fo / k
(1 r 2 ) 2 + (2r ) 2

Xo=5.87m.

Resonance
ForresonancepleasedownloadtheMillenium
g
g
bridgeandTacomaBridgevideosinthe
websiteofthecourse.

Backgroundforresponseof
Background
for response of
SDOFsystemtorandomforces
y
ResponseofSDOFsystemtoimpulsiveforces
Response of single degree of freedom system to arbitrary loading
Responseofsingledegreeoffreedomsystemtoarbitraryloading
Relationshipbetweentheimpulseresponseandthetransfer
function
RelationshipbetweentheFouriertransformofdisplacementand
p
p
force

Response under a nonperiodic force


Responseunderanonperiodicforce

WewillseethatperiodicforcesofanygeneralwaveformcanberepresentedbyFourierseriesasa
We
will see that periodic forces of any general wave form can be represented by Fourier series as a
superpositionofharmoniccomponentsofvariousfrequencies.

Theresponseofalinearsytemisthenfoundbysuperposingtheharmonicresponsetoeachofthe
exciting forces
excitingforces.

WhentheexcitingforceF(t)isnonperiodic,suchasthatduetoblastfromanexplosion,adifferent
methodofcalculatingtheresponseisrequired.

Variousmethodscanbeusedtofindtheresponseofthesystemtoanarbitraryexcitationas
follows:

Representing the excitation by a Fourier integral


RepresentingtheexcitationbyaFourierintegral

Usingthemethodofconvolutionintegral

UsingthemethodofLaplacetransforms

FirstapproximatingF(t)byasuitableinterpolationmodelandthenusinganumericalprocedure

Numericallyintegratingtheequationsofmotion.

Responseofsingledegreeoffreedom
systemtoimpulsiveforces

Anonperiodicexcitingforceusuallyhasamagnitudethatvarieswithtime;
A
nonperiodic exciting force usually has a magnitude that varies with time
itactsforaspecifiedperiodoftimeandthenstops.

Thesimplestformistheimpulsiveforce
The
simplest form is the impulsive force aforcethathasalarge
a force that has a large
magnitudeFandactsforaveryshortperiodoftimet.

Fromdynamics,weknowthatimpulsecanbemeasuredbyfindingthe
From
dynamics we know that impulse can be measured by finding the
changeinmomentumofthesystem.

TheunitimpulseFactingatt=0isalsodenotedbytheDiracdelta
The
unit impulse F acting at t=0 is also denoted by the Dirac delta
function,(t).TheDiracdeltafunctionattimet=,denotedas (t )
hastheproperties

(t )dt = 1

(t ) F (t )dt = F ( )

where0<<.Thusanimpulsiveforceactingatt= canbedenotedas:
F (t ) = F (t )

Responseofsingledegreeoffreedom
systemtoimpulsiveforces

ConsideraSDOFsystemsubjectedtoimpulsiveloadingasshowninfigure.
d
b
d
l
l d
h
f
Theexternalforceis:
F (t ) = Fo (t )

where(t)istheDiracdeltafunction.

Responseofsingledegreeoffreedom
systemtoimpulsiveforces

Theequationofmotionofthemasswillbesimilarto
h
f
f h
ll b
l

m&x& + cx& + kx = Fo sin t


with the impulsive force of
withtheimpulsiveforceof
F (t ) = Fo (t )

ontherighthandside.TheunitimpulseisdefinedasFo=1.Theresponse
x(t)totheunitimpulseisdenotedash(t):

mh&& + ch& + kh = (1) (t )

Physicallyspeaking,fort0,aradicalchangeinthesystemmotiontakes
Physically
speaking for t0 a radical change in the system motion takes
placewhentheshortdurationhighamplitudeforceexcitesaninitial
motioninthesystem.Butfort>0,theresponsewillbefreevibration.
Ui
Usingelementarymechanics,F(t)=m(v)itcanbeshownthatthe
l
h i F( ) ( ) i
b h
h h
velocityofthesystemjustaftertheimpulseis:
1
h&(0 + ) =
m

Responseofsingledegreeoffreedom
systemtoimpulsiveforces

U i th i iti l
Usingtheinitialconditions:
diti

1
h&(0 + ) =
m

h(0) = 0

x&o + n xo
n t
2
2

x
(
t
)
e
x
cos
1

t
sin
1

t
Intheequation:
n
n
o
d

Thefreevibrationresponseis:
h(t ) =

1 nt
e
sin d t
md

t >0

Hereh(t)isknownastheforceexcitedabsolutedisplacementresponse,
impulseresponsefunctionofthesingledegreeoffreedomsystem.Notethat
h(t) characterizes a system just like the transfer function H()does.The
h(t)characterizesasystemjustlikethetransferfunctionH(
) does The
velocityandaccelerationimpulseresponsefunctionscanalsobeobtainedas
derivativesofh(t).

Responseofsingledegreeoffreedom
systemtoimpulsiveforces

IfthemagnitudeoftheimpulseisF
If
the magnitude of the impulse is F
x&o
insteadofunity,theinitialvelocityis
F/mandtheresponseofthesystem
becomes:
x(t ) =

F nt
e
sin d t = Fg (t )
md

IftheimpulseFisappliedatanarbitrary
timet= byanamountF/masshownin
thefigure,itwillchangethevelocityat
t= byanamountF/m.Assumingthatx=0
until the impulse is applied, the
untiltheimpulseisapplied,the
displacementhatanysubsequenttimet,
causedbyachangeinthevelocityattime
isgivenbytheaboveequationwitht
replaced by the time elapsed after the
replacedbythetimeelapsedafterthe
applicationoftheimpulse,thatis,t .As
showninFig.b,weobtain
x(t ) = Fg (t )

ResponseofSingleDegreeof
FreedomSystemtoArbitraryLoading

Foralinearsystem,theimpulseresponsefunctioncanbeusedtoderive
l
h
l
f
b
d d
theresponseofasystemunderanarbitraryloadinghistory.Considerthe
forceshowninthefigure

ResponseofSingleDegreeof
FreedomSystemtoArbitraryLoading

Theimpulseduring
h i
l d i isF().The
i ( ) h
responsetothisimpulseatanytime
t> isapproximately[F()]h(t ).
Th th
Thentheresponseattisthesumof
t t i th
f
theresponsesduetoasequenceof
impulses.Inthelimitas0
t

x(t ) =

F ( )h(t )d

wheretheinputF(t)isaccountedfor
ast,forexample,F(t)couldbe
definedaszerofort<0.Theexpression
forx(t)iscalledtheconvolution
integral.

ResponseofSingleDegreeof
FreedomSystemtoArbitraryLoading

Notethath(t)=0when>t.Thus,
wecanexpandthelimitstothe
interval(,):

x(t ) =

F ( )h(t )d

Anotherusefulformisobtainedby
letting=t:
t

x(t ) =

F (t )h( )d

ResponseofSingleDegreeof
FreedomSystemtoArbitraryLoading

B
Bysubstitutingtheequation
b tit ti th
ti
h(t ) =

into

1 nt
e
sin d t
md

t >0

x(t ) =

F ( )h(t )d

we obtain:
weobtain:

1
x(t ) =
md

F ( )e

n ( t )

sin d (t )d

whichrepresentstheresponseofanunderdampedsingledegreeof
freedomsystemtothearbitraryexcitationF(t).
Notethattheaboveequationdoesnotconsidertheeffectofinitial
conditionsofthesystem.
Theintegralineitherofthetwoaboveequationsiscalledtheconvolution
orDuhamelintegral.

Relationship between h(t) and H()


Relationshipbetweenh(t)andH()

AnimportantresultfromFouriertransformtheoryisthath(t)andH()
l f
f
h
h h( ) d ( )
formaFouriertransformpair.Thisrelationshipisusefulwhenderiving
responsesofdynamicsystemstorandomvibrationinputs.Let,
F (t ) = eit

x(t ) = H ( )e it

Then,
h

= h(t )e i d

= h( )e i (t ) d

=e

it

h( )e

whichimpliesthath(t)andH()formaFouriertransformpair.

H ( ) = h( )e

1
h(t ) =
2

H ( )e

it

Relationship between h(t) and H()


Relationshipbetweenh(t)andH()

BasedontheFouriertransformofaconvolution,theexpressionforthe
B
d
th F i t
f
f
l ti
th
i f th
responsetoanarbitraryinputinequation

x(t ) =
andrepresentationin

F ( )h(t )d

H ( ) = h( )e i d

1
h(t ) =
2

H ( )e

i t

itisclearthatwecanalsoexpresstheresponsetoanarbitraryinputas:
1
x(t ) =
2

F ( ) H ( )e

it

whereF()istheFouriertransformofF(t).Thisexpressionisusefulforthe
where
F() is the Fourier transform of F(t). This expression is useful for the
analysisornumericalcomputationofsystemresponseorasthebasisfor
randomvibrationcomputations.

Relationship between X() and F ()


RelationshipbetweenX()andF

TherelationshipbetweentheFouriertransformsofx(t)andF(t)isusedto
h
l
h b
h
f
f () d ()
d
deriveresponsesofdynamicsystemstorandomvibrationinputinrandom
vibrationtheory.TaketheFouriertransformofbothsidesof
t

x(t ) =

F (t )h( )d

tofind
fi d

i t
F
t

)
(
)
e dt

Let = t , dt = d
1
X ( ) =
2

i ( + )
F
(

)
h
(

)
d

d
e

Rearranging :
1
X ( ) =
2

X( ) = h( )e
-

-i

1
d
2

F ( )e

Relationship between X() and F ()


RelationshipbetweenX()andF

From

H ( ) = h( )e i d

andthebasicrelationshipoftheFouriertransform:
1
u ( ) =
2

it
(
)
g
t
e
dt

it follows that
X( ) = H( )F( )