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Training

PLC Basics

By: Mr. S.V.Nakhe,


Industrial Controls & Appliances Pvt.Ltd., Mumbai

Introduction
Session 1: General Information
 Session 2: Omron PLC Specifics
 Session 3: Implementation of small application
using Omron PLC


Session 1: General Info


Definition
 Early History
 Newer Developments
 Differences between PLC and PC
 Advantages of PLC
 How to select a PLC for an application


Definition of Programmable Controller


(NEMA ICS3-1978 Part 304)


The Programmable Controller is a digitally


operating electronic apparatus, which uses
programmable memory for the internal
storage of instructions, for implementing
specific functions such as logic,
sequencing, timing, counting and
arithmetic to control various types of
machines and processes through digital or
analog Input/Output modules.

Early History of PLCs (1)


Inception at General Motors assembly
line in 1968
 Dick Morley is considered as father of
PLC, who founded the Modicon
 First implementation by Modicon in 1969
 Introduction of arithmetic functions,
data transfer, matrix operation and
printer support in 1973


Early History of PLCs (2)


Introduction of PID Control in 1975
 Development of microprocessor based
PLCs in 1977
 Development of PLC Communication
System for integration of plant
operations in 1979
 Introduction of Communication Data
Highway in 1981


Newer Developments (1)




Smaller size, higher speed, more program


and data memory, more I/O and
Communication Options and improved
instruction set
Introduction of PLCOpen Languages
(IEC61131-3)

Ladder
Instruction List
Structured Text
Function Block Diagram
SFC

Newer Developments (2)




Integrated Software Architecture


PLC Programming
HMI Programming
Motion & Position Programming
Network Development
Simulation

Use of Higher Level languages like c


and Basic

Newer Developments (3)





Object Oriented Concepts Function Blocks,


Add-on Instructions, Reusability
Software options
OPC
ActiveX






Floating Point calculations Single and


double precision
Data Storage and Manipulation
String Handling
Fuzzy Logic

Newer Developments (4)




Open Communication Networks


DeviceNet
EthernetIP
EtherCAT
Modbus TCP
ProfiBus DP, PA
Foundation FieldBus
Hart

Newer Developments (5)


FLNet
MechatroLink
Sercos
Interbus S
Modbus (RTU, ASCII)

Integration with ERP


 Better Diagnostics


Newer Developments (6)


Safety PLCs, SIL
 PAC (Programmable Automation
Controller)


Differences between PLC and PC




Time Orientation
Real Time Vs Non-real time

Working Environment
Harsh Vs Commercial

Programming Language and


Techniques
Industry specific Vs General Purpose

Input / Outputs

Advantages of PLC over earlier control


implementations (1)






The same PLC can be used for various


control tasks. Less inventory
Easy accommodation of control strategy
changes without affecting wiring
Easy implementation of control for similar
machines program copying
Automatic updating of control documentation
(with proper versioning control)
Reduction in overall project completion time
parallel engineering of PLC and control panel

Advantages of PLC over earlier control


implementations (2)
 PLC proves cheaper for complex logic
and sequencing operations
 With special I/Os, PLCs can replace
many discrete components like relays,
timers, counters, single loop controllers,
arithmetic function units etc.
 PLCs can communicate with each other
or with various other devices

How to select PLC for an Application (1)




Complexity of application which decides size


of program memory, data memory and
instruction set
Type, quantity and rating of Inputs and
Outputs
DI:





AC/DC, Voltage,
Pot.free, NPN/PNP
Frequency
Interrupt / Pulse Catch

How to select PLC for an Application (2)


DO:
Transistor/Triac/Contact
 Pot.Free (MCC, Ann), DC rating
 Current (0.1, 0.5, 2A)
 Frequency


How to select PLC for an Application (3)


AI:
Current/voltage, 2/4 wire
 TC/RTD, Linearisation
 Resolution (8 to 20 bits)
 Accuracy
 Conversion Time
 Filtering
 Min/Max/Avg
 Open Wire sensing
 Ch/Ch Isolation


How to select PLC for an Application (4)


AO:
Current/Voltage
 Load Resistance
 Resolution (8 to 16 bits)
 Conversion Time
 Clear/Hold


How to select PLC for an Application (5)


Response Speed requirement
 Communication capability requirement
 Redundancy requirement


Cold / Warm / Hot

Physical distance between field I/Os and


PLC which decides requirement of
remote I/Os
 System expandability requirement


Control System Types (1)




A) Process Control
a) Continuous Process: Petrochemicals,
Fertilizers, Power, Chemical Industries





Close Loop Control is normally done by DCS and


startup/shutdown operations are done by PLC.
High Safety and Availability is required.
Hot Standby, Triple Redundant, TUV approved systems
are normally used. If the plant trips then sometimes it
takes days to take the process on-line.
Logic is normally combinational and used for startup and
shutdown. Sequential logic is rarely used.
Logic complexity is not high.

Control System Types (2)


PLC response time need not be high.
 PLC with analog I/Os and Closed Loop Control
capability are normally used.
 Separate Man-Machine-Interface for PLC is not
normally used but DCS and PLC
communication is used for displaying important
parameters on DCS consoles.


Control System Types (3)


b) Batch Process : Pharmaceuticals, Paint, Food
Processing Industries



Close Loop Control, Batch Sequencing, Recipes


Startup/Shutdown Operations are handled by DCS or
PLC depending on size of the Plant.
High Safety and Availability is required. Hot Standby or
non-redundant systems are normally used.
Most of the logic is sequential and startup/shutdown logic
is combinational.

Control System Types (4)


Logic complexity is high as compared to
Continuous Process.
 PLC response time need not be high.
 PLC with analog I/Os, Closed Loop Control
capability as well as Data Handling capability
are normally used.
 Man-Machine-Interface (PC based SCADA
Software) is normally used if only PLC is used
for Control.


Control System Types (5)




B) Factory Automation
Safety and availability are important but nonredundant PLCs are normally used.
Most of the logic is sequential. It is more complex
than that for Continuous or Batch Process Control.
For a given no. of I/Os, Machine control application
requires faster response, more program and data
memory, better instruction set in PLC than a
Process Control application.

Control System Types (6)


Since in many cases Position or Motion
Control is involved, PLC response time has
to be fast.
High Speed and Intelligent I/Os are
required in many applications.
In many cases Man-Machine-Interface is
required.

Control System Components (1)




Digital Inputs

Selector Switch, PB, Foot Switch


Passive Process Switch (PSH/PSL)
Active Process Switch (TripAmps)
Keyboard, Thumbwheel
Incremental or Absolute Encoder

Digital Outputs

Solenoid Valves
Contactors, MCC Circuits
Lamps, Buzzer, Hooter, Beacon
7 segment Displays

Control System Components (2)


Analog inputs
 Analog Outputs


I/P Converter, Hyd. Prop Valves


VFD, Servo, Stepper Drives,
Power Controller (for Heaters)

CP1L, CP1H, CP1E

EthernetIP

Modbus TCP

CJ2